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1

Enhanced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to reduce fossil fuel use, decrease pollution, and allow renewable energy sources for transportation, but their lithium ion battery subsystems are presently too expensive. Three enhancements to PHEVs are proposed here that can improve the economics. First, the incorporation of location information into the car's energy management algorithm allows predictive control to

Alan Millner; Nicholas Judson; Bobby Ren; Ellen Johnson; William Ross

2010-01-01

2

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study  

E-print Network

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 3:Phase 1, Task 3: Technic Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/068 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study is a collaborative effort between

Pennycook, Steve

3

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study  

E-print Network

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study IInntteerriimm RReeppoorrtt:: PPhhaassee 11 Government or any agency thereof. ORNL/TM-2008/076 #12;Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition 2009 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study

Pennycook, Steve

4

Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

Not Available

2014-05-01

5

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study  

E-print Network

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/056 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007

Pennycook, Steve

6

Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

2008-01-01

7

Electric and Plug-in Hybrids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the current and ongoing dependence on oil fueled transportation and the alternatives being considered to solve the need for sustainable energy. The following topics are discussed in the module: the rising global dependence on oil and the need for new technologies to fuel transportation, emerging technologies being highly considered to replace oil such as electric, hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and a comparison of the carbon footprint of each technology in writing and charts. Four review questions are supplied to test students on their knowledge of the material and to provide critical thinking as to their ideas for the future and solution for sustainable energy transportation.

Chicago, University O.

8

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-print Network

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions

9

Paper No. 09-3009 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for  

E-print Network

Paper No. 09-3009 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for Petroleum Use Reduction: Issues of the Government. #12;Vyas, Santini, and Johnson Page 1 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Potential for Petroleum of petroleum use reduction by widespread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day

Kemner, Ken

10

On Conversion of Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Plug-In  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrofit conversion of currently available hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) is studied in this paper through experiments and simulations using the powertrain system analysis toolkit (PSAT). First, a rule-based fuzzy controller of the battery energy-management unit is developed to simulate different energy-management policies. Second, by modifying the energy-control strategy, the model of the conversion PHEV (C-PHEV)

Reza Ghorbani; Eric Bibeau; Shaahin Filizadeh

2010-01-01

11

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

Balducci, Patrick J.

2008-04-03

12

Simulating the Household Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Distribution and its Electric Distribution Network Impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for modeling spatial distribution of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership at local residential level, discovering plug-in hybrid electric vehicle hot zones where ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and estimating the impacts of the increasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. We use Knox County, Tennessee as a case study to highlight the simulation results of the agent-based simulation framework.

Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Hoe Kyoung [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

13

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-12-01

14

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-09-01

15

Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'  

E-print Network

to `An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' Derek electric vehicles' (D M Lemoine et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014003) to the case of all-electric in which EVs could dramatically change the results we obtained for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs

Kammen, Daniel M.

16

Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

2009-01-01

17

An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

E-print Network

An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Margaret J 2011 Available online 29 April 2011 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Market penetration Agent vehicles (EVs) within the all-electric range, but also the convenience and flexibility of traditional fuels

Vermont, University of

18

The Impact of Charging Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on a Residential Distribution Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, are becoming more popular. The batteries of these plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are to be charged at home from a standard outlet or on a corporate car park. These extra electrical loads have an impact on the distribution grid which is analyzed in terms of power losses and voltage deviations. Without coordination

Kristien Clement-Nyns; Edwin Haesen; Johan Driesen

2010-01-01

19

Plug-in hybrid conversion of a series hybrid electric vehicle and simulation comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been a lot of interest in the concept of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). PHEVs are the next generation of hybrid vehicles that offer important advantages over even the cleanest and most efficient of today's vehicles. They use significantly less gasoline and have lower emission rates compared to the current hybrids and conventional vehicles and also have

Poria Fajri; B. Asaei

2008-01-01

20

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

Yao, Yin

21

City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

None

2013-12-31

22

Battery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash  

E-print Network

. The literature on the PHEV powertrain system design, power management, and interaction with power grid is stillBattery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash load imposed by battery health-conscious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging. The paper

Krstic, Miroslav

23

Evaluating the impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on regional electricity supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to increase the use of electricity to fuel the U.S. transportation needs. The effect of this additional demand on the electric system will depend on the amount and timing of the vehicles' periodic recharging on the grid. We used the ORCED (Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch) model to evaluate the impact of

Stanton W. Hadley; Stanton W

2007-01-01

24

A new battery\\/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system for electric, hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new battery\\/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS) is proposed for electric drive vehicles including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Compared to the conventional HESS design, which requires a larger DC\\/DC converter to interface between the ultra-capacitor and the battery\\/DC link, the new design uses a much smaller DC\\/DC converter to maintain the voltage

Jian Cao; Ali Emadi

2009-01-01

25

Optimal energy management system of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are new generation Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) with larger battery capacity compared to Hybrid Electric Vehicles. They can store electrical energy from a domestic power supply and can drive the vehicle alone in Electric Vehicle (EV) mode. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation 80 % of the American driving public on average drives under

Harpreetsingh Banvait

2009-01-01

26

A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures  

E-print Network

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

2012-01-01

27

Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains  

E-print Network

assessment Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a b s t r a c t We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas) reduces the all-electric range of plug-in vehicles by up to 45% compared to milder test cycles (like HWFET

Michalek, Jeremy J.

28

The Impact of Charging Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Distribution Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be charged

K. Clement; E. Haesen; J. Driesen

29

Coordinated charging of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in residential distribution grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be

Kristien Clement; Edwin Haesen; Johan Driesen

2009-01-01

30

Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

2013-12-01

31

An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

32

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas  

E-print Network

The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid reliance on fossil fuels. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and wind power represent two practical

Victoria, University of

33

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-print Network

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

Karplus, Valerie Jean

2008-01-01

34

Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) propel from the electric energy stored in the batteries and gasoline stored in the fuel tank. PHEVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs) connect to external sources to charge the batteries. Moreover, PHEVs can supply...

Farhangi, Babak

2014-07-25

35

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis  

E-print Network

Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general-in hybrid electric vehicles Environmental policy Emissions a b s t r a c t The plug-in hybrid electric-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle tech- nology that runs on electricity in addition to conventional fuels

36

Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicles in the smart grid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to curb emission and reduce the cost of transportation. Another unique advantage of PHEVs is their capability to integrate the onboard energy storage units with the power grid which can improve the efficiency and increase the reliability of the power grid. These concepts are still new and under development. Unlike Hybrid Electric

W. Shireen; S. Patel

2010-01-01

37

The impact of domestic Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on power distribution system loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEVs) is expected to grow significantly over the next few years and a number of new products are soon to come onto the market, such as the Toyota Prius plug-in version, . The charging demand of wide-scale use of PHEVs may have a significant impact on domestic electricity loads and could risk of

Sikai Huang; David Infield

2010-01-01

38

Aggregator analysis for efficient day-time charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will result in the synergy of the transportation sector and the electric power sector. The widespread use of PHEVs over the next few years will result in a great number of benefits to the electric power sector as well as have significant environmental benefits. Utilizing Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology, the PHEV

Anik Bandyopadhyay; Lingfeng Wang; Vijay K. Devabhaktuni; Robert C. Green II

2011-01-01

39

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge pattern optimization for energy cost and battery longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge pattern of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. The optimization goal is to simultaneously minimize (i) the total cost of fuel and electricity and (ii) the total battery health degradation over a 24-h naturalistic drive

Saeid Bashash; Scott J. Moura; Joel C. Forman; Hosam K. Fathy

2011-01-01

40

Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles park as virtual DVR  

E-print Network

-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries and their bidirectional charger in a charging station as virtual dynamic connection as well as from charging stations, even from the car park during the day. PHEVs provide as shown in Fig. 1. Model Output Battery Electric Drive and Charge System Escape 2010 Ford 155hp at 6000

Pota, Himanshu Roy

41

The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: a review and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that the more important question is what impact will PHEVs have on distribution networks nationwide?. This paper finds that the impact of

Robert C. Green II; Lingfeng Wang; Mansoor Alam

2010-01-01

42

Optimal energy management of a retailer with smart metering and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smart grid will integrate extensive distributed resources such as local generation sources, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and demand response (DR) programs. By using smart metering, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) facilitates consumer participation in DR programs and changes the consumption pattern of residential user via tariff schemes for electrical energy. 1 In addition, the smart grid will play an

Meysam Doostizadeh; Mojtaba Khanabadi; Ahad Esmaeilian; Mohsen Mohseninezhad

2011-01-01

43

STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ON THE DISTRIBUTION GRID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative vehicles, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), become more popular. The batteries of these PHEVs are designed to be charged at home, from a standard outlet in the garage, or on a corporate car park. These extra electrical loads have an impact on the distribution grid. The uncoordinated power consumption on a local scale can lead to grid

Kristien CLEMENT; Edwin HAESEN; Johan DRIESEN; QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING

2009-01-01

44

Modeling and simulation of an energy management system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modeling, control strategy and simulation results of an energy management strategy (EMS) for a specific plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A good control strategy is required among components, such as the energy storage system, an electric motor, a power control unit, and an internal combustion engine in order to ensure that the vehicle achieve an improvement in

Salisa Abdul Rahman; Nong Zhang; Jianguo Zhu

2008-01-01

45

Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both

Yukio Shinoda; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

2008-01-01

46

Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative

Benedikt Lunz; Zexiong Yan; Jochen Bernhard Gerschler; Dirk Uwe Sauer

2012-01-01

47

Advantages and applications of vehicle to grid mode of operation in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction in green house gas emissions, increase in oil prices and dependency on foreign oil are major incentives to the development and deployment of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fleet is expected to increase the base electric load and add constraints on the reliable operation of a power system. However, equipped with bidirectional battery chargers, plug-in

M. El Chehaly; Omar Saadeh; C. Martinez; G. Joos

2009-01-01

48

Battery Storage Sizing in a Retrofitted Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a simulation-based framework for optimal sizing of the additional energy storage required to retrofit a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Simulations are conducted on a vehicular model developed for a midsize sedan (Toyota Prius) using a new weekly vehicle-usage profile constructed for average driving and most probable parking times based on

Ehsan Tara; Soheil Shahidinejad; Shaahin Filizadeh; Eric Bibeau

2010-01-01

49

Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.

Zhang, Hui [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

2008-01-01

50

Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

This research is focused on designing a new generation of CAD tools that could help a hybrid vehicle designer with the design process to come up with better vehicle configurations. The conventional design process for any type of hybrid-electric...

Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

2012-07-16

51

An REU project on the design of a brushless DC machine for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a design methodology for the propulsion motor of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This research was conducted through the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program supported by National Science Foundation (NSF). The simulation of a representative plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has been performed using ADVISOR vehicle modeling software. The vehicle has been simulated over a set of

Alex J. Borsuk; Berker Bilgin; Alireza Khaligh; Mahesh Krishnamurthy

2011-01-01

52

Integration of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles into energy networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrification of substantial percentages of individual transportation through Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will lead to an integration of power and transport systems. This, in turn, will impose an additional demand on today's power system, potentially stressing hazardous for some pieces of equipment. Smart management schemes, investigated in this paper, can alleviate possible congestion issues in power systems by intelligently

Matthias D. Galus; G. Andersson

2009-01-01

53

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would

Stanton W. Hadley; Stanton W

2006-01-01

54

Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by

Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

55

Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

2007-12-01

56

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Road Emissions Characterization and Demonstration Study  

E-print Network

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE ON-ROAD EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND DEMONSTRATION STUDY By Copyright 2012 Carrie M. Hohl Submitted to the graduate degree program in Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering.... Marotz Dr. Edward F. Peltier Dr. Laurence Weatherley Date Defended: June 28, 2012 ii The Dissertation Committee for Carrie M. Hohl Certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation...

Hohl, Carrie

2012-12-31

57

Design and Control Methodology of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically discusses the design and control methodologies of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology is focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two kinds of typical batteries, namely, NiMH and Li-ion, are discussed. Control strategies focus on all electric range and charge depletion range operations. In addition, a constrained engine on and off control strategy

Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

2010-01-01

58

Design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically discussed the design and control methodology of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two lands of typical batteries-NiMH and Li-ion have been discussed. Control strategies focused on all electric range (AER) and charge depletion range (CDR) operations. Also, a constrained engine on and off control strategy has been

Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

2008-01-01

59

Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

2009-01-01

60

Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-print Network

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...

Reilly, John M.

61

The Impact of Uncontrolled and Controlled Charging of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on the Distribution Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE), such as the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and the fuel-cell electric vehicle (FCEV), are becoming increasingly popular. HEVs are currently commercially available and PHEVs will be the next phase in the evolution of hybrid and electric vehicles. The batteries of the PHEVs are designed to be

Clement Kristien; Haesen Edwin; Driesen Johan

62

Rule based algorithm for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) integration in residential electric grid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will strongly penetrate in the car fleet for the coming years. Based on databases of the houses Daily Loads Profiles (DLPs) build from real electricity consumption of domestic's electrical devices, this paper determines the minimal load power of PHEVs which assures the complete recharge of batteries before the next reuse of vehicles while avoiding

Harun Turker; Ahmad Hably; Seddik Bacha; Daniel Chatroux

2012-01-01

63

Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

English, Jeffrey Robb

64

Electric Drive Train Efficiency Analysis Based on Varied Energy Storage System Usage for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) drive trains are predominantly dependant on the energy storage system (ESS), compared to those of regular HEV. One of the major current issues in the auto-industry related to PHEVs is the type of battery system which favors the technology the most. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of varying ESS

Sheldon S. Williamson; P. D. Ziogas

2007-01-01

65

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

66

Scenario-Based Analysis on the Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' (PHEV) Penetration into the Transportation Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the improved awareness of negative environmental impact from traditional automobile fuel consumption and the fluctuating increase of gas price, fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector and strategies of securing it has gained governmental and public attentions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), as an alternative to the conventional vehicles, become appealing. A PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle

Ye Li

2007-01-01

67

Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01

68

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energys (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

69

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOEs Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

James E. Francfort

2009-07-01

70

Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

2012-03-01

71

Power system stabilization by charging power management of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with LFC signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEVs is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate the Load Frequency Control (LFC) capacity in the nighttime. In this study, we propose a

Masaaki Takagi; Kenji Yamaji; Hiromi Yamamoto

2009-01-01

72

Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle  

E-print Network

electric motors that can be driven by an electric energy storage system, such as a battery system [1e4 distribution between the battery system and the ICE to improve the vehicle's performance without influencingEnergy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

73

Charge trajectory optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for energy cost reduction and battery health enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. Two objectives are considered in this optimization. First, we minimize the total cost of fuel and electricity consumed by the PHEV over a 24-hour naturalistic drive cycle.

Saeid Bashash; Scott J. Moura; Hosam K. Fathy

2010-01-01

74

Power system considerations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on a multi energy carrier model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible modelling technique for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) based on a multi energy carrier approach is presented. It is able to simulate different PHEV architectures and energy management schemes while driving and during additional grid-coupled utilization modes. In contrary to the detailed vehicle models already available, the approach simplifies the vehicle but integrates possible services for the electricity

Matthias D. Galus; G. Andersson

2009-01-01

75

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS  

E-print Network

IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS National Laboratory(a) ABSTRACT The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a relatively few number of power plants. Overall

76

Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

2013-06-01

77

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

2008-01-01

78

Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of social interactions in individuals’ assessments of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this study analyzes over 190 social (interpersonal) interactions elicited in interviews with 31 individuals in eight different social networks centered on households in the Sacramento, California region. Results are framed within five theoretical perspectives on social influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. Responses

Jonn Axsena; Kenneth S. Kurani

2009-01-01

79

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to 10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model. It was found that increasing AER of plug-in hybrids was a more cost effective solution to reducing gasoline consumption than installing charging infrastructure. Comparison of results to current subsidy structure shows various options to improve future PHEV or other vehicle subsidy programs.

Peterson, Scott B.

80

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)could be (more)

Wu, Di

2012-01-01

81

Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

82

How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and  

E-print Network

How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and produce less pollution. Examining other aspects of electric vehicles besides tailpipe vehicles are a life cycle analysis approach must be used. Electricity: Electric vehicles will require more

Toohey, Darin W.

