Sample records for plug-in hybrid electric

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study IInntteerriimm RReeppoorrtt:: PPhhaassee 11 Government or any agency thereof. ORNL/TM-2008/076 #12;Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition 2009 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 3:Phase 1, Task 3: Technic Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/068 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study is a collaborative effort between

  3. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  4. Modern Battery Systems for Plug - In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian A Rosenkranz; Uwe Köhler

    Plug - in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining increasing interest for both in dividual transportation and commercial application s . With the recent technical progress Li - Ion batteries are on their way to open new ways for the future of all type of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles , Mild Hybrids, Full Hybrids and especially Plug - In Hybrids .

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/056 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007

  6. 2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research

    E-print Network

    2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER demand, despite record petroleum prices. Photo credit: nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-car · How will PHEVs The PlugIn and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Researc Center conducts research in: · Battery second life

  7. Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

    2012-07-16

    COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TOOL FOR ELECTRIC, HYBRID ELECTRIC AND PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES A Dissertation by ALI ESKANDARI HALVAII Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TOOL FOR ELECTRIC, HYBRID ELECTRIC AND PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES A Dissertation by ALI ESKANDARI HALVAII Submitted...

  8. Wind Charged Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Patten; Nathan Christensen; Steven Srivastava; Gary Nola

    2011-01-01

    With the emergence of electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid vehicles HVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) from a variety of automotive manufacturers, the electrical grid will need to meet new challenges in supplying the electricity required to charge these vehicles. To help supply the electricity needed by these vehicles, we compared the electricity consumption of a modified Toyota Prius (PHEV)

  9. Battery evaluation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Duvall

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a battery system test regime for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The test regime is focused on a specific vehicle, the plug-in hybrid Electric Sprinter Van jointly developed by DaimlerChrysler and the Electric Power Research Institute. This paper describes an ongoing process to validate the cycle life performance of advanced batteries subjected to a PHEV

  10. Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles park as virtual DVR

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    in a real-life low voltage power system. Hybrid-electric power technologies and advances in batteries makePlug-in-hybrid electric vehicles park as virtual DVR F.R. Islam and H.R. Pota Dynamic voltage electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries and their bidirectional charger in a charging station as virtual dynamic

  11. Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

    2008-01-01

    With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

  12. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Testing, Simulations, and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Wu; A. Emadi; M. J. Duoba; T. P. Bohn

    2007-01-01

    There has been increasing interests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) recently. PHEV conversion kits for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are available on the market and the automotive industry is also investigating the use of PHEVs. This paper explains a method of classifying PHEVs and analyzes and compares testing results of two power-split PHEVs and simulation results of a series

  13. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Parameter Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aymeric Rousseau; Sylvain Pagerit; David Wenzhong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) offer a great opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The fuel economy of PHEV is highly dependent on All-Electric-Range (AER) and control strategy. Previous studies have shown that in addition to parameters influencing Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), control strategies of PHEVs are also influenced by the trip distance. This additional parameter makes it even more

  14. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    will enable you to achieve your dreams. ii #12;Contents 1 A Stochastic Optimal Control Approach for PowerPLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT: OPTIMAL CONTROL AND BATTERY SIZING by Scott J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4.2 Engine Control

  15. Electric and Plug-in Hybrids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-03-21

    This module describes the current and ongoing dependence on oil fueled transportation and the alternatives being considered to solve the need for sustainable energy. The following topics are discussed in the module: the rising global dependence on oil and the need for new technologies to fuel transportation, emerging technologies being highly considered to replace oil such as electric, hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and a comparison of the carbon footprint of each technology in writing and charts. Four review questions are supplied to test students on their knowledge of the material and to provide critical thinking as to their ideas for the future and solution for sustainable energy transportation.

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  17. Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    assessment Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a b s t r a c t We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas, 2009­04­11). Plug-in vehicles, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric

  18. Simulating the Household Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Distribution and its Electric Distribution Network Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Hoe Kyoung [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for modeling spatial distribution of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership at local residential level, discovering plug-in hybrid electric vehicle hot zones where ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and estimating the impacts of the increasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. We use Knox County, Tennessee as a case study to highlight the simulation results of the agent-based simulation framework.

  19. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  20. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  1. Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

  2. The Impact of Charging Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on a Residential Distribution Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Clement-Nyns; Edwin Haesen; Johan Driesen

    2010-01-01

    Alternative vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, are becoming more popular. The batteries of these plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are to be charged at home from a standard outlet or on a corporate car park. These extra electrical loads have an impact on the distribution grid which is analyzed in terms of power losses and voltage deviations. Without coordination

  3. Plug-in hybrid conversion of a series hybrid electric vehicle and simulation comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poria Fajri; B. Asaei

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in the concept of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). PHEVs are the next generation of hybrid vehicles that offer important advantages over even the cleanest and most efficient of today's vehicles. They use significantly less gasoline and have lower emission rates compared to the current hybrids and conventional vehicles and also have

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  5. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  6. IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

    E-print Network

    IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS with the emerging plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to meet the majority of the daily energy needs scenario that is based on the concept of plug-in a hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A PHEV is a hybrid

  7. Evaluating the impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on regional electricity supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton W. Hadley; Stanton W

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to increase the use of electricity to fuel the U.S. transportation needs. The effect of this additional demand on the electric system will depend on the amount and timing of the vehicles' periodic recharging on the grid. We used the ORCED (Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch) model to evaluate the impact of

  8. The Impact of Charging Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Distribution Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Clement; E. Haesen; J. Driesen

    Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be charged

  9. Coordinated charging of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in residential distribution grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Clement; Edwin Haesen; Johan Driesen

    2009-01-01

    Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be

  10. A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures

    E-print Network

    Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

  11. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing Accepted 14 August 2014 Available online 27 August 2014 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Fuel management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing

  12. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  13. An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

  14. The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid reliance on fossil fuels. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and wind power represent two practical

  15. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Valerie Jean

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

  16. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Road Emissions Characterization and Demonstration Study

    E-print Network

    Hohl, Carrie

    2012-12-31

    On-road emissions and operating data were collected from a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) over the course of 6months spanning August 2007 through January 2008 providing the first comprehensive on-road evaluation ...

  17. Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Farhangi, Babak

    2014-07-25

    Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) propel from the electric energy stored in the batteries and gasoline stored in the fuel tank. PHEVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs) connect to external sources to charge the batteries. Moreover, PHEVs can supply...

  18. Paper No. 09-3009 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    ) and the emerging hybrid electric powertrain in the United States are examined. A new vehicle technology petroleum consumption. In this paper, we assume, as have most studies to date, that a PHEV will havePaper No. 09-3009 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for Petroleum Use Reduction: Issues

  19. A Robust Optimization Approach for Planning the Transition to Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir H. Hajimiragha; Claudio A. Canizares; Michael W. Fowler; Somayeh Moazeni; Ali Elkamel

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique to analyze the electricity and transport sectors within a single integrated frame- work to realize an environmentally and economically sustainable integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) into the electric grid, considering the most relevant planning uncertainties. The method isbased on a comprehensiverobust optimization plan- ning that considers the constraints of both the electricity

  20. The impact of domestic Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on power distribution system loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sikai Huang; David Infield

    2010-01-01

    The market for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEVs) is expected to grow significantly over the next few years and a number of new products are soon to come onto the market, such as the Toyota Prius plug-in version, . The charging demand of wide-scale use of PHEVs may have a significant impact on domestic electricity loads and could risk of

  1. Optimal Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids Somayeh Sojoudi Steven H. Low

    E-print Network

    Low, Steven H.

    1 Optimal Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids Somayeh Sojoudi Steven H. Low Abstract-- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) play an important role in making a greener future-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are becoming more popular as we move toward a greener future. PHEVs

  2. Optimal energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Lin; H. Banvait; S. Anwar; Yaobin Chen

    2010-01-01

    A converted Toyota Prius 2007 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) uses additional large capacity battery, so that it can enhance the pure electric drivability and increase its electric range. To accomplish real time energy distribution management system in this PHEV, firstly, a specific model is established which contains most of the powertrain properties and partly vehicle dynamics. Secondly, an optimal

  3. Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce quantify the benefits of controlled charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Costs are determined expansion Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Controlled charging Wind power integration a b s t r a c

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle developments in the US: Trends, barriers, and economic feasibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjaka G. Wirasingha; Nigel Schofield; Ali Emadi

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concepts for private, public, and utility services across the USA. This has encouraged the establishment of a number of small companies providing expertise and components for evaluation and demonstration system vehicles, and interest by auto manufacturers in future mass-produced PHEVs. In this paper, we present the principles of Plug-in

  5. Flux-switching permanent magnet machine drive system for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Xu; Jianguo Zhu; Yongchang Zhang; Yi Wang; Yongjian Li; Jiefeng Hu

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) depends mostly on the electric drive system where the internal combustion engine just acts as the auxiliary unit, which has strict constraints for the drive machine. According to the Toyota Prius configuration, one novel PHEV drive system in this paper has been brought forward which primarily includes one drive machine operating as both motor and

  6. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Shinoda; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

    2008-01-01

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both

  7. Modeling and simulation of an energy management system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salisa Abdul Rahman; Nong Zhang; Jianguo Zhu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents modeling, control strategy and simulation results of an energy management strategy (EMS) for a specific plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A good control strategy is required among components, such as the energy storage system, an electric motor, a power control unit, and an internal combustion engine in order to ensure that the vehicle achieve an improvement in

  8. Utilization and effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States power grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Jenkins; John R. Rossmaier; Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are uniquely capable of providing both transportation and battery storage interconnection to the electric power grid. This ability allows PHEVs the possibility of serving the power grid in the capacity of a mobile energy storage unit, providing the grid with additional stability, reliability, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency. Additionally, with the higher fuel efficiency of PHEVs, the

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  10. Advantages and applications of vehicle to grid mode of operation in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El Chehaly; Omar Saadeh; C. Martinez; G. Joos

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in green house gas emissions, increase in oil prices and dependency on foreign oil are major incentives to the development and deployment of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fleet is expected to increase the base electric load and add constraints on the reliable operation of a power system. However, equipped with bidirectional battery chargers, plug-in

  11. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Lemoine; D M Kammen; A E Farrell

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and

  12. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) testing in order to provide benchmark data for technology modeling and research and development programs, and to be an independent source of test data for fleet managers and other early adaptors of advanced-technology vehicles. To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 12 HEV models and accumulated 2.7 million fleet testing miles on 35 HEVs. The HEV baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed-track testing to document HEV performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model accumulate 160,000 test miles within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events and fuel use were recorded. Three models of PHEVs, from vehicle converters Energy CS and Hymotion and the original equipment manufacturer Renault, are currently in testing. The PHEV baseline performance testing includes 5 days of dynamometer testing with a minimum of 26 test drive cycles, including the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, and the US06 test cycle, in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The PHEV accelerated testing is conducted with dedicated drivers for 4,240 miles, over a series of 132 driving loops that range from 10 to 200 miles over various combinations of defined 10-mile urban and 10-mile highway loops, with 984 hours of vehicle charging. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Applications, with dynamometer testing conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  13. Battery Storage Sizing in a Retrofitted Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehsan Tara; Soheil Shahidinejad; Shaahin Filizadeh; Eric Bibeau

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a simulation-based framework for optimal sizing of the additional energy storage required to retrofit a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Simulations are conducted on a vehicular model developed for a midsize sedan (Toyota Prius) using a new weekly vehicle-usage profile constructed for average driving and most probable parking times based on

  14. An REU project on the design of a brushless DC machine for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex J. Borsuk; Berker Bilgin; Alireza Khaligh; Mahesh Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for the propulsion motor of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This research was conducted through the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program supported by National Science Foundation (NSF). The simulation of a representative plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has been performed using ADVISOR vehicle modeling software. The vehicle has been simulated over a set of

  15. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.

  16. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  17. Source-to-Wheel (STW) Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjaka G. Wirasingha; Ronald Gremban; Ali Emadi

    2012-01-01

    Many alternative fuel vehicle technologies, including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), are currently being developed. Among the key reasons for their development is the increasing demand for fuel, which has resulted in increased fuel costs and brought attention to resource limitations. Fuel is also directly related to emissions and there is a conscious effort to minimize the environmental impact of

  18. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into building energy management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhu Wang; Lingfeng Wang; Anastasios I. Dounis; Rui Yang

    2011-01-01

    The smart building and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) are two promising emerging technologies. The integration of these two technologies shows great promise in reinforcing the reliability and flexibility in building energy management. The control challenge of the smart building is to maximize the customer comfort with minimum power consumption. Multi-agent technology with particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been proposed

  19. A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -bridge Voltage Source Inverter, Multiphase Drive, Control I. INTRODUCTION For both electric and Plug-in hybrid, the studied topology is introduced; using a 3-phase brushless machine supplied with a 6-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). A model for its control is defined in the generalized Concordia frame, considering

  20. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  1. Integration of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles into energy networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias D. Galus; G. Andersson

    2009-01-01

    Electrification of substantial percentages of individual transportation through Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will lead to an integration of power and transport systems. This, in turn, will impose an additional demand on today's power system, potentially stressing hazardous for some pieces of equipment. Smart management schemes, investigated in this paper, can alleviate possible congestion issues in power systems by intelligently

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Short; P. Denholm

    2006-01-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well

  3. Design and Control Methodology of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

    2010-01-01

    This paper systematically discusses the design and control methodologies of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology is focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two kinds of typical batteries, namely, NiMH and Li-ion, are discussed. Control strategies focus on all electric range and charge depletion range operations. In addition, a constrained engine on and off control strategy

  4. Design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

    2008-01-01

    This paper systematically discussed the design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two lands of typical batteries-NiMH and Li-ion have been discussed. Control strategies focused on all electric range (AER) and charge depletion range (CDR) operations. Also, a constrained engine on and off control strategy has been

  5. Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

  6. The Impact of Uncontrolled and Controlled Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Distribution Grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clement Kristien; Haesen Edwin; Driesen Johan

    Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be

  7. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-print Network

    Reilly, John M.

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucksCost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Full Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sreedhar

    2006-01-01

    With increasing concern over the environment and ever-stringent emissions regulations, the electric vehicle has been investigated as an alternative form of transportation. However, the electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the

  10. Edmund G. Brown, Jr. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    E-print Network

    of Water and Power; MercedesBenz; Natural Resources Defense Council; Nissan; Pacific Gas and Electric Co Resources Board; California Cars Initiative; California Energy Commission; California Senator Christine.; Public Policy Advocates, LLC; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; San Diego Gas & Electric Co

  11. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging: Current issues and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Shafiei; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing attraction towards plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) within the auto industry. However, high battery prices and short life spans have led to growing interest in development of advanced charging techniques and algorithms. In this paper, the characteristics of batteries used in PHEVs, which include Pb-acid, Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-ion, and Li-polymer are reviewed, and different charging

  12. Multi-function bi-directional battery charger for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohu Zhou; Gangyao Wang; S. Lukic; S. Bhattacharya; A. Huang

    2009-01-01

    A new multi-function bi-directional battery charger for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) is proposed based on the power circuitry configuration of an American house. This bi-directional charger can achieve three functions including battery charging, vehicle to grid (V2G) and vehicle to home (V2H), all of which are the major research areas of PHEV's integration with the power grid. The integration

  13. Trip-Based Optimal Power Management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have demonstrated the capability to improve fuel economy and emissions. The plug-in HEV (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a more attractive upgrade of the HEV. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEVs, i.e., the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle

  14. eVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    In Hybrid Electric and gov PlugPlug In Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and AllAllElectric Vehicles traveled (eVMT) for· Calculated electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT) for plug-in hybrid electric vehicleseVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric and

  15. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    ) with all electric range (AER) of 10-40 Internal combustion engines (ICEs) Fuel cells (FCs) Electric Powertrain Systems and Fuel Pathways 3 Vehicle powertrain systems: Conventional international combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) Regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs

  16. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

  17. Review of design considerations and technological challenges for successful development and deployment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaik Amjad; S. Neelakrishnan; R. Rudramoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Automobile drivetrain hybridization is considered as an important step in reducing greenhouse gases and related automotive emissions. However, current hybrid electric vehicles are a temporary solution on the way to zero emission road vehicles. Recently there has been a lot of interest in the concept of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which have great potential to attain higher fuel economy and

  18. Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

  19. Scenario-Based Analysis on the Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' (PHEV) Penetration into the Transportation Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Li

    2007-01-01

    With the improved awareness of negative environmental impact from traditional automobile fuel consumption and the fluctuating increase of gas price, fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector and strategies of securing it has gained governmental and public attentions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), as an alternative to the conventional vehicles, become appealing. A PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle

  20. Integrated BiDirectional AC\\/DC and DC\\/DC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Joo Lee; A. Emadi

    2007-01-01

    As the result of a wide range of efforts to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology has been commercialized. HEVs show better mile per gallon (MPG) than conventional vehicles. As a new practical breakthrough to reduce air pollution and fuel consumption, particularly in urban areas, converting HEVs into plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

  1. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  2. Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC\\/DC and DC\\/DC Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Joo Lee; Alireza Khaligh; Ali Emadi

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology provides an effective solution for achieving higher fuel economy, better performance, and lower emissions, compared with conventional vehicles. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) are HEVs with plug-in capabilities and provide a more all-electric range; hence, PHEVs improve fuel economy and reduce emissions even more. PHEVs have a battery pack of high energy density and can run solely

  3. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  4. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  5. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Leon M. Tolbert; Burak Ozpineci

    2008-01-01

    The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using

  6. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2009-07-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

  7. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlis, Athanasios D.; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  8. Power system stabilization by charging power management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with LFC signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Takagi; Kenji Yamaji; Hiromi Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    In the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEVs is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate the Load Frequency Control (LFC) capacity in the nighttime. In this study, we propose a

  9. Factors Affecting the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Richard "Barney" Carlson; Matthew G. Shirk; Benjamin M. Geller

    2001-11-01

    Primary Factors that Impact the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles RICHARD ‘BARNEY’ CARLSON, MATTHEW G. SHIRK Idaho National Laboratory 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA richard.carlson@inl.gov Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have proven to significantly reduce petroleum consumption as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE) by utilizing electrical energy for propulsion. Through extensive testing of PHEV’s, analysis has shown that the fuel consumption of PHEV’s is more significantly affected than conventional vehicles by either the driver’s input or by the environmental inputs around the vehicle. Six primary factors have been identified that significantly affect the fuel consumption of PHEV’s. In this paper, these primary factors are analyzed from on-road driving and charging data from over 200 PHEV’s throughout North America that include Hymotion Prius conversions and Hybrids Plus Escape conversions. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) tests plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles as part of its conduct of DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In collaboration with its 75 testing partners located in 23 states and Canada, INL has collected data on 191 PHEVs, comprised of 12 different PHEV models (by battery manufacturer). With more than 1 million PHEV test miles accumulated to date, the PHEVs are fleet, track, and dynamometer tested. Six Primary Factors The six primary factors that significantly impact PHEV fuel consumption are listed below. Some of the factors are unique to plug-in vehicles while others are common for all types of vehicles. 1. Usable Electrical Energy is dictated by battery capacity, rate of depletion as well as when the vehicle was last plugged-in. With less electrical energy available the powertrain must use more petroleum to generate the required power output. 2. Driver Aggressiveness impacts the fuel consumption of nearly all vehicles but this impact is greater for high efficiency powertrains. 3. Accessory Utilization like air conditioner systems or defroster systems can use a significant amount of additional energy that is not contributing to the propulsion of the vehicle. 4. Route Type such as city, highway or mountainous driving can affect the fuel consumption since it can involve stop and go driving or ascending a step grade. 5. Cold Start / Key On includes control strategies to improve cold start emissions as well as control routines to quickly supply cabin heat. These control strategies are necessary for consumer acceptance even though fuel consumption is negatively impacted. 6. Ambient Temperature can reduce the efficiency of many powertrain components by significantly increasing fluid viscosity. For vehicles that utilize battery energy storage systems, the temperature of the battery system can greatly affect the power output capability therefore reducing its system effectiveness. The analysis of the six primary factors that impact fuel economy of PHEV’s helped to identify areas of potential further development as well as may assist in informing drivers of these effects in an effort to modify driving behavior to reduce petroleum consumption.

  10. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  11. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  12. Power system considerations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on a multi energy carrier model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias D. Galus; G. Andersson

    2009-01-01

    A flexible modelling technique for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) based on a multi energy carrier approach is presented. It is able to simulate different PHEV architectures and energy management schemes while driving and during additional grid-coupled utilization modes. In contrary to the detailed vehicle models already available, the approach simplifies the vehicle but integrates possible services for the electricity

  13. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  14. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW R. SEIDMAN; TONY MARKEL

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle's large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer

  15. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  16. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

  17. Emissions Impacts and Benefits of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Vehicle-to-Grid Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramteen Sioshansi; Paul Denholm

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and by improving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas

  18. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

  19. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonn Axsena; Kenneth S. Kurani

    2009-01-01

    To explore the role of social interactions in individuals’ assessments of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this study analyzes over 190 social (interpersonal) interactions elicited in interviews with 31 individuals in eight different social networks centered on households in the Sacramento, California region. Results are framed within five theoretical perspectives on social influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. Responses

  20. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model. It was found that increasing AER of plug-in hybrids was a more cost effective solution to reducing gasoline consumption than installing charging infrastructure. Comparison of results to current subsidy structure shows various options to improve future PHEV or other vehicle subsidy programs.

  1. Economic Value of LFC Substitution by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    There are lots of global warming countermeasures. In the power sector, nuclear power plants play an important role because they do not produce CO2 emissions during production of electricity. However, if the generation share of nuclear is too high at nighttime, it becomes difficult to keep enough capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) because nuclear power plants do not change the output (i.e., without load following operation) in Japan. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEV is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate LFC capacity in nighttime. In this study, we evaluated the economic value of charging power control by using an optimal generation planning model, and obtained the following results. Charging power control is effective in reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of economic efficiency of power system. Particularly, even in the low market share of PHEVs, the charge control has a high economic value because it substitutes nuclear power plant, base-load provider with low fuel cost, for LNG-CC, LEC provider with high fuel cost.

  2. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

  3. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets. PMID:20704224

  4. How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and produce less pollution. Examining other aspects of electric vehicles besides tailpipe vehicles are a life cycle analysis approach must be used. Electricity: Electric vehicles will require more

  5. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    PubMed

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO?, NO(x), SO?, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

  6. Environmental and energy implications of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Craig H; Sullivan, John

    2008-02-15

    We analyze the effect of charging a significant number of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) in the United States using presently available night-time spare electric capacity in the shortterm and new base-load capacity in the long term. Nationwide, there is currently ample spare night-time utility capacityto charge even a large fleet of PHEVs. Using the mix of generating plants expected to be used for PHEV charging, we find that, while driving on battery power, PHEVs compared to their conventional hybrid counterparts reduce CO2 emissions by 25% in the short term and as much as 50% in the long term. The shortterm fractional increase in demand for margin fuels such as natural gas is found to be roughly twice the fractional penetration of PHEVs into the nationwide light-duty vehicle fleet. We also compare, on an energy basis, the CO2 savings of replacing coal plants versus replacing conventional vehicles with PHEVs. The result is found to depend critically on the fuel economy of the vehicles displaced by the PHEVs. PMID:18351091

  7. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elgowainy; J. Han; L. Poch; M. Wang; A. Vyas; M. Mahalik; A. Rousseau

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use

  8. Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bäker, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Sara Kathryn

    The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems and limitations on battery charging/discharging, (2) Reviewed standards for interconnection of distributed resources and electric vehicle charging [1], [2], (3) Explored strategies for distributed control of PHEV charging, (4) Developed controllers to accommodate PHEV regulation, and (5) Developed a simulator combining a power system model and PHEV/V2G components.

  11. 10 Kammen and others/p. 1 Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    -in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Daniel M. Kammen1 , Samuel M. Arons, Derek M. Lemoine and Holmes Hummel Cars per year.2 Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles could alter these trends. On a vehicle technology spectrum that stretches from fossil fuel­powered conventional vehicles (CVs) through hybrid electric vehicles 1

  12. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonn Axsen; Andrew Burke; Kenneth S Kurani

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses the development of advanced batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. We discuss the basic design concepts of PHEVs, compare three sets of influential technical goals, and explain the inherent trade-offs in PHEV battery design. We then discuss the current state of several battery chemistries, including nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their abilities to

  13. Scenario-based investigation of the effects of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in 11 kV substations in Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Karnama; V. Knazkins

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) with larger battery size in comparison with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are designed to run alternatively on electric mode by means of grid electricity. They are mainly introduced in order to decrease the emissions and reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transportation sector. These vehicles are considered as a new type of additional load

  14. Transmission network-based energy and environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Keenan; Acquaviva, Jonathan; Foster, E. J.; Zhang, K. Max

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is expected to have a significant impact on regional power systems and pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes the effects of various penetrations of PHEVs on the marginal fuel dispatch of coal, natural gas and oil, and on pollutant emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 in the New York Metropolitan Area for two battery charging scenarios in a typical summer and winter day. A model of the AC transmission network of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) region with 693 generators is used to realistically incorporate network constraints into an economic dispatch model. A data-based transportation model of approximately 1 million commuters in NYMA is used to determine battery charging pattern. Results show that for all penetrations of PHEVs network-constrained economic dispatch of generation is significantly more realistic than unconstrained cases. Coal, natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the winter, and only natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the summer. Hourly changes in emissions from transportation and power production are dominated by vehicular activity with significant overall emissions reductions for CO2 and NOx, and a slight increase for SO2. Nighttime regulated charging produces less overall emissions than unregulated charging from when vehicles arrive home for the summer and vice versa for the winter. As PHEVs are poised to link the power and transportation sectors, data-based models combining network constraints and economic dispatch have been shown to improve understanding and facilitate control of this link.

  15. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  16. Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

    2007-05-01

    The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

  17. Global Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design and Allocation to

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    - tion of conventional (CV), hybrid electric (HEV), and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles to obtain assessment 1 Introduction Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer a potentially promising technologyGlobal Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design and Allocation to Minimize Life Cycle

  18. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuniaki Yabe; Yukio Shinoda; Tomomichi Seki; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce CO2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV\\/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO2 reduction by using a learning curve

  19. Impact of real world driving pattern and all-electric range on battery sizing and cost of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Varman, K. Sri Raja; Arjunan, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the impact of an actual drive pattern on the sizing and cost of a battery pack for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. To estimate the daily average travel distance in fixing the all-electric range of two wheelers, a study conducted in Coimbatore city is presented. A MATLAB simulation model developed for estimating the energy and power requirements in an all-electric strategy using an Indian driving cycle (IDC) and a real-world driving pattern are discussed. The simulation results reveal the impact of the real-world driving pattern on energy consumption and also the influence of all-electric range in sizing the battery pack. To validate the results, a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler developed by modifying a standard two-wheeler has been tested on the road with the help of the IDC simulator kit. An annual battery cost comparison shows that nickel-metal-hydride batteries are more economical and suitable for in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.

  20. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  1. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  2. Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric household travel dynamics. How is the PEV used compared to other cars? EVMT impacts? · Determine charging/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage · Home and work charging infrastructure · Electricity prices · Purchase

  3. Plug-in Hybrid and Battery-Electric Vehicles: State of the research and development and comparative analysis of energy and cost efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francoise Nemry; Guillaume Leduc; Almudena Muñoz

    This technical note is a first contribution from IPTS to a JRC more integrated assessment of future penetration pathways of new vehicles technologies in the EU27 market and of their impacts on energy security, GHG emissions and on the economy. The present report focuses on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). It provides a general overview

  4. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-01

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

  5. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

  6. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  7. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

  8. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  9. Analysis of the Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Residential Distribution Grids by using Quadratic and Dynamic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Clement-Nyns; Edwin Haesen; Johan Driesen; QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING

    2009-01-01

    The charging of batteries of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles at home at standard outlets has an impact on the distribution grid which may require serious investments in grid expansion. The coordination of the charging gives an improvement of the grid exploitation in terms of reduced power losses and voltage deviations with respect to uncoordinated charging. The vehicles must be dispatchable

  10. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

  11. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further. PMID:19320180

  12. Energy and Battery Management of a Plug-In Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Fuzzy Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Li; S. M. Sharkh; F. C. Walsh; C. N. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery ter- minal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  14. Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Powertrain Design and Control Strategy Options and Simulation Results with Lithium-ion Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Burke; Eric Van Gelder

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) based on the Toyota Prius and the Honda Civic hybrid were performed. The lithium-ion batteries used in the vehicles were scaled from A123 cells. In the simulations, the useable battery energy storage capacity was varied from 2-8 kWh and the maximum useable power from the batteries was varied from 20-50 kW. Simulations were

  15. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st?5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  16. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  17. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Tammy M.; King, Carey W.; Allen, David T.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-04-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  18. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values for electric vehicles as...

  19. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  20. Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

  1. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  2. Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

  3. Optimal economy-based battery degradation management dynamics for fuel-cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, François; Kelouwani, Sousso; Dubé, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses the economical dynamics of an optimized battery degradation management strategy intended for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with consideration given to low-cost technologies, such as lead-acid batteries. The optimal management algorithm described herein is based on discrete dynamic programming theory (DDP) and was designed for the purpose of PHEV battery degradation management; its operation relies on simulation models using data obtained experimentally on a physical PHEV platform. These tools are first used to define an optimal management strategy according to the economical weights of PHEV battery degradation and the secondary energy carriers spent to manage its deleterious effects. We then conduct a sensitivity study of the proposed optimization process to the fluctuating economic parameters associated with the fuel and energy costs involved in the degradation management process. Results demonstrate the influence of each parameter on the process's response, including daily total operating costs and expected battery lifetime, as well as establish boundaries for useful application of the method; in addition, they provide a case for the relevance of inexpensive battery technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, for economy-centric PHEV applications where battery degradation is a major concern.

  4. Tracking Progress Last updated 7/26/2013 Plug-in Electric Vehicle 1

    E-print Network

    ) by 2025. ZEVs include all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and fuel cell electric vehiclesTracking Progress Last updated 7/26/2013 Plug-in Electric Vehicle 1 Plug-in Electric Vehicles Over 26 million cars and almost one million trucks consume 40 million gallons of gasoline and 7 million

  5. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin K. Sovacool; Richard F. Hirsh

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

  7. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-print Network

    for internal combustion engine (ICE)-only vehicles. Engineering cost estimates for the PHEV, as well on battery-stored electricity supplied from the grid as well as on refined fuel in an internal combustion, 2002 Submitted to the Engineering Systems Division and the Department of Civil and Environmental

  8. Regulatory Influences That Will Likely Affect Success of Plug-in Hybrid and

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    , then a PHEV operating as a hybrid causes little change ­ If vs. similar conventional vehicle, electric (EVRegulatory Influences That Will Likely Affect Success of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric & PHEV) & hybrid (PHEV) operation save ­ If plug-ins often replace larger size vehicles, significant

  9. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  10. The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid Interactions

    E-print Network

    more likely to want a plug-in hybrid (PHEV) than a "pure" electric vehicle (EV). 4. The potentialThe Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid investigates consumer interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), summarizing preliminary results from

  11. Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Yabe, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the earlier term than that on short-term economic basis. The costs in the accelerated term are higher, but the introduction costs in the later terms are cheaper by learning curve. This paper focuses on the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The ways to derive the results on short-term economic basis and the results on long-term economic basis are shown. The result of short-term behaviors can be derived by using the iteration method in which the battery costs in every term are adjusted to the learning curve. The result of long-term behaviors can be derived by seeking to the way where the amount of battery capacity is increased. We also estimate that how much subsidy does it need to get close to results on the long-term economic basis when social behavior is on the short-term economic basis. We assume subsidy for PHEV's initial costs, which can be financed by charging fee on petroleum consumption. In that case, there is no additional cost in the system. We show that the greater the total amount of money to that subsidy is, the less the amount of both CO2 emissions and system costs.

  12. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  13. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

  14. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will disconnect the HV system. Several simulations and calculations were conducted as to whether six or seven batteries should be used. Seven batteries will allow the vehicle to accelerate quicker and have lower fuel consumption and emissions produced. However, there are several integration and cooling challenges that arise when trying to integrate seven batteries onto the vehicle. In the end, these challenges outweighed the benefits of seven batteries, and the six battery system was chosen. On top of all of the design and simulation results discussed above, there were also many lessons learned in regards to managing the design team involved in this project. The best way found to keep all members on task was to split the project into smaller sections, create a timeline with specific tasks and corresponding completion dates, and assign a person to be responsible for each task. This helped to gauge whether the project was behind schedule but also gave each member a responsibility and ownership to the project. It was also established that the best way to transmit data was to have a secure, networked drive that allowed members to access it from any computer at any time. This gave members the flexibility to work whenever and wherever was most convenient for them and allowed them to easily share data amongst members without having to attach large files to emails.

  15. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and

  16. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

  17. Impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential transformer using stochastic and empirical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have been identified as an option that can reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector. The electricity demand of one of these vehicles is comparable to that of a typical U.S. household and thus clustering of PEVs in a neighborhood might have adverse effects on the transformer and disruption of service. In this paper, the electricity demand of a neighborhood is modeled based on measured vehicle and household data. The electricity demand profile of the PEVs is modeled based on the vehicle type, arrival and departure times and the daily miles traveled, all taken from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). A thermal model is developed to calculate the hot spot temperature and loss of life of the transformer. Results show that Level 1 charging has a small impact on the transformer aging and that only in one case, with Level 2 charging, the transformer might fail due to excessive temperatures. Overall addition of a significant number of PEVs is manageable for the transformer. The negative effects on the life time can be mitigated by properly designing the transformers and using smart charging scenarios.

  18. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy label values for electric vehicles...

  19. Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: Hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Sandy Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Multiple alternative vehicle and fuel options are being proposed to alleviate the threats of climate change, urban air pollution, and oil dependence caused by the transportation sector. We report here on the results from an extensive computer model developed over the last decade to simulate and compare the societal benefits of deploying various alternative transportation options including hybrid electric vehicles

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging

    E-print Network

    than 100 years ago, all-electric vehicles (EVs) held much of the U.S. car market, but their popularityPlug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  2. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, E. Pritchard, and J. Lawrence, "In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air &

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    gasoline and electricity consumption and emissions associated with each. Field measurements were made Hymotion plug-in conversion kit. The activity, electricity use, gasoline fuel use, and emissions Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd

  3. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 1: Analytical Development of Energy Management Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lohse-Busch, Henning [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. The research is broken down into two (2) distinct phases, involving both analytical and experimental areas. Phase I of the research, addressed in this document, focuses on the design of a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. A suitable control system architecture is created and implemented into a standard vehicle modeling tool (in this case, the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit). Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain offers the potential for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The analytical work presented here is experimentally validated during Phase 2, the subject of a follow on paper.

  5. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments. PMID:21506538

  6. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  7. Project Information Form Project Title Advanced Energy Management Strategy Development for Plug-in Hybrid

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Advanced Energy Management Strategy Development for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles University UC Riverside Principal Investigator Guoyuan Wu PI Contact Information management strategy, which determines how energy flows in a hybrid powertrain should be managed in response

  8. An energy efficient solution: Integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle in smart grid with renewable energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifan Li; Rakpong Kaewpuang; Ping Wang; Dusit Niyato; Zhu Han

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a conflict between the rapidly increasing demand for electricity and the requirement for reducing dependence on fossil fuel to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions. Proper utilization of renewable energy such as wind energy is proposed as an efficient solution to address this problem. However, due to the high inter-temporal variation and limited predictability, it is difficult to

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-04-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  11. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  12. Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianwei

    Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Every PEV needs to select a charging station by con- sidering the charging prices, waiting times

  13. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical

    E-print Network

    not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government of the United States government . Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof . #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle

  14. Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

    2010-01-01

    As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

  15. One million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

    2009-01-01

    It is mentioned that one million plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles will be on the road by 2015 in United States to reduce emission. If one million electric vehicles (EVs) are connected to the existing electric grid randomly, peak load will be very high. Electrified transportation based on a traditional thermal power system will be costly economically and environmentally though

  16. A Vehicle Systems Approach to Evaluate Plug-in Hybrid Battery Cold Start, Life and Cost Issues

    E-print Network

    Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

    2012-07-16

    The batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) need to overcome significant technical challenges in order for PHEVs to become economically viable and have a large market penetration. The internship at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  17. Plug-in hybrid conversion: As a capstone project and research testbed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. McIntyre; Maegan Young; Robert Kessigner; Stacy Wilson

    2012-01-01

    An important part of the curriculum in the electrical engineering program at Western Kentucky University (WKU) is the two semester capstone project sequence. During the 2010–2011 academic year, two seniors completed a plug-in hybrid (PHEV) conversion project. The students began by completing the design and system engineering tasks. Secondly, the students designed a set of experiments that evaluated the vehicle's

  18. Plug-in electric vehicle introduction in the EU

    E-print Network

    Sisternes, Fernando J. de $q (Fernando José Sisternes Jiménez)

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could significantly reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU's transport sector. However, PEV well-towheel (WTW) emissions depend on improvements in vehicle ...

  19. Plug-in integrated/hybrid circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Hybrid circuitry can be installed into standard round bayonet connectors, to eliminate wiring from connector to circuit. Circuits can be connected directly into either section of connector pair, eliminating need for hard wiring to that section.

  20. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  1. Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

  2. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  3. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz Karman

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on

  4. Photo illustration by George Lange, with Michael Miller (Plug) Popular Mechanics Impact of PlugImpact of Plug--in Hybrids on thein Hybrids on the

    E-print Network

    , 5% during peak hours Current average MPG for gasoline vehicles 20.2 CO2 emissions for gasoline ~ 1 Percent 12 Description of different optionsDescription of different options Current options Gasoline system Turbo Diesel hybrid Future options Gasoline Turbo Diesel Hybrid plug-in hybrid Battery electric

  5. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  6. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  7. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  8. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  9. Hybrid & electric vehicle technology and its market feasibility

    E-print Network

    Jeon, Sang Yeob

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) technology and their sales forecasts are discussed. First, the current limitations and the future potential ...

  10. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  11. Abstract--This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV),

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    , the combined effects of total energy cost, battery health, electricity pricing, and the PHEV's driving pattern using a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy. Second, we also minimize using an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in Li-ion batteries

  12. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. PMID:18522090

  13. Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 1 of 28

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling LaboratoryPlug--InIn MicrogridMicrogrid Power GenerationPower Generation Scott J. MouraScott J. Moura DongsukDongsuk KumKum Hosam Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 2 of 28

  14. Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-09-30

    The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

  15. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

  16. 246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Inderscience@ieee.org *Corresponding author Abstract: This paper studies the power management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle-based strategy; quadratic programming; QP; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; PHEV; electric and hybrid vehicles

  17. 2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition: What’s Next for the Electric Highway?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Electric Power Research Institute

    This resource contains speaker presentations from the 2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition. This conference took place September 30, 2013 to October 3, 2013 at Liberty Station in San Diego, CA and had the theme What’s Next for the Electric Highway? This event brought together automotive manufacturers, component suppliers, electric utilities, government agencies, academia, and the environmental community to collaborate on the next steps in plug-in electric vehicle technology, infrastructure, policies and regulations, and market development.

  18. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  19. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gaines; A. Burnham; A. Rousseau; D. Santini

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel

  20. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xing [Lamar University] [Lamar University; Dong, Jing [Iowa State University] [Iowa State University; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  1. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  2. Plug-in hybrid vehicles: An overview and performance analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen Anumolu; Greg Banhazl; Theodore Hilgeman; Ronald Pirich

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption is becoming a more important issue in the United States. High oil prices, volatile political climates, and greater environmental concerns, and awareness to the costs of energy usage have led to an emphasis on conservation. One area where there is increasing research is in increased fuel economy. An area where there are many commercial solutions is hybrid vehicles.

  3. Power System Level Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles

    E-print Network

    , and (d) impact of PHEV deployment on the operations and the security of the power grid. Proper models Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System Since 1996 PSERC 30332-0250 Power Systems Engineering Research Center The Power Systems Engineering Research Center

  4. Economical comparison of three hybrid electric car solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiwei Xiong; Zhiwei Wu; Chengliang Yin; Li Chen

    2008-01-01

    Based on the benchmark of hybrid solutions adopted by most manufacturers in China, three hybrid electric car solutions, which are parallel system with ISG and single clutch (SCP), parallel system with ISG and dual clutches (DCP), and plug-in series system (PIS), are selected to be analyzed. A mid-size car is chosen as the baseline car for developing hybrid electric car.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 63, NO. 4, MAY 2014 1567 Energy Management for a Power-Split Plug-in

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    of the vehicle. Index Terms--Battery, dynamic programming (DP), neural net- work (NN), plug-in hybrid electric for a Power-Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Dynamic Programming and Neural Networks Zheng Chen controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based

  6. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from -15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the pers

  7. Predicting the market potential of plug-in electric vehicles using multiday GPS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mobashwir Khan; Kara M. Kockelman

    2012-01-01

    GPS data for a year's worth of travel by 255 Seattle households illuminate how plug-in electric vehicles can match household needs. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100mi of range should meet the needs of 50% of one-vehicle households and 80% of multiple-vehicle households, when charging once a day and relying on another vehicle or mode just

  8. Battery Technology for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Expert Views about Prospects for Advancement.

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Battery Technology for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Expert Views about Prospects for Advancement of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles approach to achieving these reductions is through electric, hybrid, or plug-in hybrid vehicles. One

  9. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  10. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  11. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  12. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when powered by electricity instead of gasoline, de- pendingValuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits Jeremy J emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid

  13. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  14. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  15. Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

    2014-02-01

    Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

  16. Batteries and Ultracapacitors for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. Burke

    2007-01-01

    The application of batteries and ultracapacitors in electric energy storage units for battery powered (EV) and charge sustaining and plug-in hybrid-electric (HEV and PHEV) vehicles have been studied in detail. The use of IC engines and hydrogen fuel cells as the primary energy converters for the hybrid vehicles was considered. The study focused on the use of lithium-ion batteries and

  17. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    Electric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist HybridElectric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist Hybrid

  18. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  19. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  20. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. H2FCVs are described as one possible extension of this Me- product platform for the supply of clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature. Finally, the major findings of this study are summarized and directions for future work discussed. Together, the parts of this Me- innovation assessment reveal an initially expensive and limited but compelling (and possibly necessary) set of opportunities to help drive H2FCV and other electric-drive-vehicle commercialization.

  1. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  2. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

  4. Resource Scheduling Under Uncertainty in a Smart Grid With Renewables and Plug-in Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    The power system and transportation sector are our planet's main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy sources (RESs), mainly wind and solar, can reduce emissions from the electric energy sector; however, they are very intermittent. Likewise, next generation plug-in vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles with vehicle—to—grid capability, referred to as gridable vehicles (GVs) by

  5. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  6. Evolutionary Feature Selection for Classification: A Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Adoption Application

    E-print Network

    Eppstein, Margaret J.

    ­ Heuristic Methods; I.6.5 [Simulation and Modeling]: Model Development ­ Modeling Methodologies; J.2 an existing agent-based model of PHEV market penetration, with the ultimate aim of helping auto manufacturers-in Hybrid Vehicles, Agent-based Model, Consumer Survey, Survey Analysis, Alternative Transportation 1

  7. Comparative study on power characteristics and control strategies for plug-in HEV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Ma; Jian Ji; Sungyeon Ko; Minseok Song; Jungman Park; Hyunsoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was performed for two types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs): GM Volt and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. First, powertrain models of the two vehicles were derived. Based on the dynamic models, a detailed component control algorithm was developed for each PHEV. Especially, a control algorithm was proposed for motor generator 1 (MG1) and MG2 to achieve

  8. ELECTRIC DRIVE BY `25: How California Can Catalyze Mass Adoption of

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , introducing a range of cars and trucks that can "plug in" to the grid for electricity to power the engine focused exclusively on all-electric and plug-in hybrid models. Today, all major automakers have plans, Tesla Model S Sedan, Fisker Karma, Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid, CODA Sedan, and Ford Focus Electric

  9. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  10. Impact assessment of plug-in hybrid vehicles on pacific northwest distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. Schneider; Clint E. Gerkensmeyer; Michael CW Kintner-Meyer; Robert Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a significantly underutilized strategic asset which, with the proper shift in operational paradigms could provide a significant portion of the energy requirements for the existing U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. This shift would result in reduced emissions, improved economics for utilities, and a reduced dependence on oil. A previous study has shown that

  11. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D

    2007-01-01

    Electric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist HybridElectric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist Hybrid

  12. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    Electric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist HybridElectric-Drive Vehicles: a Technology and Cost- Effectiveness Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, Power Assist Hybrid

  13. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  14. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  15. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  16. Impacts of plug-in electric vehicles on Germany's power plant portfolio - A model based approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi U. Gerbracht; D. Most; W. Fichtner

    2010-01-01

    The expanding market for electric mobility and its associated increasing electricity demand will affect the long term development of the European energy system. This effect depends on various framework conditions, such as the emission trading system, coupling requirements with renewable energy supplies, load shifting potentials, load infrastructure and the European transmission grid. Thus electric mobility will affect the investment strategies

  17. Plug-in electric vehicles as storage devices within an Autonomous power system. Optimization issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lombardi; P. Vasquez; Z. A. Styczynski

    2009-01-01

    In modern Power Electric Systems (PES) consisting of diverse sources of energy supply, uncertainty regarding the availability of some renewable sources-based generation plants is one of the major issues affecting the task of sizing the capacity of conventional generation plants. Energy storage devices are able to mitigate the intermittence of the availability of renewable resources and, consequently, successfully reduce the

  18. Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

    2004-01-01

    Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

  19. An overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omonowo D. Momoh; Michael O. Omoigui

    2009-01-01

    An overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented. This encapsulates factors that necessitate the development of hybrid electric vehicles, classifications of hybrid electric vehicles based on the arrangement of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor for traction. The types of batteries required and the use of power electronic converters for effective power processing and utilization in hybrid

  20. Hybrid Lithium-ion\\/Ultracap energy storage systems for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Ahmadkhanlou; Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-01

    Battery technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage systems, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. In this paper we have conducted vehicle level study and modeling to quantify the benefit of bi-directional DC- DC

  1. Determining PHEV Performance Potential User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems Hymotion Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-01-01

    A123Systemss HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110\\/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than

  2. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systemss HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-01-01

    A123Systemss HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110\\/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than

  3. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-12-31

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  4. ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric

    E-print Network

    ECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric vehicle configurations. Vehicle mechanics. Energy sources Jouanne (secondary) Course Content: · Vehicle physics · Hybrid and electric vehicle topologies · Energy

  5. A Life-Cycle Approach To Technology, Infrastructure, And Climate Policy Decision Making: Transitioning To Plug-In

    E-print Network

    ) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas

  6. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  7. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration

    E-print Network

    ). Q5. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle repower could provide some electric drive with an engine for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered-duty gasoline and diesel vehicles to all-electric drive. The demonstration projects will identify and address

  8. Hybrid electric power generating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronicki

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid power system is described which consists of: (a) a first energy converter operating on a closed Rankine cycle and including a vapor generator for vaporizing an organic working fluid in response to heat furnished from a heat source associated with the vapor generator. A turbogenerator is responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power and a condenser

  9. Hybrid electric power generating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronicki

    1978-01-01

    A hybrid power system is described which comprises a pair of energy converters operating on a closed Rankine cycle, each energy converter having a vapor generator for vaporizing a high molecular weight working fluid in response to heat furnished from a burner associated with the generator, a turbo-generator responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power, a condenser responsive

  10. Power electronics in hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Miller

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are enjoying moire widespread customer acceptance than battery electric vehicles because of their performance and economy. Today two of the major global automotive companies have hybrid electric vehicles for sale in most areas of the globe with cumulative sales now exceeding 120k. Whereas battery electric vehicles may find niche applications in route travel and short commuting the

  11. Joint Management of Data Centers and Electric Vehicles for Maximized Regulation Profits

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Wei

    . On the other side, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have also recently been identified as a major of the PHEVs, by getting their batteries charged at no expense. Keywords--Frequency Regulation; Electric Cars- ters [7], [8] and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) [9], [10], [11] have been recently

  12. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Offer; D. Howey; M. Contestabile; R. Clague; N. P. Brandon

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed

  13. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  14. Hybrid electric power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.

    1986-11-11

    A hybrid power system is described which consists of: (a) a first energy converter operating on a closed Rankine cycle and including a vapor generator for vaporizing an organic working fluid in response to heat furnished from a heat source associated with the vapor generator. A turbogenerator is responsive to vaporized working fluid for generating electrical power and a condenser is responsive to vapor exhausted from the turbo-generator for converting such vapor to a condensed liquid. A means is included for returning the liquid to the vapor generator; (b) a second energy converter including a thermo-electric generator having a junction, a heat source for heating the junction whereby such thermo-electric generator generates electrical power; (c) a heat pipe for conveying heat from the heat source of the second converter to the vapor generator of the first converter and to the junction; and (d) means for applying the electrical power generated by the first and second converters to an electrical load.

  15. Hybrid energy sources for hybrid electric vehicle propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiecheng Wang; Haifang Yu; Chunbo Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Today, more and more problems have been arisen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). It has been shown that none of any energy sources can solely fulfil all the demands of HEV in some circumstances. Hybrid energy sources become one alternative solution. This energy storage technology has also become one trend of HEV propulsion sources recently. In this paper, typical hybridization

  16. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  17. A STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL APPROACH FOR POWER MANAGEMENT IN PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    Scott J. Moura Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, MI Arbor Ann Arbor, MI 48109 hfathy@umich.edu Duncan S. Callaway School of Natural Resources and Environment University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, MI 48109 dcall@umich.edu Jeffrey L. Stein Department

  18. Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    2014-07-22

    data and artificially generated road networks of various sizes and provide signifi- cant insights about the ... cost path, vehicle routing, energy management, integer programming, dynamic programming. 1 ...... Artificial Intelligence. Springer, pp.

  19. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    ) indicate PHEV greenhouse gas emissions to be about half of that of current gasoline and diesel motor fuels model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation, to PHEV battery range, and to heuristic values related to gasoline usage. Our simulations indicate

  20. Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks in

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    emission rates, especially in a low carbon intensive generation mixture such as that of British Columbia for the personal transportation sector in terms of decreasing the reliance on fossil fuels while simultaneously

  1. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effectiveImpact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug

  2. Projected characteristics of hybrid-electric cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Hamilton; R. L. Curtis

    1979-01-01

    Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in the all-electric mode without use of the ICE, thus providing most of the benefits of electric cars without their range limitation. The

  3. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  4. Major Concepts of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Technological University

    This presentation is a general overview of the concepts and technologies incorporated into hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These materials are used in the course, "Intro to Mechatronics" at Lawrence Technological University and were developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The following topics are discussed: hybrid powertrain configurations (series, parallel, and series-parallel), hybrid types (mild, medium, and full), components (mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic), and operating modes (start-stop and regenerative).

  5. Commercializing light-duty plug-in\\/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett D. Williams; Kenneth S. Kurani

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support

  6. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  7. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  8. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  9. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  10. Advanced components for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Workshop proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Stricklett; A. H. Cookson; R. W. Bartholomew; T. Leedy

    1994-01-01

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that 2 percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies

  11. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  12. A hybrid electric vehicle powertrain dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation as key elements in the iterative process that includes the development of vehicle hardware system performance measures, computer control software, and ultimately, hybrid electric vehicle powertrain system synthesis. A hybrid powertrain system is synthesized via amalgamation of a conventional internal combustion engine powerplant-alternator combination with a lead acid battery-AC

  13. Top 10 tech cars [hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Voelcker

    2005-01-01

    A number of new hybrid electric vehicle owners have expressed their disappointment with their purchase because of poor mileage. Official ratings for fuel use, based on the outdated driving patterns of US government test, turned out to be a poor predictor for what typical buyers could expect. Still, though hybrids are hot, no single vehicle is likely to make as

  14. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in

  15. Electromagnetic Transducer for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freddy Magnussen; Chandur Sadarangani

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel electromagnetic transducer called the Four Quadrant Transducer (4QT) for hybrid electric vehicles. The system consists of one electrical machine unit (including two rotors) and two inverters, which enable the vehicle's Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to run at its optimum working points regarding efficiency, almost independently of the changing load requirements at the wheels. In other

  16. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Ignacio San Martín; Inmaculada Zamora; Jose Javier San Martín; Victor Aperribay; Pablo Eguia

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations

  17. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; John M. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

  18. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  19. Playing with Plug-ins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have…

  20. Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Applied in Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Qianfan; Cui Shumei; Tian Xinjia

    2007-01-01

    Electric motor is key part in electric vehicles including hybrid electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle and battery electric vehicle. Wide torque-speed range and high reliability are needed of the motor applied in electric vehicles. Novel hybrid switched reluctance motor is developed. It combines features of robust as switched reluctance motor and that of high efficiency of permanent magnet motor.

  1. Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles

    E-print Network

    Fu, Haitao

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

  2. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    DOEpatents

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  3. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  4. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  5. Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Morchin

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid electric vehicle is propelled with stored energy from a battery or flywheel, plus energy produced by burning fuel in an engine. The cost of the energy consumed, as well as the quantity of air pollutants released, can be reduced by optimizing (1) the ratings of the battery and engine, and (2) the power output that will be delivered

  6. Adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Saeks; Chadwick J. Cox; James C. Neidhoefer; Paul R. Mays; John J. Murray

    2002-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control system (ACS) for a four motor-generator four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is designed and its ability to deal with unknown tire dynamics, changing road surfaces, and vehicle loading is evaluated. A system composed of four separate adaptive controllers is designed to control the vehicle's speed, steering, side slip, and energy management system. A nonlinear simulation

  7. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy costs, (2) lower building peak electric load, (3) increase energy efficiency, and (4) provide standby power. This new hybrid product is designed to allow the engine to generate electricity or drive the chiller's compressor, based on the market price and conditions of the available energy sources. Building owners can minimize cooling costs by operating with natural gas or electricity, depending on time of day energy rates. In the event of a backout, the building owner could either operate the product as a synchronous generator set, thus providing standby power, or continue to operate a chiller to provide air conditioning with support of a small generator set to cover the chiller's electric auxiliary requirements. The ability to utilize the same piece of equipment as a hybrid gas/electric chiller or a standby generator greatly enhances its economic attractiveness and would substantially expand the opportunities for high efficiency cooling products.

  8. Electrical battery model for dynamic simulations of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Hentunen; Teemu Lehmuspelto; Jussi Suomela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an electrical battery model for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that can be used for dynamic simula- tions of hybrid electric non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) and other vehicles. Although the model has been developed mainly for large vehicle batteries with Li-ion based chemistries, it can be used for other battery chemistries as well. The parameters can be extracted from

  9. Modeling grid-connected hybrid electric vehicles using ADVISOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Markel; Keith Wipke

    2001-01-01

    The overall system efficiency of a hybrid electric vehicle is highly dependent on the energy management strategy employed. In this paper, an electric utility grid-connected energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented. ADVISOR was used as a modeling tool to determine the appropriate size of the hybrid components and the energy management strategy parameter settings. Simulation

  10. AUTO-1440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College provides an introduction to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Material covered includes alternative fuels, HEV batteries and accessories, HEV maintenance and diagnostics, regenerative braking, and safety procedures. Included educational materials for this course are crosswords, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre/post assessments, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you’re an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of ten modules that may be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. Module subjects are: Carbon Fuels and the Environment, Intro to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Systems, Gasoline and Alternative Fuels, HEV Batteries and Service, Electric Motors, Generators, and Controllers, Regenerative Braking, HEV Transmissions and Transaxles, HEV Climate Control, and HEV First Resonder and Safety Procedures

  11. Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

  12. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  13. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

  14. Bidirectional power architectures for electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Hinkle; Alan Millner; William Ross

    2011-01-01

    Although electric vehicles (EVs) and plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) yield significant gains in driving efficiency and CO2 reduction, the value of these systems are diminished by the cost of the battery subsystem. To offset the cost of electric vehicles, this paper presents two bi-directional charging architectures that use the batteries from electric vehicles for grid ancillary and facility

  15. Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles - Prediction horizon and battery capacity of a combined hybrid electric vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid vehicles, Energy Management, Predictive control, Optimal)) and car manufacturers because it enhances fuel economy without increasing the final cost of the vehicle

  16. 2006 Toyota Highlander5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid

  17. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid

  18. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Yuliang Leon Zhou

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles By Yuliang Leon Zhou B.Eng., University of Science and Technology vehicle powertrain technologies were studied, a fuel cell - battery hybrid and two internal combustionModeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles By Yuliang Leon Zhou B. Eng., University

  20. A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity end-uses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity a series of deep technical and behavioural breaks. Among them are : the integration of new electrical domestic end-uses, the development of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the increase of heat pumps

  1. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  2. A series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for industrial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Grammatico; A. Balluchi; E. Cosoli

    2010-01-01

    In the last years there is a growing interest in electric and hybrid electric propulsions due to environmental concerns. In particular industrial vehicles are a promising field of application for their duty cycles characterized by low velocities, frequent start and stop jobs, long periods of idling and material-handling tool power peaks. In this paper a series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for

  3. Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Technological University

    This course was developed by Dr. Vladimir V. Vantsevich through seed funding from CAAT and is offered at Lawrence Technical Institute as a 3 credit senior level mechanical engineering course. Included in this course are PowerPoint presentations, labs, assignments (no solutions), and syllabus. If you’re an instructor and need access to solutions, please contact the CAAT. The course focuses on hybrid electric and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) mechatronics and components, power flow and management, power storage and design, engineering problems faced when engineering HEV drivetrain systems, and applications for commercial, industrial, and military use. The labs and workshops provide students with hands-on experience using 4x4 dynamometers, hydraulically-controlled systems, and simulation software. For a more comprehensive summary of the course, please refer to the syllabus.

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  5. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  6. European driving schedule of hybrid electric vehicle with electric power splitter and supercapacitor as electric storage unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dobri Cundev; Pavel Mindl

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the hybrid electric vehicle and its characteristics in standardized European driving schedule. The results are obtained through the mathematical model and simulation of the driving characteristics for hybrid electric drive which uses super-capacitor as energy storage unit. This work is part of the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which was developed in

  7. Offline Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang

    By using dynamic programming (DP) which is a kind of global optimization algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With optimal control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.

  8. Development of a Dual-Fuel Power Generation System for an Extended Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt Van Wieringen; Remon Pop-Iliev

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a growing global concern with regard to vehicle-generated greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting air pollution. In response, automotive original equipment manufacturers focus their efforts on developing ??greener?? propulsion solutions in order to meet the societal demand and ecological need for clean transportation. Hydrogen is an ideal vehicle fuel for use not only in

  9. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis

    E-print Network

    -fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are flex-fuel, hydrogen fuel cell, and compressed natural gas for inter- nal combustion engine (ICE-only) vehicles in two likely early-adopting markets, the United States-fuel vehicles) involve relatively low-cost modifications to existing engine 0965-8564/$ - see front matter Ó

  10. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-print Network

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01

    and Selected Interviews Online Design Game Elicit Personalcompleted Game 2 (Purchase Intention) online (without muchOnline Survey Stage 3: Stimulate Network with PHEV Trial PHEV Placement Checkup Interview Design Game

  11. Optimal powertrain component sizing of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manu Jain; Chirag Desai; Nawwaf Kharma; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2009-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made recently to develop a completely zero-emission and highly fuel efficient vehicle. Due to clean and efficient power generation, the hydrogen fed fuel cell vehicle (FCVs) has received considerable attention. However, major obstacles such as cost of the hydrogen infrastructure, driving range, and cost of the fuel cell greatly influence FCV development. At the same time,

  12. Electrical Characteristic Study of a Hybrid PEMFC and Ultracapacitor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junbo Jia; Gucheng Wang; Yew Thean Cham; Youyi Wang; Ming Han

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic study of a clean hybrid power supply system combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main power source and ultracapacitor (UC) as the energy storage unit. Unlike the conventional fuel-cell hybrid system with power conditioning unit, the study investigated the electrical characteristic of the PEMFC and UC hybrid system without dc\\/dc converter. As

  13. Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks CHAN-CHIAO LIN1 , SOONIL JEON2 was initiated, aiming to duplicate the success of the hybrid powertrain on passenger cars to light and heavy economy improvement demonstrated by several prototype hybrid passenger cars, produced under

  14. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

    Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

  15. Development of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Pyrzak

    The aim of this paper is to present the development of the hybrid technology since 1997, mainly based on the Toyota Prius as an example of the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle in the world Special attention is paid to the topology of two systems: Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and Toyota Hybrid System II (THS II). The new hybrid system THS

  16. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  17. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota

  18. MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR INTEGRATED HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE DYNAMIC STABILITY SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R. Anstrom

    2003-01-01

    This study expanded an existing full car dynamic model (HVOSM.VD2) to enable simulation of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles with integrated vehicle stability systems. A prototype range extending series hybrid vehicle was constructed with independent front wheel drives. A hybrid vehicle stability assist (VSA) algorithm was developed to perform proportional control of yaw rate through left\\/right distribution of

  19. FPGA implementation of an evolutionary algorithm based charge management for electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Mielke; Simon Hardt; Armin Grunewald; Rainer Bruck

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles today are getting more usable. Due to the progress in accumulator technology and power electronics, modern electric vehicles offer performances allowing using them in daily life. It is forecasted that the number of battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHET) will increase to 5 million vehicles by the year 2020. The increase of electric vehicles

  20. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

    2007-01-01

    With ever-increasing oil prices, there is fast growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) globally. Thus, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop emerging energy-efficient devices for various kinds of HEVs, including the micro hybrids, mild hybrids, and full hybrids. In this paper, three key emerging energy-efficient technologies are identified and discussed: 1) the thermoelectric waste-heat recovery and

  1. Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-05-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

  2. Innovative hybrid gas/electric chiller cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Nowakowski, G.

    2000-04-01

    January Progress--A kick-off meeting was held in San Diego with Alturdyne on January 21st. The proposed hybrid gas/electric chiller/cogenerator design concept was discussed in detail. The requirements and functionality of the key component, a variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator was presented. Variations of the proposed design were also discussed based on their technical feasibility, cost and market potential. The discussion is documented in a Trip Report. February Progress--After significant GRI/Alturdyne discussion regarding alternative product design concepts, the team made a decision to continue with the proposed product design, a hybrid chiller capable of also providing emergency power. The primary benefits are: (a) the flexibility and operating cost savings associated with the product's dual fuel capability and (b) the emergency power feature. A variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator would significantly increase the cost of the product while providing marginal benefit. (The variable speed, constant frequency motor generator is estimated to cost $25,000 versus $4,000 for a constant speed version). In addition, the interconnection requirements to the electric grid would significantly limit market penetration of the product. We will proceed with a motor/generator design capable of serving as the electric prime mover for the compressor as well as the generator for emergency power needs. This component design is being discussed with two motor manufacturers. The first generation motor/generator will not be a variable speed, constant frequency design. The variable speed, constant frequency capability can be an advancement that is included at a later time. The induction motor/synchronous generator starts as a wound rotor motor with a brushless exciter and control electronics to switch between induction mode and synchronous mode. The exciter is a three-phase exciter with three phase rotating diode assembly. In the induction motor mode, the field windings are shorted out by SCRs located across the field. In the synchronous mode, a small ct on one of the exciter leads would power the rotating exciter electronics. Upon sensing exciter current, the electronics would automatically open the SCRs allowing synchronous operation. Quotes will be obtained from American Motor and Reuland, two motor/generator vendors. March Progress--A product layout was completed. The width is reduced significantly from the original hybrid design because the evaporator and condenser tube in shell heat exchangers are located below the engine/motor/compressor drive-line. Alturdyne is searching for a consultant to perform a drive-line torsional analysis. This analysis is necessary to ensure that the drive-line is not subject to undue vibrations operating through its entire speed range. Much effort was directed toward motor/generator selection. A decision was made to use Reuland Electric. A motor with double-end shafts will be purchased. The design effort which will be completed at Alturdyne will involve the modification of the wound rotor motor to also provide synchronous power. Work has been completed on developing the new controller which will be utilized for the original hybrid product as well as this advanced product. Work continues toward developing a manufacturing cost estimate. A detailed bill of material will be developed for the product. Key components include the engine, compressor and motor/generator.

  3. AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If you’re an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

  4. Power electronics layout in a hybrid electric or electric vehicle drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vezzini; K. Reichert

    1996-01-01

    The power electronics in a drive system of a hybrid electric or electric car can be subdivided in different function blocks without considering the effective concept of the drive system (series\\/parallel hybrid, range extender) or the kind of electrical machine in use (direct\\/alternating current machines). This paper identifies the main function blocks and discusses the requirements and possible solutions. Some

  5. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Karden; Serv ´ e Ploumen; Birger Fricke; Ted Miller; Kent Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge

  6. Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

  7. Charge Allocation for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems, composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical destination banks. We introduce a gen- eralized HEES architecture and build the corresponding electrical and a HEES system comprised on bat- teries and supercapacitors demonstrate a significant gain in charge

  8. Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    /NO gas mixture. Molecular iodine was injected into the active oxygen flow from the electric discharge1 Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements G. F. Benavides,1,5 A. D. Palla,1 D. M (ElectricOIL) system that significantly increased the discharge performance, supersonic cavity gain

  9. ETT 4150 - Fundamentals of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-18

    This resource contains presentations from a three credit course offered at Wayne State University focused on the following hybrid electric and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) technologies: concepts and design, energy analysis, unified model approach, hybridization, hybrid powertrain architectures, internal combustion engines for HEVs, transmissions used in HEVs, and on-board energy storage. At WSU, ET 3450 (Applied Calculus and Differential Equations) and PHY 2140 (General Physics) are prerequisites to this course. The presentation titles are: 1. Introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV/PHEV), 2. Overview of Vehicle Road Load, 3. Hybrid Powertrain Configurations, 4. Vehicle Electrification, 5. Hybrid Powertrain Components, 6. Overview of Electrically Variable Transmissions (EVT), 7. Electric Machines, 8. Power Electronics Pt. 1, 9. Power Electronics Pt. 2, 10. On-Board Energy Storage, Battery Cell Management, State Estimation, Cell Balancing, and Charging Schemes, 11. Battery Management Systems (BMS), 12. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking, 13. Modeling and Simulation Software for Vehicle System and Driveline Analysis, and 14. HEV/PHEV/EV Future Trends.

  10. Impact of electric vehicles on power distribution networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Putrus; P. Suwanapingkarl; D. Johnston; E. C. Bentley; M. Narayana

    2009-01-01

    The market for battery powered and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is currently limited, but this is expected to grow rapidly with the increased concern about the environment and advances in technology. Due to their high energy capacity, mass deployment of electrical vehicles will have significant impact on power networks. This impact will dictate the design of the electric vehicle interface

  11. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

  12. Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Electric Vehicle Charging Service: Use Cases and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    (including full electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, in common, EVs) belong to. On the other handProxy Mobile IPv6 for Electric Vehicle Charging Service: Use Cases and Analysis Tien-Thinh Nguyen acknowledged that the key limitation to a raising market deployment of Electric Vehicles (EV) is correlated

  13. Optimally controlling hybrid electric vehicles using path forecasting

    E-print Network

    Katsargyri, Georgia-Evangelina

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with path-forecasting belong to the class of fuel efficient vehicles, which use external sensory information and powertrains with multiple operating modes in order to increase fuel economy. ...

  14. Path dependent receding horizon control policies for hybrid electric vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    Future hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may use path-dependent operating policies to improve fuel economy. In our previous work, we developed a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for prescribing the battery state of charge ...

  15. Optimally Controlling Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Path Forecasting

    E-print Network

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    The paper examines path-dependent control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). In this approach we seek to improve HEV fuel economy by optimizing charging and discharging of the vehicle battery depending on the forecasted ...

  16. Introducing a silicon carbide inverter for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Antonopoulos; H. Bangtsson; M. Alakula; S. Manias

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a power converter that can be used in hybrid electric vehicle applications. The unique characteristic of this converter is that it is based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors. It is intended for a belt driven alternator and starter (BAS), a design suggested by general motors, in a mild hybrid car. SiC is an innovative technology that seems

  17. Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

    2000-01-01

    The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

  18. Energy management strategy for Diesel hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Grondin; Laurent Thibault; Philippe Moulin; Alexandre Chasse; Antonio Sciarretta

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on hybrid energy management for a Diesel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The paper presents an adaptation of the equivalent consumption minimization strat- egy (ECMS) dedicated to the Diesel HEV control issues. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an additional degree of freedom into the ECMS that allows to modify the optimization tradeoffs from the pure

  19. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Harvey Doughty; Chris C. Crafts

    2006-01-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric

  20. Retrofitting a used car with hybrid electric propulsion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a design concept of converting a conventional used car to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The existing propulsion system using an internal combustion engine(ICE) was replaced by an electric drive, which is supplied by batteries and an on-board generator. The propulsion system is configured as a series-hybrid concept. The input energy can come either from the on-board

  1. Implementation of a Highly Reliable Hybrid Electric Scooter Drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Hu Chen; Ming-Yang Cheng

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to hybrid electric cars (HECs), the issues concerning cost, volume, and reliability are even more rigorous when developing hybrid electric scooters (HESs). Therefore, the drive topology and control strategy used in HEC cannot be applied to HES directly. This paper presents a single-stage bidirectional dc\\/ac converter based on a general full-bridge inverter. The converter is designed for a

  2. Hybrid Cascaded H-bridges Multilevel Motor Drive Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Hybrid Cascaded H-bridges Multilevel Motor Drive Control for Electric Vehicles Zhong Du1 , Leon M for electric/hybrid electric vehicles where each phase of a three-phase cascaded multilevel converter can vehicle motor drive applications and hybrid electric vehicle motor drive applications. Keywords: hybrid

  3. Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srdjan M. Lukic; Ali Emadi

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one

  4. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

  9. Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

  10. Advanced Components for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricklett, K. L.; Cookson, Alan H.; Bartholomew, R. W.; Leedy, T.

    1994-03-01

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies to improve the design, performance, manufacturability, and economics of the critical components for the next generation of electric and hybrid electric vehicles for the year 2000 and beyond. The workshop began with invited speakers to cover the general topics of impact of the California legislation, federal agency programs, development of standards, infrastructure needs, advanced battery development, and the imperatives for commercial success of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Working sessions were five parallel meetings on energy conversion systems, energy storage systems, electric propulsion systems, controls and instrumentation, and ancillary systems.

  11. Redox flow batteries for hybrid electric vehicles: Progress and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd R. Mohamed; Suleiman M. Sharkh; Frank C. Walsh

    2009-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been the focus of much research over the last two decades as the world has sought improved energy utilization and reduced emissions. However, the lengthy charging time, modest range and relatively sluggish performance of batteries have restricted the commercialization of electric vehicles. Hybrid propulsion can overcome most of these shortcomings, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions

  12. Ultracapacitors as sole energy storage device in hybrid electric cars?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Farkas; R. Bonert

    1994-01-01

    New types of electric capacitors may provide, within several years, power capacitors which could be used as energy storage devices in serial hybrid electric car drives instead of a battery. This paper discusses how to determine the required size of such a capacitor used as the sole energy storage device. The performance requirements and parameters influencing the size of the

  13. Development of PMSM Drives for Hybrid Electric Car Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Dai; Liwei Song; Shumei Cui

    2007-01-01

    Permanent synchronous electric machine (PMSM) drives for the FAW hybrid electric car is investigated in this paper. The power system configuration of the FAW is introduced. The influences of the stator winding turn and the permanent magnet width on the torque-speed characteristic are analyzed. The torque-speed characteristic that the specification required is obtained by proper choice of these two parameters.

  14. A virtual prototype for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Levent U. Gökdere; Khalid Benlyazid; Roger A. Dougal; Enrico Santi; Charles W. Brice

    2002-01-01

    A virtual prototype of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is created within the virtual test bed (VTB) environment, which has been developed for modeling, simulation, analysis and virtual prototyping of large-scale multi-technical dynamic systems. Attention is focused on the electric system, which is composed of (i) a fuel cell system as a prime power source, (ii) battery and super capacitor

  15. System design and development of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Kalan; H. C. Lovatt; M. Brothers; V. Buriak

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) are a promising means of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performance. Reducing emissions is important because pollution in cities is almost entirely due to transport and is linked to the illness and death of many people. This paper describes the

  16. LEARN MORE @ HYBRID ELECTRIC SAVING FUEL = SAVING MONEY = CLEANER AIR

    E-print Network

    . PROJECT PARTNERS Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of an internal combustion engine the combustion engine is assisted by the electric motor, allowing the engine to run at more optimal operating. Diesel engines are more efficient and diesel fuel has more energy per gallon than gasoline. www

  17. Physical model of a hybrid electric drive train

    E-print Network

    Young, Brady W. (Brady William)

    2006-01-01

    A motor and flywheel system was designed to simulate the dynamics of the electric drive train and inertial mass of a hybrid electric vehicle. The model will serve as a test bed for students in 2.672 to study the energy ...

  18. Vehicle system controller design for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Phillips; Miroslava Jankovic; Kathleen E. Bailey

    2000-01-01

    As a way to meet the challenge of developing more fuel efficient and lower emission producing vehicles, auto manufacturers are increasingly looking toward revolutionary changes to conventional powertrain technologies as a solution. One alternative under consideration is that of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). An HEV combines some of the benefits of electric vehicles (efficient and clean motive power supplied by

  19. Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Overview and State of the Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani; John M. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

  20. Three scenarios for electric and hybrid vehicle commercialization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Bernard; M. K. Singh; K. Heitner

    1990-01-01

    Three electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) market-penetration scenarios are developed for 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. The first scenario is intended to maximize the substitution of electricity for gasoline in the 101 metropolitan areas of the US that are nonattainment areas for ozone; by 2010, 12 million EHVs are projected to be operating in those areas. The second scenario focuses

  1. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  2. Fuel Cell Supercap Hybrid Electric Power Train

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix N. Büchi; Akinori Tsukada; Paul Rodatz; Olivier Garcia; Martin Ruge; Rüdiger Kötz; Martin Bärtschi; Philipp Dietrich

    Fuel cells have the potential to change the propulsion system for cars. In a joint project Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), ETH Zürich, FEV Motorentechnik, and Volkswagen have developed the fuel cell hybrid vehicle \\

  3. Switch Systems Theory Apply to the Energy Control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohui Ren; Fei Long

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) driving process including both continuous-time dynamic systems and the discrete event dynamic systems, is a typical hybrid system model. Based on a hybrid electric vehicle dynamics theory study, analyze the power demand of hybrid cars in the different operating modes, then construct a class of switched systems. Through the rational design of switching rules, make hybrid

  4. Study on the effects of battery capacity on the performance of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Somayajula; Andrew Meintz; Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are gaining a significant presence in the auto market. However, the present day hybrid electric vehicles mostly use battery as a secondary source of power. If the battery were to be used as a primary source of power then the battery capacity is one of the important features in the design of a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid

  5. Ring Shaped Motor-Integrated Electric Drive for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tadros; J. Ranneberg; U. Schäfer

    An electric drive with motor integrated power electronics for the use in hybrid electric vehicles is presented. Novel technologies and specially designed components to fulfil the excessive temperature and restricted space requirements are shown. They allow a low cost full integration of the electric drive in a passenger car power train. The converter has circular shape and is inserted in

  6. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Wipke; N. Hill; R. P. Larsen

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type,

  7. Advanced Components for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Stricklett; Alan H. Cookson; R. W. Bartholomew; T. Leedy

    1994-01-01

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies

  8. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Vyas; H. K. Ng; D. J. Santini; J. L. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive

  9. A Parallel Plug-in Programming Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Ronald [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Software component architectures allow assembly of applications from individual software modules based on clearly defined programming interfaces, thus improving the reuse of existing solutions and simplifying application development. Furthermore, the plug-in programming paradigm additionally enables runtime reconfigurability, making it possible to adapt to changing application needs, such as different application phases, and system properties, like resource availability, by loading/unloading appropriate software modules. Similar to parallel programs, parallel plug-ins are an abstraction for a set of cooperating individual plug-ins within a parallel application utilizing a software component architecture. Parallel programming paradigms apply to parallel plug-ins in the same way they apply to parallel programs. The research presented in this paper targets the clear definition of parallel plug-ins and the development of a parallel plug-in programming paradigm.

  10. Willingness to pay for electric vehicles and their attributes MichaelK.Hidrue a

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    technology and recent success stories for hybrid electric vehicles, automakers have begun a major push, our results suggest that battery cost must drop significantly before electric vehicles will find to develop plug-in battery vehicles. Indeed, all major automakers have R&D programs for electric vehicles

  11. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on

    E-print Network

    Paderborn, Universität

    }@lea.uni-paderborn.de Abstract--For electric and hybrid electric cars, commonly nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteriesOptimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based. Index Terms--Energy management, dynamic programming, hybrid energy storage system, electric vehicle I

  12. Shortest Path Stochastic Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles , J.W. Grizzle2

    E-print Network

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    1 of 28 Shortest Path Stochastic Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Ed Tate1 , J.W. Grizzle2 , Huei Peng3 Abstract: When a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is certified for emissions and fuel economy this is the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) which consists of an electric powertrain coupled to a conventional

  13. Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    E-print Network

    Brennan, Sean

    Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation: Hardware-in-the-loop Hybrid electric vehicle Buckingham Pi Theorem Battery model a b s t r a c t Hardware between the highly coupled subsystems typically found in an electric or hybrid-electric vehicle

  14. Unified modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Rizzoni; Lino Guzzella; Bernd M. Baumann

    1999-01-01

    Hybridizing automotive drivetrains, or using more than one type of energy converter, is considered an important step toward very low pollutant emission and high fuel economy. The automotive industry and governments in the United States, Europe, and Japan have formed strategic initiatives with the aim of cooperating in the development of new vehicle technologies. Efforts to meet fuel economy and

  15. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-04-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

  16. Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

  17. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  18. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine Samaras

    2008-01-01

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to

  19. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Sciarretta; Michael Back; Lino Guzzella

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based strategy for the real-time load control of parallel hybrid vehicles is presented. The aim is to develop a fuel-optimal control which is not relying on the a priori knowledge of the future driving conditions (global optimal control), but only upon the current system operation. The methodology developed is valid for those problem that are characterized

  1. Hybrid FEM-BIM formulation using electric and magnetic variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Ren; C. Li; A. Razek

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid finite-element-boundary-integral method using a mixed electric-magnetic formulation for 3-D eddy current computation is presented. The finite element formulation using tetrahedral edge elements in terms of electric field is employed in the conducting region. The boundary integral method in terms of magnetic field is used in the air space. The use of a vector variable in the air space

  2. A genetic-based methodology for hybrid electric vehicles sizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Galdi; Lucio Ippolito; Antonio Piccolo; Alfredo Vaccaro

    2001-01-01

    As private transport concerns, the global challenge of this millennium is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from\\u000a passenger cars by improving fuel economy without sacrificing the vehicle performance. Hybrid electric vehicles powertrain,\\u000a combining electric motor with an auxiliary power unit, can improve effectively the vehicle performance and fuel economy, reducing\\u000a at the same time the effects of the use

  3. A hybrid electric propulsion system for a forest vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Carlini, M. [Univ. della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Abenavoli, R.I. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Typical caterpillar tractors, applied to wood gathering in forests, are powered by internal combustion (IC) engines, which are sized to meet the full drive train load. However, the maximum power is required only in a part of the total operation time during work cycles of logging tractors. For this reason the hybrid electric propulsion system, installed instead of IC engine-hydrostatic transmission system, may considerably improve vehicle performance indices such as fuel consumption, pollutant emission and noise level. In this paper the authors present a series hybrid electric power train configuration for a small (2,100 kg of mass) crawler tractor used for logging in forests. The drive train is composed of a thermal engine, an electric generator, a group of lead-acid batteries and electric drive motors with controllers. To calculate energy balance of the designed vehicle a special forest cycle was elaborated and discussed in the paper. The cycle was created on the basis of experimental data, measured in the actual tractor work. Since average power required during the forest cycle is much lower than the maximum one, the hybrid electric system needs a smaller IC engine than one in the conventional vehicle. This engine, coupled with electric generator, works in operation conditions yielding better fuel economy. The electric drive motors are fed both by the generator and the batteries in the full load cycle phase. The batteries are recharged during vehicle down-hill moving and standing phases. The proposed hybrid electric propulsion is also an attractive approach to improve crawler tractors for agriculture applications.

  4. Toyota Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Technical System Overview and Diagnostics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-11

    This resource contains two short courses created by Toyota Motors for training technicians on the operation and diagnosis of their HEVs. Of the two included courses, one is focused on the overview of HEV systems and the second is on HEV diagnosis. Each course is composed of individual modules that can also be taught separately with each containing lab activities and additional supplemental materials that can be used for presentations or student handouts. The first course is titled “HEV Overview” and includes the following modules: (1) Hybrid System Overview, (2) Hybrid System Operation, (3) High-Voltage Battery, (4) Engine, (5) Chassis, and (6) Body Electrical. The course is titled “HEV Diagnosis” and includes the following modules: (1) Principals of Operations, (2)Engine Control System, (3) Fuel and EVAP System, (4) Hybrid Vehicle Control System, (5) High-Voltage Battery Control System, (6) Brake System, (7) Electric Power System, and (8) Other Systems.

  5. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. A Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Powell; T. E. Pilutti

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic model possessing the key system components of a Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The model is suitable for dynamic analysis, control law synthesis, and prototype simulation. The paper contains abbreviated descriptions of a small internal combustion engine, variable field alternator, and a dynamic lead-acid battery model that comprise the primary elements of a highly nonlinear

  7. Parallel hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model and powertrain control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

    1997-01-01

    Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC

  8. Optimization Approach to Hybrid Electric Propulsion System Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Assanis; G. Delagrammatikas; R. Fellini; Z. Filipi; J. Liedtke; N. Michelena; P. Papalambros; D. Reyes; D. Rosenbaum; A. Sales; M. Sasena

    1999-01-01

    Environmentally friendly ground vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional vehicles require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance, and emissions. The research objective here is to integrate hybrid electric vehicle simulations with high-fidelity engine modules, to increase the accuracy of predictions, and to allow design studies in the concept evaluation stage. This paper

  9. Networked Architecture for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    , pedram}@usc.edu ABSTRACT A hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system that consists of multiple system be- cause no storage element has ideal characteristics. The state-of- the-art HEES systems introduction of a HEES system based on a networked CTI architecture, which is highly scalable and is capa- ble

  10. Optimization of the fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Supina; S. Awad

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simulation study of the potential improvement in fuel economy that is available by optimizing the usage of the high voltage battery in a hybrid electric vehicle with the configuration of the Toyota Prius. A mathematical model of the vehicle system is proposed, and used with an optimizer to find the battery usage over a

  11. Diesel sport utility vehicles with hybrid electric drive trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Albert; E. Kahrimanovic; A. Emadi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applied to sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with diesel engines. Two SUVs currently available in the U.S. market have been selected as the representative vehicles used in this study, which consists of the modeling and simulation of the vehicles as close as possible to the manufacturer's specifications and then running the

  12. First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-11

    This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by the CAAT.

  13. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  14. Reliability Prediction for Inverters in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Hirschmann; Dietmar Tissen; Stefan Schroder; Rik W. De Doncker

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing importance of power electronic components in automobiles, it becomes necessary to consider their reliability. This applies especially to hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) where a malfunction of the power electronics may prevent the vehicle to operate. Of paramount importance for the reliability of power electronics is the component operating temperature and temperature cycling. This paper deals with

  15. Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

    2002-01-01

    Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

  16. Regenerative braking system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a regenerative braking system (RBS) for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that performs regenerative energy recovery based on vehicle attributes, thereby providing improved performance, efficiency and reliability at minimal additional cost. A detailed description of the regenerative braking algorithm is presented along with simulation results from a dynamic model of the PHEV exhibiting the regenerative braking

  17. Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE\\/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the

  18. Energy management strategies for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. He; M. Parten; T. Maxwell

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic, rule based control strategy is proposed for a parallel, hybrid electric vehicle. The energy management optimizes engine operational efficiency while maintaining battery state of charge. Fuzzy logic shifting strategy improves the drivability and performance and avoids undesirable frequent shifting. Simulation has been conducted in a forward-looking model to implement the design. The improvements are

  19. Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Matthew Blair of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric for a fuel cell - battery hybrid electric scooter. The modelling and simulation of the fuel cell electric

  20. Electric drive subsystem for a low-storage requirement hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Miller; Allan R. Gale; V. Anand Sankaran

    1999-01-01

    Integrating an electric machine drive system into the powertrain of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) represents a challenging exercise in packaging complex electromechanical and power electronic subsystems. The Ford combined alternator starter (FCAS) and its attendant power and control electronics are physically partitioned because power electronics has not yet evolved to the stage in which fully packaged drives can be

  1. PSIM-based modeling of automotive power systems: conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Onoda; Ali Emadi

    2004-01-01

    Automotive manufacturers have been taking advantage of simulation tools for modeling and analyzing various types of vehicles, such as conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles. These simulation tools are of great assistance to engineers and researchers to reduce product-development cycle time, improve the quality of the design, and simplify the analysis without costly and time-consuming experiments. In this paper, a

  2. Techniques to control the electricity generation in a series hybrid electrical vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Barsali; Massimo Ceraolo; Andrea Possenti

    2002-01-01

    In a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV), an electric generator feeds a DC busbar (containing an electrochemical accumulator), which, in turns, feeds the vehicle traction system. A very important part of the vehicle is its control system, which has to maximize the vehicle efficiency while keeping the emissions within predetermined limits. To attain this goal, it can act in two

  3. Comprehensive Efficiency Modeling of Electric Traction Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon S. Williamson; Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research done in the recent past has proven that power electronic converters and electric propulsion motors are extremely critical components for modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion applications. Therefore, it is essential that both the traction motor and the associated drive operate at their optimal efficiencies throughout the driving schedule. In typical HEV propulsion applications, the traction motor and

  4. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McKeever

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected

  5. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid\\/electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Dees

    1999-01-01

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases. Critical to the success of

  6. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle\\/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Al-Hallaj; J. R Selman

    2002-01-01

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be “scaled-up safely”, i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes

  7. Life cycle costs of electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries and End-of-Life uses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brant Price; Eric Dietz; Jeff Richardson

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pertinent concepts centric to electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery value. The factors that contribute to battery degradation, and thus devaluation, are examined. While a battery may no longer be useful in a vehicle, this does not mean the battery can no longer be used in other applications. Four strategies for alternative uses

  8. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles (EVS-13 Osaka)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995,

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle

  11. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Wyczalek

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy

  12. IPM motor drives for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Rahman

    2007-01-01

    In the 21st century, global warming has become an important issue. Carbon dioxide (Co2) gas emissions should be reduced to preserve the correct air quality as per Kyoto protocol, implemented on February 16, 2005 by most of the countries. Modern human beings, who enjoy the fruits of electric energy technologies for climate controlled home and work place environments via air

  13. On-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM

    E-print Network

    Holmén, Britt A.

    configurations: Conventional Diesel (2002) $270k ­ Detroit Diesel Series 40 Engine, 280 hp Hybrid Diesel ­ Creates electrical energy Parallel Hybrid Components... Diesel Engine/ Generator Electric Motor/ GeneratorOn-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM Mass and Size-Resolved Number Emissions

  14. Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle Namwook Kim. INTRODUCTION he optimal control of HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) is an important topic not only because, Sukwon Cha, Huei Peng Abstract - A number of strategies for the power management of HEVs (Hybrid Electric

  15. Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paderborn, Universität

    Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles independent. Thus, these control strategies are predestinated for the use in a real vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV), control strategies, optimization. 1. Introduction Due to the structure of hybrid-electric

  16. Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit

  17. 2001-01-1334 Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    1 2001-01-1334 Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed global crude oil supplies stimulate research aimed at new, fuel-efficient vehicle technologies. Hybrid-electric

  18. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Edward D. Tate

    E-print Network

    00FTT-50 Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Edward D. Tate Stephen. Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a means to accomplish these goals. The majority of vehicles be improved. A series hybrid vehicle electrically couples the engine to the road. The propulsion system

  19. Study and Simulation of Based-fuzzy-logic Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Control Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Shi; Yuanwei Jing; Aidong Xu; Jia Ma

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing demand of fuel and emission hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with dual power sources, the engine and the motor, has been one of the development ways of clean automobiles. In the research on hybrid electric vehicles, the control of the powertrain is the key issue. According to parallel hybrid electric vehicles, this paper used fuzzy control to realize

  20. Optimization of Hybrid Electric Cars by Neuro-Fuzzy Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Massimo Frattale Mascioli; Antonello Rizzi; Massimo Panella; Claudia Bettiol

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the optimization of energetic\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009flows in hybrid electric vehicles is faced. We consider a hybrid electric \\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009vehicle\\u0009equipped with batteries, a thermal engine (or fuel cells), ultracapacitors\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009and an electric engine. The energetic flows are optimized by using a\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009control strategy based on the prediction of short-term and medium-term\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009vehicle states (energy consumption, vehicle

  1. Investigating electrical contact resistance losses in lithium-ion battery assemblies for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peyman Taheri; Scott Hsieh; Majid Bahrami

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are favored in hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles for their outstanding power characteristics. In this paper the energy loss due to electrical contact resistance (ECR) at the interface of electrodes and current-collector bars in Li-ion battery assemblies is investigated for the first time. ECR is a direct result of contact surface imperfections, i.e., roughness and out-of-flatness, and

  2. Overview of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan; Chunhua Liu

    2008-01-01

    With ever-increasing concerns on our environment, there is a fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs) from automakers, governments, and customers. As electric drives are the core of both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric-drive systems. In this paper, an overview of permanent-magnet (PM) brushless (BL) drives for

  3. High Performance Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor\\/Generator Drives in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taechyung Kim; Hyung-Woo Lee; M. Ehsani

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an advanced control technique to maximize power density of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor\\/generator system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For vehicle applications, reducing size and weight of the electric motor\\/generator system means higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, maximizing power density of the motor\\/generator system is one of the most important issues in EVs

  4. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  5. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faisal H [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Webb, William E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

  6. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  7. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  8. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  9. Designing a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering Strategy

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Designing a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering-connected hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system can help residential users lower their electric bills system consists of different types of electrical energy storage (EES) elements, utilizing the benefits

  10. Decomposition of phenol by hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors with zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hrvoje Kuši?; Natalija Koprivanac; Bruce R. Locke

    2005-01-01

    Application of hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors and a liquid phase direct electrical discharge reactor for degradation of phenol in the presence and absence of zeolites have been investigated. Hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharges involve simultaneous high voltage electrical discharges in water and in the gas phase above the water surface leading to the additional OH radicals in the liquid phase

  11. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  12. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  13. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  14. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  15. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-01-01

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  16. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  17. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Aeraj Ul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  18. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H Staunton; Curtis William Ayers; J. N. Chiasson; Timothy A Burress; Laura D Marlino

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of

  19. DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan W. Dixon; Micah Ortúzar; Jorge Moreno

    A DSP based ultracapacitor system for hybrid-electric vehicles has been implemented and tested successfully. The system can work with different primary power sources like fuel-cells, microturbines, zinc-air batteries or other supply unable to recover energy from regenerative braking, or with scarce power capacity for fast acceleration. The ratings of the ultracapacitor bank are: nominal voltage: 300 Vdc; nominal current: 200

  20. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  1. Modeling and simulation for hybrid electric vehicles. II. Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoling He; Jeffrey W. Hodgson

    2002-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.3, no.4, p.235-43 (2002). Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) simulation is conducted based on the model developed for a parallel HEV built in the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT-HEV). The HEV simulation is a parametric analysis of the power control schemes and vehicle performance. Major parameters are evaluated for the vehicle driven under the standard urban and

  2. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the

  3. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO 2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Alvarez; Peter Schlienger; Martin Weilenmann

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence

  4. Grid Power Quality Improvements Using Grid-Coupled Hybrid Electric Vehicles PEMD 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Breucker; J. Driesen; R. Belmans

    The paper examines the interaction between grid-coupled full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and the grid. The interaction allows the hybrid vehicle to travel a significant part of the time in all-electric mode. On the other hand, the grid coupling allows the grid to use the hybrid car as a controllable load and energy storage facility, enabling a higher penetration of

  5. Hybrid electric cars, combustion engine driven cars and their impact on environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

    2008-01-01

    Paper stresses the negative influence of cars on the environment. Hybrid cars technology can diminish the fuel consumption and green house gases production. Different types of electric hybrid powertrains are described Special attention is paid to electric power splitting. Comparison of fuel consumption and CO2 production of one hybrid car and one classic car on European driving cycle is published.

  6. A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Chan-Chiao Lin1

    E-print Network

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Chan-Chiao Lin1 , Huei Peng1 , and J hybrid electric vehicle [5], there are two drawbacks to this approach. First, this approach optimizes-2122 grizzle@umich.edu Abstract The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation

  7. The impact of government incentives for hybrid-electric vehicles: Evidence from US states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Diamond

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of government incentives policies designed to promote the adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). As a primary methodology, it employs cross-sectional analysis of hybrid registration data over time from US states to test the relationship between hybrid adoption and a variety of socioeconomic and policy variables. It also compares hybrid adoption patterns over time to the

  8. Electrical Machines and Drives for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Zhu; David Howe

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the relative merits of induction, switched reluctance, and permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines and drives for application in electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, with particular emphasis on PM brushless machines. The basic operational characteristics and design requirements, viz. a high torque\\/power density, high efficiency over a wide operating range, and a high maximum speed capability, as well

  9. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use; (3) increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 14 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. The topics of this report include participants' experience with EV operation; an appraisal of the overall current status of EV's for transportation; program management; and a program experience overview, the result of analyzing Site Operator inputs, provides an insight into the variables that can affect electric vehicle performance and operating cost.

  10. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  11. Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    the terahertz transmission at about 0.7 THz, is electrically modulated at room temperature with a modulationHybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves Hou electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial

  12. Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems*

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage massimo.poncino@polito.it Abstract-- Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through

  13. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Ayers; J. S. Hsu; L. D. Marlino; C. W. Miller; G. W. Ott; C. B. Oland

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced

  14. Simulation of the electrical machine's fuel saving potential in parallel hybrid drive trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominik Bücherl; Wolfgang Meyer; Hans-Georg Herzog

    2009-01-01

    The intention of the present paper is to draw a reasonable comparison of two different types of electrical machines for use in a parallel hybrid electric drive train: the induction machine with squirrel cage on the one hand, the permanent magnet synchronous machine on the other hand. Both machine types have been designed for application in a mild hybrid electric

  15. Modeling of hybrid electric vehicles using gyrator theory: application to design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Routex; S. Gay-Desharnais; M. Ehsani

    2000-01-01

    Modeling and design of advanced vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and more electric cars (MEC) are challenging because of the presence of two power plants in the vehicle, i.e., an internal combustion engine (ICE) or a fuel cell and an electric power plant. For the modeling of such complex hybrid systems, the gyrator theory has many advantages. The

  16. Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    and electrical energy storage (EES) systems into the Smart Grid is an effective way of utilizing renewable power should accurately account for various energy loss components during operation. Hybrid electrical energyOptimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes Yanzhi Wang

  17. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  19. Modeling Mechanical Subsystems of the Hybrid Electric Transmission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-11

    This lab is part of the course “Intro to Mechatronics” at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. In the lab students are introduced to the use of planetary gearsets and their application to hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmissions. Students are first familiarized with the planetary gearset equation and then use MAT Lab software to visualize the relationship between input data and the resulting output torque and speed through the gear set. All MAT Lab files are included.

  20. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W. [Vehicle Research Institute, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

  5. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  7. 240 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010 Simulation and analysis of powertrain hybridisation

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    240 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010 Simulation and analysis of powertrain to Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) development. In this paper several hybrid powertrain configurations and analysis of powertrain hybridisation for construction equipment', Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol

  8. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  9. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  10. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  11. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  13. Less rare-earth magnet-high power density hybrid excitation motor designed for Hybrid Electric Vehicle drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Ozawa; Takashi Kosaka; Nobuyuki Matsui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of hybrid excitation motor as less-permanent magnet and high power density for traction drives in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Firstly, the construction, the basic working principle and the design concept are overviewed. Then, the reason why the proposed machine is suitable for realizing the motor with less-permanent magnet and high power density is

  14. A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Lai, Lin

    2013-01-28

    as the conventional vehicle, and hybridizes with an electrical drive in parallel to improve the fuel economy and performance beyond the conventional cars. By analyzing the HEV fuel economy versus the increasing of the electrical drive power on typical driving...

  15. A Parallel Plug-in Programming Paradigm

    E-print Network

    Engelmann, Christian

    A Parallel Plug-in Programming Paradigm Ronald Baumann1,2, Christian Engelmann1,2, and Al Geist2 1 Paradigm - Ronald Baumann, Christian Engelmann, and Al Geist The University of Reading and Oak Ridge Geist The University of Reading and Oak Ridge National Laboratory 3/17 Pluggable Component Architectures

  16. A Matlab-based modeling and simulation package for electric and hybrid electric vehicle design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Butler; Mehrdad Ehsani; Preyas Kamath

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a simulation and modeling package developed at Texas A&M University, V-Elph 2.01. V-Elph facilitates in-depth studies of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) configurations or energy management strategies through visual programming by creating components as hierarchical subsystems that can be used interchangeably as embedded systems. V-Elph is composed of detailed models of four major types of

  17. Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter without Inductors for Electric\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dhayanandh; A. P. Ramya Sri; S. Rajkumar; N. Lavanya

    \\u000a This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications\\u000a implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc–dc boost converter\\u000a to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design\\u000a for EV and HEV applications implemented without

  18. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  19. Modelling and control of a medium-duty hybrid electric truck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-C. Lin; Z. Filipi; L. Louca; H. Peng; D. Assanis; J. Stein

    2004-01-01

    The main contributions of this paper are the development of a forward-looking hybrid vehicle simulation tool, and its application to the design of a power management control algorithm. The hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) was developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the potential fuel economy and emission benefits of the parallel hybrid

  20. Light Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Predictive Controllers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woonki Na; Taehyung Kim; Sangshin Kwak

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a predictive control-based fuel- cell hybrid electric vehicle system. Employing hybrid power sources, an ultracapacitor (UC), and a battery, the hybrid system maximizes the energy efficiency and protects the battery while achieving faster torque response based on predictive controllers residing in the boost converter, UC manager, and motor drive. The predictive controller implemented in the brushless dc

  1. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  2. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  3. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  4. Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric@elpl.snu.ac.kr Abstract--To improve the cycle efficiency and peak output power density of energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EVs), supercapacitors have been proposed as auxiliary energy storage elements

  5. Optimal management of battery charging of electric vehicles: A new microgrid feature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Karnama; F. O. Resende; J. A. Pecas Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Large deployment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will put new challenges regarding the power systems operation. The MicroGrid (MG) concept can be exploited to support the progressive integration of PHEVs into the Low Voltage (LV) networks by developing smart charging strategies to manage the PHEVs batteries charging procedures in order to avoid reinforcements in the grid infrastructures. Assuming that

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-12-04

    The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

  7. A Development of an Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Supercapacitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-uk Jeong; Hyeoun-dong Lee; Chul-soo Kim; Hang-Seok Choi; Bo-Hyung Cho

    An energy storage system for improving performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is presented. The hybrid power system consists of batteries and supercapacitors. The supercapacitor contributes to the rapid energy recovery associated with regenerative braking and to the rapid energy consumption associated with acceleration in electric vehicles. This power system allows the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle with minimal

  8. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  9. The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Chan

    2007-01-01

    With the more stringent regulations on emissions and fuel economy, global warming, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on developing novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable hybrid electric powertrain. This paper reviews the state of the

  10. Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage--Hybrid electrical energy storage systems (HEES) are comprised of multiple banks of inhomogeneous EES elements storage device, i.e., high energy capacity, high output power level, low self-discharge, low cost

  11. Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Massoud Pedram, Naehyuck Chang, Younghyun Kim, and Yanzhi Wang

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Massoud Pedram, Naehyuck Chang, Younghyun Kim, and Yanzhi of EES element fulfills high energy density, high power delivery capacity, low cost per unit of storage Descriptors B.0 [General] General Terms Design Keywords Energy, Energy storage, Electrical storage, Hybrid

  12. A new energy control strategy for a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behzad Asaei; Mahdi Habibidoost

    2010-01-01

    Design and simulation of a Through The Road (TTR) Parallel Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) with continuous variable transmission (CVT) is described in this paper. The model of a Parallel Hybrid Electric powertrain in ADVISOR is modified for simulation of it. To achieve a better fuel economy and less emission, the internal combustion engine (ICE) should operate at high efficiency regions.

  13. Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lithium-ion batteries are a fast-growing technology that is attractive for use in portable electronics of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The ATD Program is a joint effort

  14. Energy management system for hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time validation of the VEHLIB dedicated library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Florescu; H. Turker; S. Bacha; E. Vinot

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the energy share between batteries and supercapacitors within hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). A library of models, known as Hybrid Electric Vehicle Library (VEHLIB), which combines the different models to form a coherent modular base, has been constructed and implemented in real time simulator. Real-time results are here discussed in order to illustrate the effectives of models

  15. A novel hybrid integrated wind-PV micro co-generation energy scheme for village electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M. Sharaf; Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid wind\\/PV system for supplying an isolated small community with electrical energy is digitally simulated and presented in this paper. The proposed hybrid renewable green energy scheme has four key subsystems or components to supply the required electric loads. The first subsystem includes the renewable generation sources from PV array and wind turbine. The second is the interface converters

  16. Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

  17. General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gino Paganelli; Gabriele Ercole; Avra Brahma; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni

    2001-01-01

    A general formulation of the instantaneous power split strategy between an IC engine and an electric machine in a charge-sustaining hybrid-electric vehicle is given. It is based on the instantaneous optimization of an equivalent fuel consumption. This approach involves a heuristic formulation to convert the electrical power flow into equivalent fuel cost based on the average “cost” of electricity through

  18. An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies with Auto Electrical Labs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lewis and Clark Community College

    This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, labs, and syllabus designed to enhance automotive electrical courses with HEV technologies and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The PowerPoint provides a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. It’s 190 slides and has two areas of focus: basic theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), electrical differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEVs (Ex: voltage, starter, and air conditioning), transaxle integration, power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, and multimeter use).Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs' electrical systems and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing. The labs supplementing the presentation cover HEV battery information, safety, system overview, insulation testing, and jump starting. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where HEV technologies were incorporated into an automotive electrical course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

  19. Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara; Sheldon S. Williamson; Srdjan M. Lukic

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the operational characteristics of the topologies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and more electric vehicles (MEV). A brief description of series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and fuel cell-based propulsion systems are presented. The paper also presents fuel cell propulsion applications, more specific to light-duty passenger cars as well as heavy-duty buses. Finally, some of

  20. 2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid