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1

Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

2008-01-01

2

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Parameter Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) offer a great opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The fuel economy of PHEV is highly dependent on All-Electric-Range (AER) and control strategy. Previous studies have shown that in addition to parameters influencing Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), control strategies of PHEVs are also influenced by the trip distance. This additional parameter makes it even more

Aymeric Rousseau; Sylvain Pagerit; David Wenzhong Gao

2008-01-01

3

Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles park as virtual DVR  

E-print Network

Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles park as virtual DVR F.R. Islam and H.R. Pota Dynamic voltage. In this reported work the vehicle to grid technology with a bidirectional converter is used to design a virtual opportunity to design its bidirectional charger as DVR converters. The idea of using the PHEV charging station

Pota, Himanshu Roy

4

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT: OPTIMAL CONTROL AND BATTERY SIZING by Scott J like to acknowledge my girlfriend, Jovauna Currey, whose love and support was instrumental in making want to thank the love and support of my parents, Manny and Bonnie Moura. I cannot imagine two better

Krstic, Miroslav

5

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-09-01

6

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-12-01

7

Battery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash  

E-print Network

. The literature on the PHEV powertrain system design, power management, and interaction with power grid is stillBattery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash load imposed by battery health-conscious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging. The paper

Krstic, Miroslav

8

Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks in  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks Engineering Liam Kelly, 2009 University of Victoria All rights reserved. This thesis may not be reproduced Committee Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks

Victoria, University of

9

City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

None

2013-12-31

10

A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures  

E-print Network

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

2012-01-01

11

Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

2013-12-01

12

An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

13

Aggregated Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Electricity Demand Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution i nu rban areas, and dependence on fossil fuels are among the challenges threatening the sustainable development of the transportation sector. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is one of the most promising solutions to tackle the situation. While PHEVs partially rely on electricity from the power grid, they raise concerns about their negative impacts

Zahra Darabi; Mehdi Ferdowsi

2011-01-01

14

Possible applications of plug-in hybrid electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the evolution of hybrid electric ships and the upcoming changes in hybrid electric propulsions by the addition of a battery based ESS. The inverter topology most suited for the expansion of the hybrid electric drive is the VSI inverter because this topology allows a DC\\/DC converter to control the power flow between the battery and the DC-bus

S. De Breucker; E. Peeters; J. Driesen

2009-01-01

15

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas  

E-print Network

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid reliance on fossil fuels. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and wind power represent two practical

Victoria, University of

16

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-print Network

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

Karplus, Valerie Jean

2008-01-01

17

Economic value and utility of a powertrain system for a plug-in parallel diesel hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is the first to develop a design for a powertain system of a plug-in parallel diesel hybrid electric bus equipped\\u000a with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and presents a new design paradigm of the plug-in hybrid electric bus (HEB).\\u000a The criteria and method for selecting and sizing powertrain components equipped in the plug-in HEB are presented. The plug-in

B. Suh; A. Frank; Y. J. Chung; E. Y. Lee; Y. H. Chang; S. B. Han

2010-01-01

18

Parameter Design and Implementation of Propulsion System of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of the series plug-in hybrid propulsion system on the transit bus are matched with the predetermined drive cycle, which include TBP (traction battery package) capacity, driver power, gear ratio and APU (auxiliary power unit) power. And hybrid factor is determined by vehicle fuel economy. Using ADVISOR, four urban drive cycles are applied to evaluate fuel economy of diesel, electric,

Ximing Cheng; Xiaosong Hu; Fengchun Sun

2009-01-01

19

Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Peaking Power Source - Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5. Battery Energy Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 III CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF SERIES HYBRID ELEC- TRIC... battery and an electric motor is what needed to make them. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Common configuration for the series hybrid electric vehicles. . . . . . 5 3 Internal combustion engine optimal operating point...

Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

2012-07-16

20

Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

Short, W.; Denholm, P.

2006-04-01

21

Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing Activities  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) testing in order to provide benchmark data for technology modeling and research and development programs, and to be an independent source of test data for fleet managers and other early adaptors of advanced-technology vehicles. To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 12 HEV models and accumulated 2.7 million fleet testing miles on 35 HEVs. The HEV baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed-track testing to document HEV performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model accumulate 160,000 test miles within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events and fuel use were recorded. Three models of PHEVs, from vehicle converters Energy CS and Hymotion and the original equipment manufacturer Renault, are currently in testing. The PHEV baseline performance testing includes 5 days of dynamometer testing with a minimum of 26 test drive cycles, including the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, and the US06 test cycle, in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The PHEV accelerated testing is conducted with dedicated drivers for 4,240 miles, over a series of 132 driving loops that range from 10 to 200 miles over various combinations of defined 10-mile urban and 10-mile highway loops, with 984 hours of vehicle charging. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Applications, with dynamometer testing conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

Donald Karner

2007-12-01

22

Design considerations for a plug-in hybrid car electrical motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also students can contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of personal traffic. This paper presents the design of an electrical motor for the student project Vehicle Design Summit, which aims to develop a novel plug-in hybrid vehicle with a 95% reduction in life cycle costs. A switched reluctance motor has been selected because of low production cost and low thermal

T. Nobels; T. Gheysen; M. Vanhove; S. Stevens

2009-01-01

23

Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

24

Design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically discussed the design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two lands of typical batteries-NiMH and Li-ion have been discussed. Control strategies focused on all electric range (AER) and charge depletion range (CDR) operations. Also, a constrained engine on and off control strategy has been

Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

2008-01-01

25

Design and Control Methodology of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically discusses the design and control methodologies of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology is focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two kinds of typical batteries, namely, NiMH and Li-ion, are discussed. Control strategies focus on all electric range and charge depletion range operations. In addition, a constrained engine on and off control strategy

Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

2010-01-01

26

Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

2009-01-01

27

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-print Network

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...

Reilly, John M.

28

2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research  

E-print Network

demand, despite record petroleum prices. Photo credit: nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-car · How will PHEVs/EV adoption affect the use of renewable energy electricity sources, such as wind and solar power? · PH would further enable the integration of renewable resources, such as wind and solar energy

29

Edmund G. Brown, Jr. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE  

E-print Network

of Water and Power; MercedesBenz; Natural Resources Defense Council; Nissan; Pacific Gas and Electric Co Resources Board; California Cars Initiative; California Energy Commission; California Senator Christine.; Public Policy Advocates, LLC; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; San Diego Gas & Electric Co

30

Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles influence on CO 2 and water vapour emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to quantify the impact of introducing electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, including fuel cell on conventional fleets. The impact is estimated in terms of local pollutants, HC, CO, NOx, PM, and in terms of CO2 and water vapour global emissions. The specific fleet of Portugal, roughly 6 million light-duty vehicles (30% diesel,

Carla Silva

2011-01-01

31

ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This addendum adds to the analysis of 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' (D M Lemoine et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014003) to the case of all-electric vehicles (EVs). We pay particular attention to grid impacts, break-even battery costs, and the three ways in which EVs could dramatically change the results we obtained for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Lemoine, Derek M.; Kammen, Daniel M.

2009-07-01

32

Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

English, Jeffrey Robb

33

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

) with all electric range (AER) of 10-40 Internal combustion engines (ICEs) Fuel cells (FCs) Electric Powertrain Systems and Fuel Pathways 3 Vehicle powertrain systems: Conventional international combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) Regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs

34

Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will people recharge a vehicle that does not have to be recharged? This, and the degree to which plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs emphasize gasoline or electricity, are central to assessing the energy and environmental effects of PHEVs. Plug-in conversions of hybrid vehicles are being made available to (predominately new-car buying) households throughout the Sacramento region for four to

Kenneth S Kurani; Jonn Axsen; Nicolette Caperello; Jamie Davies; Tai Stillwater

2009-01-01

35

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

36

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

37

Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01

38

Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using

Hui Zhang; Leon M. Tolbert; Burak Ozpineci

2008-01-01

39

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

James E. Francfort

2009-07-01

40

An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

E-print Network

effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid manufacturers to help prioritize investments influencing PHEV adoption, and (c) identify additional empirical

Vermont, University of

41

Factors Affecting the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Primary Factors that Impact the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles RICHARD ‘BARNEY’ CARLSON, MATTHEW G. SHIRK Idaho National Laboratory 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA richard.carlson@inl.gov Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have proven to significantly reduce petroleum consumption as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE) by utilizing electrical energy for propulsion. Through extensive testing of PHEV’s, analysis has shown that the fuel consumption of PHEV’s is more significantly affected than conventional vehicles by either the driver’s input or by the environmental inputs around the vehicle. Six primary factors have been identified that significantly affect the fuel consumption of PHEV’s. In this paper, these primary factors are analyzed from on-road driving and charging data from over 200 PHEV’s throughout North America that include Hymotion Prius conversions and Hybrids Plus Escape conversions. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) tests plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles as part of its conduct of DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In collaboration with its 75 testing partners located in 23 states and Canada, INL has collected data on 191 PHEVs, comprised of 12 different PHEV models (by battery manufacturer). With more than 1 million PHEV test miles accumulated to date, the PHEVs are fleet, track, and dynamometer tested. Six Primary Factors The six primary factors that significantly impact PHEV fuel consumption are listed below. Some of the factors are unique to plug-in vehicles while others are common for all types of vehicles. 1. Usable Electrical Energy is dictated by battery capacity, rate of depletion as well as when the vehicle was last plugged-in. With less electrical energy available the powertrain must use more petroleum to generate the required power output. 2. Driver Aggressiveness impacts the fuel consumption of nearly all vehicles but this impact is greater for high efficiency powertrains. 3. Accessory Utilization like air conditioner systems or defroster systems can use a significant amount of additional energy that is not contributing to the propulsion of the vehicle. 4. Route Type such as city, highway or mountainous driving can affect the fuel consumption since it can involve stop and go driving or ascending a step grade. 5. Cold Start / Key On includes control strategies to improve cold start emissions as well as control routines to quickly supply cabin heat. These control strategies are necessary for consumer acceptance even though fuel consumption is negatively impacted. 6. Ambient Temperature can reduce the efficiency of many powertrain components by significantly increasing fluid viscosity. For vehicles that utilize battery energy storage systems, the temperature of the battery system can greatly affect the power output capability therefore reducing its system effectiveness. The analysis of the six primary factors that impact fuel economy of PHEV’s helped to identify areas of potential further development as well as may assist in informing drivers of these effects in an effort to modify driving behavior to reduce petroleum consumption.

Richard "Barney" Carlson; Matthew G. Shirk; Benjamin M. Geller

2001-11-01

42

2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

2013-07-01

43

The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various

Anant D. Vyas; Danilo J. Santini; Larry R. Johnson

2009-01-01

44

An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

2008-01-01

45

"Catching the second wave" of the Plug in Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, biofuels and other liquid or gaseous fuels. � HEV = Hybrid electric vehicles not "plug-in" to the grid, and rely entirely on fuels like gasoline � PHEVs = Plug in Hybrid Electric

California at Davis, University of

46

A comparison on fuel economy and emissions for conventional hybrid electric vehicles and the UTS plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers a comparative study on fuel economy and emissions of a conventional hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and the UTS plug-in HEV (PHEV). The interaction between the components such as energy storage system, electric machine, power control unit and internal combustion engine of the UTS PHEV are complex in order to optimize the fuel economy and emissions brought by

Salisa Abdul Rahman; Nong Zhang; Jianguo Zhu

2010-01-01

47

Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

2013-06-01

48

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

2008-01-01

49

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model. It was found that increasing AER of plug-in hybrids was a more cost effective solution to reducing gasoline consumption than installing charging infrastructure. Comparison of results to current subsidy structure shows various options to improve future PHEV or other vehicle subsidy programs.

Peterson, Scott B.

50

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS  

E-print Network

the U.S. dependency on foreign oil. Two companion papers investigate the technical potential with the emerging plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to meet the majority of the daily energy needs, PHEVs reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix

51

Optimal Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids Somayeh Sojoudi Steven H. Low  

E-print Network

is, at what time-varying rate should each PHEV battery be charged to minimize the charging cost and the number of them in each area, what is the optimal schedule for the charging of all batteries over some Abstract-- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) play an important role in making a greener future

Low, Steven H.

52

Economic Value of LFC Substitution by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are lots of global warming countermeasures. In the power sector, nuclear power plants play an important role because they do not produce CO2 emissions during production of electricity. However, if the generation share of nuclear is too high at nighttime, it becomes difficult to keep enough capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) because nuclear power plants do not change the output (i.e., without load following operation) in Japan. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEV is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate LFC capacity in nighttime. In this study, we evaluated the economic value of charging power control by using an optimal generation planning model, and obtained the following results. Charging power control is effective in reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of economic efficiency of power system. Particularly, even in the low market share of PHEVs, the charge control has a high economic value because it substitutes nuclear power plant, base-load provider with low fuel cost, for LNG-CC, LEC provider with high fuel cost.

Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

53

Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.  

PubMed

This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets. PMID:20704224

Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

2010-08-15

54

Environmental and energy implications of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles.  

PubMed

We analyze the effect of charging a significant number of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) in the United States using presently available night-time spare electric capacity in the shortterm and new base-load capacity in the long term. Nationwide, there is currently ample spare night-time utility capacityto charge even a large fleet of PHEVs. Using the mix of generating plants expected to be used for PHEV charging, we find that, while driving on battery power, PHEVs compared to their conventional hybrid counterparts reduce CO2 emissions by 25% in the short term and as much as 50% in the long term. The shortterm fractional increase in demand for margin fuels such as natural gas is found to be roughly twice the fractional penetration of PHEVs into the nationwide light-duty vehicle fleet. We also compare, on an energy basis, the CO2 savings of replacing coal plants versus replacing conventional vehicles with PHEVs. The result is found to depend critically on the fuel economy of the vehicles displaced by the PHEVs. PMID:18351091

Stephan, Craig H; Sullivan, John

2008-02-15

55

In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO?, NO(x), SO?, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

2011-10-15

56

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

SciTech Connect

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

57

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel\\/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW

A. Elgowainy; A. Burnham; M. Wang; J. Molburg; A. Rousseau

2009-01-01

58

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use

A. Elgowainy; J. Han; L. Poch; M. Wang; A. Vyas; M. Mahalik; A. Rousseau

2010-01-01

59

Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bäker, Bernard

2012-10-01

60

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

2009-01-01

61

A novel grid-tied, solar powered residential home with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analyses of a grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV) system containing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) load is presented in this paper. In this system, PV arrays and battery packs are cascaded to supply power to the load. Solar energy is harvested by PV arrays, the terminal voltage of PV arrays is regulated by a DC\\/DC converter to

Yusuf Gurkaynak; Zhihao Li; Alireza Khaligh

2009-01-01

62

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

2010-02-01

63

Transmission network-based energy and environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is expected to have a significant impact on regional power systems and pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes the effects of various penetrations of PHEVs on the marginal fuel dispatch of coal, natural gas and oil, and on pollutant emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 in the New York Metropolitan Area for two battery charging scenarios in a typical summer and winter day. A model of the AC transmission network of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) region with 693 generators is used to realistically incorporate network constraints into an economic dispatch model. A data-based transportation model of approximately 1 million commuters in NYMA is used to determine battery charging pattern. Results show that for all penetrations of PHEVs network-constrained economic dispatch of generation is significantly more realistic than unconstrained cases. Coal, natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the winter, and only natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the summer. Hourly changes in emissions from transportation and power production are dominated by vehicular activity with significant overall emissions reductions for CO2 and NOx, and a slight increase for SO2. Nighttime regulated charging produces less overall emissions than unregulated charging from when vehicles arrive home for the summer and vice versa for the winter. As PHEVs are poised to link the power and transportation sectors, data-based models combining network constraints and economic dispatch have been shown to improve understanding and facilitate control of this link.

Valentine, Keenan; Acquaviva, Jonathan; Foster, E. J.; Zhang, K. Max

2011-03-01

64

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Road Emissions Characterization and Demonstration Study  

E-print Network

…………………………………….. 108 4.2 Summary of Analytical Objectives…………………………………... 117 4.2.1 Objective 1: Vehicle Specific Power Analysis……………... 117 4.2.2 Objective 2: Roadway Type Analysis (Urban/Suburban/Highway)………………………………. 118 4.2.3 Objective 3: PHEV Operating... Mode Analysis……………... 119 4.2.4 Objective 4: Diesel Internal Combustion Engine (dICE) as Utilized in the Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Context…………... 120 4.2.5 Objective 5: PHEV On-Road Vocation Analysis…………... 121 CHAPTER 5: Temperature...

Hohl, Carrie

2012-12-31

65

How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and  

E-print Network

environmental friendly and produce less pollution. Examining other aspects of electric vehicles besides tailpipe emissions may show they are not so green. In order to determine how environmentally friendly electric energy infrastructure and plug-in hybrid manufacturing techniques, the environmental benefits

Toohey, Darin W.

66

Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory  

SciTech Connect

The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

2007-05-01

67

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

68

Air quality impacts of using overnight electricity generation to charge plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for daytime use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of replacing 20% of the gasoline powered light duty vehicle miles traveled with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the region served by the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland classic grid are examined. Unutilized, base-load nighttime electricity generating capacity is assumed to charge PHEVs that would subsequently be used during urban commutes. The net impact of this scenario on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone is an increase in nitrogen oxide (NOx), volatile organic compound (VOC) and CO emissions from electricity generating units during nighttime hours, and a greater decrease in NOx, VOC and CO from mobile emissions in urban areas during daytime hours. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations, predicted using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), are decreases in ozone concentrations between 2 and 6 ppb that are widespread across the urban areas, and increases in ozone concentrations of up to 8 ppb in highly localized areas. Air quality indicators beyond maximum daily ozone concentration are also evaluated, and in general indicate air quality improvements associated with the use of PHEVs. However, a limited number of air quality indicators worsened with the use of PHEVs, suggesting that overall impacts of the use of PHEVs will be complex.

Thompson, Tammy; Webber, Michael; Allen, David T.

2009-01-01

69

Fuel reduction and electricity consumption impact of different charging scenarios for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) consume both gasoline and grid electricity. The corresponding temporal energy consumption and emission trends are valuable to investigate in order to fully understand the environmental benefits. The 24-h energy consumption and emission profile depends on different vehicle designs, driving, and charging scenarios. This study assesses the potential energy impact of PHEVs by considering different charging scenarios defined by different charging power levels, locations, and charging time. The region selected for the study is the South Coast Air Basin of California. Driving behaviors are derived from the National Household Travel Survey 2009 (NHTS 2009) and vehicle parameters are based on realistic assumptions consistent with projected vehicle deployments. Results show that the reduction in petroleum consumption is significant compared to standard gasoline vehicles and the ability to operate on electricity alone is crucial to cold start emission reduction. The benefit of higher power charging on petroleum consumption is small. Delayed and average charging are better than immediate charging for home, and non-home charging increases peak grid loads.

Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

2011-08-01

70

Plug-in Hybrid Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

2013-09-27

71

Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers  

SciTech Connect

To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

72

Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

2014-12-01

73

Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

2014-02-01

74

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

2008-01-01

75

Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

76

Energy and Battery Management of a Plug-In Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery ter- minal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series

S. G. Li; S. M. Sharkh; F. C. Walsh; C. N. Zhang

2011-01-01

77

Algorithm for Bottom Charge based on Load-duration Curve of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. PHEV is a kind of hybrid electric vehicle, which can be charged from power grid. Therefore, when analyzing reduction effect of CO2 emission by PHEVs, we need to count the emission from the power sector. In addition, the emission from the power sector is greatly influenced by charge pattern, i.e. timing of charge. For example, we can realize the load leveling by bottom charge, which charges late at night. If nuclear power plants were introduced by load leveling, we could expect substantial CO2 reduction. This study proposes an algorithm for bottom charge based on load-duration curve of charging. By adjusting the amplitude of charging power, we can bring the shape of curve close to that of ideal bottom charge. We evaluated the algorithm by using optimal generation planning model. The evaluation index is a difference between Target case, in which PHEVs ideally charge to raise the bottom demand, and Proposal case, in which PHEVs charge using the proposed algorithm. Annual CO2 emissions of Target case and Proposal case are 20.0% and 17.5% less than that of Reference case. Percentage of the reduction effect of Proposal case to that of Target case results in 87.5%. These results show that the proposed algorithm is effective in bottom-up of daily load curve.

Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

78

Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further. PMID:19320180

Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

2009-02-15

79

Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

2013-01-01

80

Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle ``baseline'' of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

Lipman, Timothy E.

2011-11-01

81

Battery, Ultracapacitor, Fuel Cell, and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric, Hybrid Electric, Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel economy and all-electric range (AER) of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are highly dependent on the onboard energy-storage system (ESS) of the vehicle. Energy-storage devices charge during low power demands and discharge during high power demands, acting as catalysts to provide energy boost. Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Increasing the AER of vehicles by 15%

Alireza Khaligh; Zhihao Li

2010-01-01

82

Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

Thompson, Tammy M.; King, Carey W.; Allen, David T.; Webber, Michael E.

2011-04-01

83

Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

Nazir, Samir M.

84

Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

85

On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

2011-10-01

86

Load Frequency Control Method by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with LFC Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the power sector, total capacity of wind power generations has been increasing drastically. However, the wind power affects the power grid frequency and the tie-line flow adversely because of the instability of output. In particular, these problems become significant at nighttime when the capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) tends to be insufficient. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as environmentally friendly vehicles. The electric energy of PHEVs is charged mainly during nighttime. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate the LFC capacity in the nighttime. In this study, we propose a control method based on frequency characteristic of PHEV KPHEV, which is defined as a ratio of the change in charging power to the change in frequency. Area Requirement (AR) calculated by the LFC system is a required increment in generation; hence, we can also keep the balance of supply-and-demand by decreasing as much demand as AR. LFC signal fshift calculated by the following equation fshift = -AR/KPHEV is transmitted to all PHEVs in the area; then, PHEVs control the charging power on the basis of input signal. We evaluated the proposed control method by using an interconnected 2-area model and obtained the following results. Charging power control based on the proposed method can effectively suppress the tie-line flow deviation and it could substitute for LFC capacity.

Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

87

Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

2007-01-01

88

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

2008-09-01

89

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . 9 EVSE Training for Electrical Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

90

Paper No. 09-3009 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for  

E-print Network

Board Washington, D.C. January 11­15, 2009 Word count: 6,062 text, plus 2,750 for tables and figures the capability to drive all electrically at moderate and high speeds and when driven fairly aggressively. PHEVs will not operate all electrically in many driving conditions. Such PHEVs are said to charge deplete in "blended

Kemner, Ken

91

Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

gasoline as sources of energy with different cost structures and limitations. We show that this ..... electricity balance equations for those arcs that are on the path. For the non- path arcs, the ...... A column generation approach to the urban transit

2014-07-22

92

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-print Network

in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century electricity output, refined oil consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the economic welfare losses, the availability of biofuels as a carbon neutral fuel substitute could delay PHEV market entry

93

A novel design and feasibility analysis of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are receiving global attention, stimulated by the urgent need for more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, current challenges for fuel cells such as high cost, sizing problem, and limited driving range, greatly affect the pace of FCV development. At the same time, domestic and renewable energy resource usage is frequently being encouraged for future electric propulsion

Di Wu; Sheldon S. Williamson

2008-01-01

94

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

95

Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles  

SciTech Connect

In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2012-06-01

96

Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the earlier term than that on short-term economic basis. The costs in the accelerated term are higher, but the introduction costs in the later terms are cheaper by learning curve. This paper focuses on the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The ways to derive the results on short-term economic basis and the results on long-term economic basis are shown. The result of short-term behaviors can be derived by using the iteration method in which the battery costs in every term are adjusted to the learning curve. The result of long-term behaviors can be derived by seeking to the way where the amount of battery capacity is increased. We also estimate that how much subsidy does it need to get close to results on the long-term economic basis when social behavior is on the short-term economic basis. We assume subsidy for PHEV's initial costs, which can be financed by charging fee on petroleum consumption. In that case, there is no additional cost in the system. We show that the greater the total amount of money to that subsidy is, the less the amount of both CO2 emissions and system costs.

Shinoda, Yukio; Yabe, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

97

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Photo from Infrastructure Successfully deploying plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging infrastructure requires

98

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Photo from Kathy Boyer, Triangle Clean Cities Coalition, NREL/PIX 18520 #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook

99

Simulating the potential effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the energy budget and tax revenues for Onondaga County, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My objectives were to predict the energetic effects of a large increase in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and their implications on fuel tax collections in Onondaga County. I examined two alternative taxation policies. To do so, I built a model of county energy consumption based on prorated state-level energy consumption data and census data. I used two scenarios to estimate energy consumption trends over the next 30 years and the effects of PHEV on energy use and fuel tax revenues. I found that PHEV can reduce county gasoline consumption, but they would curtail fuel tax revenues and increase residential electricity demand. A one-cent per VMT tax on PHEV users provides insufficient revenue to replace reduced fuel tax collection. A sales tax on electricity consumption generates sufficient replacement revenue at low PHEV market shares. However, at higher shares, the tax on electricity use would exceed the current county tax rate. Keywords: electricity, energy, gasoline, New York State, Onondaga County, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, transportation model, tax policy

Balogh, Stephen B.

100

A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

Samaras, Constantine

101

Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

2010-05-01

102

Impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential transformer using stochastic and empirical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have been identified as an option that can reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector. The electricity demand of one of these vehicles is comparable to that of a typical U.S. household and thus clustering of PEVs in a neighborhood might have adverse effects on the transformer and disruption of service. In this paper, the electricity demand of a neighborhood is modeled based on measured vehicle and household data. The electricity demand profile of the PEVs is modeled based on the vehicle type, arrival and departure times and the daily miles traveled, all taken from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). A thermal model is developed to calculate the hot spot temperature and loss of life of the transformer. Results show that Level 1 charging has a small impact on the transformer aging and that only in one case, with Level 2 charging, the transformer might fail due to excessive temperatures. Overall addition of a significant number of PEVs is manageable for the transformer. The negative effects on the life time can be mitigated by properly designing the transformers and using smart charging scenarios.

Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

2014-04-01

103

Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: Hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple alternative vehicle and fuel options are being proposed to alleviate the threats of climate change, urban air pollution, and oil dependence caused by the transportation sector. We report here on the results from an extensive computer model developed over the last decade to simulate and compare the societal benefits of deploying various alternative transportation options including hybrid electric vehicles

C. E. Sandy Thomas

2009-01-01

104

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique at www.cleancities.energy.gov . Acknowledgement Thanks to the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Training

105

Evaluation of Expanded Allowable Capacity of Wind Power in Power Systems by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the total capacity of wind power plants connected to power grid has increased drasticaly. However, intermittent output of wind power affect the frequency of the power system. In the night-time the capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) tends to be insufficient. On the other hand, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are being developed as environment-friendly vehicles. PHEV is a kind of hybrid electric vehicles that can be charged from power grid. The batteries of PHEVs are charged mainly in night-time. In this paper, the authors proposed the charge control of batteries for PHEVs that compensate the capacity of LFC in the night-time and evaluated the allowable capacity of wind power generations in the penetration scenarios of PHEVs in three areas in Japan. The charge of the batteries was based on driving patterns of passenger vehicles and charging patterns in the night-time that the authors analyzed in this paper. Thereafter, charge control for PHEVs was simulated using transfer fanction models. The authors conducted the simulations and obtained the following results. (1) Charge control for PHEVs can suppress the frequency deviation caused by short period fluctuation of wind power. (2) Charge control for PHEVs including optimal scheduling of charging electric energy with centralized control would suppress the frequency deviation more efficiently than charge control without optimal scheduling.

Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji

106

An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream. Keywords: plug-in, hybrid, electric vehicle, battery, charging increased energy efficiency and less pollution (Romm and Frank 2006, Suppes 2006). They are similar

Kammen, Daniel M.

107

The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

2014-07-01

108

An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data  

E-print Network

Benefits and Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for Compact Sedan and Sportsbenefits and impacts of hybrid electric vehicle options for compact sedan and sportBenefits and Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for Compact Sedan and Sport

Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

2010-01-01

109

Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

2006-11-01

110

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells cold startup global strategy for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Cold Startup problem within the specific context of the Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). A global strategy which aims at providing an efficient method to minimize the energy consumption during the startup of a PEMFC is proposed. The overall control system is based on a supervisory architecture in which the Energy Management System (EMS) plays the role of the power flow supervisor. The EMS estimates in advance, the time to start the fuel cell (FC) based upon the battery energy usage during the trip. Given this estimation and the amount of additional energy required, the fuel cell temperature management strategy computes the most appropriate time to start heating the stack in order to reduce heat loss through the natural convection. As the cell temperature rises, the PEMFC is started and the reaction heat is used as a self-heating power source to further increase the stack temperature. A time optimal self-heating approach based on the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is efficient and can be implemented in real-time on FC-PHEVs.

Henao, Nilson; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Dubé, Yves

2012-12-01

111

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

112

Comprehensive Well to Wheel Analysis for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. In doing so, it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil. This paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. LDV stock that could potentially be supported by the existing infrastructure, based on the 12 modified North American Electric Reliability Council regions, as of 2002. For the United States as a whole, about 70% of LDV fleet in the U.S. could be supported by the existing infrastructure with some degree of load management. This has an estimated gasoline displacement potential of 6.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or approximately 52% of the nation's oil imports. The paper also discusses the impact on overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a few hundred power plants. Overall, PHEVs could reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix. Total NOX emissions may or may not increase, dependent on the use of coal generation in the region. Any additional SO2 emissions associated with the expected increase in generation from coal power plants would need to be cleaned up to meet the existing SO2 emissions constraints. Particulate emissions would increase in 8 of the 12 regions. The emissions in urban areas are found to improve across all pollutants and regions as the emission sources shift from millions of tailpipes to a smaller number of large power plants in less-populated areas. This paper concludes with a discussion about possible grid impacts as a result of the PHEV load as well as the likely impacts on the plant and technology mix of future generation-capacity expansions.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Schneider, Kevin P.

2008-09-19

113

Simulated fuel economy and performance of advanced hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using in-use travel profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or “real world” driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System

Matthew Earleywine; Jeffrey Gonder; Tony Markel; Matthew Thornton

2010-01-01

114

Take this car and plug it [plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents hybrid cars with a bigger battery packs that can recharge from wall outlets. The resulting machines, referred to as plug-in hybrids, can be propelled exclusively by their electric motors for, in some cases, more than 30 kilometers without their gasoline engines even turning on. The advantages and disadvantages of these cars are discussed in this paper.

W. D. Jones

2005-01-01

115

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-12-01

116

Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles  

SciTech Connect

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

2010-01-01

117

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

118

A Vehicle Systems Approach to Evaluate Plug-in Hybrid Battery Cold Start, Life and Cost Issues  

E-print Network

The batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) need to overcome significant technical challenges in order for PHEVs to become economically viable and have a large market penetration. The internship at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

2012-07-16

119

Plug-in electric vehicle introduction in the EU  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could significantly reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU's transport sector. However, PEV well-towheel (WTW) emissions depend on improvements in vehicle ...

Sisternes, Fernando J. de $q (Fernando José Sisternes Jiménez)

2010-01-01

120

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

121

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on

Deniz Karman

2011-01-01

122

Power Forecasting for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Power Forecasting for Plug-in Electric Vehicles with Statistic Simulations Guangbin Li (gl2423) #12 .........................................................................................................4 2.1 Power battery of EVs of economic development. For every nation who would love to make an improvement, it has to optimize

Lavaei, Javad

123

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2012-04-01

124

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2011-09-01

125

Why Electric Cars? The Arrival of Plug-in  

E-print Network

Why Electric Cars? Dan Davids President #12;The Arrival of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Dan Davids President #12;#12;Toyota RAV4EV 1997-2003 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;· Saving Cars ­ GM EV1 ­ Ford Ranger EV;#12;#12;· Saving Cars ­ GM EV1 (destroyed) ­ Ford Ranger EV (some saved) ­ Honda EV Plus (destroyed) ­ Th!nk City

Minnesota, University of

126

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

Markel, T.

2010-04-01

127

Hybrid & electric vehicle technology and its market feasibility  

E-print Network

In this thesis, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) technology and their sales forecasts are discussed. First, the current limitations and the future potential ...

Jeon, Sang Yeob

2010-01-01

128

System architecture of a modular direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging technology in the market and are helping to offset the negative effects of existing transportation methods that primarily rely on fossil fuel sources. As PHEVs are being introduced into the market, renewable energy sources such as solar power are taking a larger part in the energy sector. A need for high efficiency

Christopher Hamilton; Gustavo Gamboa; John Elmes; Ross Kerley; Andres Arias; Michael Pepper; John Shen; Issa Batarseh

2010-01-01

129

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. PMID:18522090

Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

2008-05-01

130

The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid Interactions  

E-print Network

The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid a sample of Canadian new car buyers in a mixed-mode survey process. Data were collected via the Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013). We presently focus on British Columbia (BC) data

131

Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid  

SciTech Connect

The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

2010-09-30

132

Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.  

SciTech Connect

Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

2008-01-01

133

Powertrain system optimization for a heavy-duty hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research concerns the design of a powertrain system for a plug-in parallel diesel hybrid electric bus equipped with a\\u000a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and presents a new design paradigm for the plug-in hybrid electric bus (HEB). The\\u000a criteria and method for selecting and sizing powertrain components equipped in the plug-in HEB are presented. The plug-in\\u000a HEB is designed to

B. Suh; A. Frank; Y. J. Chung; E. Y. Lee; Y. H. Chang; S. B. Han

2011-01-01

134

Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2013-03-01

135

Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel

L. Gaines; A. Burnham; A. Rousseau; D. Santini

2008-01-01

136

Power System Level Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles  

E-print Network

Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System Since 1996 PSERC Professor School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 Power Systems Engineering Research Center The Power Systems Engineering Research Center

137

PREDICTING THE MARKET POTENTIAL OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES USING MULTIDAY GPS DATA  

E-print Network

-electric Vehicles, Long-Term Vehicle Use BACKGROUND Energy-security concerns, the rising cost of petroleum1 PREDICTING THE MARKET POTENTIAL OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES USING MULTIDAY GPS DATA Mobashwir Khan The University of Texas at Austin 1.120. Cockrell Jr. Hall Austin, TX 78712-1076 mobashwir

Kockelman, Kara M.

138

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from -15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the pers

Karman, Deniz

2011-06-01

139

Optimizing plug-in electric vehicle charging in interaction with a small office building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in micro-grids. Extending a theoretical framework for mobile storage connection, the economic analysis here turns to the interactions of commuters and their driving behavior with office buildings. An illustrative example for a real office building is reported. The chosen system includes solar thermal, photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation as

Ilan Momber; David Dallinger; Sebastian Beer; Tomás Gomez; Martin Wietschel

2011-01-01

140

Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Market and  

E-print Network

Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Market and Their Implications for Vehicle Demand, Durability, and Emissions University UC Davis Principal Project Until recently, there were very few used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the market. However

California at Davis, University of

141

Decentralized Charging Control for Large Populations of Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are beginning to compete with conventional petroleum will reduce consumption of exhaustible petroleum resources and may reduce green-house gas emis- sions Science Foundation through EFRI- RESIN grant 0835995. 12:00 16:00 20:00 0:00 4:00 8:00 12:00 5 5.5 6 6.5 7

Hiskens, Ian A.

142

GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations  

PubMed Central

Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

Bachega, Jose Fernando R.; Timmers, Luis Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

2014-01-01

143

Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

2012-02-01

144

Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

2012-03-01

145

A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

2011-01-01

146

Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

2014-02-01

147

Decentralized Charging Control for Large Populations of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Application of the Nash Certainty Equivalence Principle  

E-print Network

and reliance on exhaustible petroleum sources, high penetrations of plug-in electric vehicles are expected to substitute the current conventional petroleum-combustion vehicles over the next few decades. The electricity grant PSC-08-20, and the National Science Foundation through EFRI- RESIN grant 0835995. each of the PEV

Hiskens, Ian A.

148

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

149

Batteries and Ultracapacitors for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of batteries and ultracapacitors in electric energy storage units for battery powered (EV) and charge sustaining and plug-in hybrid-electric (HEV and PHEV) vehicles have been studied in detail. The use of IC engines and hydrogen fuel cells as the primary energy converters for the hybrid vehicles was considered. The study focused on the use of lithium-ion batteries and

Andrew F. Burke

2007-01-01

150

A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2014-01-01

151

Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

Trowler, Derik Wesley

152

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

2012-08-01

153

Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. H2FCVs are described as one possible extension of this Me- product platform for the supply of clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature. Finally, the major findings of this study are summarized and directions for future work discussed. Together, the parts of this Me- innovation assessment reveal an initially expensive and limited but compelling (and possibly necessary) set of opportunities to help drive H2FCV and other electric-drive-vehicle commercialization.

Williams, Brett David

154

Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities  

E-print Network

electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new- car-electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new-car-

Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

2007-01-01

155

Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

None

2013-09-29

156

Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

157

A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

2014-02-01

158

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

Pasma, D. C.

159

Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management  

E-print Network

electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new- car-electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new-car-

Williams, Brett D

2007-01-01

160

Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management  

E-print Network

electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new- car-electric vehicles: testing the hybrid household hypothesis -- a reflexively designed survey of new-car-

Williams, Brett D

2010-01-01

161

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

162

Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

None

2013-12-31

163

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...test cycle, where the test cycle time and velocity points are expressed at 10 Hz, and the velocity (miles/hour) is expressed to the nearest...lb-force/mph2 , respectively; Vmph = velocity in miles/hour, expressed to the...

2013-07-01

164

Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed

G. J. Offer; D. Howey; M. Contestabile; R. Clague; N. P. Brandon

2010-01-01

165

Electrically pumped hybrid plasmonic waveguide.  

PubMed

Active plasmonic waveguiding has become a key requirement for designing and implementing nanophotonic devices. We study theoretically the performance of an Au/GaSb-based, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure acting as a hybrid electrically pumped waveguide with gain. The surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) mode supported by this configuration is analyzed in the third telecommunication window and discussed in detail. Changes in the effective mode index, confinement factor and effective mode area are illustrated for different core widths and layer thicknesses. Electrical behavior of the MIS junction is analyzed using a self-consistent numerical technique and used to study variations in the material and model gains within the semiconducting region of the device. Our results indicate the possibility of achieving low loss SPP propagation while maintaining a strong field confinement. PMID:24663560

Wijesinghe, Thamani; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

2014-02-10

166

Optimal Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Market ...  

E-print Network

... differently from those of other commodity markets because power balance is required at any time for a power grid system. ... the profit is estimated to be up to $4,000 a year [9]. ..... To consider the action space for each state (n, k), we discuss.

2014-01-13

167

A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles  

E-print Network

. This is a serious issue in case of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM). In this paper, an original, combining the motor converter with the motor windings to make on-board chargers [5]-[9]. This is possible since both charger and motor with its supply device are composed of windings, capacitors and power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs  

E-print Network

grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle in Engineering and Public Policy Scott B. Peterson B.S., Chemistry, Texas A&M University M.E., Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA May 2012 #12;ii © 2012

Michalek, Jeremy J.

169

Commercializing light-duty plug-in\\/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support

Brett D. Williams; Kenneth S. Kurani

2007-01-01

170

Electromagnetic interferences from electric\\/hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high-power electronics to drive the electrical engines of the new electric and hybrid vehicles produces high-level low-frequency EMI. In hybrid cars, this new emission is added to the ignition system one. In this paper, some EMI measurements including current, near and far electric and magnetic field in two cars and a bus are presented. Some issues in

Ferran Silva; Marc Aragon

2011-01-01

171

Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

2006-09-11

172

Battery life and performance depend strongly on temperature; thus there exists a need for thermal conditioning in plug-in  

E-print Network

of an air cooled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery pack with cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cell design and address the question: How much improvement in battery life can be obtained with passive air cooling of the battery such as its technology and design. Currently, PHEVs use Li-ion chemistries due to superior power

Michalek, Jeremy J.

173

Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

2009-03-01

174

A hybrid electric vehicle powertrain dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation as key elements in the iterative process that includes the development of vehicle hardware system performance measures, computer control software, and ultimately, hybrid electric vehicle powertrain system synthesis. A hybrid powertrain system is synthesized via amalgamation of a conventional internal combustion engine powerplant-alternator combination with a lead acid battery-AC

K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

1995-01-01

175

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits  

PubMed Central

We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

2011-01-01

176

Plugging in the consumer  

E-print Network

Plugging in the consumer Innovating utility business models for the future Energy and Utilities IBM, the relationship between utilities and consumers has been rather lopsided ­ utilities had the power, both literally leading to greater consumer involvement is now radically redefining that relationship. Our recent surveys

177

Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

178

Electric and hybrid vehicles 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This up-to-date assessment of electric vehicles summarizes data on characteristics, costs, maintenance and energy consumption gleaned from actual tests and from the literature and trade. It includes a survey of electric bus operations in 19 foreign and domestic locations and a survey of 11 different types of cars and delivery vans in the United States. Energy storage devices and power

Collie

1979-01-01

179

Playing with Plug-ins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have…

Thompson, Douglas E.

2013-01-01

180

Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

Wyczalek, F.A.

1998-07-01

181

The Patriot's hybrid-electric drivetrain  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid powertrain concepts are not new. Sailing ships carried auxiliary steam power on trans-Atlantic trips in the 19th Century. The 1917 Woods dual power'' automobile had a small internal combustion engine and supplementary electric drive featuring regenerative braking. But hybrid automobiles have not been successful in the automotive marketplace. For such vehicles to be successful, Chrysler officials believe a hybrid powertrain must be designed for the specific duty cycle of the vehicle; the vehicle-performance compromise must be acceptable to the customer; component efficiency and durability will have to be improved; and major component cost reductions will be required. This article describes how Chrysler is using a road-racing vehicle in the development of hybrid powertrains.

Jost, K.

1994-12-01

182

In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.  

PubMed

Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

2011-05-01

183

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles  

E-print Network

In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

Fu, Haitao

2009-01-01

184

Development of the Power Generator for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals for the SHEV (series hybrid electric vehicle) such as transit bus and truck are to achieve increased fuel economy, while reducing emissions and maintaining the functionally of the heavy duty vehicle. The power generator is used as an important component of backup power systems in a series hybrid system which is one type of electric hybrid propulsion systems

U. D. Choi; K. T. Kim; Y. N. Kim; S. H. Kwak; K. M. Kim; S. D. Lee; S. J. Jang; K. Becksteard

2006-01-01

185

Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

186

Prime mover for hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current trends in power electronics in transportation is towards a mechatronically-controlled, hybrid electric, drive-by-wire, all-wheel driveable propulsion system, incorporating a prime mover called the Fijalkowski engine-a novel reciprocating, five-stroke cycle, twin-opposed-piston, internal combustion engine with a `two-in-one' silent drive-shaft generator\\/motor-a macroelectronically-commutated, magnetoelectrically-excited, brushless AC-DC\\/DC-AC macrocommutator composite-flydisc-rotor generator\\/motor, and six or eight steerable, motorized and\\/or generatorized wheels with

Bogdan T. Fijalkowski

1998-01-01

187

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-12-01

188

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-01-01

189

Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles : state of the art and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas, due to their beneficial effects on the environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for the improvement of traffic and more particularly for a healthier environment. We are quite rapidly reaching the end of the cheap oil era. This could happen around 2010 and is nowadays probably indicated by

Gaston Maggetto; Joeri Van Mierlo

2001-01-01

190

A series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for industrial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years there is a growing interest in electric and hybrid electric propulsions due to environmental concerns. In particular industrial vehicles are a promising field of application for their duty cycles characterized by low velocities, frequent start and stop jobs, long periods of idling and material-handling tool power peaks. In this paper a series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for

Sergio Grammatico; A. Balluchi; E. Cosoli

2010-01-01

191

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis  

E-print Network

internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are flex-fuel, hydrogen fuel cell, and compressed natural gas Received in revised form 19 March 2010 Accepted 24 April 2010 Keywords: Alternative fuel vehicles Plug the personal vehicle market within the next decade. Among the other alternatives to convention- ally-fueled

192

Offline Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the Dynamic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using dynamic programming (DP) which is a kind of global optimization algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With optimal control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.

Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang

193

Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains  

E-print Network

). Vehicle window stickers, fuel economy standards, and life cycle studies using average lab-test vehicle-representative tests can bias consumer perception and regulation of alternative technologies. We discuss policy. The fuel economy and emissions of vehicles depend on the way they are driven, including daily driving

Michalek, Jeremy J.

194

Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids: Part 1: Technical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few

Michael CW Kintner-Meyer; Kevin P. Schneider; Robert G. Pratt

2007-01-01

195

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog.” For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying vehicles, include the...

2013-07-01

196

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog.” For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying vehicles, include the...

2012-07-01

197

Impacts of cooling technology on solder fatigue for power modules in electric traction drive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three power module cooling topologies that are being considered for use in electric traction drive vehicles such as a hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, or electric vehicle. The impact on the fatigue life of solder joints for each cooling option is investigated along with the thermal performance. Considering solder joint reliability and thermal performance, topologies using indirect

Michael O'Keefe; Andreas Vlahinos

2009-01-01

198

Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress  

E-print Network

11 Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress: Low Carbon Vehicle Research at UC BerkeleyOutline · Why Pursue Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles? · Electric Vehicles ­ 20 years ago ­ 10 years ago ­ Current · Transportation Propulsion, Fuels, & Emissions ­ Electric-drive vehicles (including plug-in hybrid and fuel

Kammen, Daniel M.

199

Analysis of Electric Drive Technologies for Transit Applications: Battery-Electric, Hybrid-Electric, and Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of the current status of electric drive technologies for transit applications, covering battery-electric, hybrid-electric and fuel cell buses. Based on input from the transit and electric drive industries, the analysis exa...

L. Callaghan, S. Lynch

2005-01-01

200

Taking a new look at hybrid electric vehicle efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Environmental, economic, and national security challenges from passenger-car use have energized development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) worldwide. These vehicles could reduce fuel consumption, use nonpetroleum alternative fuels, and reduce urban air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Current thinking on hybrid electric vehicles may be underestimating their significance to reducing petroleum use.

NONE

1997-02-01

201

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation. [Using HEAVY computer code  

SciTech Connect

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

Pasma, D.C.

1982-01-01

202

A permanent magnet hysteresis hybrid synchronous motor for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, analysis and PWM vector control of a hybrid permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous (PMHS) motor with a view to improve the performances of motors for electric vehicle applications. This hybrid design combines the advantageous performance features of both conventional hysteresis motors and permanent magnet motors. Electrical equivalent circuits of the PMHS motor are developed for both

M. Azizur Rahman; Ruifeng Qin

1997-01-01

203

Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex nature of hybrid electric vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to achieve satisfactory overall system efficiency. This paper presents a procedure for improving the energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck on the basis of dynamic optimization over a given drive cycle. Dynamic programming techniques are utilized to determine the optimal

Chan-Chiao Lin; Jun-Mo Kang; J. W. Grizzle; Huei Peng

2001-01-01

204

MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR INTEGRATED HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE DYNAMIC STABILITY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expanded an existing full car dynamic model (HVOSM.VD2) to enable simulation of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles with integrated vehicle stability systems. A prototype range extending series hybrid vehicle was constructed with independent front wheel drives. A hybrid vehicle stability assist (VSA) algorithm was developed to perform proportional control of yaw rate through left\\/right distribution of

Joel R. Anstrom

2003-01-01

205

78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental...Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules Federal...are to ensure that hybrid and electric vehicles produce enough sound...performance of a product, process or material.'' Examples of...

2013-01-14

206

Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

John G. Smart; Huang Iu

2009-05-01

207

Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the design of control systems for a parallel hybrid electric drive train which is an alternative to conventional passenger vehicles. The principle components of the drive train are a small internal combustion engine...

Buntin, David Leighton

2012-06-07

208

Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD) Hybrid-electric drive system  

E-print Network

a broad range of military missions Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle (TUGV) · Quiet hybrid-electric drive system · 24 hour mission endurance · 2500 lb weight · 30 kph top speed Unmanned Ground Vehicles National

Gupta, Abhinav

209

Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

2000-01-01

210

A permanent magnet hysteresis hybrid motor drive for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, analysis and PWM vector control of a hybrid permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motor with a view to improve the performances of the motors for electric vehicle application. This hybrid design combines the advantageous performance features of both the conventional hysteresis motors and the permanent magnet motors. A PWM vector control simulation and experimental results for

M. A. Rahman; Ruifeng Qin

1996-01-01

211

Energy management strategy for Diesel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The paper presents an adaptation of the equivalent consumption minimization strat- egy (ECMS) dedicated to the Diesel HEV control issues. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an additional degree of freedom into the ECMS that allows to modify the optimization tradeoffs from the pure

Olivier Grondin; Laurent Thibault; Philippe Moulin; Alexandre Chasse; Antonio Sciarretta

2011-01-01

212

Hybrid Social Media Network Dept. of Electrical Engineering  

E-print Network

Hybrid Social Media Network Dong Liu Dept. of Electrical Engineering Columbia University New York can be easily observed from the social media networks. However, there are many heterogeneous entities/her information needs, a propagation over the hybrid social media network is employed to infer the utility scores

Chang, Shih-Fu

213

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

214

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

215

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

216

2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

217

Determining marginal electricity for near-term plug-in and fuel cell vehicle demands in California: Impacts on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

California has taken steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. One example is the recent adoption of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which aims to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels. To effectively implement this and similar policies, it is necessary to understand well-to-wheels emissions associated with distinct vehicle and fuel platforms, including those using electricity.

Ryan McCarthy; Christopher Yang

2010-01-01

218

Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

2012-11-01

219

Simulation research on hybrid energy storage system of hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery is widely used as the only energy storage system for domestic hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Short battery life is becoming the biggest obstacle in the rapid development of HEV, adding ultracapacitor pack into the HEV energy storage system can solve this problem. After analyzing the principles and characteristics of ultracapacitor, the model of hybrid energy storage system (HESS) had

Duan Jianmin; Xu Min

2010-01-01

220

Electric Machine for Hybrid Motor Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator having coils for receiving ac electrical power to provide a magnetic field, a permanent magnet rotor spaced fro...

J. S. Hsu

2004-01-01

221

Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2011-01-01

222

Physical model of a hybrid electric drive train  

E-print Network

A motor and flywheel system was designed to simulate the dynamics of the electric drive train and inertial mass of a hybrid electric vehicle. The model will serve as a test bed for students in 2.672 to study the energy ...

Young, Brady W. (Brady William)

2006-01-01

223

A safety system for intelligent portable hybrid electric bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance riding safety and comfort, it is necessary to monitor the bike's status. This paper attempted to develop a safety system for intelligent portable hybrid electric bicycle. The safety system includes two functions: (1). Anti-crash warning system, (2). Balanced tire pressure monitoring system. Those are combined ultrasonic ranging technology and sensor technology for electric bicycles. All of

Ming-Yi Dai; Hsin-Tsung Ho; Chih-Ching Hsiao

2010-01-01

224

Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

E-print Network

embedded software as well as components, and can automate the details of electric and hybrid vehicle design electric vehicle (HEV). Each of the design parameters must be carefully chosen for better fuel economy, and automation required by the electronics designers [3]. Advances in electronic design tools have validated

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

225

High Temperature Device Characterization for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature inverter involves thermal management, packaging, semiconductor device, switching circuit, and control circuitry. This paper is to focus on the drivetrain inverter design consideration for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Basic structure and switching characteristics of different insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs) will be discussed. The use of silicon carbide Schottky diode in parallel with silicon IGBT will also be evaluated and

Jih-Sheng Lai; Wensong Yu; Hao Qian; Pengwei Sun; Parish Ralston; Kathleen Meehan

2009-01-01

226

Power Semiconductor Devices for Hybrid, Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power semiconductor devices are key components in all power electronic systems, particularly in hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles. This paper reviews the system requirement and latest development of power semiconductor devices including IGBTs, freewheeling diodes, and advanced power module technology in relating to electric vehicle applications. State-of-the-art silicon device technologies, their future trends, and theoretical limits are discussed. Emerging

Z. John Shen; Ichiro Omura

2007-01-01

227

Electromagnetic Acceleration Characteristics of Laser-Electric Hybrid Thrusters  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental study on a laser-electric hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-induced plasmas were generated through laser beam irradiation on to a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration using only a laser beam. As two typical cases of the hybrid propulsion systems, a feasibility study on electrostatic acceleration mode and electromagnetic acceleration mode of the laser ablation plasma were conducted including thrust performance tests with a torsion-balance, ion current measurements, and ICCD camera observations. It was confirmed that the thrust performances could be improved with electric energy inputs.

Sasaki, Koki; Takeda, Akihito; Horisawa, Hideyuki [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, 259-1292 (Japan); Kimura, Itsuro [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8856 (Japan)

2006-05-02

228

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

Wipke, K.B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-01-01

229

Hybrid-Electric Transit Buses: NYCT (New York City Transit) Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses: Final Results (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Final results of the New York City Transit Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Study. Hybrid buses had lower emissions, higher fuel economy, and higher operating costs compared with diesel buses. New York City Transit (NYCT), part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York, began operating the first of 10 heavy-duty diesel hybrid-electric transit bus prototypes (Model VI) from Orion Bus Industries in 1998. All 10 buses were in revenue service by mid-2000. The hybrid buses are intended to provide NYCT with increased fuel economy and lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions, compared with NYCT's diesel transit buses. Between 1999 and 2001 (over various predefined fuel and maintenance evaluation periods), these first 10 hybrid buses were part of a data collection and analysis project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The operating costs, efficiency, emissions, and overall performance of these low-floor hybrid buses were compared against those of 14 conventional high-floor diesel transit buses (7 each from NovaBUS Corporation and Orion) operated by NYCT in similar service. Results indicate that the hybrid buses operate with greater fuel efficiency and much lower emissions, compared with the diesel buses. Maintenance costs for the prototype hybrid buses were significantly higher than those of the diesel buses during this evaluation. However, these costs are expected to decline for the next-generation Orion VII buses, currently being procured by NYCT, as repair technicians become more familiar with the advanced hybrid propulsion systems.

Not Available

2002-07-01

230

Evaluation of fuel economy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is investigated. A vehicle control algorithm which yields\\u000a operating points where operational cost of HEV is minimal is suggested. The operational cost of HEV is decided considering\\u000a both the cost of fossil fuel consumed by an engine and the cost of electricity consumed by an electric motor. A

Dookhwan Choi; Hyunsoo Kim

2002-01-01

231

A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to

Constantine Samaras

2008-01-01

232

Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric  

E-print Network

benefits are larger with high wind penetration. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 April in generation. For systems incorporating high levels of wind power, ramping natural gas combustion turbine. Recent research has shown that ramping gas turbines to manage the variability of wind power can increase

Michalek, Jeremy J.

233

Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

2013-01-01

234

Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

Dees, D. W.

1999-02-12

235

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

2006-08-01

236

Battery management system for series-hybrid electric shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a battery management system (BMS) of a lead-acid battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) shuttle bus is presented. The BMS is a necessary component for an optimal operation of power-train in the SHE V shuttle bus including for timely detection of an abnormal condition during charging and discharging the battery pack. The presented BMS

Teerayut Piboonrujananon; Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2011-01-01

237

Multiphase Bidirectional Flyback Converter Topology for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hybrid electric vehicles, the batteries and the drive dc link may be at different voltages. The batteries are at low voltage to obtain higher volumetric efficiencies, and the dc link is at higher voltage to have higher efficiency on the motor side. Therefore, a power interface between the batteries and the drive's dc link is essential. This power interface

Tanmoy Bhattacharya; V. Shriganesh Giri; K. Mathew; L. Umanand

2009-01-01

238

A Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a dynamic model possessing the key system components of a Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The model is suitable for dynamic analysis, control law synthesis, and prototype simulation. The paper contains abbreviated descriptions of a small internal combustion engine, variable field alternator, and a dynamic lead-acid battery model that comprise the primary elements of a highly nonlinear

B. K. Powell; T. E. Pilutti

1994-01-01

239

Parallel hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model and powertrain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

1997-01-01

240

Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks  

E-print Network

be used to design a control law quickly. The main drawback, however, is the fact that the product fromDriving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks CHAN-CHIAO LIN1 , SOONIL JEON2 , HUEI PENG3 , AND JANG MOO LEE4 SUMMARY The design procedure for an adaptive power management control

Peng, Huei

241

United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

Not Available

2010-02-01

242

Regenerative braking system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a regenerative braking system (RBS) for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that performs regenerative energy recovery based on vehicle attributes, thereby providing improved performance, efficiency and reliability at minimal additional cost. A detailed description of the regenerative braking algorithm is presented along with simulation results from a dynamic model of the PHEV exhibiting the regenerative braking

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey

2002-01-01

243

Powertrain Communication System Design of Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the automotive system design flow, protocol design is an essential step which mainly includes message allocation, message priority assignment and message period assignment. This work provides an approach in the message period assignment through experiment and validation. The experiment and validation takes the powertrain system of hybrid electric vehicle as the platform. Under the baud rate of 500 Kbps,

Lifang Wang; Fang Li; Chenglin Liao

2009-01-01

244

Operational and energetical effectiveness of road electric and hybrid propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiat Research Center is developing, since several years, activities on electric and hybrid apparatuses. These has been applied on vehicles manufactured either for experimental or for pratical operation purposes. The development has been performed with particular consideration to energetical effectiveness, driving response and maintenance requirements, taking into account the economical aspect. The efficiency is achieved both through the drive system

G. Brusaglino

1982-01-01

245

Infantry mobility hybrid electric vehicle performance analysis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal energy flux analysis and design of a power plant for infantry mobility hybrid diesel-electric vehicle is dealt with in this paper. Control strategy management and propulsion system sizing is done on the basis of minimizing total fuel consumption. A quasi-static system model has allowed analyzing the most restrictive operations; moreover the simulation has been used in expected real driving

Francisco José Jimenez-Espadafor; Juan José Ruiz Marín; José A. Becerra Villanueva; Miguel Torres García; Elisa Carvajal Trujillo; Francisco José Florencio Ojeda

2011-01-01

246

Examining individuals preferences for hybrid electric and alternatively fuelled vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines individuals motivations when purchasing vehicles, focusing upon what factors would encourage individuals to purchase hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) or alternatively fuelled vehicle (AFV). AFVs in this paper refer to any cars run on alternatives to petrol and diesel. This research attempts to ascertain whether reductions in fuel costs, vehicle registration tax (VRT), or green house gas emissions

Brian Caulfield; Séona Farrell; Brian McMahon

2010-01-01

247

Advanced lead acid battery designs for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a high power, lead acid battery design that has demonstrated long life. The design uses horizontal plates with multiple lug connectors to deliver high power for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The horizontal plate configuration helps improve life by allowing for better thermal management and mechanical compression. They use computer models that were previously developed

Dean B. Edwards; Charles Kinney

2001-01-01

248

Update on regulations adding noise to hybrid and electric cars.  

PubMed

The United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in nearing and may have completed is rulemaking concerning adding noise to hybrid and electric cars by May 2014. This paper will examine what has happened in early 2014 with respect to these regulations. Updates to international regulations will also be presented. PMID:25235752

Weidemann, Dennis; Blomberg, Leslie D

2014-04-01

249

Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

Huang Iu; John Smart

2009-04-01

250

Analysis of Off-Board Powered Thermal Preconditioning in Electric Drive Vehicles: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a hot or cold thermal soak, vehicle climate control systems (air conditioning or heat) are required to quickly attain a cabin temperature comfortable to the vehicle occupants. In a plug-in hybrid electric or electric vehicle (PEV) equipped with electric climate control systems, the traction battery is the sole on-board power source. Depleting the battery for immediate climate control results

R. A. Barnitt; A. D. Brooker; L. Ramroth; J. Rugh; K. A. Smith

2010-01-01

251

Integration of fluctuating energy by electricity price control  

E-print Network

accordingly by increasing its dependency on electricity rather than fossil fuels. Plug-in hybrid electric technologies along with statistical modelling play a central role in forging the tools necessary to build to this project, involving members of the department of statistics of DTU Informat- ics, and especially Scott

252

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

253

Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle\\/hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be “scaled-up safely”, i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes

Said Al-Hallaj; J. R Selman

2002-01-01

254

Global modeling and control strategy simulation for a hybrid electric vehicle using electrical variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a novel electromechanical converter, the electrical variable transmission (EVT) has gained much attention, which is very suitable for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). But little work has been done on EVT applications to HEVs, such as global modeling and control strategy development for the EVT equipped HEV, which limits its use in the real world. Therefore, this paper

Yuan Cheng; Keyu Chen; C. C. Chan; A. Bouscayrol; Shumei Cui

2008-01-01

255

Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Yanzhi, xuelin, pedram}@usc.edu, 2 {naehyuck}@elpl.snu.ac.kr ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting system. Keywords Photovoltaic System, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Photovoltaic Array Reconfiguration, Dynamic

Pedram, Massoud

256

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

Khan, Faisal H [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Webb, William E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-01-01

257

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D. W.

1980-01-01

258

2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

2013-07-01

259

Optimized Energy Management for Large Organizations Utilizing an On-Site PHEV fleet, Storage Devices and Renewable Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the daily electricity management problem for organizations with a large number of employees working within a relatively small geographic location. The organization manages its electric grid including limited on-site energy generation facilities, energy storage facilities, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging stations installed in the parking lots. A mixed integer linear program (MILP) is modeled

Yogesh Dashora; J. Wesley Barnes; Rekha S Pillai; Todd E Combs; Michael R Hilliard

2012-01-01

260

Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study  

SciTech Connect

To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

1997-12-01

261

State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

1978-01-01

262

Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

Eissler, H. C.

1981-01-01

263

Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements  

E-print Network

-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Recent experiments have led to improvements in the hybrid Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser, and laser power output. The continuous wave laser operating on the I(2 P1/2) I(2 P3/2) transition of atomic iodine at 1315 nm was pumped by the production of O2(a1 ) in a radio-frequency discharge in an O2/He

Carroll, David L.

264

NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Program Status Update  

SciTech Connect

Program status update focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet. This report is part of an ongoing Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies program to study heavy-duty alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting the Transit Bus Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel or advanced technology and diesel fuel buses. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel or advanced technology buses currently being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel buses serving as controls within the same fleet. This report highlights the New York City Transit (NYCT) alternative fuel and advanced technology programs including its diesel hybrid-electric buses. As part of the NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project, data collection and evaluation of the Orion VI diesel hybrid-electric buses at NYCT are nearly complete. Final reports from the evaluation are being prepared by NREL and Battelle (NREL's support contractor for the project) and will be available in early 2002. If you want to know more about this transit bus program, its components, advanced technology vehicles, or incentive programs, contact any of the following personnel or visit the Web sites listed.

Not Available

2002-03-01

265

Decomposition of phenol by hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors with zeolite catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors and a liquid phase direct electrical discharge reactor for degradation of phenol in the presence and absence of zeolites have been investigated. Hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharges involve simultaneous high voltage electrical discharges in water and in the gas phase above the water surface leading to the additional OH radicals in the liquid phase

Hrvoje Kuši?; Natalija Koprivanac; Bruce R. Locke

2005-01-01

266

Smart infrastructure for carbon foot print analysis of Electric Vehicles V Suresh, G Hill, Prof P T Blythe  

E-print Network

and automotive agendas at the moment, other solutions, such as hybrid, hydrogen fuel cells, plug in hybrid alternative to the internal combustion engine traditionally powered by the fossil fuels. This study providesSmart infrastructure for carbon foot print analysis of Electric Vehicles V Suresh, G Hill, Prof P

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

267

Electrical Machines and Drives for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relative merits of induction, switched reluctance, and permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines and drives for application in electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, with particular emphasis on PM brushless machines. The basic operational characteristics and design requirements, viz. a high torque\\/power density, high efficiency over a wide operating range, and a high maximum speed capability, as well

Z. Q. Zhu; David Howe

2007-01-01

268

Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

2001-04-01

269

Photosynthetic electrochemical cell charging infrastructure versus photovoltaic cell charging infrastructure for future electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive industry is migrating towards all- electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Nevertheless conventional energy, in the form of thermal power and nuclear power, are used to power these vehicles which are not green and clean. The photosynthetic electrochemical cell (PEC) is one of the alternative energy resources for EVs and PHEVs. It could prove to be the ideal

Arvind Vyas Ramanan; Muthukumaran Pakirisamy; Sheldon S. Williamson

2011-01-01

270

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Electric Vehicle Survey Research Team  

E-print Network

outlet and using electricity to charge a battery pack, but does not have a gasoline engine that works own or lease a plug-in vehicle? ___ Yes ___No [IF Q2=YES, SMALL TEXT BOX] a. If yes, What is the make-in hybrid vehicle includes vehicles that plug into the electrical grid to charge a battery pack, and also

Craft, Christopher B.

271

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

272

Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

Schwartz, H. J.

1980-01-01

273

TwelveMonth Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

Lammert

2009-01-01

274

Abstract--This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV),  

E-print Network

is their high-capacity battery storage system which tends to degrade with time and cycling [7-9]. This paper using a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy. Second, we also minimize total battery health degradation over the course of the 24-hour cycle. This degradation is predicted

Krstic, Miroslav

275

2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

276

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01

277

Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle using Modelica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the modelling of a hybrid electric vehicle using the object-oriented modelling language Modelicar will be presented. The main focus shall be the real-time simulation in connection with a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) test-bench system. The paper presents the main components of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using the Micro Hybrid architecture. Micro Hybrids allow the use of Start\\/Stop operation

Dietmar Winkler; Clemens Gühmann

278

Electric/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine/battery hybrid vehicle is described. The program permits least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is employed for the battery. The heat engine performance model is based on engineering data for a production engine. A series/parallel configuration for the hybrid vehicle system is presently simulated. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle depends on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable battery depth of discharge, type and size of the heat engine, and the energy management strategy used. The program is written in PL/I language and can be run interactively on an IBM PC, COMPAQ, or other compatible microcomputer.

Marr, W. W.; Walsh, W. J.

1986-04-01

279

Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

Kurtz, D. W.

1979-01-01

280

2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

2013-07-01

281

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

282

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

283

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

Heitner, K. L.

1980-12-04

284

Environmental Impact Analysis of Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Batteries. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries is intended to identify principal environmental impacts resulting directly or indirectly from the development of electric vehicle batteries. The environmental impacts considered a...

1977-01-01

285

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: a guidebook  

SciTech Connect

A typical present-day subcompact EHV, operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D.W.

1980-09-30

286

Baseline Testing of the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A government, industry and academic cooperative has developed a Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). Goals of the program include doubling the fuel economy of city transit buses currently in service, and reducing emissions to one-tenth of EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors for the energy storage system and the planned use of a natural gas fueled turbogenerator, to be developed from a small jet engine. At over 17000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle to use ultra-capacitor energy storage. A description of the HETB, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are the subject of this report.

Brown, Jeffrey C.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Thompson, William K.

1999-01-01

287

P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

J. Francfort

2006-06-01

288

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

289

Toward the Systematic Design of Controllers for Smooth Hybrid Electric Vehicle Mode Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the initial results of the development of an approach for the hybrid control of a class of switched hybrid dynamical systems. This approach involves partitioning the state space of each mode in to domains and designing controllers for each sub-domain. The proposed approach is applied to the control of a simplified model of a parallel hybrid electric

K. Koprubasi; E. R. Westervelt; G. Rizzoni

2007-01-01

290

High Power Density Design of 6Slot–8Pole Hybrid Excitation Flux Switching Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, many automotive companies have been commercializing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as one of candidates for sustainable human life. Some of the recent HEVs employ electric propulsion systems using a combination of reduction gear and interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) operated by relatively high-speed more than 12 000 r\\/min, resulting in achieving high torque and power

E. Sulaiman; T. Kosaka; N. Matsui

2011-01-01

291

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on  

E-print Network

Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based. Index Terms--Energy management, dynamic programming, hybrid energy storage system, electric vehicle I the sizing of the battery and the DLC, and secondly the determination of an online, causal energy management

Paderborn, Universität

292

Design for hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at characteristic of regenerative brake of hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle, hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices (battery and flywheel) in series is designed for steal running and electro-thermal chemical gun in future combat field. Battery and flywheel are coordinated to store maximum feedback energy. Heavy current within short time is

Li Hua; Zhang Jian; Xu Da; Ma Xiaojun

2009-01-01

293

Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation  

E-print Network

Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation: Hardware-in-the-loop Hybrid electric vehicle Buckingham Pi Theorem Battery model a b s t r a c t Hardware-in-the-loop and battery pack. Ã? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction 1.1. Motivation Hardware-in-the-loop

Brennan, Sean

294

Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lithium-ion batteries are a fast-growing technology that is attractive for use in portable electronics of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The ATD Program is a joint effort

295

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

296

Measurements of Improved Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge Performance, Gain, and Laser Power  

E-print Network

- Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system that significantly increased the discharge performance, supersonic. Introduction The first demonstration of the electric oxygen-iodine laser (often referred to as Electric1 Measurements of Improved Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge Performance, Gain, and Laser Power D. L

Carroll, David L.

297

Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

Moore, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

298

Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different modes of engine operation experimentally. The two modes were direct injection compression ignition (DICI) and "pseudo" homogeneously charged compression ignition (PHCCI). Simulation was performed to include HCCI operation in the study. The study showed that the HCCI operation resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure than that of DICI operation. A combined genetic algorithm-artificial neural network predictor model was used along with the simulation model to find the combination of engine parameters that yielded the highest engine efficiency. The predictor-simulator model suggested the most efficient combination of engine parameters.

Toth-Nagy, Csaba

299

Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Yuliang Leon Zhou  

E-print Network

transportation constitutes a large portion of the energy consumed and pollution created. In this work, two hybrid vehicle powertrain technologies were studied, a fuel cell - battery hybrid and two internal combustion engine - battery/ultracapacitor hybrids. Powertrain performance models were built to simulate

Victoria, University of

300

Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

2014-02-01

301

Optimization of EMC management plan for BOP(Balance of Plant) of fuel cell electric vehicle(FCEV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic characteristics of FCEVs(fuel cell electric vehicles) are much different from the existing combustion engine cars as well as hybrid, plug-in-hybrid, and pure electric vehicles due to the high voltage\\/current generated by a fuel cell stack which uses a compressed hydrogen gas reacted with oxygen. To operate fuel cell stack efficiently, BOP(Balance of Plant) is essential. BOP systems are

Jeakon Shin; Soonyong Lee; Kibum Jung; Jaehoon Choi

2010-01-01

302

Methodology for combined Integration of electric vehicles and distributed resources into the electric grid  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation are expected to appear in growing numbers over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation can each ...

Gunter, Samantha Joellyn

2011-01-01

303

BLDC motor drive system of air-condition of hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the research and development of electric compressor in the electric automobile have being focused on. In HEV (hybrid electric vehicle), the engine is turned off in the case of stop to raise fuel efficiency and prevent air pollution. The conventional air conditioner system which is worked by the engine power through belt connection can't provide cool air to inside

Tae Uk Jung; Sung Ho Lee; Sung Jun Park; Cheol Ho Yun; Yu Tao

2007-01-01

304

Modeling, simulation, and analysis of series hybrid electric vehicles for fuel economy improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. In a series HEV, an electric motor drives the vehicle, battery system is used as energy storage system, and the engine runs its optimum operating region to charge the battery. In this way a series HEV is capable of increasing the

Masuma Khandaker

2011-01-01

305

Torque-Power-Speed Hybrid Control of Marine Electric Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional electric propulsion system is usually aimed at controlling the shaft speed only, without taking advantages of the electric propulsion motor into control strategies. This paper designs a SSP for marine electric propulsion system with SIMOTION system, and presents hybrid controller (HC) combining with SSP speed, torque and power. The simulation results show that HC can significantly reduce fluctuations

Zhang Guichen; Ma Jie

2010-01-01

306

Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

307

Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ahlheim, M.C. [Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-08-01

308

Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

1.2. Hydrogen Fuel Cells - an Alternative Solution........................................................................................................... 9 1.5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell VehiclesModelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Matthew Blair

Victoria, University of

309

An analysis of hybrid-electric vehicles as the car of the future  

E-print Network

This thesis will examine the validity of the benefits of the Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV). With the recent focus on energy initiatives, reflected through Bush's state of the union, as well as President Hockfield's MIT ...

Kang, Heejay

2007-01-01

310

New nitride-based devices for electrical detection of DNA hybridization  

E-print Network

In this thesis we designed and began the fabrication of three new solid state sensors for the detection of DNA hybridization through electrical measurements. The first sensor is a surface acoustic wave device with tapered ...

Sheffler, Ryan Taylor

2007-01-01

311

Novel Concepts for Integrating the Electric Drive and Auxiliary DC–DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost, volume, and weight are three major driving forces in the automotive area. This is also true for hybrid electric vehicles, which are attracting more and more attention due to increasing fuel costs and air pollution. In hybrid vehicles, the energy distribution system causes a significant share of the volume and the costs. One part of this system is the

Hanna Plesko; Jorma Luomi; Johann W. Kolar

2008-01-01

312

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results

M. Lammert

2008-01-01

313

Evaluation of motor characteristics for hybrid electric vehicles using the hardware-in-the-loop concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the concept of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) is applied to component testing, characteristic of component of hybrid electric vehicle in real vehicle environment can be evaluated without actually installing that component in real vehicle. In this paper, when commercially available test motor is adopted as a drivetrain of hybrid vehicle, we need to figure out which drive train configuration would be

Sung Chul Oh

2005-01-01

314

State of the art power management algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are proposed to reduce the fuel consumption and emission while sustaining performance of the vehicle. The key point to use the full potential of hybridization is designing a proper supervisory control strategy, which manages how to split the demanded power between energy sources in the most efficient and optimum way. This paper compares and classifies control strategies

Yusuf Gurkaynak; Alireza Khaligh; Ali Emadi

2009-01-01

315

Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Manuscript submitted May 15, 2000; revised manuscript received January 15, 2001. Lithium-ion batteries effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to aid the development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid

316

Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration

Vanessa Paladini; Teresa Donateo; Arturo de Risi; Domenico Laforgia

2007-01-01

317

Effective regenerative braking control for smooth stop of a hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative braking is an important function for a hybrid electric bus with many stop-to-go drive conditions. Yet an accurate nonlinear model for the composite brake system in HEV and a nonlinear model-based control design for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus have not been fully studied. This paper describes the brake system with regenerative braking function, and a special brake pedal

Jie Shu; Weiwei Xiong; Chengliang Yin; Yong Zhang

2008-01-01

318

MODELING OF AN UNMANNED SIX-WHEELED SKID-STEERED HYBRID-ELECTRIC MILITARY VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army TACOM-TARDEC sponsored development of a high-fidelity six-degree-of-freedom vehicle model to simulate and evaluate the performance of unmanned hybrid-electric military vehicles designed for autonomous operations. The vehicle model is a six-wheeled, skid-steered vehicle with a series hybrid-electric power system with in-hub drive motors linked to a diesel engine, Lithium Ion battery, and generator via extensive power and energy

David Milner; Jarrett Goodell; Mike Pozolo; Jason Ueda; Nancy Saxon

319

Public policies for hybrid-electric vehicles: The impact of government incentives on consumer adoption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the outcomes and effectiveness of public policies designed to promote the adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). As a primary methodology, I employ cross-sectional analysis of hybrid registration data over time for U.S. states and Virginia municipalities to examine the relationship between hybrid adoption and a variety of socioeconomic and policy variables. I also compare hybrid adoption patterns over time to the U.S. average for specific states that have changed incentive policies, to determine whether these policy changes are consistent with significant changes in adoption patterns. The results of these analyses suggest a strong relationship between gasoline prices and hybrid adoption, but a much weaker relationship between incentive policies and hybrid adoption. Incentives that allow hybrids to access High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes with only one occupant may also be effective in promoting adoption, but only under specific circumstances and with the potential for significant unintended consequences.

Diamond, David B.

320

Neural-based electricity load forecasting using hybrid of GA and ACO for feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to deregulation of electricity industry, accurate load forecasting and predicting the future electricity demand play an\\u000a important role in the regional and national power system strategy management. Electricity load forecasting is a challenging\\u000a task because electric load has complex and nonlinear relationships with several factors. In this paper, two hybrid models\\u000a are developed for short-term load forecasting (STLF). These

Mansour Sheikhan; Najmeh Mohammadi

321

2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

322

2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

323

LEARN MORE @ HYBRID ELECTRIC SAVING FUEL = SAVING MONEY = CLEANER AIR  

E-print Network

economy. For example, a hybrid that averages 45 MPG may only achieve 41 MPG with an aggressive driver, while a careful driver can gain 10% and achieve up to 50 MPG- creating a 9 MPG spread. SMART DRIVING

324

Comparative Investigation of Series and Parallel Hybrid Electric Drive Trains for Heavy-Duty Transit Bus Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, diesel powered hybrid electric vehicles have attracted their fair share of attention from automakers worldwide. It is a well-known fact that diesel hybrid technology is being used increasingly to improve the performance of a number of city transit buses. The exclusive combination of advanced diesel engines and sophisticated hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies holds much promise for

Sheldon S. Williamson; S. G. Wirasingha; A. Emadi

2006-01-01

325

Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

Stout, C. W.

1976-01-01

326

Investigating electrical contact resistance losses in lithium-ion battery assemblies for hybrid and electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are favored in hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles for their outstanding power characteristics. In this paper the energy loss due to electrical contact resistance (ECR) at the interface of electrodes and current-collector bars in Li-ion battery assemblies is investigated for the first time. ECR is a direct result of contact surface imperfections, i.e., roughness and out-of-flatness, and acts as an ohmic resistance at the electrode-collector joints. A custom-designed testbed is developed to conduct a systematic experimental study. ECR is measured at separable bolted electrode connections of a sample Li-ion battery, and a straightforward analysis to evaluate the relevant energy loss is presented. Through the experiments, it is observed that ECR is an important issue in energy management of Li-ion batteries. Effects of surface imperfection, contact pressure, joint type, collector bar material, and interfacial materials on ECR are highlighted. The obtained data show that in the considered Li-ion battery, the energy loss due to ECR can be as high as 20% of the total energy flow in and out of the battery under normal operating conditions. However, ECR loss can be reduced to 6% when proper joint pressure and/or surface treatment are used. A poor connection at the electrode-collector interface can lead to a significant battery energy loss as heat generated at the interface. Consequently, a heat flow can be initiated from the electrodes towards the internal battery structure, which results in a considerable temperature increase and onset of thermal runaway. At sever conditions, heat generation due to ECR might cause serious safety issues, sparks, and even melting of the electrodes.

Taheri, Peyman; Hsieh, Scott; Bahrami, Majid

2011-08-01

327

Test facility for a hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric vehicle concept is gaining momentum in competing with the internal combustion (IC) based vehicle due to rising fuel prices and demands for alternative energy vehicles. Particularly, fuel cell electric vehicles are gaining attention as a real alternative to the pure IC engine vehicle. Because of this emerging technology, considerable research into the configurations of these fuel cell electric

Michael J. Marcel; Timothy A. Haskew; Keith A. Williams

2007-01-01

328

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems  

E-print Network

gaz à effet de serre dans le domaine du transport est désormais reconnu comme une solution pertinente Workflow to Study Electric Devices -- Electrification to reduce greenhouse effect gases in transport sector Permanent Magnet EM Electric Motor EV Electric Vehicle FEM Finite Element Model GHG Greenhouse Gases HEV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Narrow pulsed electric field generator using forward \\/ flyback hybrid converters for liquid food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high pulsed electric field generator for microbial inhibition of liquid food in continuous treatment applications. The proposed pulsed electric field generator adopts forward\\/flyback hybrid converters to achieve a bidirectional narrow pulse voltage output. With this circuit structure, the proposed one can reduce voltage stresses of output diodes and switches in secondary winding of transformer, resulting in

Y.-D. Chang; S.-Y. Tseng; T.-F. Wu; H.-R. Yang

2008-01-01

330

Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982  

SciTech Connect

As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

None

1982-06-01

331

Diesel-electric hybrid engine drives with a new PWM control for induction machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diesel-electric hybrid engine system has been developed with the targets not only for energy saving and higher starting and braking performances, but also for reduced environmental pollution. The electric drivetrain of the system consists of an induction machine and an IGBT voltage source inverter. This paper presents a new PWM scheme for the inverter. Unlike ordinary schemes, the proposed

K. Maekawa; T. Tajima; N. Naitoh; K. Shimizu

1995-01-01

332

Comparison of two series-parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles focusing on control structures and operation modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are more and more developed. Among the different architecture, series-parallel HEVs have flexible mode operations and high efficiency. There are two basic kinds of series- parallel HEVs, one uses a planetary gear, and another uses two concentric arranged electric machines or one machine with the

Keyu Chen; Walter Lhomme; Alain Bouscayrol; Alain Berthon

2009-01-01

333

Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares

M. Q. Wang; S. Plotkin; D. J. Santini; J. He; L. Gaines; P. Patterson

1997-01-01

334

Survey of Electric Traction Drives for Present and Future Hybrid and Fuel Cell Passenger Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper, a survey concerning electric traction drives for passenger cars is given. Electric traction drives presently available on the market are analyzed and future developments are described. Two main classes of such drives are discussed: centre drives (like presently known from hybrid cars) and wheel-hub drives (which are still in the research and development phase). For the

Dieter Gerling

2007-01-01

335

Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor

J. Brennand; R. Curtis; H. Fox

1977-01-01

336

Abstract--Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric-drivetrain technology whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell,  

E-print Network

with energy storage is the high replacement cost of depleted battery banks. One possibility to ease the power the power cycle efficiency of ultracapacitor energy storage system and of the battery life. Similar-drivetrain technology ­ whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell, or all-electric. A particularly cost-sensitive issue

Brennan, Sean

337

Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

Not Available

2011-11-01

338

Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Peng; Jessy W. Grizzle; Jun-Mo Kang

2003-01-01

339

Electromagnetic gearing applications in hybrid-electric vehicles  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the operation of electric machines as three port devices is studied in detail. Electric machines used in this manner are referred to as electromagnetic gears in this research. All possible steady-state operating modes of these three...

Sodhi, Sameer

2012-06-07

340

Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and  

E-print Network

transmission is composed of a planetary gear sets arrangement and two electric motors (Villeneuve (2004 vehicle studied uses a complex transmission composed of planetary gear sets and two electric motors, it is necessary to reduce computational time so as to embed this control on an automotive calculator. This paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Hybrid electrical power source for thrust vector control electromechanical actuation  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of launch vehicles propose to use electromechanical actuators (EMA`s) for engine gimbaling and aerosurface control to eliminate hydraulics and its associated systems and problems. The new actuation systems are not without their own challenges. An EMA`s duty cycle has two components: a high power pulse to initiate and perform the actuation, and a nominal load to maintain position. Conventional batteries must be sized to meet the pulse power requirement while maintaining a bus voltage in range to satisfy the needs of the EMA control electronics, and therein lies the problem. Restricting the voltage sag limits the discharge rate of the battery and therefore requires an increase in the Amp-hour rating, which relates directly to an increase in weight. An option to lower power source weight is a hybrid source consisting of a conventional battery and a capacitor bank. A hybrid source of this type would utilize the power density strengths of a capacitor bank to meet the high power pulse demands, and the energy density strengths of a battery to provide average power and capacitor recharging. Testing has been performed at NASA`s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with support from Auburn University`s Space Power Institute to investigate the validity of the hybrid power source concept. This proof-of-concept testing used chemical double layer (CDL) capacitor technology in the form of a {approx}5 farad-270 volt capacitor bank, standard deep cycle marine lead-acid batteries, and a 25 horse power EMA developed at MSFC. The test data was used to size a flight type Ag-Zn battery to perform the same task in a battery-only configuration, and also size a battery for a hybrid configuration. Test results and analysis show that a >50% weight savings can be realized with this type of hybrid power source with no negative effect on performance. These results support the need for further development in the area of CDL capacitors and hybrid configurations.

Hall, D.K. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center; Merryman, S.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Space Power Inst.

1995-12-31

342

Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans  

SciTech Connect

A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

2012-09-01

343

State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

1977-01-01

344

Status Review of Power Control Strategies for Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell-hybrid electric vehicles (FC-HEVs) have become one of the most promising alternatives for the development of low emission and fuel efficient vehicles. A fuel cell vehicle can significantly benefit from being hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS), in terms of vehicle performance, fuel economy, and vehicle cost. A power control strategy is essentially required for FC-HEVs, in order

Di Wu; S. S. Williamson

2007-01-01

345

Hybrid Metameterials Enable Fast Electrical Modulation Of Freely Propagating Terahertz Waves  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating THz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. the devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconducor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial - Schottky diode structures. With an applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of THz radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which may be reduced for even faster operation.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

346

Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain

Kerem Koprubasi

2008-01-01

347

Modeling and control of Power-split hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Power-split hybrid automotive system is considered, including a multi-phase synchronous motor, an internal combustion engine and a planetary gear as key element to split power in this propulsion system. The dynamic model of a planetary gear with internal elasticity is presented and the model of the whole vehicle is given using the Power-Oriented Graphs approach. A

Roberto Zanasi; Federica Grossi

2010-01-01

348

Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

1979-01-01

349

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

350

Electric and hybrid vehicles program. 5th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1981  

SciTech Connect

This fifth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413, as amended by Public Law 95-238, referred to as the Act) complies with the reporting requirements established in Section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing the Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. The Annual Report represents the major summary of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program activities; since July 1981, DOE has ceased publication of the EHV Quarterly Reports with Congressional approval. The fourth quarter activities for FY 1981 are included in this report. During FY 1981, significant progress was made toward implementing the policies established by Congress in the Act. There has been a noticeable increase in interest shown by both the automobile manufacturing and the supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. This year, the emphasis in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program shifted from vehicle demonstration and preparation for production readiness to research, development, test, and evaluation of advanced technologies to achieve the attributes necessary to make electric and hybrid vehicles a practical transportation alternative. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components, as well as total vehicle systems, continue to reveal significant progress toward providing industry with technology options that will result in vehicles with greater public acceptance.

None

1982-03-01

351

A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

CarSim 2.5.4, written by AeroVironment, Inc. of Monrovia, California and SIMPLEV 3.0, written by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were used to simulate two series-configured hybrid electric vehicles that competed in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge. Vehicle speed and battery energy use were measured over a 0.2-km maximum effort acceleration and a 58-km range event. The simulations` predictions are compared to each other and to measured data. A rough uncertainty analysis of the validation is presented. The programs agree with each other to within 5% and with the measured energy data within the uncertainty of the experiment.

Cuddy, M.

1995-01-01

352

Design and evaluation of a nuclear-electric hybrid power/propulsion system  

E-print Network

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A NUCLEAR-ELECTRIC HYBRID POWER/PROPULSION SYSTEM A Thesis by RALPH KEIL Submitted to the Office ol' C~raduate Studies of Texas ARM I niversity in partial fulfillment ol' the requirements for the degree ot MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A NUCI EAR-ELECTRIC HYBRID POWER/PROPULSION SYSTEM A Thesis by RALPH KEIL Approved as to style and content by: . G. Parlos (C air of Committee) K. L. Peddicord (Member...

Keil, Ralph

2012-06-07

353

PNGV Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar and cycle life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle and calendar life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T.; Sutula, R.

2002-06-01

354

Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

1995-12-31

355

Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train  

E-print Network

: Electromechanical model of the DC motor drive. . Figure 4. 4. 2: First equivalent circuit of the DC motor drive Figure 4. 4. 3: Final equivalent circuit of the DC motor drive. Figure 4. 4. 4: Synchronous machine stator circuit. Figure 4. 4. 5: Electromechanical... Vehicle (EV). It's a very elegant solution since it has been shown that the best source for traction is a constant power source, which is exactly what the electric motor is about. The excellent torque-speed characteristics of electric machines provide a...

Routex, Jean-Yves

2012-06-07

356

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites  

SciTech Connect

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J. Jr. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Li Chunyu [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Byun, Joon-Hyung [Composite Materials Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-010 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-17

357

Solving Electrical Distribution Problems Using Hybrid Evolutionary Data Analysis Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-world electrical engineering problems can take advantage of the last Data Analysis methodologies. In this paper we will show that Genetic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems and Genetic Programming techniques are good choices for tackling with some practical modeling problems. We claim that both evolutionary processes may produce good numerical results while providing us with a model that can be interpreted by

Oscar Cordón; Francisco Herrera; Luciano Sánchez

1999-01-01

358

Power management strategy based on game theory for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an integrated system approach based on game theory for automotive electrical power and energy management systems. We apply this approach to a case study fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FC-HEV) by using the Simulink-based simulator ADVISOR. The case study fuel cell vehicle is rated at 80 kW peak and 25 kW average propulsion power, and

Michael J. Gielniak; Z. John Shen

2004-01-01

359

Design and implementation of a novel hybrid-electric-motorcycle transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hybrid power system incorporates a mechanical type rubber V-belt, continuously-variable transmission (CVT) and chain drives to combine power of the two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. The system uses four different modes in order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions: electric-motor mode; engine mode; engine\\/charging mode; and power mode. The main advantages of this

Kuen-Bao Sheu; Tsung-Hua Hsu

2006-01-01

360

Battery state-of-charge estimation based on Hinfinity filter for hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-charge (SOC) estimation is the most difficult problem in battery management system, which is one of the key component of electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle. Suffered from the non-zero mean noise and uncertain model parameters in practice, the conventional current integral and Kalman filter estimation methods can not achieve the required accuracy, even causing nonconvergent results. The essential difficulties

Jingyu Yan; Guoqing Xu; Yangsheng Xu; Benliang Xie

2008-01-01

361

A PSIM-based modeling tool for conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The More Electric Vehicles (MEV) concept emphasizes the utilization of electrical systems instead of mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems to optimize vehicle fuel economy, emissions, performance, and reliability. In addition, the need for improvement in comfort, convenience, entertainment, safety, security, and communications necessitates more electric automotive systems. As a result, an electric power distribution system with larger capacity and more

S. Onoda; S. M. Lukic; A. NAsiri; A. Emadi

2002-01-01

362

Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

2004-01-01

363

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Robb A. Barnitt

2008-01-01

364

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Barnitt, R. A.

2008-06-01

365

Solving Electrical Distribution Problems Using Hybrid Evolutionary Data Analysis Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Real-world electrical engineering problems can take advantage of the last Data Analysis methodologies. In this paper we will show that Genetic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems and Genetic Programming,techniques are good choices for tackling with some,practical modeling,problems. We claim that both evolutionary processes may produce good numerical results while providing us with a model,that can be interpreted by a human,being. We

Oscar Cordón; Francisco Herrera; Luciano Sánchez

1999-01-01

366

New Estimation Filtering for Battery Management Systems of Lead-Acid Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper proposes a new estimation filtering for battery management systems of lead-acid cells in hybrid electric vehicles. The well known finite impulse response (FIR) filter is adopted for the estimation filtering. The proposed method provides the filtered estimates for the output voltage as well as voltages across the bulk and surface capacitors. These filtered estimates have good inherent

Pyung-Soo Kim

2007-01-01

367

Battery pack modeling for the analysis of battery management system of a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery forms a critical part of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivetrain. An important constraint to the effective performance and reliability of the battery is its unpredictable internal resistance variation along the driving cycle. Temperature has a considerable effect on this internal resistance and thus the battery management system monitors cell and battery pack temperature in accordance with the state-of-charge

Chitradeep Sen; N. C. Kar

2009-01-01

368

Aerodynamic Resistance Reduction of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Progress Report, September 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives, approach, and FY'78 progress and results of the Aerodynamic Resistance Reduction work element of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System R and D Project are described. The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducti...

1979-01-01

369

What Every Technician Must Know: Safety First with Hybrid & Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on hybrid and electric vehicle technology program by Scott Rill and Janna Oakes of Arapahoe Community College, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Oakes, Janna; Rill, Scott

2013-08-14

370

A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1978-01-01

371

Comparing Microchannel Technologies to Minimize the Thermal Stack and Improve Thermal Performance in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles for military applications require advanced cooling to ensure peak power electronics performance and reliability. Two methods of reducing overall thermal resistivity by integrating microchannel coolers into the power electronics thermal stack are explored. The first approach involves silicon manifold microchannel coolers with direct fluid impingement on the semiconductor die. The second involves fabricating standard, parallel microchannels into

Nicholas R. Jankowski; Lauren Everhart; Brian Morgan; Bruce Geil; Patrick McCluskey

2007-01-01

372

Modeling a PEM fuel cell for use in a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have the possibility of becoming the primary power source of hybrid electric vehicles. However, a fuel cell system is large, complex and expensive. Designing and building new prototypes is difficult and expensive. The alternative is to examine different systems through simulations. This paper describes a mathematical model of the fuel cell and its use

Wallace Turner; Micheal Parten; Darrel Vines; Jesse Jones; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

373

Hybrid fiber optic voltage sensor for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the design and experimental evaluation of the hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) piezoelectric voltage sensor developed specifically for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump (ESP) motors. Unlike a previously reported transducer based on a single piezoelectric element, the voltage rating of the presented device could be as low as 500 V due to the use of a

Lukasz Dziuda; Pawel Niewczas; Grzegorz Fusiek; James R. McDonald

2005-01-01

374

An Optimal Fuzzy Logic Power Sharing Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

torque is generated by a combined contribution from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and an Induction economy, and emissions. Index Terms--Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Internal Combustion Engine alternatives solutions to conventional vehicles, which are driven only by internal combustion engines (ICE

Brest, Université de

375

Design and control of the propulsion for a series Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the future most popular vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicle has to satisfy the challenging and often conflicting requirements. Environment concerns have motivated the legislated action by government around the world to reduce nocuous emissions. The requirements for reduction of CO2 need a high fuel economy. The people's demands for low cost and efficient require a high reliability control

Junjie Li; Xiumin Yu; Huajie Ding; Ping Sun

2010-01-01

376

Design of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian  

E-print Network

is to equip vehicle with an external loudspeaker which diffuses a sound representative of the car's drivingDesign of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian J.-C. Chamard and V to solve this problem is to generate an alert sound. This signal has to improve the interaction

Boyer, Edmond

377

An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with

Adam W. Stienecker; Thomas Stuart; Cyrus Ashtiani

2006-01-01

378

A combined ultracapacitor-lead acid battery storage system for mild hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in ultracapacitor technology indicate that the automotive industry should re-examine the energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). With the combination of an ultracapacitor and a lead acid battery, a system can be implemented in which the lead acid battery can be maintained at 100% state of charge, lengthening the lifetime of the battery. Although performance of the

Adam W. Stienecker; Thomas Stuart; Cyrus Ashtiani

2005-01-01

379

Energy management in an automotive electric\\/heat engine hybrid powertrain using fuzzy decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how vehicle emissions legislation has caused interest in the heat engine electric hybrid vehicle to be renewed. The form of such a vehicle and the associated problem of the control of its powertrain are described. A controller for managing the powertrain which uses fuzzy logic to implement decision making is developed. Details are given of simulation experiments

S. D. Farrall; R. P. Jones

1993-01-01

380

Modelling comparison of planetary gear using EMR and Simdriveline for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays in the automobile sector, seeking reductions in emission and fuel consumption in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is an increased focus. In different architectures of HEVs the most favourable architecture is a series-parallel HEV, because of its high operation modes and performance as it joins the advantages of both series and parallel HEVs. In spite of its advantages, this system

S. A. Syed; W. Lhomme; A. Bouscayrol

2009-01-01

381

Research on thermal management system of a hybrid electric armored vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced thermal management system (TMS) has the potential to increase the life of the cooling system components as well as decrease fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In the hybrid electric armored vehicle (HEAV), the combination of prime power and stored energy powers the vehicle driving system and advanced weapons subsystems. Because of the complicated energy transfer and the substantial heat

Sun Xiao-xia; Wang Yi-chun

2010-01-01

382

Simulation and Analysis of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV) Based on ADVISOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the study of the different control methods of various hybrid electric vehicles, this paper proposes a control strategy employing power follower and thermostat. This strategy takes the battery SOC value and the engine output torque as the primary controlling factors, compiles its control status flow using Stateflow, and matches parameters of various components of the vehicle according to

Jiang-Wen Xu; Liang Zheng

2010-01-01

383

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

384

Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

2006-01-01

385

Integrative control strategy of regenerative and hydraulic braking for hybrid electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electric braking involvement, the braking system of an EV, HEV and FCV becomes much more complex than conventional mechanical alone braking system. The target in this hybrid braking system is to recover the braking energy as much as possible and meanwhile maintain a good braking performance for vehicle safety. For this purpose, the control of this braking system is

Liang Chu; Wanfeng Sun; Liang Yao; Yongsheng Zhang; Yang Ou; Wenruo Wei; Minghui Liu; Jun Li

2009-01-01

386

Optimal brake torque distribution for a four-wheeldrive hybrid electric vehicle stability enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle stability control logic for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle is proposed using the regenerative braking of the rear motor and an electrohydraulic brake (EHB). To obtain the optimal brake torque distribution between the regenerative braking and the EHB torque, a genetic algorithm is used. The genetic algorithm calculates the optimal regenerative braking torque and the optimal EHB torque for

D-H Kim; J-M Kim; S-H Hwang; H-S Kim

2007-01-01

387

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

1980-11-01

388

Utility scale hybrid wind–solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a hybrid wind–solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

2008-01-01

389

Status and evaluation of hybrid electric vehicle batteries for short term applications. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this task is to compile information regarding batteries which could be use for electric cars or hybrid vehicles in the short term. More specifically, this study applies lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium battery technologies which are more developed than the advanced batteries which are presently being investigated under USABC contracts and therefore more accessible in production efficiency and

Himy

1995-01-01

390

Performance of a hybrid electric vehicle using reluctance synchronous machine technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a small reluctance synchronous machine drive is presented. The machine is current-angle controlled for maximum torque per ampere or minimum kVA. This ensures that the machine is operated reasonably close to optimal efficiency for all loads. The calculated and measured performance results of the reluctance synchronous machine drive and the

Johan Malan; Maarten J. Kamper

2001-01-01

391

Implementation of Wavelet-Based Controller for Battery Storage System of Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a wavelet-based multiresolution proportional integral derivative (MRPID) controller for temper- ature control of the ambient air of battery storage system of the hybrid electric vehicles. In the proposed wavelet MRPID con- troller, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to decompose temperature error into frequency components at various resolu- tion of the error signal. The wavelet transformed

M. A. S. K. Khan; M. Azizur Rahman

2011-01-01

392

Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

2014-01-01

393

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

2012-08-01

394

Design and implementation of a high-efficiency on- board battery charger for electric vehicles with frequency control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design and implementation of 3.3 kW on-board battery charger for electric vehicles or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A series-loaded resonant dc-dc converter and frequency control are adopted in consideration of efficiency, reliability, volume, cost, and so on. In order to obtain high efficiency and less volume within 6 liters, a prototype of the charger is designed

Jong-Soo Kim; Gyu-Yeong Choe; Hye-Man Jung; Byoung-Kuk Lee; Young-Jin Cho; Kyu-Bum Han

2010-01-01

395

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

David Holloway

2005-09-30

396

An assessment of the potential environmental impact of electric and hybrid-electric vehicles in Texas  

E-print Network

and batteries as storage devices for electrical energy. Although EVs use batteries as their sole source of energy, the EV powertrain can convert vehicle motion (kinetic energy) back into electrical energy through regenerative braking and consequently recharge... and batteries as storage devices for electrical energy. Although EVs use batteries as their sole source of energy, the EV powertrain can convert vehicle motion (kinetic energy) back into electrical energy through regenerative braking and consequently recharge...

Kim, Jung-Woo

2012-06-07

397

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.

2004-11-23

398

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

399

Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

1979-01-01

400

Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

401

Electric, hybrid electric and combustion engine driven cars and their impact on environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For vehicle comparison from point of view of green gas production it is necessary to add to the green gas production of the vehicle itself also the quantity that was necessary to produce the fuel for internal combustion engine ICE or the electric energy for electric vehicle. Only this attitude is objective. This paper reveals simulation results of CO2 emission

Cerovsky Zdenek; Mindl Pavel

2011-01-01

402

EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009  

E-print Network

, Norway, May 13-16, 2009 Site selection for electric cars of a car-sharing service Luminita Ion1 , T. Cucu, modeling, electric vehicle 1 Introduction Car-sharing is defined as a system which allows to eachEVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS24 Stavanger

Boyer, Edmond

403

An ultracapacitor-battery energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries are much more economical, but they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. This research presents a new cost-effective method for using these two energy storage components together in order to extend the life of the battery. This system is presently quite expensive, but it will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to the levels predicted by some manufacturers. This dissertation studies two different methods for implementation on a hybrid electric vehicle and presents performance data for a variety of simulations.

Stienecker, Adam

404

Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

Gutmann, Günter

405

Invader GT-5 with super compounded motor in 100 MPG diesel electric hybrid  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate solution to environmental pollution from mobile emission sources is a complete transition to electrically powered vehicles operating from batteries deriving their power from non-polluting sources of energy, or from fuel cells using hydrogen. Carbon based fuels for engines or even fuel cells produce the {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} CO{sub 2}. Fuel cells can extract typically about three times as much energy from a fuel as an internal combustion engine (ICE) can. Room-temperature fuel cells using hydrogen obviously do not negatively impact the environment. With adequate hydrogen storage, a H{sub 2} fuel cell charging a battery pack in an electric car or an electric car with a super battery will be the ultimate solution. Without waiting for the economic realization of super batteries or low cost hydrogen fuel cells, the transitional solution to an economically-viable, low-cost, low-pollution vehicle is a hybrid electric automobile!

Kaylor, R. [Kaylor Energy Institute, Boulder Creek, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

406

Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Patterson, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation Technologies

1997-09-17

407

Desktop and HIL Validation of Hybrid-Electric-Vehicle Battery-Management-System Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The battery management system (BMS) of a hybrid- electric-vehicle (HEV) battery pack comprises hardware and software to monitor pack status and optimize performance. One of its important functions is to execute algorithms that continuously estimate battery state-of-charge (SOC), state-of-health (SOH), and available power. The primary difficulty when validating these algorithms is that there are no sensors that can measure SOC,

Gregory L. Plett; Robert Billings; Martin J. Klein

408

Control system and dynamic model validation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC-induction

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; R. C. Baraszu; B. K. Powell

1999-01-01

409

Development of a lead-acid battery for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2000, a project reliable, highly optimized lead-acid battery (RHOLAB) started under the UK Foresight Vehicle Programme with the objective of developing an optimized lead-acid battery solution for hybrid electric vehicles. The work is based on a novel, individual, spirally-wound valve-regulated lead-acid 2V cell optimized for HEV use and low variability. This cell is being used as a building

A Cooper

2004-01-01

410

Study on the Vehicle Controller of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a kind of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) with the torque and speed alternating-coupled planetary gear and Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). By improving PHEV mode-transformation efficiency, it is easy to achieve the goal of improving fuel-economy and reducing emissions. The main components of the Vehicle Controller such as fuzzy control units, assistant control units and components control

Zhang Dawei; Wu Shijing; Luo Xiaohua; Ren Hui; Wu Yuzhi

2010-01-01

411

Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

None

1980-03-01

412

A-ECMS: An Adaptive Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. In this paper a new control strategy called Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (A-ECMS) is presented. This real-time energy management for HEV is obtained adding to the ECMS framework an on-the-fly algorithm for the estimation of the equivalence factor according to the driving

C. Musardo; G. Rizzoni; B. Staccia

2005-01-01

413

Combined control of a regenerative braking and antilock braking system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) employ both a hydraulic braking system and a regenerative braking system to provide\\u000a enhanced braking performance and energy regeneration. A new design of a combined braking control strategy (CBCS) is presented\\u000a in this paper. The design is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the hydraulic braking system\\u000a work

D. Peng; Y. Zhang; C.-L. Yin; J.-W. Zhang

2008-01-01

414

Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

2009-01-01

415

A study on regenerative braking for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a regenerative braking algorithm is presented and performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is investigated.\\u000a The regenerative braking algorithm calculates the available regenerative braking torque by considering the motor characteristics,\\u000a the battery SOC and the CVT speed ratio. When the regenerative braking and the friction braking are applied simultaneously,\\u000a the friction braking torque corresponding to the

Sungwook Jang; Hoon Yeo; Chulsoo Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

2001-01-01

416

Regenerative braking by electric hybrid vehicles using super capacitor and power splitting generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental electric hybrid car drive of the small power was implemented in the laboratory of Josef Bozek Research Center of Engine and Automotive Technology at the Technical University in Prague. The output is 7.5 kW, 0 6000 min-1. The super capacitor as a peak energy storage has 100 F, 56 V and 400 A. It is able to accept the

Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

2005-01-01

417

Vehicle Stability Enhancement of Four-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Rear Motor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle stability enhancement control algorithm for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed using rear motor driving, regenerative braking control, and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated

Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

2008-01-01

418

Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport is one of the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil-fuels consumption. This has lead to a growing demand for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) to reduce air pollution and consumption of fossil fuels.CSIRO Energy Technology has developed the ultra-battery, a new technology that will reduce the cost and boost the performance of batteries in HEVs. The ultra-battery is

L. T. Lam; R. Louey

2006-01-01

419

Computation of a highly saturated permanent magnet synchronous motor for a hybrid electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the development of a drive system for the implementation in a hybrid electric vehicle, a 45 kW 6-pole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed. Due to the rotor design with inset permanent magnets the machine parameters are dependent on the operating point due to saturation effects. Numerical computations using the finite element method (FEM) are performed to build up a lumped parameter model of the machine.

Henneberger, S.; Pahner, U.; Hameyer, K.; Belmans, R. [Katholieke Univ., Leuven (Belgium)] [Katholieke Univ., Leuven (Belgium)

1997-09-01

420

The Design and Development of a Through-the-Road Parallel Diesel Electric Hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi State University students in their third year of Challenge X competition have transformed a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox into a diesel-electric hybrid at a 99% buy-off vehicle readiness level. The vehicle, configured in a charge sustaining, through-the-road parallel architecture, offers significant improvements over the stock vehicle with a 45% increase in fuel economy and a 3.5% increase in 0-60 mph

M. Young; G. M. Molen; D. Oglesby; K. Crawford; K. Walp; R. Lewis; C. Whitt; S. Phillips

2007-01-01

421

Lead\\/acid battery development for heat engine\\/electric hybrid vehicles. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was undertaken to develop a lead\\/acid battery system for use in a hybrid heat engine\\/electric vehicle. The basic requirements are that the battery be capable of supplying high-rate power pulses and of accepting high-rate charge pulses, both of short duration. The feasibility of developing a bipolar lead\\/acid battery system which conforms to these specifications was investigated by using

J. Giner; A. H. Taylor; F. Goebel

1971-01-01

422

Hybrid fiber-optic current sensor for remote monitoring of electrical submersible plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives details of the design, construction and experimental evaluation of the optical current sensor developed specifically to monitor electrical submersible pumps operating several tens of km away from an oil rig. The proposed sensor is of a hybrid construction, and uses an optical voltage-to-strain transducer to monitor a specially designed current transformer. In this application, the voltage-to-strain transducer

Lukasz Dziuda; Pawel Niewczas; James R. McDonald

2005-01-01

423

Rear motor control for a 4WD hybrid electric vehicle stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle stability control for a 4WD hybrid electric vehicle is investigated using the rear motor driving\\/regenerative braking control and electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy rule based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated using ADAMS\\/Car and

Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

2005-01-01

424

[Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

Not Available

1993-01-01

425

Thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy nanocomposites with thermally reduced graphene oxide-silica hybrid nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 1011 ? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m-1 K-1, which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m-1 K-1).We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 1011 ? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m-1 K-1, which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m-1 K-1). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01471a

Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Chiang, Jen-Chi; Ho, Kuan-Ku; Chou, Tsung-Yu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Li-Hsueh; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2013-06-01

426

Nonvolatile, reversible electric-field controlled switching of remanent magnetization in multifunctional ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spin-mechanics, the magnetoelastic coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid devices is exploited in order to realize an electric-voltage control of magnetization orientation. To this end, different voltage-induced elastic strain states are used to generate different magnetization orientations. In our approach, we take advantage of the hysteretic expansion and contraction of a commercial piezoelectric actuator as a function of electrical voltage to deterministically select one of two electro-remanent elastic strain states. We investigate the resulting magnetic response in a nickel thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrid device at room temperature, using simultaneous magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetotransport measurements. The magnetic properties of the hybrid can be consistently described in a macrospin model, i.e., in terms of a single magnetic domain. At zero external magnetic field, the magnetization orientation in the two electro-remanent strain states differs by 15°, which corresponds to a magnetoresistance change of 0.5%. These results demonstrate that the spin-mechanics scheme indeed enables a nonvolatile electrically read- and writable memory bit where the information is encoded in a magnetic property.

Brandlmaier, A.; Geprägs, S.; Woltersdorf, G.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

2011-08-01

427

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

428

The affect of battery pack technology and size choices on hybrid electric vehicle performance and fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a comparative study of three hybrid-electric vehicles, three powertrains per vehicle and three battery technologies to determine the optimum configuration required to maximize fuel economy and vehicle performance. The qualitative analysis discusses various design decisions and sets forth the advantages and disadvantages associated with different hybrid configurations. Numerous computer modeling simulations are performed to investigate the various

Robert C. Balch; Andy Burke; A. A. Frank

2001-01-01

429

Active Damping Wheel-Torque Control System to Reduce Driveline Oscillations in a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide a great opportunity to improve fuel economy and emissions. This power-split hybrid system has inherent low damping in driveline since it uses planetary gear sets to directly connect the engine, the generator, and the motor to the driveline for improved vehicle efficiency, thus lacking a clutch or a torque converter that provides the conventional

Fazal U. Syed; Ming L. Kuang; Hao Ying

2009-01-01

430

Electrical detection of hybridization and threading intercalation of deoxyribonucleic acid using carbon nanotube network field-effect  

E-print Network

of 13% in Id reduction due to specific binding between hybridized DNA and intercalators, corroborated-base mismatched DNA analyte. We demonstrate that sensitivity improvement using threading intercalator canElectrical detection of hybridization and threading intercalation of deoxyribonucleic acid using

Rogers, John A.

431

Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

2014-01-01

432

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

433

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

434

Enhancing the electrical conductivity of a hybrid POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer.  

PubMed

An electrically conductive polymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocage incorporated into a modified poly [caprolactone based urea-urethane] (PCL)/graphene hybrid nanocomposite is described. Multilayer graphene flakes (8nm) were homogeneously dispersed into POSS-PCL at 0.1, 2, 5, and 10wt.% concentrations. This dispersion process of the graphene flakes was achieved by the use of stable dimethylacetamide (DMAc), via solution intercalation with POSS-PCL nanocomposites. The impedance spectroscopy of 5.0wt.% and higher concentration of graphene in POSS-PCL represented major improvement in conductivity over pristine POSS-PCL. The percolation threshold occurred at 5.0wt.% graphene concentration, converting the insulator POSS-PCL into a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene hybrid nanocomposite. The structures of the obtained hybrid materials were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The conductivity of the resultant nanocomposite polymer was investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a facile method of synthesizing, and describe the electrical properties of a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer. PMID:25240216

Nezakati, Toktam; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-12-01

435

Study on 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applicability of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity is investigated. Target distance of hybrid energy transfer line is 1000 km. Hydrogen refrigeration station is placed on every 10 km of the unit section. The rated current and withstand voltage of the dc power line are 10 kA and 100 kV, respectively. Capacity of the liquid hydrogen transportation is 100 tons per day. Transfer line consists of the superconducting (SC) cable, space for liquid hydrogen, electrical insulation layer, vacuum space for thermal insulation, and cryogenic envelopes. High Jc performance in a liquid hydrogen temperature requires for the SC cable. The MgB2 wire is one of the potential candidates for this system as well as BSCCO or YBCO tapes. To keep the liquid state of hydrogen anywhere in the unit section, the temperature and pressure of the inlet point were selected to 17 K and 0.4 MPa, respectively. When the heat leak into the liquid hydrogen was 1.0 W/m (expected value), the temperature at the outlet became 18.1 K. Total power consumption of the 10 kW class refrigerator is estimated to 660 kW. The total power consumption for the hybrid energy transfer line of 1000 km length becomes 132 MW. This value is equivalent to 13.2 % to the transport capacity of 1GW.

Yamada, S.; Hishinuma, Y.; Uede, T.; Schippl, K.; Motojima, O.

2008-02-01

436

Equivalence of Optical and Electrical Noise Equivalent Power of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors  

E-print Network

We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical NEP from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

Janssen, R M J; de Visser, P J; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A

2014-01-01

437

Groupware Plug-ins: A Case Study of Extending Collaboration Functionality through Media Items  

E-print Network

traffic reports to stock tickers, while Google Sidebar plug-ins [//desktop.google.com] may show news that serves as a (visual) container of components; · a stock set of plug-ins that the system designer supplies

Greenberg, Saul

438

Electrical spin injection from an organic-based ferrimagnet in a hybrid organic/inorganic heterostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of organic-based magnets with room temperature magnetic ordering and semiconducting functionality promises to broaden the field of semiconductor spintronics, providing a route to all-organic spintronic devices and hybrid organic/inorganic structures capable of exploiting the multifunctionality and ease of production in organic systems as well as the well established spintronic functionality of inorganic materials. Our work demonstrates the successful extraction of spin polarized current from the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x (x˜2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene; TC > 400 K, EG ˜ 0.5 eV, ?˜ 10-2 S/cm) and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED) [1]. The spin current is detected by monitoring the polarization state of the photons emitted from the LED structure and tracks the magnetization of V[TCNE]x˜2, is weakly temperature dependent, and exhibits heavy hole / light hole asymmetry. This result opens the door to a new class of active, hybrid spintronic devices with multifunctional behavior defined by the optical, electronic and chemical sensitivity of the organic layer. In addition, spin transport in these hybrid structures provides the opportunity to leverage well-characterized inorganic materials as a probe of spin physics in organic and molecular systems and to explore the impact of the hybrid interface on spin injection efficiency. Initial studies exploring the impact of surface passivation of the inorganic layer with self-assembled monolayers of various chemistries will be presented, and additional experimental probes of the interfacial exchange interaction will be discussed. [4pt] [1] ``Electrical Spin Injection from an Organic-Based Ferrimagnet in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Heterostructure,'' Lei Fang, K. Deniz Bozdag, Chia-Yi Chen, P.A. Truitt, A.J. Epstein and E. Johnston-Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 156602 (2011).

Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

2012-02-01

439

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2010 589 Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles  

E-print Network

, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Architectures and Modeling C. C. Chan, Fellow, IEEE, Alain Bouscayrol, Member, IEEE systems. This paper reviews the state of the art for electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles the numerous subsys- tems have recently been introduced. Index Terms--Electric vehicle (EV), fuel-cell vehicles

Leung, Ka-Cheong

440

Electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites with hybrid micro- and nano-sized fillers for electronic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining conductive micro and nanofillers is a new way to improve electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of polymer composites for electronic packaging. Micrometric silver flakes and nanometric carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit high electrical and thermal conductivity. Moreover CNT improve strength, stiffness and fracture toughness of the polymer matrix. A new type of hybrid conductive adhesive filled with silver flakes and

Tomasz Falat; Jan Felba; Przemyslaw Matkowski; Bartosz Platek; Philippe Demont; Fabien Marcq; Philippe Monfraix; Andrzej Moscicki; Krzysztof Poltorak

2011-01-01

441

Groupware Plug-ins: A Case Study of Extending Collaboration Functionality through Media Items  

E-print Network

- capabilities to its users. For example, plug-in `tickets' in Sideshow [2] range from traffic reports to stock tickers, while Google Sidebar plug-ins [http://desktop.google.com] may show news listings, weather) container of components; · a stock set of plug-ins that the system designer supplies to anticipate basic

Greenberg, Saul

442

High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

Murty, B.V.

2000-03-21

443

High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle  

DOEpatents

A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

2000-01-01

444

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

Not Available

1994-08-01

445

Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

2000-12-04

446

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part II. Degradation mechanism under 2 C cycle aging  

SciTech Connect

Degradation phenomena and inference of their underlying mechanisms during 2 C cycle aging in a cell design comprising {l_brace}LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4{r_brace} composite positive electrode are studied and reported in this work. We describe how aging phenomena in the cells were studied and incremental capacity analysis applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms in the cycle aging process. Two stages of degradation were observed in the life cycle under this aging regime. In the first stage, we conclude that loss of lithium inventory was the cause of capacity fade. As a result of such parasitic loss, the cell further suffered from loss of active materials in the second stage, in which the positive electrode kinetics was hampered and the capacity loss accelerated.

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-12-01

447

Information System for Electric Vehicle in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicle (EV)/plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) grid infrastructure is to increase the stability of local power system by managing the charging operations. A user interface device equipped on EVs allows the driver to receive instructions or seeks advice to manage EV's battery charging/backfill process. In this paper, we design vehicle-grid communications system. To improve the performance of the system, we customize our communication protocol for distributing EV charging information. From the experiments, we verify the performance of our protocol with respect to the data delivery ratio and the number of message forwarding.

Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

448

Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

1979-01-01

449

Dynamic Electronic Forensics Based on Plug-in  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Considering the characteristics of judicial forensics as well as diversity types of network forensics, this paper proposed\\u000a a forensic framework based on XML and plug-in technology. The framework maintains scalability of forensic analysis and ensures\\u000a the stability of forensic process simultaneity. Specified host forensics and hacker intrusion forensics were implemented to\\u000a proof the validity of the framework.

Yong Li; Wenqi Wang

450

2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray

2013-01-01

451

2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

2013-01-01

452

2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

2013-01-01

453

2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

2013-01-01

454

2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

2013-01-01

455

A high power spiral wound lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Optima Batteries, Inc. is currently in development of a high power (660 W/kg) spiral wound lead-acid 6V battery with a nominal capacity of 15 Ah. Its exceptional power and excellent thermal characteristics make it a promising choice for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The hybrid electric vehicle presents a new and unique challenge for energy storage systems. The batteries require high power for acceleration and hill climbing and good charge acceptance for regenerative braking and overall energy efficiency. Since the on board auxiliary power unit results in much lower demands for battery energy capacity, lead-acid batteries fit quite well into these performance requirements. Many of the remaining challenges involve the development of battery management systems which must function to maintain the battery pack at peak performance and achieve an economical cycle life. Related to the issue of battery management is information about conditions that may cause damage or unbalance of the pack. Experiments are described investigating the effects of extreme cell reversal on battery capacity and cycle life. The results demonstrate the amazing robustness of the lead-acid battery for tolerating over discharge.

Olson, J.B.; Sexton, E.D. [Optima Advanced Technologies, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

1997-12-01

456

Design optimization of the electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A and M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, and system optimization work has been going on for this invention. This project was a first attempt in integrating the above developments into an optimized design of an ELPH passenger car. Design specifications were chosen for a full size passenger car, performing as well as any conventional car, over the EPA-FTP-75 combined city/highway drive cycles. The results of this design project were two propulsion systems. Both were appropriate for commercial production, from the points of view of cost, availability of the technologies, and components. One utilized regenerative braking and the other did not. Substantial fuel savings and emissions reductions resulted from simulating these designs on the FTP-75 drive cycle. For example, the authors` ELPH full size car, with regenerative braking, was capable of delivering over 50 miles per gallon in city driving, with corresponding reductions in its emissions. This project established the viability of the authors` ELPH concept and their design methodologies, in computer simulations. More work remains to be done on investigating more advanced power plants, such as fuel cells, and more advanced components, such as switched reluctance motor drives, for the authors` designs. Furthermore, the authors` design optimization can be carried out to more detailed levels, for prototyping and production.

Ehsani, M.; Gao, Y.; Butler, K.

1998-10-01

457

Rapid recharge capability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Range limitation is a significant drawback to the successful commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). An apt description of an EV is `a high performance vehicle with a one-gallon fuel tank'. In the absence of a `super battery', there are at least two approaches to resolving this drawback. The first approach is rapid recharge, i.e., recharging the battery as close as possible to the same time period as it takes to fill the petrol tank of an internal-combustion-engined (ICE) vehicle. Whilst not extending the vehicle range as such, this approach does enable high usage of the vehicle without experiencing unduly long recharge times. The ability of the battery to accept rapid recharge is paramount for this approach. The second approach is the development of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this case, the demand on the battery is the ability to provide, and also absorb from regenerative braking, high specific peak-power levels over a wide range of battery state-of-charge. This paper describes the ability, and indeed limitations, of the valve-regulated Genesis® lead-acid battery in meeting such requirements.

Fleming, F. A.; Shumard, P.; Dickinson, B.

458

Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

2012-02-01

459

Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the GP model which in turn produces the pre-schedule of the optimal control model. Some preliminary results based on a hypothetical test case will be presented for the load forecasting module. The computer codes for the three modules will be made available fe adoption by bus operating agencies. Sample results will be provided using these models. The software will be a useful tool for supporting the control systems for the Electric Bus project of NASA.

Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

1996-01-01

460

The design of a photovoltaic\\/biomass hybrid electrical energy system for a rural village in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid renewable energy system, consisting of a 1.27 kWp solar photovoltaic generator, a 15 kWe biomass gasification system and a 7.28 kWh battery backup, has been designed for the electrification of a representative village, namely Chhouk Ksach in Cambodia, which is not currently connected to the electrical power grid and where car batteries are used for electrification. The hybrid

S. Sou; W. Siemers; R. H. B. Exell

2010-01-01

461

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24

462

The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

1999-07-22

463

Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.  

PubMed

Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. PMID:22378623

Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

2012-03-12

464

Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory. Electric and hybrid propulsion systems, No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during FY 1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies [Na/S, Li/FeS, Ni/Metal-Hydride, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and lie evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1992-12-31

465

Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication  

PubMed Central

Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices. PMID:24642903

Ahadian, Samad; Ramon-Azcon, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

2014-01-01

466

Using multimedia learning modules in a hybrid-online course in electricity and magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a âprelecture assignmentâ in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results from a controlled study utilizing modules on electricity and magnetism as a part of a blended hybrid-online course. We asked students in the experimental section to view the MLMs prior to attending the face-to-face class, and to make sure this would not result in additional instructional time, we reduced the weekly class time by one-third. We found that despite reduced class time, student-learning outcomes were not hindered; in fact, the implementation of the UIUC MLMs resulted in a positive effect on student performance on conceptual tests and classroom discussion questions.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

2012-05-15