83

In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO?, NO(x), SO?, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

2011-10-15

84

Environmental and energy implications of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles.  

PubMed

We analyze the effect of charging a significant number of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) in the United States using presently available night-time spare electric capacity in the shortterm and new base-load capacity in the long term. Nationwide, there is currently ample spare night-time utility capacityto charge even a large fleet of PHEVs. Using the mix of generating plants expected to be used for PHEV charging, we find that, while driving on battery power, PHEVs compared to their conventional hybrid counterparts reduce CO2 emissions by 25% in the short term and as much as 50% in the long term. The shortterm fractional increase in demand for margin fuels such as natural gas is found to be roughly twice the fractional penetration of PHEVs into the nationwide light-duty vehicle fleet. We also compare, on an energy basis, the CO2 savings of replacing coal plants versus replacing conventional vehicles with PHEVs. The result is found to depend critically on the fuel economy of the vehicles displaced by the PHEVs. PMID:18351091

Stephan, Craig H; Sullivan, John

2008-02-15

85

Sitting and sizing of aggregator controlled park for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on particle swarm optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental constraints, high and unstable fuel prices, limitation on fuel resources have led to emergence of Plug-in Hybrid\\u000a Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). In order to launch the regulation service for grid-use of electric-drive vehicles, a smart control\\u000a interface called an aggregator between the grid and the vehicles has been developed. In this paper, a particle swarm optimization\\u000a (PSO), as well as

Tian Lan; Qi Kang; Jing An; Wei Yan; Lei Wang

86

Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bker, Bernard

2012-10-01

87

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

2009-01-01

88

Scenario-based investigation of the effects of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in 11 kV substations in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) with larger battery size in comparison with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are designed to run alternatively on electric mode by means of grid electricity. They are mainly introduced in order to decrease the emissions and reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transportation sector. These vehicles are considered as a new type of additional load

A. Karnama; V. Knazkins

2010-01-01

89

Transmission network-based energy and environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is expected to have a significant impact on regional power systems and pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes the effects of various penetrations of PHEVs on the marginal fuel dispatch of coal, natural gas and oil, and on pollutant emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 in the New York Metropolitan Area for two battery charging scenarios in a typical summer and winter day. A model of the AC transmission network of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) region with 693 generators is used to realistically incorporate network constraints into an economic dispatch model. A data-based transportation model of approximately 1 million commuters in NYMA is used to determine battery charging pattern. Results show that for all penetrations of PHEVs network-constrained economic dispatch of generation is significantly more realistic than unconstrained cases. Coal, natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the winter, and only natural gas and oil units are on the margin in the summer. Hourly changes in emissions from transportation and power production are dominated by vehicular activity with significant overall emissions reductions for CO2 and NOx, and a slight increase for SO2. Nighttime regulated charging produces less overall emissions than unregulated charging from when vehicles arrive home for the summer and vice versa for the winter. As PHEVs are poised to link the power and transportation sectors, data-based models combining network constraints and economic dispatch have been shown to improve understanding and facilitate control of this link.

Valentine, Keenan; Acquaviva, Jonathan; Foster, E. J.; Zhang, K. Max

2011-03-01

90

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

2010-02-01

91

Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory  

SciTech Connect

The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

2007-05-01

92

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

93

Fuel reduction and electricity consumption impact of different charging scenarios for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) consume both gasoline and grid electricity. The corresponding temporal energy consumption and emission trends are valuable to investigate in order to fully understand the environmental benefits. The 24-h energy consumption and emission profile depends on different vehicle designs, driving, and charging scenarios. This study assesses the potential energy impact of PHEVs by considering different charging scenarios defined by different charging power levels, locations, and charging time. The region selected for the study is the South Coast Air Basin of California. Driving behaviors are derived from the National Household Travel Survey 2009 (NHTS 2009) and vehicle parameters are based on realistic assumptions consistent with projected vehicle deployments. Results show that the reduction in petroleum consumption is significant compared to standard gasoline vehicles and the ability to operate on electricity alone is crucial to cold start emission reduction. The benefit of higher power charging on petroleum consumption is small. Delayed and average charging are better than immediate charging for home, and non-home charging increases peak grid loads.

Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

2011-08-01

94

An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the success of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in the automobile market, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as the next evolution of this attractive alternative. PHEV market penetration is expected to lead to lower gasoline consumption and less emission. The main objective of this research is to assess PHEVs’ energy profile impacts based on simulation of vehicles used

W. W. Recker; J. E. Kang

2010-01-01

95

Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers  

SciTech Connect

To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

96

Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

PubMed

This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

2012-06-01

97

Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

2014-12-01

98

Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

2014-02-01

99

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging  

E-print Network

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric-depth study of PEV usage and charging dynamics. Inform policy on battery size/vehicle architecture household travel dynamics. How is the PEV used compared to other cars? EVMT impacts? · Determine charging

California at Davis, University of

100

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicles large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95F) and low (20F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95F, 75F, and 20F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300400C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

2008-01-01

101

Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

102

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01

103

Review of non-isolated bi-directional DC-DC converters for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge station application at municipal parking decks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) due to energy security and green house gas emission issues, as well as the low electricity fuel cost. As battery capacity and all-electric range of PHEV's are improved, and potentially some PHEV's or EV's need fast charging, there is increased demand to build high power off-board charging infrastructures. A

Yu Du; Xiaohu Zhou; Sanzhong Bai; Srdjan Lukic; Alex Huang

2010-01-01

104

An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-in hybrid electric vehicles D M Lemoine1 , D M Kammen1,2,3 and A E Farrell1,4,5 1 Energy and Resources Group.iop.org/ERL/3/014003 Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity

Kammen, Daniel M.

105

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

Jon P. Christophersen

2014-09-01

106

Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st?5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

107

Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

Lipman, Timothy E.

2011-11-01

108

Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

2013-01-01

109

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values for electric vehicles as...

2013-07-01

110

Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

Thompson, Tammy M.; King, Carey W.; Allen, David T.; Webber, Michael E.

2011-04-01

111

On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

2011-10-01

112

Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

2011-12-01

113

Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

Nazir, Samir M.

114

The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates.  

SciTech Connect

This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various PHEV charge-depleting (CD) ranges were evaluated, and 100% CD mode and potential blended modes were analyzed. The NHTS data were also examined to evaluate the potential for PHEV battery charging multiple times a day. Data from the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS) were analyzed to evaluate the availability of garages and carports for at-home charging of the PHEV battery. The AHS data were also reviewed by census region and household location within or outside metropolitan statistical areas. To illustrate the lag times involved, the historical new vehicle market share increases for the diesel power train in France (a highly successful case) and the emerging hybrid electric vehicles in the United States were examined. A new vehicle technology substitution model is applied to illustrate a historically plausible successful new PHEV market share expansion. The trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle sales and light-duty vehicle stock were evaluated to estimate the time required for hypothetical successful new PHEVs to achieve the ultimately attainable share of the existing vehicle stock. Only when such steps have been accomplished will the full oil savings potential for the nation be achieved.

Vyas, A. D.; Santini, D. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

2009-01-01

115

Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

2007-01-01

116

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

2008-09-01

117

Optimal economy-based battery degradation management dynamics for fuel-cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyses the economical dynamics of an optimized battery degradation management strategy intended for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with consideration given to low-cost technologies, such as lead-acid batteries. The optimal management algorithm described herein is based on discrete dynamic programming theory (DDP) and was designed for the purpose of PHEV battery degradation management; its operation relies on simulation models using data obtained experimentally on a physical PHEV platform. These tools are first used to define an optimal management strategy according to the economical weights of PHEV battery degradation and the secondary energy carriers spent to manage its deleterious effects. We then conduct a sensitivity study of the proposed optimization process to the fluctuating economic parameters associated with the fuel and energy costs involved in the degradation management process. Results demonstrate the influence of each parameter on the process's response, including daily total operating costs and expected battery lifetime, as well as establish boundaries for useful application of the method; in addition, they provide a case for the relevance of inexpensive battery technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, for economy-centric PHEV applications where battery degradation is a major concern.

Martel, Franois; Kelouwani, Sousso; Dub, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo

2015-01-01

118

Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

work with refueling and battery switching stations, considering electricity and gasoline ..... Let ?,? ? N be the discretization parameters for the state space. ...... Proc.2012 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineer-.

2014-07-22

119

Optimal Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Market ...  

E-print Network

20% wind power for U.S. electricity generation [24] and the newly announced International Renew- .... deployment of public charging stations for PHEVs has been studied in [10], ..... To consider the action space for each state (n, k), we discuss.

2014-01-13

120

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOEs Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

121

Integration of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles: Experience from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy shortage, air pollution and greenhouse gas over emission are serious issues that the whole world is facing now. The development of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the solutions to tackle those problems due to its special and profound significance for moderating global energy crisis, optimizing environmental protection and realizing the sustainable development. In this paper, the status quo,

Yonghua Song; Xia Yang; Zongxiang Lu

2010-01-01

122

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31

123

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook Infrastructure Installing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charg- ing infrastructure requires unique knowledge Thanks to the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Training Program for assisting with the production

124

Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles  

SciTech Connect

In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2012-06-01

125

"Catching the second wave" of the Plug in Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

"Catching the second wave" of the Plug in Electric Vehicle Market PEV market update from ITS PHEV on gasoline, diesel, natural gas, biofuels and other liquid or gaseous fuels. · HEV = Hybrid electric vehicles Vehicles are like HEVs, but have bigger batteries, and can store electricity from plugging into the grid

California at Davis, University of

126

High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will disconnect the HV system. Several simulations and calculations were conducted as to whether six or seven batteries should be used. Seven batteries will allow the vehicle to accelerate quicker and have lower fuel consumption and emissions produced. However, there are several integration and cooling challenges that arise when trying to integrate seven batteries onto the vehicle. In the end, these challenges outweighed the benefits of seven batteries, and the six battery system was chosen. On top of all of the design and simulation results discussed above, there were also many lessons learned in regards to managing the design team involved in this project. The best way found to keep all members on task was to split the project into smaller sections, create a timeline with specific tasks and corresponding completion dates, and assign a person to be responsible for each task. This helped to gauge whether the project was behind schedule but also gave each member a responsibility and ownership to the project. It was also established that the best way to transmit data was to have a secure, networked drive that allowed members to access it from any computer at any time. This gave members the flexibility to work whenever and wherever was most convenient for them and allowed them to easily share data amongst members without having to attach large files to emails.

Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

127

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers  

E-print Network

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers Kathy Boyer, Triangle Clean Cities Coalition, NREL/PIX 18520 #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 3 You've heard about the new generation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) like the Chevy Volt

128

Photo illustration by George Lange, with Michael Miller (Plug) Popular Mechanics Impact of PlugImpact of Plug--in Hybrids on thein Hybrids on the  

E-print Network

Fuel Cell Audi Turbo Diesel GM Volt Hyundai's Fuel Cell Tesla's Battery electric car #12;7 13 Barriers system Turbo Diesel hybrid Future options Gasoline Turbo Diesel Hybrid plug-in hybrid Battery electric of PlugImpact of Plug--in Hybrids on thein Hybrids on the Electrical System in the NorthwestElectrical

129

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy label values for electric vehicles...

2012-07-01

130

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

131

The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

2014-07-01

132

Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

2006-11-01

133

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells cold startup global strategy for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Cold Startup problem within the specific context of the Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). A global strategy which aims at providing an efficient method to minimize the energy consumption during the startup of a PEMFC is proposed. The overall control system is based on a supervisory architecture in which the Energy Management System (EMS) plays the role of the power flow supervisor. The EMS estimates in advance, the time to start the fuel cell (FC) based upon the battery energy usage during the trip. Given this estimation and the amount of additional energy required, the fuel cell temperature management strategy computes the most appropriate time to start heating the stack in order to reduce heat loss through the natural convection. As the cell temperature rises, the PEMFC is started and the reaction heat is used as a self-heating power source to further increase the stack temperature. A time optimal self-heating approach based on the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is efficient and can be implemented in real-time on FC-PHEVs.

Henao, Nilson; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Dub, Yves

2012-12-01

134

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 1: Analytical Development of Energy Management Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. The research is broken down into two (2) distinct phases, involving both analytical and experimental areas. Phase I of the research, addressed in this document, focuses on the design of a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. A suitable control system architecture is created and implemented into a standard vehicle modeling tool (in this case, the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit). Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain offers the potential for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The analytical work presented here is experimentally validated during Phase 2, the subject of a follow on paper.

Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lohse-Busch, Henning [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

135

Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

2010-01-01

136

Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications for Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by

CONSTANTINE S AMARAS; KYLE M EISTERLING

2008-01-01

137

An energy efficient solution: Integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle in smart grid with renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, there is a conflict between the rapidly increasing demand for electricity and the requirement for reducing dependence on fossil fuel to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions. Proper utilization of renewable energy such as wind energy is proposed as an efficient solution to address this problem. However, due to the high inter-temporal variation and limited predictability, it is difficult to

Yifan Li; Rakpong Kaewpuang; Ping Wang; Dusit Niyato; Zhu Han

2012-01-01

138

Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Every PEV needs to select a charging station by con- sidering the charging prices, waiting times

Huang, Jianwei

139

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-12-01

140

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study  

SciTech Connect

The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

2008-04-01

141

Impact-analysis of the charging of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the production park in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal combustion engines (ICE) are combined with electric motors and batteries in both hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to improve efficiency and achieve a limited all electric range. This paper determines the electrical power required for charging a fleet of PHEVs in Belgium. A stochastic model based on the driving behavior of Western European drivers,

Frederik Geth; Koen Willekens; Kristien Clement; Johan Driesen; Sven De Breucker

2010-01-01

142

Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles  

SciTech Connect

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

2010-01-01

143

One million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is mentioned that one million plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles will be on the road by 2015 in United States to reduce emission. If one million electric vehicles (EVs) are connected to the existing electric grid randomly, peak load will be very high. Electrified transportation based on a traditional thermal power system will be costly economically and environmentally though

Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

2009-01-01

144

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

145

Plug-in electric vehicle introduction in the EU  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could significantly reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU's transport sector. However, PEV well-towheel (WTW) emissions depend on improvements in vehicle ...

Sisternes, Fernando J. de $q (Fernando Jos Sisternes Jimnez)

2010-01-01

146

Quality of service in Plug-in Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrification of transportation is offering reduced vehicle emissions and operating costs in addition to increased energy-independence. Electric cars are anticipated to be adopted as passenger vehicles and in commercial fleets in the near future. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can drive on battery up to few hundred miles with the current battery technologies. Depleting PHEV batteries are charged from the

Melike Erol-Kantarci; Jahangir H. Sarker; Hussein T. Mouftah

2012-01-01

147

Plug-in integrated/hybrid circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid circuitry can be installed into standard round bayonet connectors, to eliminate wiring from connector to circuit. Circuits can be connected directly into either section of connector pair, eliminating need for hard wiring to that section.

Stringer, E. J.

1974-01-01

148

Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines  

SciTech Connect

Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

Phillip Eidler

2011-09-30

149

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

150

Impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the supply grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study describing the impact of charging process of plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and all electrical vehicles (EV) on the supply grid. The paper shows the distortion produced in the grid by the simultaneous charge of a large fleet of vehicles and the corrective actions taken to guarantee the Electromagnetic Compatibility with other loads in

Josep Balcells; J. Garcia

2010-01-01

151

Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

None

2010-09-14

152

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on

Deniz Karman

2011-01-01

153

Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and

Ching-Shin Norman Shiau; Constantine Samaras; Richard Hauffe; Jeremy J. Michalek

2009-01-01

154

Hybrid & electric vehicle technology and its market feasibility  

E-print Network

In this thesis, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) technology and their sales forecasts are discussed. First, the current limitations and the future potential ...

Jeon, Sang Yeob

2010-01-01

155

System architecture of a modular direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging technology in the market and are helping to offset the negative effects of existing transportation methods that primarily rely on fossil fuel sources. As PHEVs are being introduced into the market, renewable energy sources such as solar power are taking a larger part in the energy sector. A need for high efficiency

Christopher Hamilton; Gustavo Gamboa; John Elmes; Ross Kerley; Andres Arias; Michael Pepper; John Shen; Issa Batarseh

2010-01-01

156

Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles  

DOEpatents

A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-14

157

The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid Interactions  

E-print Network

The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid investigates consumer interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), summarizing preliminary results from ownership, electricity use, familiarity with PEV technology, and personal values and lifestyle; vehicle

158

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. PMID:18522090

Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

2008-05-01

159

PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging  

E-print Network

PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging All Others Subject to Citation. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING RATES Monday­Friday, 7:30am­5pm Hours Power Parking Power+Parking 1://chargepoint.net PAYMENT IS REQUIRED FOR USE OF A CHARGING STATION The rate for charging your vehicle is $1/hour. Please

Bigelow, Stephen

160

CREATING A PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE INDUSTRY CLUSTER IN MICHIGAN  

E-print Network

303 CREATING A PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE INDUSTRY CLUSTER IN MICHIGAN: PROSPECTS AND POLICY OPTIONS a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Industry Cluster in Michigan: Prospects and Policy Options, 18 MICH. TELECOMM Chair of Sustainable Science, Technology and Commerce, University of Michigan Stephen M. Ross School

Lyon, Thomas P.

161

Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 1 of 28  

E-print Network

Hybrid Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling LaboratoryPlug--InIn MicrogridMicrogrid Power GenerationPower Generation Scott J. MouraScott J. Moura DongsukDongsuk KumKum Hosam Powertrain Optimization for Plug-In Microgrid Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 2 of 28

Krstic, Miroslav

162

2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition: Whats Next for the Electric Highway?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains speaker presentations from the 2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition. This conference took place September 30, 2013 to October 3, 2013 at Liberty Station in San Diego, CA and had the theme Whats Next for the Electric Highway? This event brought together automotive manufacturers, component suppliers, electric utilities, government agencies, academia, and the environmental community to collaborate on the next steps in plug-in electric vehicle technology, infrastructure, policies and regulations, and market development.

Institute, Electric P.

163

Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.  

SciTech Connect

Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

2008-01-01

164

Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from green sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVswith a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2013-03-01

165

246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Inderscience@ieee.org *Corresponding author Abstract: This paper studies the power management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle-based strategy; quadratic programming; QP; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; PHEV; electric and hybrid vehicles

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

166

Charging station selection optimization for plug-in electric vehicles: An oligopolistic game-theoretic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a framework for the selection of the best charging station when plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) need to recharge their batteries, while at the same time the power utilities, which own the charging stations (CS), optimize their revenue. We use two-way communication to transmit positioning information, which is a key factor so that the plug-in electric

J. Joaquin Escudero-Garzas; Gonzalo Seco-Granados

2012-01-01

167

A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

168

Mitigation of harmonics in smart grids with high penetration of plug-in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grids provide an excellent opportunity to improve the performance and the power quality of distribution system. This paper addresses a simple and effective approach to improve the quality of electric power in smart grids with high penetration of smart appliances such as plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). Assuming a typical daily load curve, decupled harmonic load flow (DHLF) formulation is

Mohammad A. S. Masoum; Sara Deilami; Syed Islam

2010-01-01

169

Impacts of battery charging rates of Plug-in Electric Vehicle on smart grid distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) will be an integral part of smart grids in the near future. This paper studies the impacts of different PEV battery charging profiles on the performance of smart grid distribution systems. PEVs are already growing in popularity as a low emission mode of transport versus conventional petroleum based vehicles. Utilities are becoming concerned about the potential

Amir S. Masoum; Sara Deilami; Paul S. Moses; A. Abu-Siada

2010-01-01

170

A rapid charging station with an ultracapacitor energy storage system for plug-in electrical vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in electrical vehicles (PEVs) are considered to be one of the solutions to the challenges of rising energy costs and global warming. As the number of PEVs sold steadily increases in the automobile market, public charging stations will become increasingly important. One of the major challenges for public charging stations is to reduce charging time, which can be addressed by

Junseok Song; Amir Toliyat; D. Turtle; Alexis Kwasinski

2010-01-01

171

Power quality of smart grids with Plug-in Electric Vehicles considering battery charging profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of different battery charging rates of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) on the power quality of smart grid distribution systems is studied in this paper. PEV battery chargers are high power nonlinear devices that can generate significant amount of current harmonics. PEVs will be an integral component to the operation of smart grids and therefore their power quality impacts

Paul S. Moses; Sara Deilami; Amir S. Masoum; Mohammad A. S. Masoum

2010-01-01

172

Distribution transformer losses and performance in smart grids with residential Plug-In Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of distribution transformers serving several residential networks with multiple Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging activity is studied in this paper. Distribution transformers are the weakest link in distribution systems that could soon be subjected to increasing stresses from PEV charging activity. This could significantly impact the reliability, security, efficiency and economy of newly developing smart grids due to

Mohammad A. S. Masoum; Paul S. Moses; Keyue M. Smedley

2011-01-01

173

Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Market and  

E-print Network

Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Project Until recently, there were very few used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the market. However Market and Their Implications for Vehicle Demand, Durability, and Emissions University UC Davis Principal

California at Davis, University of

174

Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an

Oscar P. R. van Vliet; Thomas Kruithof; Wim C. Turkenburg

2010-01-01

175

Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market

Toms Gmez San Romn; Ilan Momber; Michel Rivier Abbad; lvaro Snchez Miralles

2011-01-01

176

A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

2011-01-01

177

Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

2012-02-01

178

Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

2012-03-01

179

Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

2014-02-01

180

Batteries and Ultracapacitors for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of batteries and ultracapacitors in electric energy storage units for battery powered (EV) and charge sustaining and plug-in hybrid-electric (HEV and PHEV) vehicles have been studied in detail. The use of IC engines and hydrogen fuel cells as the primary energy converters for the hybrid vehicles was considered. The study focused on the use of lithium-ion batteries and

Andrew F. Burke

2007-01-01

181

A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems  

E-print Network

Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

2012-01-01

182

500 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2012 The Evolution of Plug-In Electric  

E-print Network

500 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 3, NO. 1, MARCH 2012 The Evolution of Plug-In Electric Vehicle-Grid Interactions David P. Tuttle and Ross Baldick Abstract--Over the past decade key technologies the first of many major vehicle markets by 2011. PEV-grid interactions comprise a mix of in- dustries

Baldick, Ross

183

Distribution grid impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicles charging at fast charging stations using stochastic charging model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charging PEVs (Plug-In Electric Vehicles) at public fast charging station can improve the public acceptance and increase their penetration level by solving problems related to vehicles battery. However, the price for the impact of fast charging stations on the distribution grid has to be dealt with. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of fast charging

Kalid Yunus; Hector Zelaya De La Parra; Muhamad Reza

2011-01-01

184

A battery with ultra capacitor hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For electric drive vehicles including electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a new battery\\/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS) is proposed. The conventional HESS design uses a larger DC\\/DC converter to interface between the ultra capacitor and the battery\\/DC link to satisfy the real time peak power demands. The proposed design uses a much smaller DC\\/DC

S. Muthukumaran

2012-01-01

185

On-line Decentralized Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining increasing popularity in recent years, due to the growing societal awareness of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the dependence on foreign oil or petroleum. Large-scale implementation of PEVs in the power system currently faces many challenges. One particular concern is that the PEV charging can potentially cause significant impact on the existing power distribution system, due to the increase in peak load. As such, this work tries to mitigate the PEV charging impact by proposing a decentralized smart PEV charging algorithm to minimize the distribution system load variance, so that a 'flat' total load profile can be obtained. The charging algorithm is on-line, in that it controls the PEV charging processes in each time slot based entirely on the current power system state. Thus, compared to other forecast based smart charging approaches in the literature, the charging algorithm is robust against various uncertainties in the power system, such as random PE...

Li, Qiao; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D

2011-01-01

186

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

2012-08-01

187

Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

2012-08-01

188

Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, E. Pritchard, and J. Lawrence, "In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air &  

E-print Network

of a Toyota Prius with 1.5 liter gasoline engine, Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system with an original battery to explain variation in battery current, fuel use and emission rates based on the real-world data is a 2005 Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) that had previously been retrofitted with the A123

Frey, H. Christopher

189

Plug-in electric vehicle battery sensor interface in Smart Grid network for electricity billing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological advancement in the field of energy and proposition of a Smart Grid has paved the way for sophisticated information systems with network management capabilities. Unlike the legacy systems, today we need a two-way communication model for the electricity distribution network that can, not only communicate with the devices but interact with sensors and actuators. This task becomes more

Sofia Shahid; Karthik Ram Narumanchi; Deniz Gurkan

2012-01-01

190

An application of vehicular ad hoc wireless network for hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a network that is formed when hybrid or modern vehicles with wireless transceivers have the need to communicate with each other. Although VANET shares some similarities with mobile ad hoc network (MANET), the dynamic nature of VANET has posed a challenge for data dissemination between modern hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. This paper will

Aslinda Hassan; Mohamed H. Ahmed; M. A. Rahman

2011-01-01

191

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

192

Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GMs Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

No, author

2013-09-29

193

Impact of uncoordinated and coordinated charging of plug-in electric vehicles on substation transformer in smart grid with charging stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly growing interest in smart grid technology, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are expected to become more popular as low emission replacement for the petroleum based vehicles. Significant PEVs charging activities will mostly take place in customer's premises, public or corporate car parks and electric charging stations. Therefore, utilities are concern about the possible detrimental impacts of these sizeable

Amir S. Masoum; Ahmed Abu-Siada; Syed Islam

2011-01-01

194

Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

195

ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric  

E-print Network

ECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric vehicle configurations. Vehicle mechanics. Energy sources and storage. Range prediction. Motor for HEVs. Electric drive components. Vehicle transmission system. Credits

196

PREDICTING THE MARKET POTENTIAL OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES USING MULTIDAY GPS DATA  

E-print Network

to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. PEVs run partially or fully on electric power from@gmail.com Kara M. Kockelman (Corresponding author) Professor and William J. Murray Jr. Fellow Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering The University of Texas at Austin 6.9 E. Cockrell Jr. Hall Austin

Kockelman, Kara M.

197

Hybrid electric sport utility vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drive-train hybridization improves the fuel economy and emissions of vehicles. This is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Application of this concept in sport utility vehicles (SUVs), which consume more fuel as compared to passenger cars, will positively have a great impact. However, dynamic performances such as acceleration and gradeability also are of great importance in SUVs. Therefore, the

Jason M. Tyrus; Ryan M. Long; Marina Kramskaya; Yuriy Fertman; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

198

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

199

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration  

E-print Network

Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration PON). Q5. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle repower could provide some electric drive with an engine for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered

200

Advancements in electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this volume include: Influence of Battery Characteristics on Traction Drive Performance; Chassis Design for a Small Electric City Car; Thermal Comfort of Electric Vehicles; Power Quality Problems at Electric Vehicle`s Charging Station; The Development and Performance of the AMPhibian Hybrid Electric Vehicle; The Selection of Lead-Acid Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; and more.

NONE

1994-12-31

201

Joint Management of Data Centers and Electric Vehicles for Maximized Regulation Profits  

E-print Network

. On the other side, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have also recently been identified as a major of the PHEVs, by getting their batteries charged at no expense. Keywords--Frequency Regulation; Electric Cars- ters [7], [8] and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) [9], [10], [11] have been recently

Zhang, Wei

202

Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Survey  

SciTech Connect

The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

2014-01-01

203

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

1999-08-31

204

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

1999-08-31

205

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.

Stanton W. Hadley; Alexandra A. Tsvetkova

2009-01-01

206

Projected characteristics of hybrid-electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in the all-electric mode without use of the ICE, thus providing most of the benefits of electric cars without their range limitation. The

W. F. Hamilton; R. L. Curtis

1979-01-01

207

Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

2009-03-01

208

How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive?  

E-print Network

How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive? Edward S. Rubin Department of Engineering and Public Policy Department-carbon electricity and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) ? · In light of the above, would adoption of PHEVs

209

Electric hybrid module based specialty car design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge to design an electric hybrid car specifically for the custom kit car manufacturing market is briefly discussed. The author discusses the hybrid module system, the heart of which is a China class compound wound dyna-motor. The two energy storage systems (Pb-acid battery banks and propane fuel tanks), the running gear, sports car design philosophy, and performance and operation

K. R. Bohan

1995-01-01

210

Top 10 tech cars [hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of new hybrid electric vehicle owners have expressed their disappointment with their purchase because of poor mileage. Official ratings for fuel use, based on the outdated driving patterns of US government test, turned out to be a poor predictor for what typical buyers could expect. Still, though hybrids are hot, no single vehicle is likely to make as

J. Voelcker

2005-01-01

211

Electrical Transport in Graphene Hybrid Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene, monolayer carbon atoms with honey-comb lattice, has intrigued condensed matter physics field for its unique electrical properties since its first discovery in 2004. The graphene hybrid structures that consist of both single and bi-layers were also experimentally studied recently for its novel properties. We will present our experimental study on the electron transport in graphene hybrid structures and the

Feng Miao; Wenzhong Bao; Hang Zhang; Chun Ning Lau

2009-01-01

212

Major Concepts of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation is a general overview of the concepts and technologies incorporated into hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These materials are used in the course, "Intro to Mechatronics" at Lawrence Technological University and were developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The following topics are discussed: hybrid powertrain configurations (series, parallel, and series-parallel), hybrid types (mild, medium, and full), components (mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic), and operating modes (start-stop and regenerative).

University, Lawrence T.

213

Electromagnetic Transducer for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel electromagnetic transducer called the Four Quadrant Transducer (4QT) for hybrid electric vehicles. The system consists of one electrical machine unit (including two rotors) and two inverters, which enable the vehicle's Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to run at its optimum working points regarding efficiency, almost independently of the changing load requirements at the wheels. In other

Freddy Magnussen; Chandur Sadarangani

2002-01-01

214

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; John M. Miller

2007-01-01

215

Playing with Plug-ins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have

Thompson, Douglas E.

2013-01-01

216

Design of a docking station for solar charged electric and fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of constant increase in the price of hydrocarbon-based fuels and the resulting pollution of environment have motivated researchers and the automobile industry to take a serious look at electric vehicles (EV). Hybrid technologies have also found their place in the automobile industry. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are being developed and improved constantly. An electric vehicle

Diego M. Robalino; Ganapathy Kumar; L. O. Uzoechi; U. C. Chukwu; S. M. Mahajan

2009-01-01

217

Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis  

E-print Network

1 Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis Romain Couillet, Samir M interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil- electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting electricity peak demand. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer  

DOEpatents

An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

2014-09-02

219

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of lithium ion batteries for automobiles  

E-print Network

In this thesis report, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to provide a comprehensive analysis of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle ...

Fu, Haitao

2009-01-01

220

Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present status of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, none of the available energy sources can solely fulfill all the demands of EVs to enable them to compete with gasoline powered vehicles. In this paper, an energy management system, adopting the so-called hybridization of energy sources, is proposed to coordinate multiple energy sources for EVs. Hence, the unique advantages of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2001-01-01

221

AUTO-1440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College provides an introduction to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Material covered includes alternative fuels, HEV batteries and accessories, HEV maintenance and diagnostics, regenerative braking, and safety procedures. Included educational materials for this course are crosswords, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre/post assessments, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If youre an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact theCAAT. This course is composed of ten modules that may be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. Module subjects are: Carbon Fuels and the Environment, Intro to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Systems, Gasoline and Alternative Fuels, HEV Batteries and Service, Electric Motors, Generators, and Controllers, Regenerative Braking, HEV Transmissions and Transaxles, HEV Climate Control, and HEVFirst Resonder and Safety Procedures

222

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

223

Impacts of cooling technology on solder fatigue for power modules in electric traction drive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three power module cooling topologies that are being considered for use in electric traction drive vehicles such as a hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, or electric vehicle. The impact on the fatigue life of solder joints for each cooling option is investigated along with the thermal performance. Considering solder joint reliability and thermal performance, topologies using indirect

Michael O'Keefe; Andreas Vlahinos

2009-01-01

224

A series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for industrial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years there is a growing interest in electric and hybrid electric propulsions due to environmental concerns. In particular industrial vehicles are a promising field of application for their duty cycles characterized by low velocities, frequent start and stop jobs, long periods of idling and material-handling tool power peaks. In this paper a series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for

Sergio Grammatico; A. Balluchi; E. Cosoli

2010-01-01

225

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-12-01

226

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-01-01

227

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course was developed by Dr. Vladimir V. Vantsevich through seed funding from CAAT and is offered at Lawrence Technical Institute as a 3 credit senior level mechanical engineering course. Included in this course are PowerPoint presentations, labs, assignments (no solutions), and syllabus. If youre an instructor and need access to solutions, please contact theCAAT. The course focuses onhybrid electricandelectric vehicle (HEV/EV)mechatronics and components, power flow and management, power storage and design, engineering problems faced when engineering HEV drivetrain systems, and applications for commercial, industrial, and military use. The labs and workshops provide students with hands-on experience using 4x4 dynamometers, hydraulically-controlled systems, and simulation software. For a more comprehensive summary of the course, please refer to the syllabus.

Lawrence Technological University

228

Opportunity to Plug Your Car Into the Electric Grid is Arriving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are hitting the U.S. market for the first time this year. Similar to hybrid electric vehicles, they feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows consumers to replace a portion of their fossil fuel by simply plugging their cars into standard 110-volt outlets at home or wherever outlets are available. If these vehicles become widely

Griego

2010-01-01

229

Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to the same route and the same driver. The observation study of the commuting monitor reveals the following technical findings. Motor re-generation energy gradually decreases from hot season to cold season. Mahalanobis distance analysis could be found out the cause of the electric energy decrease when air conditioner unloaded. The high level of the air conditioner load affects the vehicle input (throttle openings). Although the re-generation load changes along with the environment temperature, the motor-assisted input load tends to steady states. That means the engine is supplied almost steady power from the motor irrespective with environment temperature. Battery keeps control the temperatures refer to environment temperature level. The hybrid air conditioner system worked efficiently which revealed with the difference of load levels between a travel mode and an idling stop mode. There is no notable running difference between an idling mode and the idling stop mode both in summer and in winter.

Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

230

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity end-uses  

E-print Network

A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity a series of deep technical and behavioural breaks. Among them are : the integration of new electrical domestic end-uses, the development of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the increase of heat pumps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Development of a Dual-Fuel Power Generation System for an Extended Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, there has been a growing global concern with regard to vehicle-generated greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting air pollution. In response, automotive original equipment manufacturers focus their efforts on developing ??greener?? propulsion solutions in order to meet the societal demand and ecological need for clean transportation. Hydrogen is an ideal vehicle fuel for use not only in

Matt Van Wieringen; Remon Pop-Iliev

2010-01-01

232

Minimum charging-cost tracking based optimization algorithm with dynamic programming technique for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2015, one million PHEVs are estimated to posses U.S. automotive market. Optimized management of PHEVs charging activities is necessary since growing penetration of PHEV fleet would place significant influences on grid, either by providing bulky energy storages or by requiring charging capacities. In this paper, dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to seek minimum cost of PHEVs charging activities.

Zhihao Li; Alireza Khaligh; Navid Sabbaghi

2011-01-01

233

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog. For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying vehicles, include the...

2014-07-01

234

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog. For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying vehicles, include the...

2013-07-01

235

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog. For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying vehicles, include the...

2012-07-01

236

European driving schedule of hybrid electric vehicle with electric power splitter and supercapacitor as electric storage unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the hybrid electric vehicle and its characteristics in standardized European driving schedule. The results are obtained through the mathematical model and simulation of the driving characteristics for hybrid electric drive which uses super-capacitor as energy storage unit. This work is part of the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which was developed in

Dobri Cundev; Pavel Mindl

2008-01-01

237

HybridPACK2 - advanced cooling concept and package technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicle technology demands for power modules which are highly reliable, compact, economical and rugged enough to withstand mechanical, electrical and thermal shocks. Increasing the power density of the latest power module is the top most trend in power semiconductor development; similar trend is seen in the hybrid electric vehicle technology more due to the space and weight constraints.

Zhihong Liang; Lei Li

2008-01-01

238

Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks  

E-print Network

Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks CHAN-CHIAO LIN1 , SOONIL JEON2 was initiated, aiming to duplicate the success of the hybrid powertrain on passenger cars to light and heavy economy improvement demonstrated by several prototype hybrid passenger cars, produced under

Peng, Huei

239

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

240

NREL's Isothermal Battery Calorimeters are Crucial Tools for Advancing Electric-Drive Vehicles  

E-print Network

battery safety and life issues long before cars are delivered to dealers' lots, making hybrid and electricNREL's Isothermal Battery Calorimeters are Crucial Tools for Advancing Electric-Drive Vehicles, and plug-in hybrids. But before more Americans switch to electric-drive vehicles, automakers need batteries

241

AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If youre an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact theCAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

2013-04-18

242

Innovative hybrid gas/electric chiller cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

January Progress--A kick-off meeting was held in San Diego with Alturdyne on January 21st. The proposed hybrid gas/electric chiller/cogenerator design concept was discussed in detail. The requirements and functionality of the key component, a variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator was presented. Variations of the proposed design were also discussed based on their technical feasibility, cost and market potential. The discussion is documented in a Trip Report. February Progress--After significant GRI/Alturdyne discussion regarding alternative product design concepts, the team made a decision to continue with the proposed product design, a hybrid chiller capable of also providing emergency power. The primary benefits are: (a) the flexibility and operating cost savings associated with the product's dual fuel capability and (b) the emergency power feature. A variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator would significantly increase the cost of the product while providing marginal benefit. (The variable speed, constant frequency motor generator is estimated to cost $25,000 versus $4,000 for a constant speed version). In addition, the interconnection requirements to the electric grid would significantly limit market penetration of the product. We will proceed with a motor/generator design capable of serving as the electric prime mover for the compressor as well as the generator for emergency power needs. This component design is being discussed with two motor manufacturers. The first generation motor/generator will not be a variable speed, constant frequency design. The variable speed, constant frequency capability can be an advancement that is included at a later time. The induction motor/synchronous generator starts as a wound rotor motor with a brushless exciter and control electronics to switch between induction mode and synchronous mode. The exciter is a three-phase exciter with three phase rotating diode assembly. In the induction motor mode, the field windings are shorted out by SCRs located across the field. In the synchronous mode, a small ct on one of the exciter leads would power the rotating exciter electronics. Upon sensing exciter current, the electronics would automatically open the SCRs allowing synchronous operation. Quotes will be obtained from American Motor and Reuland, two motor/generator vendors. March Progress--A product layout was completed. The width is reduced significantly from the original hybrid design because the evaporator and condenser tube in shell heat exchangers are located below the engine/motor/compressor drive-line. Alturdyne is searching for a consultant to perform a drive-line torsional analysis. This analysis is necessary to ensure that the drive-line is not subject to undue vibrations operating through its entire speed range. Much effort was directed toward motor/generator selection. A decision was made to use Reuland Electric. A motor with double-end shafts will be purchased. The design effort which will be completed at Alturdyne will involve the modification of the wound rotor motor to also provide synchronous power. Work has been completed on developing the new controller which will be utilized for the original hybrid product as well as this advanced product. Work continues toward developing a manufacturing cost estimate. A detailed bill of material will be developed for the product. Key components include the engine, compressor and motor/generator.

Nowakowski, G.

2000-04-01

243

Smart grid and electric transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern electric power grid with wind energy is a complex adaptive system under semiautonomous distributed control. It is spatially and temporally complex, non-convex, nonlinear and nonstationary with a lot of uncertainties. The integration of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles increases the complexity and challenges to the various controllers at all levels of the power grid. Charging large number of

G. K. Venayagamoorthy

2009-01-01

244

Pictorial characterization of worldwide electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation given is intended to fulfill the several objectives of (1) documenting the pictorial review presented during ERDA's March 1, 1977, Conference on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration Project; (2) pictorially characterizing the present state of the electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) art on an international scale; and (3) providing examples of the class of products expected to

R. S. Kirk; K. F. Barber

1977-01-01

245

A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

DelRosario, Ruben

2014-01-01

246

Reinforcement Learning Based Power Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power management, reinforcement learning. 1. INTRODUCTION Automobiles have from the increasing number of automobiles in use around the world have drawn attention of researchers and developers towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles

Pedram, Massoud

247

MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR INTEGRATED HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE DYNAMIC STABILITY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expanded an existing full car dynamic model (HVOSM.VD2) to enable simulation of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles with integrated vehicle stability systems. A prototype range extending series hybrid vehicle was constructed with independent front wheel drives. A hybrid vehicle stability assist (VSA) algorithm was developed to perform proportional control of yaw rate through left\\/right distribution of

Joel R. Anstrom

2003-01-01

248

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems  

E-print Network

Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool systèmes de propulsion hybride et électrique: un outil avancé et intégré dans une chaîne complète dédiée à and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool Integrated in a Complete

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing oil prices, there is fast growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) globally. Thus, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop emerging energy-efficient devices for various kinds of HEVs, including the micro hybrids, mild hybrids, and full hybrids. In this paper, three key emerging energy-efficient technologies are identified and discussed: 1) the thermoelectric waste-heat recovery and

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

2007-01-01

250

Determining PHEV Performance Potential User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems Hymotion Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systemss HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

John G. Smart; Huang Iu

2009-05-01

251

Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge

Eckhard Karden; Serv e Ploumen; Birger Fricke; Ted Miller; Kent Snyder

2007-01-01

252

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

253

Power electronics layout in a hybrid electric or electric vehicle drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power electronics in a drive system of a hybrid electric or electric car can be subdivided in different function blocks without considering the effective concept of the drive system (series\\/parallel hybrid, range extender) or the kind of electrical machine in use (direct\\/alternating current machines). This paper identifies the main function blocks and discusses the requirements and possible solutions. Some

A. Vezzini; K. Reichert

1996-01-01

254

ETT 4150 - Fundamentals of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains presentations from a three credit course offered at Wayne State University focused on the following hybrid electricand electric vehicle (HEV/EV) technologies: concepts and design, energy analysis, unified model approach, hybridization, hybrid powertrain architectures, internal combustion engines for HEVs, transmissions used in HEVs, and on-board energy storage. At WSU, ET 3450 (Applied Calculus and Differential Equations) and PHY 2140 (General Physics) are prerequisites to this course. The presentation titles are: 1. Introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV/PHEV), 2. Overview of Vehicle Road Load, 3. Hybrid Powertrain Configurations, 4. Vehicle Electrification, 5. Hybrid Powertrain Components, 6. Overview of Electrically Variable Transmissions (EVT), 7. Electric Machines, 8. Power Electronics Pt. 1, 9. Power Electronics Pt. 2, 10. On-Board Energy Storage, Battery Cell Management, State Estimation, Cell Balancing, and Charging Schemes, 11. Battery Management Systems (BMS), 12. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking, 13. Modeling and Simulation Software for Vehicle System and Driveline Analysis, and 14. HEV/PHEV/EV Future Trends.

255

Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

Andrew Frank

2006-05-31

256

Optimally Controlling Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Path Forecasting  

E-print Network

The paper examines path-dependent control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). In this approach we seek to improve HEV fuel economy by optimizing charging and discharging of the vehicle battery depending on the forecasted ...

Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

257

Path dependent receding horizon control policies for hybrid electric vehicles  

E-print Network

Future hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may use path-dependent operating policies to improve fuel economy. In our previous work, we developed a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for prescribing the battery state of charge ...

Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

258

Optimally controlling hybrid electric vehicles using path forecasting  

E-print Network

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with path-forecasting belong to the class of fuel efficient vehicles, which use external sensory information and powertrains with multiple operating modes in order to increase fuel economy. ...

Katsargyri, Georgia-Evangelina

2008-01-01

259

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

Burke, A. F.

1993-09-01

260

Introducing a silicon carbide inverter for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a power converter that can be used in hybrid electric vehicle applications. The unique characteristic of this converter is that it is based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors. It is intended for a belt driven alternator and starter (BAS), a design suggested by general motors, in a mild hybrid car. SiC is an innovative technology that seems

A. Antonopoulos; H. Bangtsson; M. Alakula; S. Manias

2008-01-01

261

Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

2000-01-01

262

Implementation of a Highly Reliable Hybrid Electric Scooter Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to hybrid electric cars (HECs), the issues concerning cost, volume, and reliability are even more rigorous when developing hybrid electric scooters (HESs). Therefore, the drive topology and control strategy used in HEC cannot be applied to HES directly. This paper presents a single-stage bidirectional dc\\/ac converter based on a general full-bridge inverter. The converter is designed for a

Cheng-Hu Chen; Ming-Yang Cheng

2007-01-01

263

Retrofitting a used car with hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design concept of converting a conventional used car to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The existing propulsion system using an internal combustion engine(ICE) was replaced by an electric drive, which is supplied by batteries and an on-board generator. The propulsion system is configured as a series-hybrid concept. The input energy can come either from the on-board

Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2009-01-01

264

Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one

Srdjan M. Lukic; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

265

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

266

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

267

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

268

Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2011-01-01

269

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the 'ground-up' hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a 1 km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

Wipke, K. B.; Hill, N.; Larsen, R. P.

1994-01-01

270

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

Wipke, K.B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-01-01

271

Redox flow batteries for hybrid electric vehicles: Progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles have been the focus of much research over the last two decades as the world has sought improved energy utilization and reduced emissions. However, the lengthy charging time, modest range and relatively sluggish performance of batteries have restricted the commercialization of electric vehicles. Hybrid propulsion can overcome most of these shortcomings, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions

Mohd R. Mohamed; Suleiman M. Sharkh; Frank C. Walsh

2009-01-01

272

A virtual prototype for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual prototype of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is created within the virtual test bed (VTB) environment, which has been developed for modeling, simulation, analysis and virtual prototyping of large-scale multi-technical dynamic systems. Attention is focused on the electric system, which is composed of (i) a fuel cell system as a prime power source, (ii) battery and super capacitor

Levent U. Gkdere; Khalid Benlyazid; Roger A. Dougal; Enrico Santi; Charles W. Brice

2002-01-01

273

System design and development of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) are a promising means of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performance. Reducing emissions is important because pollution in cities is almost entirely due to transport and is linked to the illness and death of many people. This paper describes the

B. A. Kalan; H. C. Lovatt; M. Brothers; V. Buriak

2002-01-01

274

The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where environment protection and energy conservation are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has taken on an accelerated pace. The dream of having commercially viable EVs and HEVs is becoming a reality. EVs and HEVs are gradually available in the market. This paper will provide an overview of the present

C. C. Chan

2002-01-01

275

Development of a compressed natural gas electric hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near term compressed natural gas (CNG) parallel electric hybrid vehicle has been developed which utilizes the Plymouth Neon as a base vehicle. The primary aim was to retain all the consumer desired features of the base vehicle as well as providing in addition short range electric capability

M. R. Seal

1995-01-01

276

LEARN MORE @ HYBRID ELECTRIC SAVING FUEL = SAVING MONEY = CLEANER AIR  

E-print Network

. PROJECT PARTNERS Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of an internal combustion engine the combustion engine is assisted by the electric motor, allowing the engine to run at more optimal operating. Diesel engines are more efficient and diesel fuel has more energy per gallon than gasoline. www

277

Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements  

E-print Network

(ElectricOIL) system that significantly increased the discharge performance, supersonic cavity gain1 Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge, Gain, and Power Enhancements G. F. Benavides,1,5 A. D. Palla,1 D. M iodine at 1315 nm was pumped by the production of O2(a1 ) in a radio-frequency discharge in an O2/He

Carroll, David L.

278

Physical model of a hybrid electric drive train  

E-print Network

A motor and flywheel system was designed to simulate the dynamics of the electric drive train and inertial mass of a hybrid electric vehicle. The model will serve as a test bed for students in 2.672 to study the energy ...

Young, Brady W. (Brady William)

2006-01-01

279

Fuel Cell Supercap Hybrid Electric Power Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cells have the potential to change the propulsion system for cars. In a joint project Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), ETH Zrich, FEV Motorentechnik, and Volkswagen have developed the fuel cell hybrid vehicle \\

Felix N. Bchi; Akinori Tsukada; Paul Rodatz; Olivier Garcia; Martin Ruge; Rdiger Ktz; Martin Brtschi; Philipp Dietrich

280

Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car  

SciTech Connect

Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

NONE

1994-03-07

281

Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics - opportunities and challenges  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of technologies that employ both optical and electrical forces to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro and nano scale. These technologies, which have emerged primarily over the last decade, have provided a revolutionary and fresh perspective at fundamental electrokinetic processes, as well as have engendered a novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimeter-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.

Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Williams, Stuart J. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chuang, Han-sheng [University of Pennsylvania; Green, Nicolas [University of Southampton, England; Wereley, Steven G. [Purdue University

2011-01-01

282

Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge  

SciTech Connect

From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

1995-06-01

283

Simulation and field-testing of hybrid ultra-capacitor\\/battery energy storage systems for electric and hybrid-electric transit vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of ultra-capacitors combined with batteries as an improved energy storage system for electric, hybrid electric, and hybrid fuel cell transit vehicles. A demonstrator hybrid electric vehicle with an ultra-capacitor system was constructed and used to validate simulations. Results suggest a significant reduction in peak currents experienced by the battery pack in drive cycles with a

Joel R. Anstrom; Benjamin Zile; Kandler Smith; Heath Hofmann; Amit Batra

2005-01-01

284

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type,

K. B. Wipke; N. Hill; R. P. Larsen

1994-01-01

285

Ring Shaped Motor-Integrated Electric Drive for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric drive with motor integrated power electronics for the use in hybrid electric vehicles is presented. Novel technologies and specially designed components to fulfil the excessive temperature and restricted space requirements are shown. They allow a low cost full integration of the electric drive in a passenger car power train. The converter has circular shape and is inserted in

Y. Tadros; J. Ranneberg; U. Schfer

286

Unified modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridizing automotive drivetrains, or using more than one type of energy converter, is considered an important step toward very low pollutant emission and high fuel economy. The automotive industry and governments in the United States, Europe, and Japan have formed strategic initiatives with the aim of cooperating in the development of new vehicle technologies. Efforts to meet fuel economy and

Giorgio Rizzoni; Lino Guzzella; Bernd M. Baumann

1999-01-01

287

Switch Systems Theory Apply to the Energy Control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) driving process including both continuous-time dynamic systems and the discrete event dynamic systems, is a typical hybrid system model. Based on a hybrid electric vehicle dynamics theory study, analyze the power demand of hybrid cars in the different operating modes, then construct a class of switched systems. Through the rational design of switching rules, make hybrid

Guohui Ren; Fei Long

2011-01-01

288

Hybrid car with electric and heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set of rear wheels. There is also a system for selecting electric or heat engine drive either manually or automatically and a

G. M. Fields; R. G. Metzner

1982-01-01

289

Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

2007-09-18

290

Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model-based strategy for the real-time load control of parallel hybrid vehicles is presented. The aim is to develop a fuel-optimal control which is not relying on the a priori knowledge of the future driving conditions (global optimal control), but only upon the current system operation. The methodology developed is valid for those problem that are characterized

Antonio Sciarretta; Michael Back; Lino Guzzella

2004-01-01

291

Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

Dees, D. W.

1999-02-12

292

Report on the Field Performance of A123Systemss HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systemss HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

Huang Iu; John Smart

2009-04-01

293

Hybrid electric 40 foot heavy duty transit bus  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the development of an advanced hybrid electric drive system for a ULEV transit bus. In transit applications, hybrid electric drive systems enjoy distinct advantages over all battery powered electric and conventional diesel drive systems. These advantages include reduced weight, high efficiency, extended range, and reduced emissions. For this application a conventional RTS T80208 transit bus was converted from diesel to hybrid electric drive, consisting of a 190 kW brushless DC permanent magnet traction motor, a propane fueled rotary engine generator set, nickel cadmium batteries, and control and power conditioning electronics. The 120 kW generator set was sized to supply the auxiliary power and mean propulsion power with the engine running at nearly constant speed at its highest efficiency and lowest emission operating point. The nominal 270 volt battery pack was sized to supply peak power of up to 120 kW; battery charging was achieved either through regenerative braking or the generator set. Passenger capacity and operational capability remain unchanged as a result of the conversion. The hybrid electric bus can run urban routes over a ten hour day without refueling or external battery charging. A detailed description of the system is provided in this paper.

Rezza, P. Jr.; Wu, A. [Kaman Electromagnetic Corp., Hudson, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

294

A genetic-based methodology for hybrid electric vehicles sizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As private transport concerns, the global challenge of this millennium is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from\\u000a passenger cars by improving fuel economy without sacrificing the vehicle performance. Hybrid electric vehicles powertrain,\\u000a combining electric motor with an auxiliary power unit, can improve effectively the vehicle performance and fuel economy, reducing\\u000a at the same time the effects of the use

Vincenzo Galdi; Lucio Ippolito; Antonio Piccolo; Alfredo Vaccaro

2001-01-01

295

IPM motor drives for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21st century, global warming has become an important issue. Carbon dioxide (Co2) gas emissions should be reduced to preserve the correct air quality as per Kyoto protocol, implemented on February 16, 2005 by most of the countries. Modern human beings, who enjoy the fruits of electric energy technologies for climate controlled home and work place environments via air

M. A. Rahman

2007-01-01

296

2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

2014-09-01

297

Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation,

Csaba Toth-Nagy

2004-01-01

298

United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

Not Available

2010-02-01

299

Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2002-01-01

300

Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE\\/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the

Robert F Nelson

2000-01-01

301

Impact of hybrid and electric vehicles on automobile recycling infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling infrastructure for end-of-use vehicles in the United States is driven by profitability due to the absence of regulations. Typically, the recycling consists of removing reusable components for resale and shredding and separating remaining material for material recovery. Profitability depends on the quantity and type of components and material recovered. Because the material composition of hybrid and electric vehicles

Deogratias Kibira; Sanjay Jain

2011-01-01

302

Modeling of an electrical power transmission system using hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we proceed to the modeling of an electric power transmission system, using hybrid input\\/output automata (HIOA), based on a framework presented in our previous work. The system is assumed to consist of several distinct components. Some of them such as loads drive the continuous dynamics while others such as protection devices exhibit event-driven discrete dynamics. Such behavior

George K. Fourlas

2005-01-01

303

Battery management system for series-hybrid electric shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a battery management system (BMS) of a lead-acid battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) shuttle bus is presented. The BMS is a necessary component for an optimal operation of power-train in the SHE V shuttle bus including for timely detection of an abnormal condition during charging and discharging the battery pack. The presented BMS

Teerayut Piboonrujananon; Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2011-01-01

304

Optimization Approach to Hybrid Electric Propulsion System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentally friendly ground vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional vehicles require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance, and emissions. The research objective here is to integrate hybrid electric vehicle simulations with high-fidelity engine modules, to increase the accuracy of predictions, and to allow design studies in the concept evaluation stage. This paper

D. Assanis; G. Delagrammatikas; R. Fellini; Z. Filipi; J. Liedtke; N. Michelena; P. Papalambros; D. Reyes; D. Rosenbaum; A. Sales; M. Sasena

1999-01-01

305

Conceptual design of a hybrid electric off-road vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the conceptual design of a hybrid electric off-road vehicle. The vehicle is intended to be used in Colombia (South America) where the topographical conditions require special considerations for the design of the critical systems. A study and preliminary design of the power supply system, the suspension and the powertrain are presented.

L. E. Munoz; J. C. Blanco; J. P. Barreto; N. A. Rincon; S. D. Roa

2012-01-01

306

First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by theCAAT.

307

Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1980-01-01

308

PSIM-based modeling of automotive power systems: conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive manufacturers have been taking advantage of simulation tools for modeling and analyzing various types of vehicles, such as conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles. These simulation tools are of great assistance to engineers and researchers to reduce product-development cycle time, improve the quality of the design, and simplify the analysis without costly and time-consuming experiments. In this paper, a

Shigeru Onoda; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

309

Hybrid and Electric Automotive Systems: Combined Electrical, Mechanical, and Fuel Cell Opportunities for Personal Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric automobiles are clean, efficient, and powerful but are limited in range. Hybrid designs seek to enhance range through the use of liquid fuel. The energy, force, and power needs of a typical car are reviewed. The relationship to fuel cells as energy sources is discussed. Opportunities in the electrical arena, the mechanical arena, and the fuel cell arena are

Philip T. Krein

2006-01-01

310

Electric drive subsystem for a low-storage requirement hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating an electric machine drive system into the powertrain of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) represents a challenging exercise in packaging complex electromechanical and power electronic subsystems. The Ford combined alternator starter (FCAS) and its attendant power and control electronics are physically partitioned because power electronics has not yet evolved to the stage in which fully packaged drives can be

John M. Miller; Allan R. Gale; V. Anand Sankaran

1999-01-01

311

An intelligent battery management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the keys to the acceptance of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the increased longevity of the large battery packs used in the vehicles. The objective of this research is to develop an intelligent battery management system that will lengthen the lifetime of the battery pack. The key to this operation is monitoring and charging of individual batteries

Manoj Maskey; Micheal Parten; Darrell Vines; Tim Maxwell

1999-01-01

312

Overview of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing concerns on our environment, there is a fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs) from automakers, governments, and customers. As electric drives are the core of both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric-drive systems. In this paper, an overview of permanent-magnet (PM) brushless (BL) drives for

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan; Chunhua Liu

2008-01-01

313

2001-01-1334 Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

E-print Network

1 2001-01-1334 Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed global crude oil supplies stimulate research aimed at new, fuel-efficient vehicle technologies. Hybrid-electric

Peng, Huei

314

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

315

Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles independent. Thus, these control strategies are predestinated for the use in a real vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV), control strategies, optimization. 1. Introduction Due to the structure of hybrid-electric

Paderborn, Universität

316

The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-print Network

INVITED P A P E R The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more the state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. The topologies for each category

Leung, Ka-Cheong

317

On-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM  

E-print Network

configurations: Conventional Diesel (2002) $270k ­ Detroit Diesel Series 40 Engine, 280 hp Hybrid Diesel ­ Creates electrical energy Parallel Hybrid Components... Diesel Engine/ Generator Electric Motor/ GeneratorOn-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM Mass and Size-Resolved Number Emissions

Holmén, Britt A.

318

Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study  

SciTech Connect

To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

1997-12-01

319

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

1992-01-01

320

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D. W.

1980-01-01

321

Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2002-08-27

322

Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2002-01-01

323

Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

1999-03-01

324

DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DSP based ultracapacitor system for hybrid-electric vehicles has been implemented and tested successfully. The system can work with different primary power sources like fuel-cells, microturbines, zinc-air batteries or other supply unable to recover energy from regenerative braking, or with scarce power capacity for fast acceleration. The ratings of the ultracapacitor bank are: nominal voltage: 300 Vdc; nominal current: 200

Juan W. Dixon; Micah Ortzar; Jorge Moreno

325

Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the need for modeling and simulation of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modeling examples. The modeling and simulation capabilities of existing tools such as Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), PSIM, and Virtual Test

David Wenzhong Gao; Chris Mi; Ali Emadi

2007-01-01

326

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of

Robert H Staunton; Curtis William Ayers; J. N. Chiasson; Timothy A Burress; Laura D Marlino

2006-01-01

327

Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

Eissler, H. C.

1981-01-01

328

Cost benefits and vehicle-to-grid regulation services of unidirectional charging of electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to show that with proper power-draw scheduling and dynamic pricing, a unidirectional charger can provide cost benefits and regulation services to the grid. In this work, power scheduling aspects of electric and plug- in hybrid vehicles are addressed. The use of electric vehicles (EVs) as demand response resources and unidirectional vehicle- to-grid benefits are

Mcdavis A. Fasugba; Philip T. Krein

2011-01-01

329

DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon  

E-print Network

DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon Department of Electrical to an electric vehicle at the Universidad Católica de Chile. These results will lead to conclusions about of primary source in hybrid-electric vehicles. The efficiency gain is being monitored at the ultracapacitor

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

330

Electrical Machines and Drives for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relative merits of induction, switched reluctance, and permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines and drives for application in electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, with particular emphasis on PM brushless machines. The basic operational characteristics and design requirements, viz. a high torque\\/power density, high efficiency over a wide operating range, and a high maximum speed capability, as well

Z. Q. Zhu; David Howe

2007-01-01

331

Grid Power Quality Improvements Using Grid-Coupled Hybrid Electric Vehicles PEMD 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the interaction between grid-coupled full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and the grid. The interaction allows the hybrid vehicle to travel a significant part of the time in all-electric mode. On the other hand, the grid coupling allows the grid to use the hybrid car as a controllable load and energy storage facility, enabling a higher penetration of

S. De Breucker; J. Driesen; R. Belmans

332

Study on the optimization of charge-discharge cycle of electric vehicle batteries in the context of Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing environmental concerns are moving electric vehicles into high gear of development. Plug-in type electric and hybrid vehicles are expected in the market anytime. The EV battery- charging load can potentially increase the demand on the utility distribution systems considerably. It is desirable that the EV battery charging load be contained during system off-peak hours without affecting the peak demand,

G. B. Shrestha; B. C. Chew

2007-01-01

333

Modeling Mechanical Subsystems of the Hybrid Electric Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is part of the course Intro to Mechatronics at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. In the lab students are introduced to the use of planetary gearsets and their application to hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmissions. Students are first familiarized with the planetary gearset equation and then use MAT Lab software to visualize the relationship between input data and the resulting output torque and speed through the gear set. All MAT Lab files are included.

University, Lawrence T.

334

Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

1981-01-01

335

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

Heitner, K. L.

1980-01-01

336

Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

Schwartz, H. J.

1980-01-01

337

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

338

Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

2001-03-06

339

Modeling of hybrid electric vehicles using gyrator theory: application to design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and design of advanced vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and more electric cars (MEC) are challenging because of the presence of two power plants in the vehicle, i.e., an internal combustion engine (ICE) or a fuel cell and an electric power plant. For the modeling of such complex hybrid systems, the gyrator theory has many advantages. The

J. Y. Routex; S. Gay-Desharnais; M. Ehsani

2000-01-01

340

Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

2013-12-01

341

Optical interconnection module integrated on a flexible optical\\/electrical hybrid printed circuit board  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical interconnection module directly integrated on a flexible optical\\/electrical hybrid printed circuit board (O\\/E hybrid PCB) is presented. A newly proposed polymeric optical waveguide plays roles in the optical path and in a platform as an O\\/E hybrid PCB integrated with various optical\\/electrical components. The fabricated flexible O\\/E hybrid PCB had sufficient optical characteristics such as a low bending

Woo-Jin Lee; Sung Hwan Hwang; Jung Woon Lim; Che Hyun Cho; Gye Won Kim; Byung Sup Rho

2009-01-01

342

Abstract--This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV),  

E-print Network

is their high-capacity battery storage system which tends to degrade with time and cycling [7-9]. This paper using a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy. Second, we also minimize total battery health degradation over the course of the 24-hour cycle. This degradation is predicted

Krstic, Miroslav

343

Structural and electrical characterization of hybrid metal-polypyrrole nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the synthesis and structural characterization of hybrid Au-polypyrrole-Au and Pt-polypyrrole-Au nanowires together with a study of their electrical properties from room temperature down to very low temperature. A careful characterization of the metal-polymer interfaces by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure and mechanical strength of bottom and upper interfaces are very different. Variable temperature electrical transport measurements were performed on both multiple nanowirescontained within the polycarbonate templateand single nanowires. Our data show that the three-dimensional Mott variable-range-hopping model provides a complete framework for the understanding of transport in polypyrrole nanowires, including nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and magnetotransport at low temperatures.

Gence, L.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Melinte, S.; Bayot, V.; Callegari, V.; Reynes, O.; Demoustier-Champagne, S.

2007-09-01

344

A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

Schwartz, H. J.

1983-01-01

345

Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

Kurtz, D. W.

1979-01-01

346

Hy-Prop Jet Boat Hybrid Propane/Hydrogen and Electric Powered  

E-print Network

1 Hy-Prop Jet Boat Hybrid Propane/Hydrogen and Electric Powered Jet Boat Senior Design Project July-Prop Jet Boat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..9 Figure 3: Floorboard design

Wood, Stephen L.

347

Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

1999-09-28

348

Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter without Inductors for Electric\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications\\u000a implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dcdc boost converter\\u000a to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design\\u000a for EV and HEV applications implemented without

S. Dhayanandh; A. P. Ramya Sri; S. Rajkumar; N. Lavanya

349

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

350

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

351

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

Heitner, K. L.

1980-12-04

352

An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies with Auto Electrical Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, labs, and syllabus designed to enhance automotive electrical courses with HEV technologies and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The PowerPoint provides a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. Its 190 slides and has two areas of focus: basic theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), electrical differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEVs (Ex: voltage, starter, and air conditioning), transaxle integration, power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, and multimeter use).Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs' electrical systems and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing. The labs supplementing the presentation cover HEV battery information, safety, system overview, insulation testing, and jump starting. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where HEV technologies were incorporated into an automotive electrical course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

353

STABILITY OF HYBRID SYSTEMS Michael S. Branicky, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Case Western Re-  

E-print Network

STABILITY OF HYBRID SYSTEMS Michael S. Branicky, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Case Western Re- serve University, USA Keywords: Hybrid systems, Lyapunov stability, Multiple Lyapunov functions, Schur, State space. Contents 1. Background and Motivation 1.1. What is a Hybrid System

Branicky, Michael S.

354

Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.  

PubMed

This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle. PMID:18262528

Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

2008-04-01

355

Switched reluctance drives for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Several characteristics of switched reluctance drive (SRD) systems, such as high torque density, high efficiency, fault tolerant operation, and simplicity of construction make them potentially attractive for electric vehicle (EV) traction applications. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the design and performance aspects of switched reluctance (SR) drive technology, with special emphasis on EV traction. Rotor/stator design and construction, choice of materials, electronic component selection, and production costs are some of the important design and manufacturing issues analyzed. Performance characteristics such as drive control, torque ripple and noise, fault tolerance, efficiency, torque-speed characteristics, and regeneration are discussed. Several of these design and manufacturing issues are compared with similar issues for drive systems currently used for electric vehicle applications. The results of the assessment show several benefits of applying SR motors in EV drives, including, high efficiency and excellent torque characteristics over a wide speed range, rugged and fault tolerant design, and the potential for economic mass production. However, further work is necessary and is being applied to improve torque ripple, noise and other drive systems design issues. The performance of an EV-suitable SRD and three competitive EV drive systems were compared by modeling these drives using SIMPLEV, the electric and hybrid vehicle simulation software. Each of the four drives was modeled to provide 45 kW to a BMW-E1 electric vehicle over the LA-92 driving cycle. The results suggest that the performance of SRDs is comparable to other state-of-the-art EV drive technologies.

Yelne, A.; Heitner, K.

1996-09-01

356

A new energy control strategy for a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and simulation of a Through The Road (TTR) Parallel Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) with continuous variable transmission (CVT) is described in this paper. The model of a Parallel Hybrid Electric powertrain in ADVISOR is modified for simulation of it. To achieve a better fuel economy and less emission, the internal combustion engine (ICE) should operate at high efficiency regions.

Behzad Asaei; Mahdi Habibidoost

2010-01-01

357

A novel hybrid integrated wind-PV micro co-generation energy scheme for village electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid wind\\/PV system for supplying an isolated small community with electrical energy is digitally simulated and presented in this paper. The proposed hybrid renewable green energy scheme has four key subsystems or components to supply the required electric loads. The first subsystem includes the renewable generation sources from PV array and wind turbine. The second is the interface converters

Adel M. Sharaf; Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed

2009-01-01

358

Continuously Variable Transmission Modifications and Control for a Diesel Hybrid Electric Powertrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) Vehicle Systems team modified a Nissan CK-2 Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) for a diesel hybrid powertrain application. Mechanical and electrical modifications were made to the CVT, both internal and external to the transmission. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of CVT for diesel engines hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)

M. Pasquier

359

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

Barnitt, R.

2008-03-01

360

The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the more stringent regulations on emissions and fuel economy, global warming, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on developing novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable hybrid electric powertrain. This paper reviews the state of the

C. C. Chan

2007-01-01

361

Analysis of the impact of PHEVs on the electric power distribution network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) take a greater share in the personal automobile market, their penetration levels may bring potential challenges to electric utility especially at the distribution level. This presentation focuses on the impacts of PHEVs on a residential distribution network with different charging strategies. In this context the distribution transformer loading with PHEVs is discussed and some possible

Saifur Rahman

2010-01-01

362

Optimal management of battery charging of electric vehicles: A new microgrid feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deployment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will put new challenges regarding the power systems operation. The MicroGrid (MG) concept can be exploited to support the progressive integration of PHEVs into the Low Voltage (LV) networks by developing smart charging strategies to manage the PHEVs batteries charging procedures in order to avoid reinforcements in the grid infrastructures. Assuming that

Ahmad Karnama; F. O. Resende; J. A. Pecas Lopes

2011-01-01

363

General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formulation of the instantaneous power split strategy between an IC engine and an electric machine in a charge-sustaining hybrid-electric vehicle is given. It is based on the instantaneous optimization of an equivalent fuel consumption. This approach involves a heuristic formulation to convert the electrical power flow into equivalent fuel cost based on the average cost of electricity through

Gino Paganelli; Gabriele Ercole; Avra Brahma; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni

2001-01-01

364

EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

1983-01-01

365

Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the operational characteristics of the topologies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and more electric vehicles (MEV). A brief description of series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and fuel cell-based propulsion systems are presented. The paper also presents fuel cell propulsion applications, more specific to light-duty passenger cars as well as heavy-duty buses. Finally, some of

Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara; Sheldon S. Williamson; Srdjan M. Lukic

2005-01-01

366

Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

Moore, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

367

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEVs fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

368

Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

2015-01-01

369

Methodology for combined Integration of electric vehicles and distributed resources into the electric grid  

E-print Network

Plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation are expected to appear in growing numbers over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and distributed generation can each ...

Gunter, Samantha Joellyn

2011-01-01

370

eVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and  

E-print Network

­ Ford Fusion Energi, Ford C-Max Energi, Honda Accord PHEV, Toyota Prius PHEV, Chevrolet Volty-road vehicle operation ­ 158,468,000 miles from 21,600 vehicles ­ Across the U.S. (i.e. widely varying regions ­ Idaho National Laboratory, Honda North America,y, , Ford Motor Company, Toyota Motor Engineering

California at Davis, University of

371

Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2001-01-01

372

An Overview of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a lab, PowerPoint presentation, and modified syllabus which all relate to Toyota's continuously variable HEV transmission. All materials were developed under a seed grant from the CAAT. The PowerPoint discusses the following: the use of a dry dampener in place of a torque converter,the various roles and controls of each motor in the transmission, structure and efficiency of motor magnets by angle orientation, speed sensor operation through magnets and coils, and power flow through the internal combustion engine, electric motors, batteries, transmission, and invertor under various driving conditions.The lab is intended to familiarize technicians with common service point locations and procedures on a Prius Hybrid (2003-2011) such as coolant bleed and fill (engine and inverter), transmission fluid drain and fill, high voltage wiring, auxiliary battery and precautions, and activating Inspection Mode. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where the HEV transmission was incorporated into an automotive transmissions and transaxles course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

373

BLDC motor drive system of air-condition of hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the research and development of electric compressor in the electric automobile have being focused on. In HEV (hybrid electric vehicle), the engine is turned off in the case of stop to raise fuel efficiency and prevent air pollution. The conventional air conditioner system which is worked by the engine power through belt connection can't provide cool air to inside

Tae Uk Jung; Sung Ho Lee; Sung Jun Park; Cheol Ho Yun; Yu Tao

2007-01-01

374

A control strategy to minimize fuel consumption of series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the problem of controlling the electricity generation of series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs) and proposes an algorithm with the goal to minimize fuel consumption. Starting from the knowledge of the vehicle electric generator consumption maps, as well as information on the vehicle battery behavior, and on some overall parameters characterizing the expected trip, the

Stefano Barsali; Carmine Miulli; Andrea Possenti

2004-01-01

375

A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. The parallel HEV control problem involves the determination of the time profiles of the power flows from the engine and the electric motor. This is also referred to as the power split between the conventional and the electric sources. The objective of HEV

Pierluigi Pisu; Giorgio Rizzoni

2007-01-01

376

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric storage (HEES) system is highly dependent on the implemented management policy. This paper presents to a Li- ion battery only storage system and outperforms other online HEES system control policies in all

Pedram, Massoud

377

New nitride-based devices for electrical detection of DNA hybridization  

E-print Network

In this thesis we designed and began the fabrication of three new solid state sensors for the detection of DNA hybridization through electrical measurements. The first sensor is a surface acoustic wave device with tapered ...

Sheffler, Ryan Taylor

2007-01-01

378

Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

2002-03-13

379

Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ahlheim, M.C. [Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-08-01

380

Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration

Vanessa Paladini; Teresa Donateo; Arturo de Risi; Domenico Laforgia

2007-01-01

381

Evaluation of motor characteristics for hybrid electric vehicles using the hardware-in-the-loop concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the concept of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) is applied to component testing, characteristic of component of hybrid electric vehicle in real vehicle environment can be evaluated without actually installing that component in real vehicle. In this paper, when commercially available test motor is adopted as a drivetrain of hybrid vehicle, we need to figure out which drive train configuration would be

Sung Chul Oh

2005-01-01

382

Fast Inverter Loss Simulation and Silicon Carbide Device Evaluation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated framework for modelling inverter performance and evaluating power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drives. Based in MATLAB\\/Simulink, it uses a novel method of decoupling the device and inverter simulation to maintain high accuracy of power losses and devices temperatures, and achieve faster than real time inverter simulation. An illustration is given for a full hybrid

A. T. Bryant; G. J. Roberts; A. Walker; P. A. Mawby

2007-01-01

383

Hybrid Cascaded H-bridges Multilevel Motor Drive Control for Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel motor drive control scheme for electric\\/hybrid electric vehicles where each phase of a three-phase cascaded multilevel converter can be implemented using only a single DC source and capacitors for the other DC sources. Traditionally, each phase of a three-phase cascaded multilevel converter requires n DC sources for 2n + 1 output voltage

Zhong Du; Leon M. Tolbert; John N. Chiasson; Burak Ozpineci; Hui Li; Alex Q. Huang

2006-01-01

384

HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION WITH WIND AND DIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wind/hybrid operation data were collected using an independent hybrid test grid consisting of three diesel generator sets, AOC 15/50 and Enertech 44/40 wind turbines, two resistive load banks, pre-commercial controls, with a simulated village load. Two configurations were tested, one using a synchro...

385

Power and energy storage devices for next generation hybrid electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Fuel conservation and environmental pollution control are the principal motivating factors that are urging at present widespread research and development activities for electric and hybrid vehicles throughout the world. The paper describes different possible energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor, and power sources, such as gasoline engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell for next generation hybrid electric vehicle. The technology trend and comparison in energy storage and power devices indicate that battery and gasoline engine, respectively, will remain the most viable devices for hybrid vehicle at least in the near future.

Bose, B.K.; Kim, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kankam, M.D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1996-12-31

386

"Plug-In" for More Active Online Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses plug-ins, software programs that connect to an World Wide Web browser and enhance its functionality. Highlights finding the software; downloading and using plug-ins; and educational applications, including the document viewer, real-time chat, multimedia, map viewer, spelling checker, news network, sound and video, and real-time

Tuttle, Harry G.

1997-01-01

387

Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid meniscus. From a detailed analysis of the meniscus curvature, the amount of bending of

Niels R. Tas; Petra Mela; Tobias Kramer; J. W. Berenschot; Berg van den Albert

2003-01-01

388

Investigating electrical contact resistance losses in lithium-ion battery assemblies for hybrid and electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are favored in hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles for their outstanding power characteristics. In this paper the energy loss due to electrical contact resistance (ECR) at the interface of electrodes and current-collector bars in Li-ion battery assemblies is investigated for the first time. ECR is a direct result of contact surface imperfections, i.e., roughness and out-of-flatness, and acts as an ohmic resistance at the electrode-collector joints. A custom-designed testbed is developed to conduct a systematic experimental study. ECR is measured at separable bolted electrode connections of a sample Li-ion battery, and a straightforward analysis to evaluate the relevant energy loss is presented. Through the experiments, it is observed that ECR is an important issue in energy management of Li-ion batteries. Effects of surface imperfection, contact pressure, joint type, collector bar material, and interfacial materials on ECR are highlighted. The obtained data show that in the considered Li-ion battery, the energy loss due to ECR can be as high as 20% of the total energy flow in and out of the battery under normal operating conditions. However, ECR loss can be reduced to 6% when proper joint pressure and/or surface treatment are used. A poor connection at the electrode-collector interface can lead to a significant battery energy loss as heat generated at the interface. Consequently, a heat flow can be initiated from the electrodes towards the internal battery structure, which results in a considerable temperature increase and onset of thermal runaway. At sever conditions, heat generation due to ECR might cause serious safety issues, sparks, and even melting of the electrodes.

Taheri, Peyman; Hsieh, Scott; Bahrami, Majid

2011-08-01

389

Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.  

PubMed

Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach. PMID:25102381

Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

2014-12-24

390

Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

McKeever, JW

2005-06-16

391

A hybrid thermal energy storage system for managing simultaneously solar and electric energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid thermal energy storage system (HTESS) is proposed for managing simultaneously the storage of heat from solar and electric energy. Solar energy is stored during sunny days and released later during cloudy days or at night, and to smooth power demands, electric energy is stored during off peak periods and later used during peak periods. A heat transfer model

Zouhair Ait Hammou; Marcel Lacroix

2006-01-01

392

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck  

E-print Network

Unit. The motor is directly linked between the output of the clutch and the input to the transmission diesel engine, an electric motor, a Lithium-Ion battery, and an Eaton automated manual transmission. The electric motor, clutch, transmission, inverter, and the battery are incorporated to form a Hybrid Drive

Grizzle, Jessy W.

393

Derivation and Experimental Validation of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted a lot of attention due to environmental and efficiency reasons. Typically, an HEV combines two power trains, a conventional power source such as a gasoline engine, a diesel engine, or a fuel cell stack, and an electric drive system (involving a motor and a generator) to produce driving power with a potential of higher

Fazal U. Syed; Ming L. Kuang; John Czubay; Hao Ying

2006-01-01

394

Design of genetic-fuzzy control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) generate the power required to drive the vehicle via a combination of internal combustion engines and electric generators. To make HEVs as efficient as possible, proper management of the different energy elements is essential. This task is performed using the HEV control strategy. The HEV control strategy is the algorithm according to which energy is produced,

Amir Poursamad; Morteza Montazeri

2008-01-01

395

Radical innovation in a small firm: a hybrid electric vehicle development project at Volvo Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential paradigmatic shift in technology from the internal combustion engine to electric propulsion via hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) has been addressed by most automakers, and has produced very different outcomes. This paper uses the framework of core capabilities to discuss how the small automaker, Volvo Cars, made substantial progress in its HEV development using an approach based on limited

Hans Pohl; Maria Elmquist

2010-01-01

396

Packaging and performance of an IGBT-based hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly integrated hybrid electric vehicle of the series architecture has been built and tested. The vehicle essentially matches the performance of the stock car on which it is based-including full interior space, range, and dynamic performance. It approaches Federal ULEV targets with the engine in operation, and provides sufficient zero-emission (electric only) range for typical commuting. This is achieved

Philip T. Krein; T. G. Roethemeyer; R. A. White; Brandon R Masterson

1994-01-01

397

Starter-alternator for hybrid electric vehicle: comparison of induction and variable reluctance machines and drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results of using induction and variable reluctance machines as the starter-alternator in a hybrid electric vehicle. The frame sizes of these machines are dictated by transient engine cranking loads. Therefore, in their design, the machines are assumed to be in deep magnetic saturation and the resultant thermally constrained electric loadings are predicted from the calculated

John M. Miller; A. R. Gale; P. J. McCleer; F. Leonardi; J. H. Lang

1998-01-01

398

Fuzzy-logic-based torque control strategy for parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), torque assisting and battery recharging control using the electric machine is the key point for efficient driving. In this paper, by adopting the decision-making property of fuzzy logic, the driving map for an HEV is made according to driving conditions. In this fuzzy logic controller, the induction machine torque command is generated from

Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul

1998-01-01

399

High Efficiency Energy Storage System Design for Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Motor Drive Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new energy storage system (ESS) design including both batteries and ultracapacitors (UC) in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) applications. The conventional designs require a dc-dc converter to interface the UC unit. Herein, the UC can be directly switched across the motor drive dc-link during the peak power demands. The resulting wide voltage variation

Shuai Lu; Keith A. Corzine; Mehdi Ferdowsi

2006-01-01

400

A hybrid approach to measuring electrical activity in genetically specified neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically encoded fluorescent voltage probes is essential to image electrical activity from neuronal populations. Previous green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based probes have had limited success in recording electrical activity of neurons because of their low sensitivity and poor temporal resolution. Here we describe a hybrid approach that combines a genetically encoded fluorescent probe (membrane-anchored enhanced GFP) with dipicrylamine,

Baron Chanda; Rikard Blunck; Leonardo C Faria; Felix E Schweizer; Istvan Mody; Francisco Bezanilla

2005-01-01

401

Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

Stout, C. W.

1976-01-01

402

Application of Direct-Drive Wheel Motor for Fuel Cell Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a gearless wheel motor drive system specifically designed for fuel cell electric and hybrid electric vehicle propulsion application. The system includes a liquid-cooled axial flux permanent-magnet machine designed to meet the direct-drive requirements. The machine design implements techniques to increase the machine inductance in order to improve machine constant power range and high-speed efficiency. The implemented technique

Khwaja M. Rahman; Nitin R. Patel; Terence G. Ward; James M. Nagashima; Federico Caricchi; Fabio Crescimbini

2006-01-01

403

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2010 589 Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles  

E-print Network

consumption and emissions. Battery-powered electric vehicles (BEVs) seem like an ideal solution to deal are developing BEVs as small cars dedicated to short-distance trips. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) wereIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2010 589 Electric, Hybrid

Leung, Ka-Cheong

404

DNA hybridization detection on electrical microarrays using coulostatic pulse technique.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a novel application of transient coulostatic pulse technique for the detection of label free DNA hybridization on nm-sized gold interdigitated ultramicroelectrode arrays (Au-IDA) made in silicon technology. The array consists of eight different positions with an Au-IDA pair at each position arranged on the Si-based Biochip. Immobilization of capture probes onto the Au-IDA was accomplished by self-assembling of thiol-modified oligonucleotides. Target hybridization was indicated by a change in the magnitude of the time dependant potential relaxation curve in presence of electroactive Fe(CN)(6)(3-) in the phosphate buffer solution. While complementary DNA hybridization showed 50% increase in the relaxation potential, the non-complementary DNA showed a negligible change. A constant behaviour was noted for all positions. The dsDNA specific intercalating molecule, methylene blue, was found to be enhancing the discrimination effect. The changes in the relaxation potential curves were further corroborated following the ELISA like experiments using ExtraAvidine alkaline phosphatase labelling and redox recycling of para-aminophenol phosphate at IDAs. The coulostatic pulse technique was shown to be useful for identifying DNA sequences from brain tumour gene CK20, human herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and M13 phage. Compared to the hybridization of short chain ONTs (27 mers), the hybridization of long chain M13 phage DNA showed three times higher increase in the relaxation curves. The method is fast enough to monitor hybridization interactions in milli or microsecond time scales and is well suitable for miniaturization and integration compared to the common impedance techniques for developing capacitative DNA sensors. PMID:16574397

Dharuman, V; Nebling, E; Grunwald, T; Albers, J; Blohm, L; Elsholz, B; Wrl, R; Hintsche, R

2006-12-15

405

Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2003-06-24

406

Topology, Design, Analysis, and Thermal Management of Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

Power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit topologies, such as buck converters, voltage source inverters and bidirectional boost converters are challenged by system cost, efficiency, controllability, thermal management, voltage and current capability, and packaging issues. Novel topologies, such as isolated bidirectional DC/DC converters, multilevel converters, and Z-source inverters, offer potential improvement to hybrid vehicle system performance, extended controllability and power capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the topologies, design, and thermal management, and control of power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicle applications.

Mi, C.; Peng, F. Z.; Kelly, K. J.; O'Keefe, M.; Hassani, V.

2008-01-01

407

Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Peng; Jessy W. Grizzle; Jun-Mo Kang

2003-01-01

408

Energy Storage Options for Hybrid Diesel Electric Shunting Locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunting locomotives are required to produce high powers during shunting operations but may be idle for many hours each day. A key issue with a hybrid conversion is battery life. Shunting locomotives are required to develop typically 1000hp to 2000hp for periods of perhaps a few minutes and the battery is sized for its capacity to deliver instantaneous power. This

Peter Wolfs

409

Electromagnetic gearing applications in hybrid-electric vehicles  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the operation of electric machines as three port devices is studied in detail. Electric machines used in this manner are referred to as electromagnetic gears in this research. All possible steady-state operating modes of these three...

Sodhi, Sameer

2012-06-07

410

Optimal energy management for a seriesparallel hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present a new type of seriesparallel hybrid electric bus and its energy management strategy. This hybrid bus is a post-transmission coupled system employing a novel transmission as the seriesparallel configuration switcher. In this paper, the vehicle architecture, transmission scheme and numerical models are presented. The energy management system governs the mode switching between the series mode

Weiwei Xiong; Yong Zhang; Chengliang Yin

2009-01-01

411

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01

412

Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and Future Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

As hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are gaining more popularity in the market, the rule of the energy management system in the hybrid drivetrain is escalating. This paper classifies and extensively overviews the state-of-the-art control strategies for HEVs. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. From different perspectives, real-time solutions are qualitatively compared. Finally, a couple of important issues

Farzad Rajaei Salmasi

2007-01-01

413

Design of an innovative lead-acid battery for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative lead acid battery was designed specifically for use in a hybrid car. The battery has exceeded all of the minimum performance goals, and in many cases the optimistic target goals. The eV-1300, which features electrolyte circulation, has excellent energy density, power characteristics, efficiency, and cycle life. It is a good candidate battery for other hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles which require a relatively small cell size.

Baxa, M. S.; Weinlein, C. E.

414

Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain

Kerem Koprubasi

2008-01-01

415

Electrical detection of DNA immobilization and hybridization by streaming current measurements in microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Label-free electrical detection of surface DNA immobilization and hybridization via streaming current measurements in a microchannel is demonstrated. Streaming currents generated by the flow of deionised water through a polydimethysiloxane microchannel sealed on glass are measured using integrated Au electrodes and are sensitive to the density and polarity of the charge on the channel surface. An in-channel DNA hybridization protocol was developed. Streaming currents were monitored after each of protocol steps. The technique was applied to label free recognition of DNA hybridization and could distinguish between assays with complementary and non-complementary DNA strands.

Martins, D. C.; Chu, V.; Prazeres, D. M. F.; Conde, J. P.

2011-10-01

416

Electric and hybrid vehicles program. 5th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1981  

SciTech Connect

This fifth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413, as amended by Public Law 95-238, referred to as the Act) complies with the reporting requirements established in Section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing the Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. The Annual Report represents the major summary of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program activities; since July 1981, DOE has ceased publication of the EHV Quarterly Reports with Congressional approval. The fourth quarter activities for FY 1981 are included in this report. During FY 1981, significant progress was made toward implementing the policies established by Congress in the Act. There has been a noticeable increase in interest shown by both the automobile manufacturing and the supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. This year, the emphasis in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program shifted from vehicle demonstration and preparation for production readiness to research, development, test, and evaluation of advanced technologies to achieve the attributes necessary to make electric and hybrid vehicles a practical transportation alternative. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components, as well as total vehicle systems, continue to reveal significant progress toward providing industry with technology options that will result in vehicles with greater public acceptance.

None

1982-03-01

417

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Braking and Steering Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, lab sheet, and syllabi discussing HEVs' braking and steering systems. These materials are derived from three courses offered at Lewis and Clark Community College on automotive alignment, braking, and steering systems and were developed through a seed grant from the CAAT. The presentation discusses the circuitry and operations for HEV braking and steering systems, variations from traditional braking and steering power assist, and how to service brake pads on a Ford Escape Hybrid. The lab sheet should familiarize students with the variations and similarities between hybrid and conventional systems when servicing a HEV's brake pads such as placing the vehicle in Pad Service Mode. The provided syllabi includes highlighted sections where these HEV technologies were incorporated into alignment, brakes, and suspension courses at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

418

PNGV Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar and cycle life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle and calendar life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T.; Sutula, R.

2002-06-01

419

Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 24 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

2014-10-01

420

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

421

Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

1979-01-01

422

Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

E-print Network

. The model is composed of sub-models for the engine, mechanical brake, electric machine, converter, battery, drive shaft with gears, and road load with wind resistance. The model yields results which are rough approximations of component performance...

Buntin, David Leighton

1994-01-01

423

Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

1995-12-31

424

Collaborative Eclipse Plug-in Integration Architecture for stand alone  

E-print Network

Collaborative Eclipse Plug-in Integration Architecture for stand alone programs (agents) A project Report Summary By Shajil K Kalathil (04/29/2005) #12;Table of Contents 1. Eclipse Platform Overview................................................................ 3 2. Eclipse Cross Section

Jones, Edward

425

Sangam: a distributed pair programming plug-in for Eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pair programming, two programmers traditionally work side-by-side at one computer. However, in globally distributed organizations, long-distance collaboration is frequently necessary. Sangam is an Eclipse plug-in that allows Eclipse users in different locations to share a workspace so that they may work as if they were using the same computer. In this paper, we discuss the Sangam plug-in, and our

Chih-Wei Ho; Somik Raha; Edward F. Gehringer; Laurie Williams

2004-01-01

426

The IIT hybrid electric vehicle for the 1995 HEV Challenge competition  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois Institute of Technology designed and built a Hybrid Electric Power-Assist Vehicle out a 1991 Saturn SL2. The standard engine was replaced by a smaller Geo Metro internal combustion engine and a GE electric motor and controller. The goal was to build a car that was simple, reliable and competitive. This paper outlines the Hybrid Electric Vehicle design by the Illinois Institute of Technology (HEV) team. The approach was to utilize 3 main components, A Suzuki (Geo Metro) 3-cylinder engine, a Suzuki 3 speed automatic transmission and a General electric DC shunt motor and controller. IIT had been successful in the past by keeping their designs simple, which ensured both the reliability of and competitiveness of the vehicle. Thus, the goal for this year`s competition was to keep the car simple, reliable and competitive.

Carr, J.M.; Ruiz, F. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-09-01

427

Important kinetic effects in the hybrid ElectricOIL system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser action at 1315 nm on the I(2P 1/2) --> I(2P 3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O II(a1?) produced using a low-pressure electric discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds significantly higher levels of complexity to the post-discharge kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O II (a1?) generation system. In this paper, the discharge species output for laser operating conditions are discussed. Spatial measurements of O II(a1?) and O II (b1?) are reported, and various methods for the determination of atomic oxygen levels are discussed and compared. The injection of NO X into the system to benefit O II(a1?) production is investigated.

Zimmerman, Joseph W.; King, Darren M.; Palla, Andrew D.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Carroll, David L.; Laystrom, Julia K.; Benavides, Gabriel; Woodard, Brian S.; Solomon, Wayne C.; Rawlins, W. Terry; Davis, Steve J.; Heaven, Michael C.

2006-05-01

428

Advanced design of valve-regulated leadacid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles HEVs . The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery . capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge PSoC rfast-charge, electric-vehicle

L. T. Lam; R. H. Newnham; H. Ozgun; F. A. Fleming

2000-01-01

429

Electrically Controlled Magnetic Memory and Programmable Logic based on Graphene\\/Ferromagnet Hybrid Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the combining of the electrical effect on the exchange bias field with giant magneto-resistance effect of the graphene\\/ferromagnet hybrid structures reveals a new non-volatile magnetic random access memory device conception. In such device an electric bias realizes the writing bits instead a magnetic field of remote word line with high energy consumption. Interplay of two

Y. G. Semenov; J. M. Zavada; K. W. Kim

2009-01-01

430

A new hybrid model using electric field formulation for 3-D eddy current problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid finite-element-boundary integral method using an electric variational formulation (3-D code Trifou-e) is presented. Whitney's edge elements are used in conducting regions and the boundary element technique is used for exterior regions. The electric field is taken as the state variable for both of the regions, whether modeled by the finite-element or boundary-integral techniques, so that the problem of

Z. Ren; F. Bouillault; A. Razek; A. Bossavit; J. C. Verite

1990-01-01

431

Wisconsin electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project. Final report, 1981-1985  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education (WBVTAE) was selected by the US Department of Energy for participation in the National Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration Program. On September 30, 1985, the data collection phase of the project was completed. The project was to purchase ten (10) electric vehicles and assign five (5) to Northeast Wisconsin Technical Institute (NWTI) in Green Bay and five (5) vehicles to the Madison Area Technical College.

Not Available

1986-02-10

432

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites  

SciTech Connect

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J. Jr. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Li Chunyu [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Byun, Joon-Hyung [Composite Materials Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-010 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-17

433

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Barnitt, R. A.

2008-06-01

434

Integrated reluctance position sensor for the self-commutation of a hybrid linear electric actuator Cavarec Pierre-Emmanuel  

E-print Network

Integrated reluctance position sensor for the self-commutation of a hybrid linear electric actuator-commutation of a hybrid linear electric actuator Cavarec Pierre-Emmanuel, Hamid Ben Ahmed, Bernard Multon LESIR Britany branch Campus de Ker Lann 35170 Bruz France Cavarec@bretagne.ens-cachan.fr Keywords: Actuators, Highly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation and lab provide a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. Both were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through seed funding from the CAAT. The included slides reflect these changes made for HEV technologies. This resource has two areas of focus: HEV theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: Types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEV (Ex: intake, motor and transaxle integration), power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, multimeter use, and oil change). Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing.

College, Lewis A.

436

Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent

J. F. Warren

1992-01-01

437

Demand for electric vehicles in hybrid households: an exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the potential market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) from different research streams have failed to converge on a single, robust estimate. What these previous research streams share are untested or implausible assumptions about consumer response to new transportation technology. We frame the BEV purchase decision in terms of a household's entire stock of vehicles, car purchase behavior

Kenneth S. Kurani; Tom Turrentine; Daniel Sperling

1994-01-01

438

Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train  

E-print Network

this objective, a methodology based on electrical analogies and transducers theory is presented in this work. Using the powerful circuit theory to solve multi-disciplinary problems is not revolutionary, but applied to the design of advanced vehicles, it brings a...

Routex, Jean-Yves

2012-06-07

439

DCAC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have

Zhong Du; Burak Ozpineci; Leon M. Tolbert; John N. Chiasson

2009-01-01

440

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military\\/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control

Chan-Chiao Lin; Zoran Filipi; Yongsheng Wang; Loucas Louca; Huei Peng; Dennis Assanis; Jeffrey Stein

2001-01-01

441

Energy management system based on fuzzy control approach for hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize optimal distribution between two types of energy in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and assure the reasonable operation of motor and battery, an optimal method based on energy fuzzy control strategy is presented. The proposed energy fuzzy control strategy is modeled in SIMULINK and incorporated into the vehicle simulation software ADVISOR. Then, to the lack of the

Wang Yifeng; Zhang Yun; Wu Jian; Chen Ning

2009-01-01

442

Sliding mode based MTPA control system of IPMSM for hybrid electrical vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

mode variable structure control (SMVSC) strategy is applied to maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) vector control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) in order to meet the demand of strong anti disturbance ability for hybrid electric vehicles. Due to existence of intrinsic chattering in the sliding mode control, the sliding mode current controller based on an improved variable

Xudong Wang; Ningzhi Jin; Hanying Gao; Hesong Cui

2011-01-01

443

Sizing and experimental characterization of ultra-capacitors for small urban hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and the experimental tests of an ultra-capacitor pack used as an energy storage system in a small hybrid electric vehicle. This design consists in calculating the capacitance and the power of the capacitors, which are necessary to store kinetic energy during deceleration of the vehicle and then to accelerate the vehicle. In a second part,

Destiny LOUKAKOU; Hamid GUALOUS; Yuan Cheng; Christophe ESPANET; Frdric DUBAS

2010-01-01

444

Utility scale hybrid windsolar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a hybrid windsolar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

2008-01-01

445

A power system combining batteries and supercapacitors in a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid power system, which reduces the required hydrogen fuel cell power output by combining batteries and supercapacitors in an electric vehicle, is presented. It is shown that this combination can minimise vehicle costs in terms of capital outlay, weight, and fuel. The supercapacitors provide instantaneous peak power as the fuel cell responds to power demand

Michael B. Burnett; Lawrence J. Borle

2005-01-01

446

Genetic optimization of charging current for lead-acid batteries in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

VRLA batteries are of great importance in hybrid electric vehicle technology. They are generally equipped with intelligent chargers. The battery charger should be able to produce the desired charging current profile. Although reduction in charging time is unavoidable but the battery state of the health should not be sacrificed. In this paper a new model based optimization cost function is

H. Saberi; F. R. Salmasi

2007-01-01

447

Statistical Analysis of the Disturbance Sources characteristics on Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide application of the power electronic devices in hybrid electric vehicle, the electromagnetic environment of the car is getting more and more complex. After analyzing a large amount of real vehicle experimental data, the typical waveforms of the voltage and the frequency-domain characteristics of the common-mode current can be got by the statistical method. In this paper, the

Li Yulong; Wu Zhenjun; Wang Lifang

2010-01-01

448

Test and simulation of axial flux-motor characteristics for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power density is the main advantage of the axial flux motors compared to the conventional radial flux motors. Therefore, they are suitable candidates for the power train of hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, operating speed range and efficiency of axial flux motors can be improved by changing the air gap of the machine. In this paper, for each operating

Sung Chul Oh; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

449

Application of genetic algorithm for optimization of control strategy in parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of the genetic algorithm for the optimization of the control parameters in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The HEV control strategy is the algorithm according to which energy is produced, used, and saved. Therefore, optimal management of the energy components is a key element for the success of a HEV. In this study, based on

Morteza Montazeri-Gh; Amir Poursamad; Babak Ghalichi

2006-01-01

450

Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area

Giorgio Rizzoni

2005-01-01

451

Simulation and comparison of different energy management strategies of a series hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever increasing oil prizes as well as climatic issues and constantly rising development costs force the automotive industry to adapt their automotive concepts and design processes to meet these strict requirements. Vehicle simulations can contribute to these issues and support the car manufacturer. Simulating new concepts in advance reduces the need of building expensive prototypes instead. Building hybrid electric or

T. Bauml; D. Simic

2008-01-01

452

New DCDC Converter for Energy Storage System Interfacing in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energy storage devices such as batteries or supercapacitors is almost mandatory in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles, in order to guarantee load leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in transient operations. To this end, converters with bidirectional power flows are needed to connect the accumulators to the dc-link of the motor drive system. In this

Mario Marchesoni; Camillo Vacca

2007-01-01

453

Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. Economics play a major role as evidenced by oil prices in North America pressing upwards of $100\\/Bbl coupled with a customer preference for full size crossover and sport utility vehicles. The situation in Oceania is milder, but emerging markets such as China are experiencing automotive sector growth

John M. Miller

2006-01-01

454

Energy management in an automotive electric\\/heat engine hybrid powertrain using fuzzy decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how vehicle emissions legislation has caused interest in the heat engine electric hybrid vehicle to be renewed. The form of such a vehicle and the associated problem of the control of its powertrain are described. A controller for managing the powertrain which uses fuzzy logic to implement decision making is developed. Details are given of simulation experiments

S. D. Farrall; R. P. Jones

1993-01-01

455

Comparative Investigation of Series and Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Efficiencies Based on Comprehensive Parametric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess, analyze, and cross-compare efficiencies of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), a true drive train analysis needs to be executed. There exist two popular HEV topologies (series and parallel), with relatively large motors. Generally, the drive train efficiency can be simply yielded out by calculating the losses at each power stage in a series or parallel drive train

Xin Li; Sheldon S. Williamson

2007-01-01

456

Evaluation of electric motor and gasoline engine hybrid car using solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the utility of a hybrid car in which both power sources of an electric motor and a gasoline engine are used and solar cells are settled on the roof and the bonnet. An array of 1.6 kW solar cells was installed on the top of a building to charge the batteries by solar energy. Though the capacities of

K. Sasaki; M. Yokota; H. Nagayoshi; K. Kamisako

1997-01-01

457

What Every Technician Must Know: Safety First with Hybrid & Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on hybrid and electric vehicle technology program by Scott Rill and Janna Oakes of Arapahoe Community College, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Oakes, Janna; Rill, Scott

2013-08-14

458

The effect of social influence on consumers' hybrid electric vehicles adoption in Korea and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are alternatives to conventional vehicles, and have a critical role in migrating climate change and saving oil resources. Even though supported by government with several incentives, HEVs are still less accepted by consumers. Previous studies stated it mainly due to innovative perceived risks, such as perceived economic loss and psychology concern, but without considering the moderation

Chunmi Jeon; Jaeheung Yoo; Mun Kee Choi

2012-01-01

459

5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive  

E-print Network

could be a battery or a stepped down voltage from the high voltage battery pack or any source. When5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive Applications Faisal H Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 Abstract--A 5 kW multilevel modular capacitor clamped dc-dc converter (MMCCC

Tolbert, Leon M.

460

An Optimal Fuzzy Logic Power Sharing Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

torque is generated by a combined contribution from an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and an Induction economy, and emissions. Index Terms--Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Internal Combustion Engine alternatives solutions to conventional vehicles, which are driven only by internal combustion engines (ICE

Brest, Université de

461

Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamics experiment and study were carried out for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that are expected as the power sources for electric and hybrid vehicles. It is confirmed that the heat coming in and going out depend on charging and discharging, respectively. And the thermal generation factors will be decomposed to three elements: reaction heat value Qr, polarization heat value Qp,

Noboru Sato

2001-01-01

462

New Estimation Filtering for Battery Management Systems of Lead-Acid Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper proposes a new estimation filtering for battery management systems of lead-acid cells in hybrid electric vehicles. The well known finite impulse response (FIR) filter is adopted for the estimation filtering. The proposed method provides the filtered estimates for the output voltage as well as voltages across the bulk and surface capacitors. These filtered estimates have good inherent

Pyung-Soo Kim

2007-01-01

463

Battery pack modeling for the analysis of battery management system of a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery forms a critical part of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivetrain. An important constraint to the effective performance and reliability of the battery is its unpredictable internal resistance variation along the driving cycle. Temperature has a considerable effect on this internal resistance and thus the battery management system monitors cell and battery pack temperature in accordance with the state-of-charge

Chitradeep Sen; N. C. Kar

2009-01-01

464

Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

2014-01-01

465

Measurements of Improved Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge Performance, Gain, and Laser Power  

E-print Network

cavity gain, and laser power output. Experimental investigations of radio- frequency discharges in O2/He length cavity). II. Transverse Discharge Experiments Use of the well-calibrated gas laser facility1 Measurements of Improved Hybrid ElectricOIL Discharge Performance, Gain, and Laser Power D. L

Carroll, David L.

466

Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the

Titina Banjac; Ferdinand Trenc; Toma Katranik

2009-01-01

467

Development of High-efficiency 42V Cooling Fan Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has objective to develop a 42V cooling fan system adopting a 42V BLDC fan motor with metal powdered core for hybrid electric vehicle. So, the influence on a motor design by metal powder is described and the powder is applied as a direct replacement of lamination core. The motor also has been redesigned to take an advantage of

Jin Hur; Ha-Gyeong Sung; Byoung-Kuk Lee; Chung-Yuen Won; Baeck-Heang Lee

2006-01-01

468

Development of High-efficiency 42V Cooling Fan Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has objective to develop a 42 V cooling fan system adopting a 42 V BLDC fan motor with metal powdered core for hybrid electric vehicle. So, the influence on a motor design by metal powder is described and the powder is applied as a direct replacement of lamination core. The motor also has been redesigned to take an

Jin Hur; Ha-Gyeong Sung; Byoung-Kuk Lee; Chung-Yuen Won; Baeck-Heang Lee

2006-01-01

469

Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiencythe economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal levelstrongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

2014-04-01

470

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

2012-08-01

471

Electrical and thermal conductivity of hybrid nanocomposites with giant strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, conformable sensors, and lightweight solar cells. The optimization of electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of conductive and extensible materials is necessary for the application of energy device. Here we demonstrate the theoretical prediction for the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites compared with experimental results. Also, we present the giant dependence of electrical conductivity on strain and the large positive thermal expansion that can be expected for the elastomer matrix. The percolation threshold (26 vol% of Ag, average interparticle distance model) and Poisson's ratio (Vt=0.33, Vw=0.2) of nanocomposites are significant factors that can determine the electrical and thermal conductivity with giant strain. The thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric film is relatively high at the zero-strain state, and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport. The observed combinational property of a very small dependence of conductivity on temperature with an exponential dependence can be suitable for for the mechanical strain sensing.

Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

2013-04-01

472

Achieving Controllability of Plug-in Electric Ian Hiskens  

E-print Network

-- The paper presents a conceptual framework for actively involving highly distributed loads in system control actions. The context for load control is established by first reviewing system control objectives, including economic dispatch, automatic generation control and spinning reserve. Also, prior work on load

Hiskens, Ian A.

473

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission...electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values for electric vehicles as...

2014-07-01

474

Load Participation in Electricity Markets: Day-Ahead and Hour-Ahead Market Coupling with Wholesale\\/Transmission and Retail\\/Distribution Cost and Congestion Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider load-side participation in electricity markets construed broadly to include energy as well as reserve transactions. Extending work in optimal plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging, we develop a decision support tool for load-side participation in energy markets, recognizing that it must be responsive to local distribution network dynamic congestion and marginal line loses. We address the related sequential day-ahead

Michael C. Caramanis; Justin M. Foster; Evegeniy A. Goldis

2010-01-01

475

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.

2004-11-23

476

Electric Characteristics of Hybrid Polymer Membranes Composed of Two Lipid Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric characteristics of hybrid polymer membranes composed of two lipid species were studied, where one lipid species is positively charged in aqueous solution and the other is negatively charged. As a result, it was found that the hybrid membranes responded to taste substances in different ways according to the molar mixing ratio of these two kinds of lipids, and also showed different response characteristics from those of the single-lipid membranes. The membranes with the mixing ratio around 50% exhibited the largest responses to HCl (sourness) and monosodium glutamate (umami). Moreover, good quantitative agreements with the observed data on the response electric potential were obtained using a theory describing both the changes in surface electric potential and surface charge density with taste substances.

Oohira, Koji; Toko, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Hiroshi; Yamafuji, Kaoru

1995-09-01

477

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

478

The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of incentives. Overall, these results suggest automobile manufacturing did not impact whether these policies were implemented, nor were they implemented to address air quality issues or gas price increases. Rather these policies were responses to popular support for hybrid vehicles. In addition, this dissertation identifies the average treatment effect of these incentives on state-level demand for hybrid vehicles. These effects are estimated using traditional parametric techniques, difference-in-difference regression, and fixed effects on two comparison groups: (1) the natural control group, states that did not adopt subsidies, and (2) a constructed control group, states that proposed subsidies during this same time period but did not adopt them. In addition to these parametric models, propensity score matching was used to construct a third comparison group using the models that identified determinants of the policy adoption. These findings were supplemented by exploratory analyses using the individual-level National Household Travel Survey. This multitude of evaluative analyses shows that overall, monetary hybrid incentives are not overwhelming effective in promoting the diffusion of this technology, but that HOV lane exemptions, however, if implemented in places with high traffic congestion, were found to impact aggregate demand and an individual's propensity to adopt a hybrid. The other two types of incentives, sales tax exemptions and income tax credits, were not found to be effective at the aggregate or the individual level. In addition, travel behavior was found to strongly predict adoption, more so than socioeconomic variables, stated attitudes, or characteristics of the built environment. The number of walking trips per month and the number of times a person used public transportation were found to be significant predictors of hybrid adoption, implying the decision to adopt a hybrid includes factors other than purely economic ones, such as environmental attitudes. These analyses provide insight into why states adopt certain policies and the circumstances in whi

Riggieri, Alison

479

Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

1979-01-01

480

Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

Koprubasi, Kerem

481

The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households  

E-print Network

ELECTRIC VEHICLES How many hybrid households are in the California new carElectric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis - A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-car-

Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

1995-01-01

482

Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

Warren, J. F.

1992-05-01

483

Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

Warren, J.F.

1992-05-01

484

Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-08-01

485

Plugging In: The Changing Face of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many businesses, public schools are not ready to move into the electronic data storage and transaction mode. Technological improvements such as keyboard alternatives (voice recognition software, electric pens, and optical scanners) will speed this paradigm shift. Increased speed, pocket-sized desktop computers, distance learning, and the

Coutts, Douglas

1996-01-01

486

Vehicle Yaw Control Utilizing Hybrid Electric Drivetrains with Multiple Electric Motors.  

E-print Network

??Vehicles with multiple electric motors coupled to individual wheels have excitingopportunities for safety control systems. An investigation is conducted to determine whatdynamic benefits can be (more)

D'Iorio, James

2008-01-01

487

Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

1979-01-01

488

A survey of mathematics-based equivalent-circuit and electrochemical battery models for hybrid and electric vehicle simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we survey two kinds of mathematics-based battery models intended for use in hybrid and electric vehicle simulation. The first is circuit-based, which is founded upon the electrical behaviour of the battery, and abstracts away the electrochemistry into equivalent electrical components. The second is chemistry-based, which is founded upon the electrochemical equations of the battery chemistry.

Seaman, Aden; Dao, Thanh-Son; McPhee, John

2014-06-01

489

Electric, hybrid electric and combustion engine driven cars and their impact on environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For vehicle comparison from point of view of green gas production it is necessary to add to the green gas production of the vehicle itself also the quantity that was necessary to produce the fuel for internal combustion engine ICE or the electric energy for electric vehicle. Only this attitude is objective. This paper reveals simulation results of CO2 emission

Cerovsky Zdenek; Mindl Pavel

2011-01-01

490

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

491

Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles  

E-print Network

] whereas the efficiency of an electric motor can reach 90% or even higher [13], and (ii) the kinetic energy% in the case of heavy city traffic [17]. As the only source of providing energy to the electric motor.g., in Tesla cars, Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus, etc.). The performance of the EES system in an EV is therefore

Pedram, Massoud

492

Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

493

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

494

A hybrid approach to measuring electrical activity in genetically specified neurons.  

PubMed

The development of genetically encoded fluorescent voltage probes is essential to image electrical activity from neuronal populations. Previous green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based probes have had limited success in recording electrical activity of neurons because of their low sensitivity and poor temporal resolution. Here we describe a hybrid approach that combines a genetically encoded fluorescent probe (membrane-anchored enhanced GFP) with dipicrylamine, a synthetic voltage-sensing molecule that partitions into the plasma membrane. The movement of the synthetic voltage sensor is translated via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a large fluorescence signal (up to 34% change per 100 mV) with a fast response and recovery time (0.5 ms). Using this two-component approach, we were able to optically record action potentials from neuronal cell lines and trains of action potentials from primary cultured neurons. This hybrid approach may form the basis for a new generation of protein-based voltage probes. PMID:16205716

Chanda, Baron; Blunck, Rikard; Faria, Leonardo C; Schweizer, Felix E; Mody, Istvan; Bezanilla, Francisco

2005-11-01

495

Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Patterson, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation Technologies

1997-09-17

496

Design Optimization and Performance of a Novel 6-Slot 5-Pole PMFSM with Hybrid Excitation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With growing concerns over our environment, more and more people in automakers, governments and customers think that the electric drive becomes more attractive research. Since electric motors play an important role in both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric machines. As one of the candidates, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) with additional coil excitation has several attractive features compared to interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) conventionally employed in HEV. The variable flux control capability and robust rotor structure make this machine becoming more attractive to apply for high speed motor drive system coupled with reduction gear. This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of 6-slot 5-pole PMFSM with hybrid excitation for traction drives in HEVs. An improved design is examined to gain a better performance in its maximum torque and power production. The final designed machine enables to keep much power density compared to existing IPMSM installed on the commercial SUV-HEV.

Sulaiman, Erwan; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki