Sample records for plug-in hybrid electric

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 3:Phase 1, Task 3: Technic Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/068 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study is a collaborative effort between

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study IInntteerriimm RReeppoorrtt:: PPhhaassee 11 Government or any agency thereof. ORNL/TM-2008/076 #12;Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition 2009 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study

  3. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/056 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007

  5. Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

    2008-01-01

    With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

  6. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  7. Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    to `An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' Derek electric vehicles' (D M Lemoine et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014003) to the case of all-electric in which EVs could dramatically change the results we obtained for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs

  8. Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

  9. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  11. A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures

    E-print Network

    Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

  12. The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid reliance on fossil fuels. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and wind power represent two practical

  13. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-print Network

    Karplus, Valerie Jean

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

  14. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Road Emissions Characterization and Demonstration Study

    E-print Network

    Hohl, Carrie

    2012-12-31

    On-road emissions and operating data were collected from a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) over the course of 6months spanning August 2007 through January 2008 providing the first comprehensive on-road evaluation ...

  15. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Locational Marginal Prices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhi Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on locational marginal prices (LMPs). PHEVs are the next generation of hybrid electric vehicles with batteries that can be recharged by plugging into a standard electric power outlet. On the one hand, PHEVs produce less emissions, have higher mileage, and reduce dependency on foreign supplies of oil. On

  16. A Robust Optimization Approach for Planning the Transition to Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir H. Hajimiragha; Claudio A. Canizares; Michael W. Fowler; Somayeh Moazeni; Ali Elkamel

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique to analyze the electricity and transport sectors within a single integrated frame- work to realize an environmentally and economically sustainable integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) into the electric grid, considering the most relevant planning uncertainties. The method isbased on a comprehensiverobust optimization plan- ning that considers the constraints of both the electricity

  17. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid: Investigations Based on a Micro Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashid A. Waraich; Matthias D. Galus; Christoph Dobler; Michael Balmer; Göran Andersson; Kay W. Axhausen

    Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) could potentially trigger a stepwise electrification of the whole transportation sec- tor. But the impact on the electric grid by electrical vehicl e charging is still not fully known. This paper investigates several PHEV charging schemes, including smart charging, using a novel iterative approach. An agent based traffic demand model is used for

  18. The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: a review and outlook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Green II; Lingfeng Wang; Mansoor Alam

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that the more important question is “what impact will PHEVs have on distribution networks nationwide?”. This paper finds that the impact of

  19. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton W Hadley; Alexandra A Tsvetkova

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak

  20. Evaluation of energy requirements for all-electric range of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaik Amjad; R. Rudramoorthy; S. Neelakrishnan; K. Sri Raja Varman; T. V. Arjunan

    2011-01-01

    Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid

  1. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  2. A Multiphase Traction/Fast-Battery-Charger Drive for Electric or Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -bridge Voltage Source Inverter, Multiphase Drive, Control I. INTRODUCTION For both electric and Plug-in hybrid, the studied topology is introduced; using a 3-phase brushless machine supplied with a 6-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). A model for its control is defined in the generalized Concordia frame, considering

  3. Impact of battery sizing on stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Moura; Duncan S. Callaway; Hosam K. Fathy; Jeffrey L. Stein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of battery sizing on the performance and efficiency of power management algorithms in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Existing studies examine this impact for power management algorithms derived using either rule-based or deterministic dynamic programming methods. This paper extends the above investigations to power management algorithms optimized using stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). The paper treats

  4. Design considerations for a plug-in hybrid car electrical motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nobels; T. Gheysen; M. Vanhove; S. Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Also students can contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of personal traffic. This paper presents the design of an electrical motor for the student project Vehicle Design Summit, which aims to develop a novel plug-in hybrid vehicle with a 95% reduction in life cycle costs. A switched reluctance motor has been selected because of low production cost and low thermal

  5. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.

  6. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-print Network

    Reilly, John M.

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...

  7. Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

  8. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles influence on CO 2 and water vapour emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Silva

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to quantify the impact of introducing electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, including fuel cell on conventional fleets. The impact is estimated in terms of local pollutants, HC, CO, NOx, PM, and in terms of CO2 and water vapour global emissions. The specific fleet of Portugal, roughly 6 million light-duty vehicles (30% diesel,

  9. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging: Current issues and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Shafiei; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing attraction towards plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) within the auto industry. However, high battery prices and short life spans have led to growing interest in development of advanced charging techniques and algorithms. In this paper, the characteristics of batteries used in PHEVs, which include Pb-acid, Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-ion, and Li-polymer are reviewed, and different charging

  10. Power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using neural network based trip modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhongren Peng

    2009-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a next-generation HEV with great promise of higher fuel economy. Global optimization charge-depletion power management would be desirable. This has so far been hampered due to the a priori nature of the trip information and the almost prohibitive computational cost of global optimization techniques such as dynamic programming

  11. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S Kurani; Jonn Axsen; Nicolette Caperello; Jamie Davies; Tai Stillwater

    2009-01-01

    Will people recharge a vehicle that does not have to be recharged? This, and the degree to which plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) designs emphasize gasoline or electricity, are central to assessing the energy and environmental effects of PHEVs. Plug-in conversions of hybrid vehicles are being made available to (predominately new-car buying) households throughout the Sacramento region for four to

  12. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

  13. Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

    E-print Network

    Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

    2012-07-16

    This research is focused on designing a new generation of CAD tools that could help a ”hybrid vehicle” designer with the design process to come up with better vehicle configurations. The conventional design process for any type of hybrid...

  14. Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

  15. Potential of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles to Reduce Petroleum Use: Issues Involved in Developing Reliable Estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anant D Vyas; Danilo J Santini; Larry R Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the widespread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various

  16. The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anant D. Vyas; Danilo J. Santini; Larry R. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various

  17. Feasibility Analysis of a Novel Cell Equalizer Topology for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy-Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo A. Cassani; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2009-01-01

    To meet the stringent cost targets for hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV), and all-electric vehicles, serious improvement in battery cycle life and safety is undoubtedly essential. More recently, lithium batteries, in the form of lithium-ion, lithium-polymer, or lithium iron phosphate, have profoundly been explored. Despite critical research initiatives, lithium-based batteries have not yet been able to meet the steep

  18. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  19. eVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    eVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and gov PlugPlug In Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and AllAllElectric Vehicles Electric Vehicles www.inl.g October 2, 2014 Richard "Barney" Carlson w INL/MIS-14-32984 y Shawn Salisbury

  20. Trip based optimal power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gas-kinetic traffic flow model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, is considered a next-generation hybrid electric vehicles with great promise of higher fuel economy. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle reaches the destination of the trip. Global

  1. Maximizing societal benefits associated with alternative fuel subsidies: The case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir M. Nazir

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have many societal benefits, including improving energy security, economic, environmental, and health benefits. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the location of PHEV deployment. This paper develops and applies a methodology for ranking regions throughout the U.S. based on PHEV benefits. The independent variables in this ranking method include population density, health benefits from

  2. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Shinoda; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any

  3. Power system modeling and performance evaluation of series\\/ parallel-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ochiai; Y. Wada; Y. Kamiya; Y. Daisho; K. Morita

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a simulator was built to simulate a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power system. Specifically, a model adopting a series\\/parallel hybrid system with a planetary gear mechanism was created. With this model, the impacts of the engine on\\/off control and drive distance on environmental performance were analyzed using a homologation driving schedule for Japan. It was proven

  4. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of an Advanced Luo Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy-Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and novel controller design for a hybrid switched-capacitor bidirectional dc\\/dc con- verter that is applicable for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)\\/plug-in HEV energy-storage system (ESS) applications, based on the power of the traction motor and the gradient of the battery current. Features of voltage step-down, voltage step-up, and bidi- rectional power flow are integrated into a

  5. Marketing Opportunity Analysis for Daimler Chrysler's Sprinter Van Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fildes; S. Nelson; N. Sener; F. Steiner; P. Suntharasaj

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about the high costs of petroleum based fuels and the long-term impact of fossil fuels on the environment have automotive manufacturers and their customers exploring options for more fuel-efficient commercial vehicles. This paper presents a marketing opportunity analysis to support the business case for the development of a plug-in hybrid vehicle version of Daimler Chrysler's Sprinter Van.

  6. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Eppstein; David K. Grover; Jeffrey S. Marshall; Donna M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    A spatially explicit agent-based vehicle consumer choice model is developed to explore sensitivities and nonlinear interactions between various potential influences on plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) market penetration. The model accounts for spatial and social effects (including threshold effects, homophily, and conformity) and media influences. Preliminary simulations demonstrate how such a model could be used to identify nonlinear interactions among potential

  7. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elgowainy; J. Han; L. Poch; M. Wang; A. Vyas; M. Mahalik; A. Rousseau

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use

  8. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elgowainy; A. Burnham; M. Wang; J. Molburg; A. Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel\\/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW

  9. Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bäker, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  11. Efficiency modeling and analysis of a switched capacitor converter for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Amjadi; S. S. Williamson

    2009-01-01

    A novel controller for a switched capacitor (SC) bidirectional DC\\/DC converter is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy storage systems, with simultaneous step-up and step-down output voltages. The novel control strategy enables simpler dynamics compared to a standard buck converter with input filter, good regulation capability, lower source current ripple, ease of control, and continuous input current waveform in

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anant Vyas; Danilo Santini; Michael Duoba; Mark Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and\\/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  14. Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Short, W.

    2006-10-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

  15. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Kurani; Reid R. Heffner; Tom Turrentine

    2008-01-01

    This report examines early users’ experiences with plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). At the time this study was conducted in winter and spring of 2007, PHEVs were not yet commercialized. Still, Americans were becoming aware of PHEVs and 25 to 30 vehicles converted from hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to PHEVs were on the road. In interviews with 23 drivers of these

  16. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-01

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

  17. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power systems with demand response and wind power.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Liu, C.; Ton, D.; Zhou, Y.; Kim, J.; Vyas, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES); (ED); (Kyungwon Univ.)

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a new unit commitment model which can simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). Four PHEV charging scenarios are simulated for the Illinois power system: (1) unconstrained charging, (2) 3-hour delayed constrained charging, (3) smart charging, and (4) smart charging with DR. The PHEV charging is assumed to be optimally controlled by the system operator in the latter two scenarios, along with load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs. The simulation results show that optimally dispatching the PHEV charging load can significantly reduce the total operating cost of the system. With DR programs in place, the operating cost can be further reduced.

  18. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R Sikes; Shaun Hinds; Stanton W Hadley; Ralph N McGill; Lawrence C Markel; Richard E Ziegler; David E Smith; Richard L Smith; David L Greene; Daniel L Brooks; Herman Wiegman; Nicholas Miller; Vincenzo Marano

    2008-01-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate

  20. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  2. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  3. On the aggregate grid load imposed by battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the problem of estimating the aggregate load imposed on the power grid by the battery health-conscious charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The article begins by generating a set of representative daily trips using (i) the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and (ii) a Markov chain model of both federal and naturalistic drive cycles. A multi-objective optimizer then uses each of these trips, together with PHEV powertrain and battery degradation models, to optimize both PHEV daily energy cost and battery degradation. The optimizer achieves this by varying (i) the amounts of charge obtained from the grid by each PHEV, and (ii) the timing of this charging. The article finally computes aggregate PHEV power demand by accumulating the charge patterns optimized for individual PHEV trips. The results of this aggregation process show a peak PHEV load in the early morning (between 5.00 and 6.00 a.m.), with approximately half of all PHEVs charging simultaneously. The ability to charge at work introduces smaller additional peaks in the aggregate load pattern. The article concludes by exploring the sensitivity of these results to the relative weighting of the two optimization objectives (energy cost and battery health), battery size, and electricity price.

  4. Development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and vehicle simulator for energy management assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meintz, Andrew Lee

    This dissertation offers a description of the development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle focusing on the propulsion architecture selection, propulsion system control, and high-level energy management. Two energy management techniques have been developed and implemented for real-time control of the vehicle. The first method is a heuristic method that relies on a short-term moving average of the vehicle power requirements. The second method utilizes an affine function of the short-term and long-term moving average vehicle power requirements. The development process of these methods has required the creation of a vehicle simulator capable of estimating the effect of changes to the energy management control techniques on the overall vehicle energy efficiency. Furthermore, the simulator has allowed for the refinement of the energy management methods and for the stability of the method to be analyzed prior to on-road testing. This simulator has been verified through on-road testing of a constructed prototype vehicle under both highway and city driving schedules for each energy management method. The results of the finalized vehicle control strategies are compared with the simulator predictions and an assessment of the effectiveness of both strategies is discussed. The methods have been evaluated for energy consumption in the form of both hydrogen fuel and stored electricity from grid charging.

  5. Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

  6. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

    2008-09-01

    Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

  7. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  8. Integration of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles: Experience from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonghua Song; Xia Yang; Zongxiang Lu

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage, air pollution and greenhouse gas over emission are serious issues that the whole world is facing now. The development of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the solutions to tackle those problems due to its special and profound significance for moderating global energy crisis, optimizing environmental protection and realizing the sustainable development. In this paper, the status quo,

  9. A novel design and feasibility analysis of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Wu; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are receiving global attention, stimulated by the urgent need for more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, current challenges for fuel cells such as high cost, sizing problem, and limited driving range, greatly affect the pace of FCV development. At the same time, domestic and renewable energy resource usage is frequently being encouraged for future electric propulsion

  10. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

  11. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will disconnect the HV system. Several simulations and calculations were conducted as to whether six or seven batteries should be used. Seven batteries will allow the vehicle to accelerate quicker and have lower fuel consumption and emissions produced. However, there are several integration and cooling challenges that arise when trying to integrate seven batteries onto the vehicle. In the end, these challenges outweighed the benefits of seven batteries, and the six battery system was chosen. On top of all of the design and simulation results discussed above, there were also many lessons learned in regards to managing the design team involved in this project. The best way found to keep all members on task was to split the project into smaller sections, create a timeline with specific tasks and corresponding completion dates, and assign a person to be responsible for each task. This helped to gauge whether the project was behind schedule but also gave each member a responsibility and ownership to the project. It was also established that the best way to transmit data was to have a secure, networked drive that allowed members to access it from any computer at any time. This gave members the flexibility to work whenever and wherever was most convenient for them and allowed them to easily share data amongst members without having to attach large files to emails.

  12. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Lipman

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can

  13. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging

    E-print Network

    than 100 years ago, all-electric vehicles (EVs) held much of the U.S. car market, but their popularityPlug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique

  14. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  15. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells cold startup global strategy for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, Nilson; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Dubé, Yves

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Cold Startup problem within the specific context of the Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). A global strategy which aims at providing an efficient method to minimize the energy consumption during the startup of a PEMFC is proposed. The overall control system is based on a supervisory architecture in which the Energy Management System (EMS) plays the role of the power flow supervisor. The EMS estimates in advance, the time to start the fuel cell (FC) based upon the battery energy usage during the trip. Given this estimation and the amount of additional energy required, the fuel cell temperature management strategy computes the most appropriate time to start heating the stack in order to reduce heat loss through the natural convection. As the cell temperature rises, the PEMFC is started and the reaction heat is used as a self-heating power source to further increase the stack temperature. A time optimal self-heating approach based on the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is efficient and can be implemented in real-time on FC-PHEVs.

  16. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    E-print Network

    isn't new. More than 100 years ago, all- electric vehicles (EVs) held much of the U.S. car marketPlug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers #12;Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Choosing Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Photo from

  17. Take this car and plug it [plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Jones

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents hybrid cars with a bigger battery packs that can recharge from wall outlets. The resulting machines, referred to as plug-in hybrids, can be propelled exclusively by their electric motors for, in some cases, more than 30 kilometers without their gasoline engines even turning on. The advantages and disadvantages of these cars are discussed in this paper.

  18. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-04-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  1. A Vehicle Systems Approach to Evaluate Plug-in Hybrid Battery Cold Start, Life and Cost Issues 

    E-print Network

    Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

    2012-07-16

    The batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) need to overcome significant technical challenges in order for PHEVs to become economically viable and have a large market penetration. The internship at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  2. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  3. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  4. Why Electric Cars? The Arrival of Plug-in

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Why Electric Cars? Dan Davids President #12;The Arrival of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Dan Davids President #12;#12;Toyota RAV4EV 1997-2003 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;· Saving Cars ­ GM EV1 ­ Ford Ranger EV;#12;#12;· Saving Cars ­ GM EV1 (destroyed) ­ Ford Ranger EV (some saved) ­ Honda EV Plus (destroyed) ­ Th!nk City

  5. Evolutionary feature selection for classification: a plug-in hybrid vehicle adoption application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Krupa; Somdeb Chatterjee; Ethan Eldridge; Donna M. Rizzo; Margaret J. Eppstein

    2012-01-01

    We present a real-world application utilizing a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for exploratory multivariate association analysis of a large consumer survey designed to assess potential consumer adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). The GA utilizes an intersection\\/union crossover operator, in conjunction with high background mutation rates, to achieve rapid multivariate feature selection. We experimented with two alternative fitness measures based

  6. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenhong Lin; David L Greene

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily

  7. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  8. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  9. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  10. Real-time immune-inspired optimum state-of-charge trajectory estimation using upcoming route information preview and neural networks for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles fuel economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Azad, Nasser L.

    2015-06-01

    The main proposition of the current investigation is to develop a computational intelligence-based framework which can be used for the real-time estimation of optimum battery state-of-charge (SOC) trajectory in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The estimated SOC trajectory can be then employed for an intelligent power management to significantly improve the fuel economy of the vehicle. The devised intelligent SOC trajectory builder takes advantage of the upcoming route information preview to achieve the lowest possible total cost of electricity and fossil fuel. To reduce the complexity of real-time optimization, the authors propose an immune system-based clustering approach which allows categorizing the route information into a predefined number of segments. The intelligent real-time optimizer is also inspired on the basis of interactions in biological immune systems, and is called artificial immune algorithm (AIA). The objective function of the optimizer is derived from a computationally efficient artificial neural network (ANN) which is trained by a database obtained from a high-fidelity model of the vehicle built in the Autonomie software. The simulation results demonstrate that the integration of immune inspired clustering tool, AIA and ANN, will result in a powerful framework which can generate a near global optimum SOC trajectory for the baseline vehicle, that is, the Toyota Prius PHEV. The outcomes of the current investigation prove that by taking advantage of intelligent approaches, it is possible to design a computationally efficient and powerful SOC trajectory builder for the intelligent power management of PHEVs.

  11. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS PART 1: TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kintner-Meyer; Kevin Schneider; Robert Pratt

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. This would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the

  12. The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid Interactions

    E-print Network

    The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Survey (CPEVS 2013): Anticipating Purchase, Use, and Grid investigates consumer interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), summarizing preliminary results from ownership, electricity use, familiarity with PEV technology, and personal values and lifestyle; vehicle

  13. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . 9 EVSE Training for Electrical Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Thanks to the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Training Program for assisting with the production to the additional information you need to participate in this fast-growing industry. More than 100 years ago, all

  14. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

  15. Modeling and evaluation of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell shuttle bus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Hearn; M. C. Lewis; R. C. Thompson; R. G. Longoria

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin acquired a plug-in hybrid fuel cell bus for demonstration and model development under a program funded through the USDOT-FTA. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance and use of the bus while developing a model that could predict overall performance and energy consumption on daily driving

  16. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gaines; A. Burnham; A. Rousseau; D. Santini

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel

  17. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  18. How Green Is My Plug-In?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Voelcker

    2009-01-01

    A few analysts forecast that by 2020, plug-in vehicles, including plug-in hybrids and purely electric cars, will make up almost a third of new-car sales in the United States. And by 2050, plug-ins could account for most of China's burgeoning vehicular travel. But the environmental implications of such a massive shift are hardly straightforward. The complexity stems from the multiplicity

  19. Power System Level Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Professor School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia appreciation for the support provided by PSERC's industrial members and by the National Science Foundation an attractive solution to a growing dependence on imported foreign oil with potential benefits and issues

  20. Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary Market and

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title The Dynamics of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the Secondary (by each agency or organization) ARB $300,000 Total Project Cost $300,000 Agency ID or Contract Number Project Until recently, there were very few used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the market. However

  1. Forecasting charging load of plug-in electric vehicles in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuowei Luo; Yonghua Song; Zechun Hu; Zhiwei Xu; Xia Yang; Kaiqiao Zhan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, in order to forecast the charging load of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in China in 2015, 2020, 2030, the development status and trends of PEVs in China is introduced first. Then the energy supply modes of different kinds of PEVs in China are analyzed. Correspondingly, the charging load model is proposed based on the charging needs of

  2. Plug-in electric vehicles integration with renewable energy building facility - building\\/vehicle interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Martins; V. Fernao Pires; Luis Gomes; O. Páscoa Dias

    2009-01-01

    Commercial office buildings with renewable energies are becoming more important in the actual context. That integration cannot be seen isolated from the strategic transport planning. Under this context this paper presents an office facility, equipped with renewable energy sources, where the users can recharge their plug-in electric vehicles, using the available renewable power. The system controller is composed by a

  3. Distribution transformer losses and performance in smart grids with residential Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad A. S. Masoum; Paul S. Moses; Keyue M. Smedley

    2011-01-01

    The performance of distribution transformers serving several residential networks with multiple Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging activity is studied in this paper. Distribution transformers are the weakest link in distribution systems that could soon be subjected to increasing stresses from PEV charging activity. This could significantly impact the reliability, security, efficiency and economy of newly developing smart grids due to

  4. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  5. Review of alternate energy storage systems for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2009-01-01

    Batteries, ultra capacitors, and fuel cells are widely being proposed for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs\\/PHEVs) as an electric power source or an energy storage unit. Implementation of several control methods have been presented in the past, with the goal of improving battery life and overall vehicle efficiency. It is clear that the control objectives vary with respect

  6. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations.

    PubMed

    Bachega, José Fernando R; Timmers, Luís Fernando S M; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R; Field, Martin J; Wymore, Troy

    2013-09-30

    Hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QCMM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use, we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  7. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  8. Brookings-Google Plug-in Hybrid Summit, Washington, DC, July 2008 Version date: September 7, 2008

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 of 14 Brookings-Google Plug-in Hybrid Summit, Washington, DC, July 2008 Version date: September 7, 2008 Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Deploying Plug (PHEVs) have the potential to reduce automotive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum consumption

  9. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar P. R. van Vliet; Thomas Kruithof; Wim C. Turkenburg

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an

  10. Value of plug-in vehicle grid support operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Markel; Michael Kuss; Michael Simpson

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in electric hybrids will soon be introduced by several auto manufacturers. While the initial volume of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will only constitute a very small fraction of total automobiles sold, “clustered” purchasing patterns for these vehicles may result in large localized loads on the power distribution network. Additionally, high-penetration deployment of variable generation sources will decrease flexibility in the

  11. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  12. Plug-in Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Cost and Emission Reductions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    The electricity and transportation industries are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions on Earth. Renewable energy, mainly wind and solar, can reduce emission from the electricity industry (mainly from power plants). Likewise, next- generation plug-in vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) and EVs with vehicle-to-grid capability, referred to as \\

  13. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  14. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  15. A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

  16. Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

    E-print Network

    Farhangi, Babak

    2014-07-25

    of specifications are introduced for a three port onboard VPC. This VPC is a reference for designs, simulations and experiments. The reference VPC is implemented with a modular three-stage isolated topology that utilizes voltage source ac-dc converters as the power...

  17. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    . Moura A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Duncan S. Callaway, Co-Chair #12;c Scott J. Moura All Rights Reserved 2008 #12;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would want to thank the love and support of my parents, Manny and Bonnie Moura. I cannot imagine two better

  18. Regulatory Influences That Will Likely Affect Success of Plug-in Hybrid and

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    : Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) are created by Federal from generation. Many states are still not covered by ISOs or RTOs, but FERC wants a U.S. system. RTOs or providing generation. The incentive structure is imperfect. Plug-in storage can aid RTOs in providing

  19. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

  2. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomás; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Beer, Sebastian; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Battaglia, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    It is generally believed that plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer environmental and energy security advantages compared to conventional vehicles. Policies are stimulating electric transportation deployment, and PEV adoption may grow significantly. New technology and business models are being developed to organize the PEV interface and their interaction with the wider grid. This paper analyzes the PEVs' integration into a building's Energy Management System (EMS), differentiating between vehicle to macrogrid (V2M) and vehicle to microgrid (V2m) applications. This relationship is modeled by the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which finds optimal equipment combinations to meet microgrid requirements at minimum cost, carbon footprint, or other criteria. Results derive battery value to the building and the possibility of a contractual affiliation sharing the benefit. Under simple annual fixed payments and energy exchange agreements, vehicles are primarily used to avoid peak demand charges supplying cheaper off-peak electricity to the building during workdays.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Gasoline, Hybrid-Electric, and Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Uhrig

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, the author showed that it was theoretically possible for plug-in hybrid-electric light transportation vehicles to utilize electricity provided by electric utilities to displace almost 75% of the energy of gasoline used by light transportation vehicles in the United States. It also indicated that replacing this gasoline energy would require 200-250 GW (Gigawatts) of additional electrical generating

  4. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Frank

    2006-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by

  5. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W. [Electronic Transportation Design, Yachats, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  6. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  7. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  8. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-12-31

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  9. Hybridized Electric Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hoelscher; A. Skorcz; Yimin Gao; M. Ehsani

    2006-01-01

    Batteries and ultracapacitors have significantly different energy storage and power delivery capabilities. Electrical traction motors in hybrid electric vehicles have characteristic power and energy demands, and a single energy storage technology may not be optimized to meet both the minimum power and energy demands. In this paper, we investigate the effect of combining batteries and ultracapacitors, both actively and passively,

  10. Design innovations in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Design and analysis of a hybrid electric vehicle chassis; A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design; Controlling a CVT-equipped hybrid car; Computerized speed control of electric vehicles; A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles; and more.

  11. (Hybrid gas/electric vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Lavery, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to build a long-range, parallel hybrid gas/electric vehicle capable of driving beyond the communter capabilities of series hybrid vehicles. It was envisioned that since the gas engine would be able to independently propel the car when needed and that the electric motor would be capable of doing the same, then you have a very desirable situation where this car can operate much more cheaply on electricity for the short distance runs under approximately 60 miles and also be able to propel the vehicle via the gas engine on the long-distance trips. During the time the car would be operating in the gas engine mode, it would be also recharging the 16 deep cycle batteries via the electric motor now being used as a generator. Then, even on long-distance trips, the electric motor could be used, after having been fully or partially recharged, to even further reduce cost per mile.

  12. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  13. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Offer; D. Howey; M. Contestabile; R. Clague; N. P. Brandon

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed

  14. Intelligent Scheduling of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Storage Capacity in a Parking Lot for Profit Maximization in Grid Power Transactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Hutson; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy; Keith A. Corzine

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent method for scheduling usage of available energy storage capacity from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV). The batteries on these vehicles can either provide power to the grid when parked, known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept or take power from the grid to charge the batteries on the vehicles. A scalable parking lot

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (EHV) Program is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to encourage the use of electricity and alternative fuels for transportation. This program supports the expanded DOE involvement as recommended in the National Energy Strategy. The transportation sector is the single largest user of petroleum; it consumed 63 percent of all petroleum used in the United States last year. Only a small fraction (5 percent) of electricity is generated from petroleum. Electric vehicles, which are themselves virtually pollution-free, could play a key role in helping to reduce both urban pollution and our dependence on petroleum imports. The program's goals are to develop, in cooperation with industry, the technology that will lead to the production and introduction of pollution-free electric vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet and substitute domestic sources of energy for petroleum-based fuels. This report describes progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY-91. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY-91 in the areas of battery, fuel-cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. In accordance with the reporting requirements of the Act, this annual report contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components and concludes with a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  16. Hybrid electric vehicles-year 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2000, the automotive manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This re-direction of electric vehicle (EV) development effort was highlighted at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS 2000), where, the world's major automobile manufacturers displayed twenty three hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Thirteen HEV were configured with an internal combustion piston engine and electric traction

  17. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  18. Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    2014-07-22

    gasoline as sources of energy with different cost structures and limitations. We ..... els from node s to node t in network X with zero initial and final gasoline and ...... Vehicle refueling planning for point-to-point delivery by motor carriers.

  19. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton W. Hadley; Alexandra A. Tsvetkova

    2009-01-01

    Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.

  20. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-print Network

    , 2002 Submitted to the Engineering Systems Division and the Department of Civil and Environmental....................................................................................... Engineering Systems Division and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering May 9, 2008 Certified by...................................................................................................... Dr. David H. Marks Goulder Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering Systems

  1. Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks in

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the Department of Mechanical for the personal transportation sector in terms of decreasing the reliance on fossil fuels while simultaneously's. Despite the benefits of PHEVs for vehicle owners, care will need to be taken when integrating PHEVs

  2. Commercializing light-duty plug-in\\/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett D. Williams; Kenneth S. Kurani

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support

  3. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  4. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  5. How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive?

    E-print Network

    How Green Will Electricity beHow Green Will Electricity be When Electric Vehicles Arrive?When Electric Vehicles Arrive? Edward S. Rubin Department of Engineering and Public Policy Department-carbon electricity and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) ? · In light of the above, would adoption of PHEVs

  6. Energy control strategies comparison for a city car Plug-In HEV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinando Mapelli; Marco Mauri; Davide Tarsitano

    2009-01-01

    In the last few year many control strategies regarding the energy management in hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have been discussed. This paper aims to compare different strategies with a particular attention to plug-in-HEVs (P-HEV) energy management algorithms. In facts many control strategies have been developed and discussed on traditional parallel HEV in order to find out the most efficient energy

  7. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in

  8. ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric

    E-print Network

    and storage. Range prediction. Motor for HEVs. Electric drive components. Vehicle transmission system. Credits electric motors (ABET Outcomes: A, C, h, m, n) 5. Identify appropriate power electronic controllers (ABETECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles: year 2000 status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Wyczalek

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, the automotive manufacturers turned their attention to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). This re-direction of Electric Vehicle (EV) development effort was highlighted at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS 2000), where, the World's major automobile manufacturers displayed twenty three HEVs. Thirteen HEV were configured with an internal combustion piston engine and electric traction motor, while, ten

  10. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  11. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    and marketing studies. Additionally, use of Mobilemarketing lenses to the problem of commercializing H 2 FCVs, other EDVs, and other MobileMobile Electricity innovation happen? : Product- and market-development considerations 81 4.1 Innovation and high-tech marketing

  12. Plugging in the consumer

    E-print Network

    and figuratively. But the confluence of climate change concerns, rising energy costs and technology advancesPlugging in the consumer Innovating utility business models for the future Energy and Utilities IBM contact the authors or send an e-mail to iibv@us.ibm.com for more information. #12; Historically

  13. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  14. Design of a docking station for solar charged electric and fuel cell vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego M. Robalino; Ganapathy Kumar; L. O. Uzoechi; U. C. Chukwu; S. M. Mahajan

    2009-01-01

    An effect of constant increase in the price of hydrocarbon-based fuels and the resulting pollution of environment have motivated researchers and the automobile industry to take a serious look at electric vehicles (EV). Hybrid technologies have also found their place in the automobile industry. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are being developed and improved constantly. An electric vehicle

  15. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  16. A hybrid electric vehicle powertrain dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation as key elements in the iterative process that includes the development of vehicle hardware system performance measures, computer control software, and ultimately, hybrid electric vehicle powertrain system synthesis. A hybrid powertrain system is synthesized via amalgamation of a conventional internal combustion engine powerplant-alternator combination with a lead acid battery-AC

  17. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Q. Wang; L. Gaines; R. Cuenca

    1997-01-01

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts.

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; John M. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

  19. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  20. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-01-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid.

  1. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    DOEpatents

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  2. Hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massoud Pedram; Naehyuck Chang; Younghyun Kim; Yanzhi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy is a high quality form of energy that can be easily converted to other forms of energy with high efficiency and, even more importantly, it can be used to control lower grades of energy quality with ease. However, building a cost-effective electrical energy storage (EES) system is a challenging task despite steady advances in the design and manufacturing

  3. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  4. Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

    2001-01-01

    At the present status of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, none of the available energy sources can solely fulfill all the demands of EVs to enable them to compete with gasoline powered vehicles. In this paper, an energy management system, adopting the so-called hybridization of energy sources, is proposed to coordinate multiple energy sources for EVs. Hence, the unique advantages of

  5. Adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Saeks; Chadwick J. Cox; James C. Neidhoefer; Paul R. Mays; John J. Murray

    2002-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control system (ACS) for a four motor-generator four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is designed and its ability to deal with unknown tire dynamics, changing road surfaces, and vehicle loading is evaluated. A system composed of four separate adaptive controllers is designed to control the vehicle's speed, steering, side slip, and energy management system. A nonlinear simulation

  6. The Patriot's hybrid-electric drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, K.

    1994-12-01

    Hybrid powertrain concepts are not new. Sailing ships carried auxiliary steam power on trans-Atlantic trips in the 19th Century. The 1917 Woods dual power'' automobile had a small internal combustion engine and supplementary electric drive featuring regenerative braking. But hybrid automobiles have not been successful in the automotive marketplace. For such vehicles to be successful, Chrysler officials believe a hybrid powertrain must be designed for the specific duty cycle of the vehicle; the vehicle-performance compromise must be acceptable to the customer; component efficiency and durability will have to be improved; and major component cost reductions will be required. This article describes how Chrysler is using a road-racing vehicle in the development of hybrid powertrains.

  7. Electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report discusses electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Specific topics include: (1) hybrid electric bus, (2) hybrid vehicle turbogenerator, (3) emissions study, (4) electric vehicles, (5) flywheels, (6) hybrid propulsion, (7) electric generators, and (8) charging systems.

  8. Strategies in electric and hybrid vehicle design

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This SAE special publication, Strategies in Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Design (SP-1156), is a collection of papers presented for sessions at the 1996 SAE International Congress and Exposition, co-organized by the Advanced Powerplant Committee/Powerplant Activity and the Electric Vehicle Committee/Passenger Car Activity. One session, Engine and Fuel Technology for Hybrid Vehicles, focuses on engine and fuel strategies for fuel efficient, low emission hybrid vehicles. Hybrids employing either mechanical energy storage or electrical energy sources are covered. Longer-range concepts employing novel engines and hydrogen and compressed natural gas alternative fuels are also discussed. The reader will find that hybrid strategies taken by European, Japanese, and North American developers differ. While technology is evolving rapidly, it is clear that the definitive hybrid strategy has not yet been developed. Strategies covered in the above session can be divided into three general classifications: series, parallel, and dual system (combined series-parallel). Each strategy places different demands on the engine. Typically, parallel operation, favored by the Europeans, has the advantage that the operation of the internal combustion (IC) engine is just as efficient as the operation of a conventional vehicle. However, the IC engine in a parallel arrangement must content with transients. Controlling a parallel hybrid is critical, because each power source can provide traction to the wheels independent of the other system. Series operation has the advantage of allowing the engine to operate at a constant speed in the vicinity of its optimum (inter terms of efficiency and emissions) operating point. However, the series configuration has an efficiency penalty, as energy must be converted several times. Dual systems appear promising because they have the advantages of both the parallel and series systems.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    INVITED P A P E R Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Tools that can model embedded software as well as components, and can automate the details of electric and hybrid vehicle design of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form

  10. Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

  11. Optimal neuro-fuzzy control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohebbi; M. Charkhgard; M. Farrokhi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an optimal method based on neuro-fuzzy for controlling parallel hybrid electric vehicles is presented. In parallel hybrid electric vehicles the required torque for driving and operating the onboard accessories is generated by a combination of internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The power sharing between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor is the key

  12. A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity end-uses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A functional analysis of electrical load curve modelling for some households specific electricity a series of deep technical and behavioural breaks. Among them are : the integration of new electrical domestic end-uses, the development of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the increase of heat pumps

  13. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  14. Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool and Optimization of Future Hybrid and Electric Propulsion Systems: An Advanced Tool Integrated in a Complete systèmes de propulsion hybride et électrique: un outil avancé et intégré dans une chaîne complète dédiée à

  15. Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles - Prediction horizon and battery capacity of a combined hybrid electric vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid vehicles, Energy Management, Predictive control, Optimal)) and car manufacturers because it enhances fuel economy without increasing the final cost of the vehicle

  16. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    E-print Network

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks:Social network analysis investigates how the structure of these linkages (or ties or relationships) influencessocial episodes (discussions, dialogues or other contacts) that took place within their personal network or beyond, then rated the perceived influence

  17. Offline Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang

    By using dynamic programming (DP) which is a kind of global optimization algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With optimal control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.

  18. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-print Network

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    and critically review PHEV battery research. A glossary ofbattery non-experts, providing the perspective and tools to help understand and critically reviewbattery non-experts, providing the perspective and tools to help understand and critically review

  19. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...based on c miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog.” For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying...

  20. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...based on c miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog.” For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying...

  1. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...based on c miles per year at $d per gallon and $e per kW-hr. Vehicle emissions are a significant cause of global warming and smog.” For a, b, c, d, and e, insert the appropriate values established by EPA. For qualifying...

  2. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-print Network

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    batteries, but with a higher degree of safety due to a more stable electrode material with less susceptibility to thermalbatteries. For instance, sustained high rate or voltage overcharge and shorting have potential to trigger thermal

  3. Electric power divider of hybrid car propulsion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the power splitting synchronous permanent magnet generator used in hybrid electric cars. The synchronous permanent magnet generator is special electric double rotor generator which acts as power divider. This special electric machine concentrates planetary gear and electric generator, known from other solutions, into one special electric double rotor machine. The paper deals with this new machine

  4. Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-05-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

  5. Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

    This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to the same route and the same driver. The observation study of the commuting monitor reveals the following technical findings. Motor re-generation energy gradually decreases from hot season to cold season. Mahalanobis distance analysis could be found out the cause of the electric energy decrease when air conditioner unloaded. The high level of the air conditioner load affects the vehicle input (throttle openings). Although the re-generation load changes along with the environment temperature, the motor-assisted input load tends to steady states. That means the engine is supplied almost steady power from the motor irrespective with environment temperature. Battery keeps control the temperatures refer to environment temperature level. The hybrid air conditioner system worked efficiently which revealed with the difference of load levels between a travel mode and an idling stop mode. There is no notable running difference between an idling mode and the idling stop mode both in summer and in winter.

  6. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

    Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

  7. Electrical Characteristic Study of a Hybrid PEMFC and Ultracapacitor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junbo Jia; Gucheng Wang; Yew Thean Cham; Youyi Wang; Ming Han

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic study of a clean hybrid power supply system combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main power source and ultracapacitor (UC) as the energy storage unit. Unlike the conventional fuel-cell hybrid system with power conditioning unit, the study investigated the electrical characteristic of the PEMFC and UC hybrid system without dc\\/dc converter. As

  8. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  9. Taking a new look at hybrid electric vehicle efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Environmental, economic, and national security challenges from passenger-car use have energized development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) worldwide. These vehicles could reduce fuel consumption, use nonpetroleum alternative fuels, and reduce urban air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Current thinking on hybrid electric vehicles may be underestimating their significance to reducing petroleum use.

  10. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation. [Using HEAVY computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Pasma, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  11. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Karden; Serv ´ e Ploumen; Birger Fricke; Ted Miller; Kent Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge

  12. Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

  13. Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

    2012-11-01

    Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

  14. Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train 

    E-print Network

    Routex, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    cell system. Figure 4. 5. 4: Electrical model of the battery system. Figure 4. 5. 5: Electrical model of the hybrid energy storage Figure 4. 5. 6: Electrical model of the flywheel system. . Figure 5. 1. 1: Electric vehicle architecture Figure 5. 1... of Power Plants and Energy Storage . . . 4. 6 Summary and Conclusion 5. MODELING AND DESIGN OF THE COMPLETE HEV DRIVE TRAIN. . . . 5. 1 Modeling and Design of the Different Architectures. 5. 2 Example of Design: the Series Hybrid Electric Drive Train...

  15. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

  16. Charge allocation for hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Younghyun Kim; Naehyuck Chang; Massoud Pedram

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems, composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements with their unique strengths and weaknesses, have been introduced to efficiently store and retrieve electrical energy while attaining performance metrics that are close to their respective best values across their constituent EES elements. This paper is the first paper to formally describe the

  17. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Quarterly report, 1 April--30 June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-06-30

    This document contains a quarterly report on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

  18. Performance analysis of electric motor drives for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khwaja M. Rahman; Mehrdad Ehsani

    1996-01-01

    The authors' recent study has revealed that high speed motors capable of performing extended constant power operation are best suited for electric and hybrid vehicle application. In that study, they showed that vehicle's operational constraints such as initial acceleration and gradability can be met with minimum power rating if the powertrain can be operated mostly in constant power region. The

  19. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  20. Path dependent receding horizon control policies for hybrid electric vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    Future hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may use path-dependent operating policies to improve fuel economy. In our previous work, we developed a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for prescribing the battery state of charge ...

  1. Optimized control studies of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Bougler, Benedicte Bernadette

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of a control scheme to maximize automobile fuel economy and battery state-of-charge (SOC) while meeting exhaust emission standards for parallel hybrid electric vehicles, which are an alternative to conventional...

  2. Optimal Design of a Hybrid Electric Powertrain System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Krishnamachari; P. Y. Papalambros

    1997-01-01

    Optimal design of an electric hybrid powertrain system using a decomposition-based approach is presented. In this approach, a general system design problem is first formulated without specifying objectives. The mathematical model is analyzed using partitioning techniques, and an optimal design problem that can be readily decomposed and solved using an appropriate coordination strategy is derived. Basic concepts for hybrid powertrains

  3. Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

    2000-01-01

    The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

  4. Control strategies design for a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Hong-wen; Zhang Ying-qi; Wan Fan

    2008-01-01

    Under the pressure of air pollution and oil shortage of transportations, hydrogen as a renewable and clean energy gets more and more attentions from all over the world. Nowadays, for the cost and not matured technology of fuel cell stack, hybrid system becomes the best solution. For a 5-ton fuel cell hybrid electric bus discussed in this paper, high-pressure PEMFC

  5. A compact electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Liang; Tadashi Okumura; Hsu-Hao Chang; Daryl Spencer; Ying-Hao Kuo; Alexander W. Fang; Daoxin Dai; Marco Fiorentino; Raymond G. Beausoleil; John E. Bowers

    2009-01-01

    A compact electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser is realized on a hybrid silicon platform. A simplified, self-aligned, deep-etch process is developed to result in low-loss resonator with a high quality factor Q?15,000. Small footprint (resonator diameter=50 µm), electrical and optical losses all contribute to lasing threshold as low as 5.4 mA and up to 65 °C operation temperature in continuous-wave

  6. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D

    2007-01-01

    and marketing studies. Additionally, use of Mobilemarketing lenses to the problem of commercializing H 2 FCVs, other EDVs, and other MobileMobile Electricity innovation happen? : Product- and market-development considerations 81 4.1 Innovation and high-tech marketing

  7. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    and marketing studies. Additionally, use of Mobilemarketing lenses to the problem of commercializing H 2 FCVs, other EDVs, and other MobileMobile Electricity innovation happen? : Product- and market-development considerations 81 4.1 Innovation and high-tech marketing

  8. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Energy storage requirements and testing for hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sutula, R.A.; Heitner, K.L. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy storage requirements for power-assist and dual-mode operations have been developed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Currently, there are no energy storage devices that meet all of the energy storage requirements for the hybrid electric vehicle application. Additionally, existing test cycles are not designed to measure the performance of such devices under the variety of operating conditions required by the application. Considerations for testing such devices are described and discussed, and prototype test cycles are defined for trial use by the hybrid vehicle community.

  10. Ultracapacitors as sole energy storage device in hybrid electric cars?

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, A.; Bonert, R. [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    New types of electric capacitors may provide, within several years, power capacitors which could be used as energy storage devices in serial hybrid electric car drives instead of a battery. This paper discusses how to determine the required size of such a capacitor used as the sole energy storage device. The performance requirements and parameters influencing the size of the capacitor are defined and a model of a hybrid car system is proposed to determine the size of the capacitor. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the choices in selecting the capacitor size and to provide an estimate of the performance of a hybrid vehicle with capacitive energy storage. 4 refs.

  11. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wu; J. Peng

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

  12. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohui Cui; Cheng Liu; Hoe Kyoung Kim; Shih-Chieh Kao; Mark A Tuttle; Budhendra L Bhaduri

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power

  13. A Parallel Plug-in Programming Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Ronald [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Software component architectures allow assembly of applications from individual software modules based on clearly defined programming interfaces, thus improving the reuse of existing solutions and simplifying application development. Furthermore, the plug-in programming paradigm additionally enables runtime reconfigurability, making it possible to adapt to changing application needs, such as different application phases, and system properties, like resource availability, by loading/unloading appropriate software modules. Similar to parallel programs, parallel plug-ins are an abstraction for a set of cooperating individual plug-ins within a parallel application utilizing a software component architecture. Parallel programming paradigms apply to parallel plug-ins in the same way they apply to parallel programs. The research presented in this paper targets the clear definition of parallel plug-ins and the development of a parallel plug-in programming paradigm.

  14. Charge replacement in hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Massoud Pedram; Younghyun Kim; Donghwa Shin; Naehyuck Chang

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems are composed of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements with distinctive properties. Charge replacement in a HEES system (i.e., dynamic assignment of load demands to EES banks) is one of the key operations in the system. This paper formally describes the global charge replacement (GCR) optimization problem and provides an algorithm

  15. OBSERVED HYBRID OSCILLATIONS IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vaibhav Donde

    E-print Network

    OBSERVED HYBRID OSCILLATIONS IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vaibhav Donde Lawrence Berkeley oscillations, with a period of around 15 minutes, were observed in an 11kV electrical distribution system-state behaviour. 1. INTRODUCTION A number of years ago, the voltage of an 11kV distribution system exhibited

  16. The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Chan

    2002-01-01

    In a world where environment protection and energy conservation are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has taken on an accelerated pace. The dream of having commercially viable EVs and HEVs is becoming a reality. EVs and HEVs are gradually available in the market. This paper will provide an overview of the present

  17. Novel fault tolerant power conversion system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the demand for fuel efficient electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) has been growing globally. Due to the increased number of switching devices in the electrified vehicles, the probability of the semiconductor device failure is much higher than in other application areas. A sudden failure in one of the power switches and insufficient power management ability in

  18. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  19. Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics - opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Williams, Stuart J. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chuang, Han-sheng [University of Pennsylvania; Green, Nicolas [University of Southampton, England; Wereley, Steven G. [Purdue University

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of technologies that employ both optical and electrical forces to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro and nano scale. These technologies, which have emerged primarily over the last decade, have provided a revolutionary and fresh perspective at fundamental electrokinetic processes, as well as have engendered a novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimeter-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-15

    The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

  1. Study on the effects of battery capacity on the performance of hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Somayajula; Andrew Meintz; Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are gaining a significant presence in the auto market. However, the present day hybrid electric vehicles mostly use battery as a secondary source of power. If the battery were to be used as a primary source of power then the battery capacity is one of the important features in the design of a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid

  2. The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1982-08-01

    The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric designs, with the advantages of the hybrids increasing significantly as the power-to-weight ratio was increased. The comparisons were made for city driving, and the relative attractiveness of the hybrid designs was found to be independent of annual mileage up to 12,000 miles/yr. Both hybrid and electric vehicles benefit markedly from the use of an advanced battery such as sodium-sulfur. Such a battery is required before the hybrid passenger car can save both gasoline and total energy compared to a conventional ICE car of the same size.

  3. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  4. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine Samaras

    2008-01-01

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to

  5. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.

    1999-02-12

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

  6. Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

  7. Electric/hybrid super car designs using ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1995-12-31

    Advanced passenger car designs utilizing electric/hybrid drivelines with an engine/generator or fuel cell to generate electricity on-board the vehicle and electrical energy storage (a pulse power unit, such as an ultracapacitor) to load level the engine/generator or fuel cell and to recover energy during vehicle braking are evaluated. All the cars have good acceleration performance (0--96 km/h in 9--10 seconds) and gradeability (96 km/h on a 6% grade). Computer simulation results on the Federal City and Highway driving cycles for the hybrid vehicles show that driveline and vehicle design technology have a large effect on both fuel economy and emissions of the vehicles. The results indicate that using the hybrid/electric drivelines in steel body, engine/generator powered vehicles, fuel economies of 50--70 mpg are achievable and that composite body, fuel cell powered vehicles can have fuel economies of 150--200 mpg gasoline equivalent. Intermediate fuel economies can be achieved using other combinations of vehicle material and driveline technologies. All the cars are projected to have emissions well below the California ULEV emissions standards. The ultracapacitors used in the hybrid drivelines has an energy density of 10 Wh/kg and stored 300--500 Wh of energy. Combined with on-off operation of the engine/generator or fuel cell, the ultracapacitors were maintained within 60--90% of their rated voltage by regenerative braking and on-board electricity generation.

  8. Hybrid car with electric and heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, G.M.; Metzner, R.G.

    1982-09-28

    An apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set of rear wheels. There is also a system for selecting electric or heat engine drive either manually or automatically and a single accelerator for controlling either mode of drive. A battery charging system supplies a constant power charge rate. Battery charging power is derived from the electric motors acting as generators driven by the rear wheels while the vehicle is in heat engine drive, and the battery charging rate is selected by the operator. Also in combination is a regenerative braking system to recover expended energy in the form of vehicle motion and an overdrive system to increase vehicle speed in the electric drive mode by field weakening. Protective systems are included to prevent overcharge of the storage batteries and to provide safe closing at high speeds of the electric clutches connecting the electric motors to the rear wheels. Changeover from electric drive to heat engine drive is simplified by a changeover system, and excessive loading of the heat engine by the battery charging system is eliminated on hills and during acceleration by a hill and acceleration sensing system. The car is designed for low speed and stop and go driving powered by the electric motors while the heat engine may be used for high speed and long distance travel.

  9. Hybrid car with electric and heat engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Fields; R. G. Metzner

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set of rear wheels. There is also a system for selecting electric or heat engine drive either manually or automatically and a

  10. Networked architecture for hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younghyun Kim; Sangyoung Park; Naehyuck Chang; Qing Xie; Yanzhi Wang; Massoud Pedram

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) system that consists of multiple, heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements is a promising solution to achieve a cost-effective EES system because no storage element has ideal characteristics. The state-of-the-art HEES systems are based on a shared-bus charge transfer interconnect (CTI) architecture. Consequently, they are quite limited in scalability which is a function of

  11. A hybrid electric propulsion system for a forest vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Carlini, M. [Univ. della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Abenavoli, R.I. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Typical caterpillar tractors, applied to wood gathering in forests, are powered by internal combustion (IC) engines, which are sized to meet the full drive train load. However, the maximum power is required only in a part of the total operation time during work cycles of logging tractors. For this reason the hybrid electric propulsion system, installed instead of IC engine-hydrostatic transmission system, may considerably improve vehicle performance indices such as fuel consumption, pollutant emission and noise level. In this paper the authors present a series hybrid electric power train configuration for a small (2,100 kg of mass) crawler tractor used for logging in forests. The drive train is composed of a thermal engine, an electric generator, a group of lead-acid batteries and electric drive motors with controllers. To calculate energy balance of the designed vehicle a special forest cycle was elaborated and discussed in the paper. The cycle was created on the basis of experimental data, measured in the actual tractor work. Since average power required during the forest cycle is much lower than the maximum one, the hybrid electric system needs a smaller IC engine than one in the conventional vehicle. This engine, coupled with electric generator, works in operation conditions yielding better fuel economy. The electric drive motors are fed both by the generator and the batteries in the full load cycle phase. The batteries are recharged during vehicle down-hill moving and standing phases. The proposed hybrid electric propulsion is also an attractive approach to improve crawler tractors for agriculture applications.

  12. Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Sciarretta; Michael Back; Lino Guzzella

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based strategy for the real-time load control of parallel hybrid vehicles is presented. The aim is to develop a fuel-optimal control which is not relying on the a priori knowledge of the future driving conditions (global optimal control), but only upon the current system operation. The methodology developed is valid for those problem that are characterized

  13. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  14. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS\\/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-01-01

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure.

  16. Electricity generation of hybrid PV\\/wind systems in Iraq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salwan S. Dihrab; K. Sopian

    2010-01-01

    Renewable resources gained more attention in the last two decades due to persisting energy demand coupled with decrease in fossil fuel resources and its environmental effect to the earth. In Iraq, the electric power generated is not enough to meet the power demand of domestic and industrial sectors. In this article, a hybrid system was proposed as a renewable resource

  17. Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system using Matlab computing program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Beck

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to study and evaluate a comprehensive fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system. The methods and means of fuel cells technology have been investigated. Special needs of technology transfer of alternative energy industry and business development experience have been considered with special interest to enable use to be more effective in this field, to

  18. Performance of hybrid electric vehicle using reluctance synchronous machine technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Malan; Maarten J. Kamper

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with a small reluctance synchronous machine drive is presented. The machine is current angle controlled for maximum torque per ampere or minimum kVA. This ensures that the machine is operated reasonable close to optimal efficiency for all loads. The calculated and measured performance results of the reluctance synchronous machine drive and the

  19. A Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle dynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Powell; T. E. Pilutti

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic model possessing the key system components of a Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The model is suitable for dynamic analysis, control law synthesis, and prototype simulation. The paper contains abbreviated descriptions of a small internal combustion engine, variable field alternator, and a dynamic lead-acid battery model that comprise the primary elements of a highly nonlinear

  20. Parallel hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model and powertrain control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

    1997-01-01

    Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC

  1. Examining individuals preferences for hybrid electric and alternatively fuelled vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Caulfield; Séona Farrell; Brian McMahon

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines individuals motivations when purchasing vehicles, focusing upon what factors would encourage individuals to purchase hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) or alternatively fuelled vehicle (AFV). AFVs in this paper refer to any cars run on alternatives to petrol and diesel. This research attempts to ascertain whether reductions in fuel costs, vehicle registration tax (VRT), or green house gas emissions

  2. Operational and energetical effectiveness of road electric and hybrid propulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Brusaglino

    1982-01-01

    Fiat Research Center is developing, since several years, activities on electric and hybrid apparatuses. These has been applied on vehicles manufactured either for experimental or for pratical operation purposes. The development has been performed with particular consideration to energetical effectiveness, driving response and maintenance requirements, taking into account the economical aspect. The efficiency is achieved both through the drive system

  3. Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

    2002-01-01

    Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

  4. LEARN MORE @ HYBRID ELECTRIC SAVING FUEL = SAVING MONEY = CLEANER AIR

    E-print Network

    .CleanVehiclesCoalition.org NC SOLAR CENTER/NC STATE UNIVERSITY: www.cleantransportation.org PALMETTO STATE CLEAN CITIES: www and infrastructure projects is facilitated through the collaboration of five principal partners in the Carolinas. PROJECT PARTNERS Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of an internal combustion engine

  5. Regenerative braking system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a regenerative braking system (RBS) for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that performs regenerative energy recovery based on vehicle attributes, thereby providing improved performance, efficiency and reliability at minimal additional cost. A detailed description of the regenerative braking algorithm is presented along with simulation results from a dynamic model of the PHEV exhibiting the regenerative braking

  6. A self reconfigurable electric motor controller for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Parsa; Hamid A. Toliyat

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to design a self reconfigurable electric motor controller for hybrid electric vehicle application is proposed. This system detects the current sensors failure and will estimate the current successfully such that the motor continues working safely. The motor model is used for estimating the currents. The phase currents are estimated using Luenberger type observer. The

  7. Comprehensive Efficiency Modeling of Electric Traction Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon S. Williamson; Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research done in the recent past has proven that power electronic converters and electric propulsion motors are extremely critical components for modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion applications. Therefore, it is essential that both the traction motor and the associated drive operate at their optimal efficiencies throughout the driving schedule. In typical HEV propulsion applications, the traction motor and

  8. Techniques to control the electricity generation in a series hybrid electrical vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Barsali; Massimo Ceraolo; Andrea Possenti

    2002-01-01

    In a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV), an electric generator feeds a DC busbar (containing an electrochemical accumulator), which, in turns, feeds the vehicle traction system. A very important part of the vehicle is its control system, which has to maximize the vehicle efficiency while keeping the emissions within predetermined limits. To attain this goal, it can act in two

  9. Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit

  10. Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paderborn, Universität

    Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles independent. Thus, these control strategies are predestinated for the use in a real vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV), control strategies, optimization. 1. Introduction Due to the structure of hybrid-electric

  11. Hybrid electric vehicles (EVS-13 Osaka)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995,

  12. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd A. Wyczalek

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle

  13. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Wyczalek

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy

  14. Overview of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan; Chunhua Liu

    2008-01-01

    With ever-increasing concerns on our environment, there is a fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs) from automakers, governments, and customers. As electric drives are the core of both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric-drive systems. In this paper, an overview of permanent-magnet (PM) brushless (BL) drives for

  15. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  16. Hybrid energy storage systems for high-performance hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garrett Nielson; Ali Emadi

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has come to the forefront as the leader for alternative fuel vehicles. With the increased demand for HEVs, more research has gone into the improvements of these vehicles. In order to achieve better performance in terms of miles per gallon, speed, and power, researchers have focused on many elements of the vehicle

  17. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  18. Decomposition of phenol by hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors with zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hrvoje Kuši?; Natalija Koprivanac; Bruce R. Locke

    2005-01-01

    Application of hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharge reactors and a liquid phase direct electrical discharge reactor for degradation of phenol in the presence and absence of zeolites have been investigated. Hybrid gas\\/liquid electrical discharges involve simultaneous high voltage electrical discharges in water and in the gas phase above the water surface leading to the additional OH radicals in the liquid phase

  19. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  20. Hybrid Opto-electric Manipulation of Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wereley, Steve

    2013-11-01

    Recently our research group has developed an innovative method for capturing, concentrating, manipulating and sorting populations of micro- and nanometer-scaled entities-particles, cells, macro-molecules, etc. These populations range from individual particles to thousands of particles (Lab-on-a-Chip, 2008; Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 2008) while the sizes range from microns to nanometers. This novel technique combines features of optical trapping and dielectrophoresis in an innovative, dynamic way using a simple parallel plate electrode configuration. Transparent electrodes comprised of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) on glass substrates are used to generate an electric field in the fluid while at the same time allowing light into and out of the fluid. Near-IR optical illumination causes subtle localized heating, creating an electric permittivity gradient that in turn drives a microscopic toroidal vortex. The vortex efficiently transports particles to a preferred location, usually the surface of the electrode. Recent advances have extended have allowed us to apply this technique to macromolecules (DNA, proteins) as well as nanoscale particles (quantum dots, nanowires and PSL particles).

  1. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  2. Sensorless control of PMSM drives for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oskar Wallmark; Lennart Harnefors; Ola Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the implementation of a speed and position estimator for a permanent-magnet synchronous machine in a hybrid-electric vehicle application. A modified variant of the estimator of phase-locked loop type, previously developed by Harnefors and Nee, is presented, in order to take into account effects of saliency and operation in the whole speed region. Furthermore, design rules for all

  3. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Staunton; T. A. Burress; L. D. Marlino

    2006-01-01

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy

  4. Electrically conductive epoxy nanocomposites with expanded graphite/carbon nanotube hybrid fillers prepared by direct hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Kang, Hyokyung; Lim, Yun-Soo; Lee, Churl Seung; Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are generally used to promote the electrical conductivity of the polymer nanocomposites. However, in spite of their superior properties, CNT's high cost has limited their commercial application, so far. Thus, the development of hybrid carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) composed of CNTs and cheaper CNMs such as carbon fibers (CFs), expanded graphites (EGs), and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is important in terms of reducing the cost of CNT-based fillers. In this study, we prepared EG/CNT hybrid fillers via direct CNT synthesis on the EG support using modified combustion method and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and investigated the electrical conductivity of the expoxy nanocomposite with EG/CNT hybrid fillers. The epoxy nanocomposites with EG/CNT hybrid fillers at 20 wt% filler loading showed 260% and 170% electrical conductivity enhancement in comparison with the EG and the simply mixed EG and CNT fillers, respectively. Our approach provides various applications including electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials, thermal interface materials (TIMs), and reinforced nanocomposites. PMID:25971025

  5. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  6. Electric-car range extension through hybrid modification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    A gasohol powered generator set has been installed on a 1210 pound electrically powered Citicar. A power supply has been designed to convert the alternating current of the generator to run the car at a level of 36 vdc maximum. This is less than the 48 vdc used by the Citicar battery pack but which greatly exceeds the ratings on the 3.5 hp General Electric motor. Tests were done to see the minimum stepping voltage to give smooth acceleration and this was found to be 18 vdc. Tests with the generator-power supply set showed a level path consumption of 35 to 40 mpg. Switching between the generator and battery supplies is accomplished manually. The conclusion is that hybridization can be accomplished fairly reasonably but much needs to be done on the development of the electric car itself and particularly battery systems.

  7. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use; (3) increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 14 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. The topics of this report include participants' experience with EV operation; an appraisal of the overall current status of EV's for transportation; program management; and a program experience overview, the result of analyzing Site Operator inputs, provides an insight into the variables that can affect electric vehicle performance and operating cost.

  8. Design of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    on a track of our test center located in La Ferté Vidame. Two cars were used: -a diesel-vehicle - an electricDesign of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian J.-C. Chamard and V, France 1691 #12;The arrival of fully or hybrid electric vehicles raised safety problems respect

  9. Effect of electric cyclic loading on fatigue cracking of a bending piezoelectric hybrid composite actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Choong Woo; Nam Seo Goo

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue damage development in bending piezoelectric hybrid composite actuators with different lay-up configurations under electrical loading cycles is addressed in this work with the aid of an acoustic emission (AE) technique. Electric cyclic fatigue tests have been performed up to 107cycles on the fabricated bending piezoelectric hybrid composite actuators. The applied electric loading range is from ?150 voltage to +150

  10. Data-driven fault diagnosis in a hybrid electric vehicle regenerative braking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaitanya Sankavaram; Bharath Pattipati; Krishna Pattipati; Yilu Zhang; Mark Howell; Mutasim Salman

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative braking is one of the most promising and environmentally friendly technologies used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and vehicle stability. In this paper, we discuss a systematic data-driven process for detecting and diagnosing faults in the regenerative braking system of hybrid electric vehicles. The process involves data reduction techniques, exemplified by multi-way partial least

  11. Avioptic plug-in interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, Anthony L.; Lijoi, Bruno

    1989-05-01

    A secure interconnection is claimed for optical and avioptic cables located in exposed positions, which often occur on aircraft communications circuits, for connecting those cables into equipment such as circuit boards. In this invention the interconnection for optical fiber cables comprises a connector which is engaged in a receptacle in a mother board provided with optical circuitry. The connector comprises a cuplike body or plug containing a metal sleeve which encases the optical fiber cable such that the cable end is exposed. The mating receptacle comprises a cylindrical shell having its lower end embedded in the mother board. A hole in the receptacle shell wall receives the end of an optical fiber on the optical circuitry of the mother board. The end of the sleeve of the connector fits over the end of the receptacle shell protruding from the mother board. Beam deflection means in the receptacle or on the connector directs light between the fiber optic cable and the optical circuit element of the mother board. Electrical coupling can be incorporated into the interconnection such that the termination can accommodate electrical as well as optical functions.

  12. Abstract--This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV),

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    using an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in Li-ion batteries on the modeling of Li-ion batteries is essentially divi focuses specifically on PHEVs that use Lithium-ion batteries for such storage. The literature

  13. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  16. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W. [Vehicle Research Institute, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-09-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

  20. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Nonisolated Configurations of Multilevel Modular Capacitor-Clamped Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal H. Khan; Leon M. Tolbert; William E. Webb

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The

  1. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration

    E-print Network

    (s) to be repowered have to come from a facility in California or can they be moved to California for this project and laboratory testing phase of the demonstration should be at least 2 years. #12;Q4. How long does for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered

  2. Optimal management of battery charging of electric vehicles: A new microgrid feature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad Karnama; F. O. Resende; J. A. Pecas Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Large deployment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will put new challenges regarding the power systems operation. The MicroGrid (MG) concept can be exploited to support the progressive integration of PHEVs into the Low Voltage (LV) networks by developing smart charging strategies to manage the PHEVs batteries charging procedures in order to avoid reinforcements in the grid infrastructures. Assuming that

  3. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Brown, H. L.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 13 program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  5. Efficiency modeling and comparison of switched capacitor, Luo, and interleaved switched capacitor converters for electric vehicle Energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the performance comparison and transfer efficiency modeling and analysis of a 2-quadrant switched capacitor converter (2-Q SCC), a 4-Q SC Luo converter and interleaved SCC, applicable for hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) Energy storage system (ESS) applications. SCCs offer essential features of voltage step-down, voltage step-up, and bidirectional power flow, associated with two or

  6. Less rare-earth magnet-high power density hybrid excitation motor designed for Hybrid Electric Vehicle drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Ozawa; Takashi Kosaka; Nobuyuki Matsui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of hybrid excitation motor as less-permanent magnet and high power density for traction drives in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Firstly, the construction, the basic working principle and the design concept are overviewed. Then, the reason why the proposed machine is suitable for realizing the motor with less-permanent magnet and high power density is

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  8. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  9. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  10. Biomass supported solar thermal hybrid power plant for continuous electricity generation from renewable sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheen Hasan Chowdhury; Amanullah Maung Than Oo; Palash Kumar Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    At present electricity generation from solar sources is being reached a remarkable edge. A large scale electrical energy can be generated using concentrating solar thermal hybrid power plant with storage system. It is fact that solar thermal power plant (STPP) cannot operate stably and continuously due to variability of solar irradiation. This paper proposed a optimal operating mode of hybrid

  11. A Comprehensive Design of Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Ready For Manufacturing using Computing Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. O. Beck

    2006-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to study and evaluate a comprehensive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system, ready for manufacturing, using computing programs. The methods and means of hybrid electric vehicle technology have been investigated. Special needs of technology transfer of alternative energy industry and business development experience have been considered with special interest to enable use to be

  12. An electrically pumped hybrid silicon evanescent amplifier Hyundai Park, Alexander W. Fang, and John E. Bowers

    E-print Network

    Bowers, John

    . An optically pumped Raman amplifier has been demonstrated [1], but an electrically pumped optical amplifierAn electrically pumped hybrid silicon evanescent amplifier Hyundai Park, Alexander W. Fang, Jerusalem, 91031, Israel Abstract: A hybrid silicon evanescent amplifier utilizing a wafer bonded structure

  13. Modular test bench for a hybrid electric vehicle with multiples energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lungoci; D. Bouquain; A. Miraoui; E. Helerea

    2008-01-01

    One of the important aim related to the transportation research activities is the development of a clean and efficient transport. Among the solutions, the hybrid electric vehicles are proposed to replace the conventional vehicles, due to their advantages of zero pollutant emissions, high efficiency and multi energy sources. In this paper a modular configuration representing a hybrid electric vehicle of

  14. Energy management system for hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time validation of the VEHLIB dedicated library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Florescu; H. Turker; S. Bacha; E. Vinot

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the energy share between batteries and supercapacitors within hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). A library of models, known as Hybrid Electric Vehicle Library (VEHLIB), which combines the different models to form a coherent modular base, has been constructed and implemented in real time simulator. Real-time results are here discussed in order to illustrate the effectives of models

  15. DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon Department of Electrical Engineering Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Abstract A DSP based ultracapacitor system for hybrid with a nominal power of 32 kW, and a peak power of 53 kW. The control system, based on a DSP, measures and stores

  16. Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

  17. General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gino Paganelli; Gabriele Ercole; Avra Brahma; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni

    2001-01-01

    A general formulation of the instantaneous power split strategy between an IC engine and an electric machine in a charge-sustaining hybrid-electric vehicle is given. It is based on the instantaneous optimization of an equivalent fuel consumption. This approach involves a heuristic formulation to convert the electrical power flow into equivalent fuel cost based on the average “cost” of electricity through

  18. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV's). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO(x) and CO2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NOx and CO2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small--less than 1% of total utility emissions even with the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles.

  19. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  20. Electric power control using a global hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Hagman, P. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Morris, R.A. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There is strong evidence for the need for software systems capable of efficiently and robustly automating diagnostic and control tasks related to the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical power. Although researchers and developers have recognized the need for such a device, the vision, as yet, has not been realized. Two requirements, integral to the success of a global power controller, have represented major obstacles to be solved in realizing this objective. These are (1) the problem of automatic decision making in the face of complexity in the system being monitored, and (2) the problem of making power control decisions very quickly as well as reliably. This is because a power system is typically complex, and its behavior is a product of many interacting parameters. Techniques from artificial intelligence have been successfully utilized by others to advance the state of the art in automatic diagnosis and control. It is the authors` firm belief that the best means of overcoming the technical obstacles will be the application of AI in the form of model-based reasoning. This belief is justified by concrete research results. Yet, the predominant sentiment among researchers in model-based reasoning is that significant innovations must still be made to the model-based paradigm before it can be effectively applied to the electric power systems domain. In this paper, the authors describe the concept of hybrid reasoning, where traditional model-based reasoning techniques are combined with qualitative reasoning to achieve the greatest possible simplicity and, therefore, speed.

  1. Multiple-source and multiple-destination charge migration in hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhi Wang; Qing Xie; Massoud Pedram; Younghyun Kim; Naehyuck Chang; Massimo Poncino

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through the Charge Transfer Interconnect. A HEES system is capable of providing an electrical energy storage means with very high performance by taking advantage of the strengths (while hiding the weaknesses) of individual EES elements used in

  2. A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Pisu; Giorgio Rizzoni

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. The parallel HEV control problem involves the determination of the time profiles of the power flows from the engine and the electric motor. This is also referred to as the power split between the conventional and the electric sources. The objective of HEV

  3. A control strategy to minimize fuel consumption of series hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Barsali; Carmine Miulli; Andrea Possenti

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the problem of controlling the electricity generation of series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs) and proposes an algorithm with the goal to minimize fuel consumption. Starting from the knowledge of the vehicle electric generator consumption maps, as well as information on the vehicle battery behavior, and on some overall parameters characterizing the expected trip, the

  4. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different modes of engine operation experimentally. The two modes were direct injection compression ignition (DICI) and "pseudo" homogeneously charged compression ignition (PHCCI). Simulation was performed to include HCCI operation in the study. The study showed that the HCCI operation resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure than that of DICI operation. A combined genetic algorithm-artificial neural network predictor model was used along with the simulation model to find the combination of engine parameters that yielded the highest engine efficiency. The predictor-simulator model suggested the most efficient combination of engine parameters.

  5. Design and evaluation of a nuclear-electric hybrid power/propulsion system 

    E-print Network

    Keil, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    Brayton cycle energy conversion system configuration for electric pov'er supply. The hybrid system is compared to other systems which also appear to be feasible. The hybrid cycle system is being optimized by means ol' a parametric study. The optimized...(D SUMMARY . REFERENCES 67 VITA . 90 IIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Optimum Parameters Resulting from the Parametric Study . 2 Comparison of Hybrid and Closed Brayton Cycle. . . . . . . . 3 Results from the Neutronics Analysis 73 75 4 Boundaries...

  6. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  7. New nitride-based devices for electrical detection of DNA hybridization

    E-print Network

    Sheffler, Ryan Taylor

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we designed and began the fabrication of three new solid state sensors for the detection of DNA hybridization through electrical measurements. The first sensor is a surface acoustic wave device with tapered ...

  8. Electric Field Measurements of Directly Converted Lower Hybrid Waves at a Density Striation

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    1 Electric Field Measurements of Directly Converted Lower Hybrid Waves at a Density Striation S in that only the magnetic fields of the waves were measured. Recent experiments at the LAPD directly measure that whistler waves incident on a field-aligned density striation will produce lower hybrid waves via a linear

  9. The solution of hybrid electric vehicle information system by modbus protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Xuehua; Lu Min; Wu Hesheng; Wang Hong; Liu Fei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the hybrid electric vehicle information system, which is realized by modbus protocol. Using a remote terminal control unit (RTU) with EVEW touch-screen, the system achieves the communication between electronic control units (ECU) and the RTU by means of the modbus protocol at the baud rate 38400kb\\/s, and it finishes the task of human-machine exchange. Hybrid electric vehicle

  10. Effective regenerative braking control for smooth stop of a hybrid electric bus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Shu; Weiwei Xiong; Chengliang Yin; Yong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative braking is an important function for a hybrid electric bus with many stop-to-go drive conditions. Yet an accurate nonlinear model for the composite brake system in HEV and a nonlinear model-based control design for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus have not been fully studied. This paper describes the brake system with regenerative braking function, and a special brake pedal

  11. An omni-directional design tool for series hybrid electric vehicle design 

    E-print Network

    Shidore, Neeraj Shripad

    2005-02-17

    debilitating aspects of the electric vehicle are its limited range and lack of supporting infrastructure [3]. Using present technologies. Electric vehicles can achieve ranges of only 200-250 km before the battery is depleted. While this is sufficient... [3]. The batteries used to power the electric motor can be either charged by the ICE or the electric machine, during regenerative braking. Hybrid vehicles provide an alternative to present automotive designs while research to develop advanced...

  12. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  13. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ahlheim, M.C. [Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  14. HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION WITH WIND AND DIESEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind/hybrid operation data were collected using an independent hybrid test grid consisting of three diesel generator sets, AOC 15/50 and Enertech 44/40 wind turbines, two resistive load banks, pre-commercial controls, with a simulated village load. Two configurations were tested, one using a synchro...

  15. Viewing-angle properties of electrically induced hybrid twisted nematic liquid crystal display devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhan He; Shinji Tanaka; Toshiaki Nose; Susumu Sato

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the electrooptical characteristics and viewing-angle properties of liquid crystal (LC) display devices referred as the electrically induced hybrid twisted nematic (EHTN) LC display devices, in which LC molecular orientation effects in inhomogeneous electric fields induced by grating electrode structures are utilized. The properties of EHTN display devices are studied in a measurement setup with an actual backlight

  16. Balanced reconfiguration of storage banks in a hybrid electrical energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younghyun Kim; Sangyoung Park; Yanzhi Wang; Qing Xie; Naehyuck Chang; Massimo Poncino; Massoud Pedram

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the conventional homogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) systems, hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems provide high output power and energy density as well as high power conversion efficiency and low self-discharge at a low capital cost. Cycle efficiency of a HEES system (which is defined as the ratio of energy which is delivered by the HEES system to

  17. Energy storage systems considerations for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Markel; Andrew Simpson

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies. First, it considers the traditional all-electric-range-based operating concept and shows that this strategy can require a larger, more expensive battery due to the simultaneous requirement for high energy and power. It then proposes an alternative \\

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1982-06-01

    As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

  19. Starter-alternator for hybrid electric vehicle: comparison of induction and variable reluctance machines and drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Miller; A. R. Gale; P. J. McCleer; F. Leonardi; J. H. Lang

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of using induction and variable reluctance machines as the starter-alternator in a hybrid electric vehicle. The frame sizes of these machines are dictated by transient engine cranking loads. Therefore, in their design, the machines are assumed to be in deep magnetic saturation and the resultant thermally constrained electric loadings are predicted from the calculated

  20. Fuzzy-logic-based torque control strategy for parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul

    1998-01-01

    In a parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), torque assisting and battery recharging control using the electric machine is the key point for efficient driving. In this paper, by adopting the decision-making property of fuzzy logic, the driving map for an HEV is made according to driving conditions. In this fuzzy logic controller, the induction machine torque command is generated from

  1. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  2. Plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles market penetration scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Baptista; Mário Tomás; Carla Silva

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to analyze the impact of the market share increase of hydrogen based road vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO2, on today's Portuguese light-duty fleet. Actual yearly values of energy consumption and emissions were estimated using COPERT software: 167112 TJ of fossil fuel energy, 12213 kton of CO2 emission and 141 kton of CO, 20 kton

  3. Modelling of battery temperature effect on electrical characteristics of Li-ion battery in hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen Kheng Tan; J. C. Mao; King Jet Tseng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced modelling method for the commonly used energy storage device i.e. lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery of a hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV). In this enhanced modelling method, the thermal effect, an important part of the battery electrical model, is considered to generate a holistic understanding, hence the characteristic of the Li-ion battery. Because of the high temperature sensitivity

  4. Application of Direct-Drive Wheel Motor for Fuel Cell Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khwaja M. Rahman; Nitin R. Patel; Terence G. Ward; James M. Nagashima; Federico Caricchi; Fabio Crescimbini

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gearless wheel motor drive system specifically designed for fuel cell electric and hybrid electric vehicle propulsion application. The system includes a liquid-cooled axial flux permanent-magnet machine designed to meet the direct-drive requirements. The machine design implements techniques to increase the machine inductance in order to improve machine constant power range and high-speed efficiency. The implemented technique

  5. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach. PMID:25102381

  6. Test and evaluation report of the ERDC Hybrid-Electric Van (HEVAN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klose

    1979-01-01

    The HEVAN or Hybrid-Electric Van is a battery-powered electric vehicle with an on-board gasoline-fueled electric power generation unit. The HEVAN was developed from a Volkswagen transporter chassis. It is propelled by a series-wound DC traction motor rated at 20 HP (14.9 kW) which is powered by sixteen 6-volt SGL lead-acid batteries of nominally 96 volts. The motor power is controlled

  7. Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

  8. Test facility for a hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Marcel; Timothy A. Haskew; Keith A. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The electric vehicle concept is gaining momentum in competing with the internal combustion (IC) based vehicle due to rising fuel prices and demands for alternative energy vehicles. Particularly, fuel cell electric vehicles are gaining attention as a real alternative to the pure IC engine vehicle. Because of this emerging technology, considerable research into the configurations of these fuel cell electric

  9. Collaborative Eclipse Plug-in Integration Architecture for stand alone

    E-print Network

    Jones, Edward

    Collaborative Eclipse Plug-in Integration Architecture for stand alone programs (agents) A project Report Summary By Shajil K Kalathil (04/29/2005) #12;Table of Contents 1. Eclipse Platform Overview................................................................ 3 2. Eclipse Cross Section

  10. Prototype Design and Controller Implementation for a Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling, design, and novel control strategy development for a hybrid switched-capacitor bidirectional dc\\/dc converter, applicable for a hybrid electric vehicle energy storage system. The proposed control strategy is based on the power profile of the traction motor and the gradient of battery current. Features of voltage step-down, voltage step-up, and bidirectional power flow are integrated into

  11. Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and Future Trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Rajaei Salmasi

    2007-01-01

    As hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are gaining more popularity in the market, the rule of the energy management system in the hybrid drivetrain is escalating. This paper classifies and extensively overviews the state-of-the-art control strategies for HEVs. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. From different perspectives, real-time solutions are qualitatively compared. Finally, a couple of important issues

  12. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  13. Sangam: a distributed pair programming plug-in for Eclipse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Wei Ho; Somik Raha; Edward F. Gehringer; Laurie Williams

    2004-01-01

    In pair programming, two programmers traditionally work side-by-side at one computer. However, in globally distributed organizations, long-distance collaboration is frequently necessary. Sangam is an Eclipse plug-in that allows Eclipse users in different locations to share a workspace so that they may work as if they were using the same computer. In this paper, we discuss the Sangam plug-in, and our

  14. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  15. Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling Proportional–Integral Control for Improving Engine Power and Speed Behavior in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fazal U. Syed; Ming L. Kuang; Matt Smith; Shunsuke Okubo; Hao Ying

    2009-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on improving fuel economy and reducing emissions, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have emerged as very strong candidates to achieve these goals. The power-split hybrid system, which is a complex hybrid powertrain, exhibits great potential to improve fuel economy by determining the most efficient regions for engine operation and thereby high-voltage (HV) battery operation to achieve overall

  16. A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddy, M.

    1995-01-01

    CarSim 2.5.4, written by AeroVironment, Inc. of Monrovia, California and SIMPLEV 3.0, written by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were used to simulate two series-configured hybrid electric vehicles that competed in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge. Vehicle speed and battery energy use were measured over a 0.2-km maximum effort acceleration and a 58-km range event. The simulations` predictions are compared to each other and to measured data. A rough uncertainty analysis of the validation is presented. The programs agree with each other to within 5% and with the measured energy data within the uncertainty of the experiment.

  17. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  18. Novel design and simulation of a hybrid solar electricity system with organic Rankine cycle and PV cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Gang Pei; Yunzhu Li; Jie Ji

    2010-01-01

    The proposed system mainly consists of flat-plate compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) integrated with photovoltaic (PV) cells and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The technologies of CPC, PV cell and ORC are analyzed, and feasibility of the hybrid solar electricity system is demonstrated. Novel configuration for the hybrid electricity generation is carefully designed to react to different operating conditions. Fundamentals of the

  19. Integrated thermal management of a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Traci; Robert Acebal; Tom Mohler

    1999-01-01

    A thermal management methodology, based on the Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Analysis Code (VITMAC), has been developed for a notional vehicle employing the all-electric combat vehicle (AECV) concept. AECV uses a prime power source, such as a diesel, to provide mechanical energy which is converted to electrical energy and stored in a central energy storage system consisting of flywheels, batteries

  20. Electromagnetic gearing applications in hybrid-electric vehicles 

    E-print Network

    Sodhi, Sameer

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, the operation of electric machines as three port devices is studied in detail. Electric machines used in this manner are referred to as electromagnetic gears in this research. All possible steady-state operating modes of these three...

  1. Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Chiao Lin; Zoran Filipi; Yongsheng Wang; Loucas Louca; Huei Peng; Dennis Assanis; Jeffrey Stein

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military\\/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control

  2. Features and challenges for Auxiliary Power Module (APM) design for hybrid\\/electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Nayeem Hasan; Mohammad N. Anwar; Mehrdad Teimorzadeh; Teimorzadeh David

    2011-01-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV\\/HEV) architectures require a small DC\\/DC converter to replace a conventional vehicle's alternator. The small DC\\/DC converter, also described as the vehicle Auxiliary Power Module (APM), provides power flow between the vehicle high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) DC bus. The APM HV interface is connected to the HV DC bus that contains energy

  3. Synthesis and Structural and Electrical Characteristics of Polypyrrole Nanotube\\/TiO2 Hybrid Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meifang Luo; Ying He; Qilin Cheng; Chunzhong Li

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid composites of conducting polypyrrole nanotubes with TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of ?-naphthalenesulfonic acid by chemical oxidative polymerization. The morphology, structure, and electrical properties were investigated by several experimental techniques. The results indicated that the structural and electrical properties of the composites were influenced by the content of TiO2 nanoparticles. The DC conductivity of the composites increased

  4. Design and implementation of a novel hybrid-electric-motorcycle transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Bao Sheu; Tsung-Hua Hsu

    2006-01-01

    This hybrid power system incorporates a mechanical type rubber V-belt, continuously-variable transmission (CVT) and chain drives to combine power of the two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. The system uses four different modes in order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions: electric-motor mode; engine mode; engine\\/charging mode; and power mode. The main advantages of this

  5. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  6. A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

    2004-01-01

    The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

  7. Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Buntin, David Leighton

    1994-01-01

    . The model is composed of sub-models for the engine, mechanical brake, electric machine, converter, battery, drive shaft with gears, and road load with wind resistance. The model yields results which are rough approximations of component performance...

  8. A hybrid technique for electromagnetic torque and force analysis of electric machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Low; C. Bi; Z. J. Liu

    1997-01-01

    In electric machines, the electromagnetic torques and forces are developed as a result of the interaction of the magnetic fields. These forces can be computed from the results of field analysis, using numerical or analytical methods. Describes a hybrid technique, which is suitable for the calculation and analysis of electromagnetic torques and forces. This method exploits the advantages of numerical

  9. Control of a hybrid solar\\/electric thermal energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc LeBreux; Marcel Lacroix; Gérard Lachiver

    2009-01-01

    A controller for operating a hybrid thermal energy storage system (HTESS) is presented. The storage system accumulates solar energy during sunny days and releases it later at night or during cloudy days and, simultaneously, it stores electric energy during off-peak periods and releases it later during on-peak periods. The control of the system rests on an anticipatory strategy and on

  10. State of health aware charge management in hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xie; Xue Lin; Yanzhi Wang; Massoud Pedram; Donghwa Shin; Naehyuck Chang

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to present an efficient charge management algorithm focusing on extending the cycle life of battery elements in hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems while simultaneously improving the overall cycle efficiency. In particular, it proposes to apply a crossover filter to the power source and load profiles. The goal of this filtering technique is to allow

  11. Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay R. Bhatikar; Roop L. Mahajan; Keith Wipke; Valerie Johnson

    2000-01-01

    The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data- intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate

  12. Adaptive Control of an Ultracapacitor Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuchen Lu; H. L. Hess; D. B. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    An Ultracapacitor-based Energy Storage System (UESS) as an alternative to batteries is becoming attractive for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. This energy storage concept requires innovative control methods. In this paper, an UESS composed of two ultracapacitor banks and a boost converter is studied. The control objective is to regulate the output voltage subject to unpredictable incoming and outgoing energy flows. A

  13. Utility scale hybrid wind–solar thermal electrical generation: A case study for Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Reichling; F. A. Kulacki

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid wind–solar power plant in southwestern Minnesota is modeled for a 2-yr period using hourly wind and solar insolation data. The wind portion of the plant consists of four interconnected wind farms within a radius of 90km. The solar component of the plant is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system using a heat transfer

  14. Design and Optimization of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan F. Rowe; Jennifer A. Topinka; Ethan K. Brodsky; Julie G. Marshaus; Glenn R. Bower

    The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2001 competition. The base vehicle is a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. Our FutureTruck is nicknamed the \\

  15. Remote power delivery for hybrid integrated bio-implantable electrical stimulation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkat R. Gaddam; Jagadish Yernagula; Raghavendra R. Anantha; Satish Kona; Sunitha Kopparthi; A. Chamakura; Pratul K. Ajmera; Ashok Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a remote power delivery system to charge rechargeable batteries that power a Bio-implanted Electrical Stimulation System (BESS) is first described. A loosely coupled inductive transmitter and receiver system has been used to power a bio-implanted gastric pacer. The receiver coil, rechargeable batteries, battery charging chip and the chip containing stimulation circuitry form a hybrid integrated microsystem. A

  16. Engine optimal operation lines for power-split hybrid electric vehicles

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    . DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO1124 Abstract: The powertrain of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can concept of HEV optimal operation that improves the conventional idea of engine optimal operation line (HEV) architectures in the marketplace have adopted a power-split configuration. This configuration has

  17. Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Miller

    2006-01-01

    There is now significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. Economics play a major role as evidenced by oil prices in North America pressing upwards of $100\\/Bbl coupled with a customer preference for full size crossover and sport utility vehicles. The situation in Oceania is milder, but emerging markets such as China are experiencing automotive sector growth

  18. Performance of a hybrid electric vehicle using reluctance synchronous machine technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Malan; Maarten J. Kamper

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a small reluctance synchronous machine drive is presented. The machine is current-angle controlled for maximum torque per ampere or minimum kVA. This ensures that the machine is operated reasonably close to optimal efficiency for all loads. The calculated and measured performance results of the reluctance synchronous machine drive and the

  19. Optical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Kholmanov, Iskandar N; Magnuson, Carl W; Piner, Richard; Kim, Jin-Young; Aliev, Ali E; Tan, Cheng; Kim, Tae Young; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Baughman, Ray H; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-05-01

    By combining a graphene layer and aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) sheets in two different configurations, i) graphene on the top of MWNTs and ii) MWNTs on the top of the graphene, it is demonstrated that optical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of the resulting hybrid films depend on configurations. PMID:25866261

  20. Electrical Conductivity Study of Carbon Nanotube Yarns, 3-D Hybrid Braids and their Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Bradford; Alexander E. Bogdanovich

    2008-01-01

    Long continuous yarns consisting solely of carbon nanotubes may be the future of specialty composites requiring unique multi-functional properties. Many of such yarns were incorporated in a hybrid composite here, to demonstrate for the first time, their effect on increasing the electrical conductivity of an otherwise insulating composite. Six-ply nanotube yarns produced by University of Texas at Dallas were used

  1. A combined ultracapacitor-lead acid battery storage system for mild hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam W. Stienecker; Thomas Stuart; Cyrus Ashtiani

    2005-01-01

    Improvements in ultracapacitor technology indicate that the automotive industry should re-examine the energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). With the combination of an ultracapacitor and a lead acid battery, a system can be implemented in which the lead acid battery can be maintained at 100% state of charge, lengthening the lifetime of the battery. Although performance of the

  2. An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam W. Stienecker; Thomas Stuart; Cyrus Ashtiani

    2006-01-01

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with

  3. Maximum Control Structure of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Supercapacitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lhomme; A. Bouscayrol

    The main problem with Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is the management of batteries. We suggest to replace the batteries by an energy storage system made of supercapacitors on a series HEV with two traction drive. A Maximum Control Structure (MCS) of such an HEV is presented to organize the control of the different subsystems. MCS is based on specific inversion

  4. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  5. New DC–DC Converter for Energy Storage System Interfacing in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Marchesoni; Camillo Vacca

    2007-01-01

    The use of energy storage devices such as batteries or supercapacitors is almost mandatory in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles, in order to guarantee load leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in transient operations. To this end, converters with bidirectional power flows are needed to connect the accumulators to the dc-link of the motor drive system. In this

  6. A power system combining batteries and supercapacitors in a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Burnett; Lawrence J. Borle

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid power system, which reduces the required hydrogen fuel cell power output by combining batteries and supercapacitors in an electric vehicle, is presented. It is shown that this combination can minimise vehicle costs in terms of capital outlay, weight, and fuel. The supercapacitors provide instantaneous peak power as the fuel cell responds to power demand

  7. The history of alternative fuels in transportation: The case of electric and hybrid cars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Georg Høyer

    2008-01-01

    The article describes and presents a critical analysis of the long history of alternative fuels and propulsion technologies, particularly in automobile applications. Cases are electric and hybrid cars. The term “critical analysis” refers to the analysis of the various alternative technologies in relation to their societal contexts. In particular, these are the varying contexts of energy security, energy policy, environmental

  8. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  9. Development of a hybrid flywheel\\/battery drive system for electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Lustenader; R. H. Guess; E. Richter; F. G. Turnbull

    1977-01-01

    Today's electric vehicles are severely limited in multistop and go driving range and accelerating capability by the lead acid battery's inability to handle high power peaks while maintaining maximum energy storage capability. A hybrid flywheel\\/battery system can be used to isolate the battery from the accelerating power peaks, and should recover a substantial part of the braking energy. This paper

  10. Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

  11. Evaluation of electric motor and gasoline engine hybrid car using solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sasaki; M. Yokota; H. Nagayoshi; K. Kamisako

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of a hybrid car in which both power sources of an electric motor and a gasoline engine are used and solar cells are settled on the roof and the bonnet. An array of 1.6 kW solar cells was installed on the top of a building to charge the batteries by solar energy. Though the capacities of

  12. Optimal brake torque distribution for a four-wheeldrive hybrid electric vehicle stability enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D-H Kim; J-M Kim; S-H Hwang; H-S Kim

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle stability control logic for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle is proposed using the regenerative braking of the rear motor and an electrohydraulic brake (EHB). To obtain the optimal brake torque distribution between the regenerative braking and the EHB torque, a genetic algorithm is used. The genetic algorithm calculates the optimal regenerative braking torque and the optimal EHB torque for

  13. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  14. Power Forecasting for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Lavaei, Javad

    of the most heated-discussed issues. Energy shortage and environment pollution are the main bottleneck the tradeoff between energy supply and environment pollution. As the international oil price was continuously................................................................................................................................28 #12;1 / 28 1. Introduction Nowadays, the issue about energy and environment has been one

  15. The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

  16. Packaging and performance of an IGBT-based hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Krein, P.T.; Roethemeyer, T.G.; White, R.A.; Masterson, B.R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A highly integrated hybrid electric vehicle of the series architecture has been built and tested. The vehicle essentially matches the performance of the stock car on which it is based -- including full interior space, range, and dynamic performance. It approaches Federal ULEV targets with the engine in operation, and provides sufficient zero-emission (electric only) range for typical commuting. This is achieved by means of an integrated battery package, an air-cooled traction package, and industrial IGBT drives. The arrangement and package designs are discussed, with an emphasis on the electrical architecture and the power electronic drive trains. Operating results are reported. 3 refs.

  17. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  18. Integrated thermal management of a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Traci, R.M.; Acebal, R. [Science Applications International Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Mohler, T. [United Defense L.P., Santa Clara, CA (United States)] [United Defense L.P., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A thermal management methodology, based on the Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Analysis Code (VITMAC), has been developed for a notional vehicle employing the All-Electric Combat Vehicle (AECV) concept. AECV uses a prime power source, such as a diesel, to provide mechanical energy which is converted to electrical energy and stored in a central energy storage system consisting of flywheels, batteries and/or capacitors. The combination of prime power and stored energy powers the vehicle drive system and also advanced weapons subsystems such as an ETC or EM gun, electrically driven lasers, an EM armor system and an active suspension. Every major system is electrically driven with energy reclamation when possible from braking and gun recoil. Thermal management of such a complicated energy transfer and utilization system is a major design consideration due to the substantial heat rejection requirements. In the present paper, an overall integrated thermal management system (TMS) is described which accounts for energy losses from each subsystem component, accepts the heat using multiple coolant loops and expels the heat from the vehicle. VITMAC simulations are used to design the TMS and to demonstrate that a conventional TMS approach is capable of successfully handling vehicle heat rejection requirements under stressing operational conditions.

  19. Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train

    E-print Network

    Routex, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    this objective, a methodology based on electrical analogies and transducers theory is presented in this work. Using the powerful circuit theory to solve multi-disciplinary problems is not revolutionary, but applied to the design of advanced vehicles, it brings a...

  20. Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipke, K.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

  1. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  2. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  3. Design of an innovative lead-acid battery for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Baxa, M.S.; Weinlein, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing the technology developed at Globe over the last few years with funding assistance from the DOE, an innovative lead-acid battery has been designed specifically for use in a hybrid car. The battery has exceeded all of the minimum performance goals, and in many cases the optimistic target goals. The eV-1300, which features electrolyte circulation, has excellent energy density, power characteristics, efficiency, and cycle life. It is a good candidate battery for other hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles which require a relatively small cell size.

  4. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

  5. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggieri, Alison

    According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of incentives. Overall, these results suggest automobile manufacturing did not impact whether these policies were implemented, nor were they implemented to address air quality issues or gas price increases. Rather these policies were responses to popular support for hybrid vehicles. In addition, this dissertation identifies the average treatment effect of these incentives on state-level demand for hybrid vehicles. These effects are estimated using traditional parametric techniques, difference-in-difference regression, and fixed effects on two comparison groups: (1) the natural control group, states that did not adopt subsidies, and (2) a constructed control group, states that proposed subsidies during this same time period but did not adopt them. In addition to these parametric models, propensity score matching was used to construct a third comparison group using the models that identified determinants of the policy adoption. These findings were supplemented by exploratory analyses using the individual-level National Household Travel Survey. This multitude of evaluative analyses shows that overall, monetary hybrid incentives are not overwhelming effective in promoting the diffusion of this technology, but that HOV lane exemptions, however, if implemented in places with high traffic congestion, were found to impact aggregate demand and an individual's propensity to adopt a hybrid. The other two types of incentives, sales tax exemptions and income tax credits, were not found to be effective at the aggregate or the individual level. In addition, travel behavior was found to strongly predict adoption, more so than socioeconomic variables, stated attitudes, or characteristics of the built environment. The number of walking trips per month and the number of times a person used public transportation were found to be significant predictors of hybrid adoption, implying the decision to adopt a hybrid includes factors other than purely economic ones, such as environmental attitudes. These analyses provide insight into why states adopt certain policies and the circumstances in whi

  6. A survey of mathematics-based equivalent-circuit and electrochemical battery models for hybrid and electric vehicle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Aden; Dao, Thanh-Son; McPhee, John

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we survey two kinds of mathematics-based battery models intended for use in hybrid and electric vehicle simulation. The first is circuit-based, which is founded upon the electrical behaviour of the battery, and abstracts away the electrochemistry into equivalent electrical components. The second is chemistry-based, which is founded upon the electrochemical equations of the battery chemistry.

  7. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 1433 Hybrid Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Motor

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Motor Drive DTC Control for Electric Vehicles F. Khoucha1,2 , SProceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines Paper ID 1433 Hybrid 03, France E-mail: m.benbouzid@ieee.org 2 Electrical Engineering Department, Polytechnic Military

  8. FeaturePlugin: feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Antkiewicz; Krzysztof Czarnecki

    2004-01-01

    Feature modeling is a key technique used in product-line development to model commonalities and variabilities of product-line members. In this paper, we present FeaturePlugin, a feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse. The tool supports cardinality-based feature modeling, specialization of feature diagrams, and configuration based on feature diagrams.

  9. A plug-in architecture for generating collaborative agent responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Rich; Neal Lesh; Andrew Garland; Jeff Rickel

    2002-01-01

    We describe an implemented architecture for programming the responses of collaborative interface agents out of easily composable and reusable plug-in components, and discuss the underlying theoretical and practical issues. The power of the architecture comes primarily from a rich representation of collaborative discourse state, which includes a focus stack and plan tree. The architecture also provides a useful separation between

  10. An ultracapacitor-battery energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienecker, Adam

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries are much more economical, but they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. This research presents a new cost-effective method for using these two energy storage components together in order to extend the life of the battery. This system is presently quite expensive, but it will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to the levels predicted by some manufacturers. This dissertation studies two different methods for implementation on a hybrid electric vehicle and presents performance data for a variety of simulations.

  11. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Patterson, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation Technologies

    1997-09-17

    Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

  12. Invader GT-5 with super compounded motor in 100 MPG diesel electric hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylor, R. [Kaylor Energy Institute, Boulder Creek, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The ultimate solution to environmental pollution from mobile emission sources is a complete transition to electrically powered vehicles operating from batteries deriving their power from non-polluting sources of energy, or from fuel cells using hydrogen. Carbon based fuels for engines or even fuel cells produce the {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} CO{sub 2}. Fuel cells can extract typically about three times as much energy from a fuel as an internal combustion engine (ICE) can. Room-temperature fuel cells using hydrogen obviously do not negatively impact the environment. With adequate hydrogen storage, a H{sub 2} fuel cell charging a battery pack in an electric car or an electric car with a super battery will be the ultimate solution. Without waiting for the economic realization of super batteries or low cost hydrogen fuel cells, the transitional solution to an economically-viable, low-cost, low-pollution vehicle is a hybrid electric automobile!

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  15. Novel Control Strategy Design for Multiple Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two novel control strategies are designed and evaluated for a bidirectional DC\\/DC converter and a 3-stage parallel-interleaved bidirectional converter, for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage applications. The energy storage system (ESS) combines 2 parallel ultra-capacitor (UC) modules with a bidirectional DC\\/DC converter, a Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) battery module, and a load module (which includes the inverter and

  16. Computation of a highly saturated permanent magnet synchronous motor for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Henneberger, S.; Pahner, U.; Hameyer, K.; Belmans, R. [Katholieke Univ., Leuven (Belgium)] [Katholieke Univ., Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    In the framework of the development of a drive system for the implementation in a hybrid electric vehicle, a 45 kW 6-pole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed. Due to the rotor design with inset permanent magnets the machine parameters are dependent on the operating point due to saturation effects. Numerical computations using the finite element method (FEM) are performed to build up a lumped parameter model of the machine.

  17. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  18. Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Schlapfer; Tom Kessler

    The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly com- plex interactions of technical components and relevant ac- tors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical

  19. Development of a lead-acid battery for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Cooper

    2004-01-01

    In September 2000, a project reliable, highly optimized lead-acid battery (RHOLAB) started under the UK Foresight Vehicle Programme with the objective of developing an optimized lead-acid battery solution for hybrid electric vehicles. The work is based on a novel, individual, spirally-wound valve-regulated lead-acid 2V cell optimized for HEV use and low variability. This cell is being used as a building

  20. Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon M. Tolbert; Fang Zheng Peng; Tim Cunnyngham; John N. Chiasson

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents transformerless multilevel converters as an application for high-power hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) make an HEV more accessible\\/safer and open wiring possible for most of an HEV's power system. The cascade inverter is

  1. Dynamic simulation for analysis of hybrid electric vehicle system and subsystem interactions, including power electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Amrhein; Philip T. Krein

    2005-01-01

    Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can be classified into steady-state and dynamic models, according to their purpose. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysis. The information gained is helpful for assessing long-term behavior of the vehicle. Tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the short-term behavior of sublevel components. In this paper, a dynamic

  2. Comparing DC-DC converters for power management in hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Schupbach; J. C. Balda

    2003-01-01

    The design of DC-DC converters for power electronic interfaces in power management systems for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a very challenging task. To this end, this paper presents an analysis, design, and comparison study of several bi-directional non-isolated DC-DC converter topologies that could be considered potential candidates for the power electronic interface of HEV energy\\/power sources, in particular an

  3. Development of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle With a Hydrogen-Fueled IC Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolai He; Timothy Maxwell; Micheal E. Parten

    2006-01-01

    The motivation for the use of hydrogen as fuel is that it can be renewable and can reduce emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are still likely to be more of a far-term reality because of their high manufacturing cost. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion (IC) engine has the potential of becoming a low-emission low-cost practical

  4. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation for energy-efficient restoration of standing-up motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiya Miyamoto; Yoichi Shimada; Kozo Sato; Hitoshi Kagaya; Toshiki Matsunaga; Goro Obinata

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To find the most energy-efficient standing-up motion for quadriceps and to restore that motion in a person with complete paraplegia by using hybrid functional electrical stimulation.Design: Nonrandomized control trial.Setting: A referral center and institutional practice providing outpatient care.Participants: Twenty-nine volunteer samples were used to collect normal data. One patient with complete paraplegia received treatment for the restoration of standing-up

  5. Technology reinvestment project`s focus area: Electric and hybrid tactical and commercial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The publication contains the transparencies from the Technology Reinvestment Projects`s (TRP`s) workshops held in Chicago, IL and Austin, TX in November, 1994. It includes general sessions on TRP, Technology Development, Regional Technology Alliances, and Manufacturing Education and Training, as well as the break out session on Electric and Hybrid Tactical and Commercial Vehicles. Also included are registration forms for both workshops.

  6. Magnetic Coupling Analysis of Four-Quadrant Transducer Used for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zheng; Ranran Liu; Qian Wu; Jing Zhao; Zhiyuan Yao

    2007-01-01

    A four-quadrant transducer (4QT), which is a hybrid electric vehicle power train concept, is a structural integration of two permanent-magnet synchronous machines. It comprises three parts: stator, outer rotor, and inner rotor. As the outer rotor is a structural and magnetic common part of the two radial-flux machines, the magnetic circuits of the two machines are coupled. A new method

  7. Regenerative braking by electric hybrid vehicles using super capacitor and power splitting generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

    2005-01-01

    Experimental electric hybrid car drive of the small power was implemented in the laboratory of Josef Bozek Research Center of Engine and Automotive Technology at the Technical University in Prague. The output is 7.5 kW, 0 6000 min-1. The super capacitor as a peak energy storage has 100 F, 56 V and 400 A. It is able to accept the

  8. Combined control of a regenerative braking and antilock braking system for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Peng; Y. Zhang; C.-L. Yin; J.-W. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Most parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) employ both a hydraulic braking system and a regenerative braking system to provide\\u000a enhanced braking performance and energy regeneration. A new design of a combined braking control strategy (CBCS) is presented\\u000a in this paper. The design is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the hydraulic braking system\\u000a work

  9. Vehicle Stability Enhancement of Four-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Rear Motor Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

    2008-01-01

    A vehicle stability enhancement control algorithm for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed using rear motor driving, regenerative braking control, and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated

  10. Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

    2009-01-01

    The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

  11. A study on regenerative braking for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungwook Jang; Hoon Yeo; Chulsoo Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a regenerative braking algorithm is presented and performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is investigated.\\u000a The regenerative braking algorithm calculates the available regenerative braking torque by considering the motor characteristics,\\u000a the battery SOC and the CVT speed ratio. When the regenerative braking and the friction braking are applied simultaneously,\\u000a the friction braking torque corresponding to the

  12. Vector control of an IPM synchronous machine capable of full range operations for hybrid electric vehicle application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Fu; J. Xiang; W. C. Reynolds; B. Nefcy

    2003-01-01

    Interior PM (IPM) synchronous machines are popularly used as traction motors for mild hybrid and hybrid electric vehicles. In order to achieve desired performance, such as, propulsion of the vehicle, torque boost, charging battery, driveline synchronization during gearshift, and active damping of driveline oscillation, the IPM synchronous machine must be able to operate at every load point inside the envelope

  13. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  14. Development of a 55 kw diesel powered auxiliary power unit for hybrid electric vehicles. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Likos, W.E.; Podnar, D.J.; Smith, J.A.; Steiber, J.

    1998-03-01

    Three auxillary power units (APU) were developed for military hybrid vehicle applications with funding from DARPA. One APU was for the electric M113 troop carrier originally converted to electric power in the 1960`s. The other two APU`s developed during this project were for hybrid electric High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) projects. For this APU design a Volkswagen 1.5-1 diesel engine drives a permanent magnet generator, that with associated inverter produces 55kW of DC power at 380 volts. Overall thermal efficiencies of 33% were observed. The controller for the APU`s was based on the personal computer (PC) CPU. Basing the controller on the PC allowed flexibility in meeting the individual requirements of the different vehicles. Given a power level request from the vehicle controller, the APU controller set the engine speed for optimum thermal efficiency. The generator electronics adjusts the voltage and thus the current output from the inverter to deliver the requested power to the vehicle`s electrical bus.

  15. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  16. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    PubMed Central

    Bucak, ?hsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  17. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel C. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

  18. Steady propagation of Bingham plugs in 2D channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James

    2009-11-01

    The displacement of the yield-stress liquid plugs in channels and tubes occur in many biological systems and industrial processes. Among them is the propagation of mucus plugs in the respiratory tracts as may occur in asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema. In this work the steady propagation of mucus plugs in a 2D channel is studied numerically, assuming that the mucus is a pure Bingham fluid. The governing equations are solved by a mixed-discontinuous finite element formulation and the free surface is resolved with the method of spines. The constitutive equation for a pure Bingham fluid is modeled by a regularization method. Fluid inertia is neglected, so the controlling parameters in a steady displacement are; the capillary number, Ca, Bingham number ,Bn, and the plug length. According to the numerical results, the yield stress behavior of the plug modifies the plug shape, the pattern of the streamlines and the distribution of stresses in the plug domain and along the walls in a significant way. The distribution along the walls is a major factor in studying cell injuries. This work is supported through the grant NIH HL84370.

  19. Abstract--Control strategies have been developed for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) that minimize fuel consumption while

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    1 Abstract--Control strategies have been developed for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) that minimize fuel consumption while satisfying a charge sustaining constraint. Since one of the components of an HEV sum of fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for an HEV equipped with a dual mode Electrically

  20. A New Battery\\/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage System Design and Its Motor Drive Integration for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Lu; Keith A. Corzine; Mehdi Ferdowsi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new energy storage system (ESS) design, including both batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle applications. The conventional designs require a DC-DC converter to interface the UC unit. Herein, the UC can be directly switched across the motor drive DC link during the peak power demands. The resulting wide voltage variation

  1. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fezzler

    2011-01-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is

  2. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Online Stochastic Optimal Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The increasing urgency to extract additional efficiency from hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms. In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes online the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion. Both solutions achieved the same cumulative fuel consumption demonstrating that the online Pareto control policy is an optimal control policy.

  3. Technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen vehicles: Electricity from renewable energy sources in transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jorgensen

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses and compares electricity and hydrogen as transportation fuels. The analysis includes aspects such as the energy utilisation from grid to wheels, vehicle range (linked to the physical properties of the onboard storage), costs, and durability (particularly of batteries). The article concludes that it is not possible to identify one option as the best choice given the wide

  4. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  5. Adaptive Characterization and Modeling of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbrugge, Mark W.

    The control and adaptive characterization of batteries or supercapacitors, which are central to the construction of electrochemical energy storage devices operating in hybrid electric vehicles, require that the state estimator forming the basis of the control system be informed by the underlying electrochemistry. In this chapter, we overview tools and methods useful for the integration of batteries and supercapacitors into HEV systems, with a focus on the construction of state estimators. The approach discussed may be viewed as combining electroanalytical procedures with formal controls methods.

  6. Metal Domain Size Dependent Electrical Transport in Pt-CdSe Hybrid Nanoparticle Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Michaela; Willing, Svenja; Lehmann, Hauke; Klinke, Christian

    2015-06-23

    Thin films prepared of semiconductor nanoparticles are promising for low-cost electronic applications such as transistors and solar cells. One hurdle for their breakthrough is their notoriously low conductivity. To address this, we precisely decorate CdSe nanoparticles with platinum domains of one to three nanometers in diameter by a facile and robust seeded growth method. We demonstrate the transition from semiconductor to metal dominated conduction in monolayered films. By adjusting the platinum content in such solution-processable hybrid, oligomeric nanoparticles the dark currents through deposited arrays become tunable while maintaining electronic confinement and photoconductivity. Comprehensive electrical measurements allow determining the reigning charge transport mechanisms. PMID:26052966

  7. Safe lithium-ion battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, Libero; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery featuring graphite anode, LiFePO4-C cathode and an innovative, safe, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, was assembled and characterized in terms of specific energy and power after the USABC-DOE protocol for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application. The test results show that the battery surpasses the energy and power goals stated by USABC-DOE and, hence, this safe lithium-ion battery should be suitable for application in the evolving HEV market.

  8. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  9. A Consumer-Oriented Control Framework for Performance Analysis in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the associated tradeoffs among the HEV subsystems, e.g., the engine, the motor, and the battery, and investigate the related implications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences. The results of the proposed optimization approach can also be used to investigate the implications for HEV costs related to ownership and warranty.

  10. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  11. The prospects for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Second-stage results of a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.; Vyas, A.D.

    1996-08-01

    This study was conducted to collect information for a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994, while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. Key results: EVs will penetrate the market first, followed by internal combustion engine HEVs, while gas turbine and fuel cell HEVs will come after 2020. By 2020, EVs and internal combustion engine HEVs will have a 15% share of the new vehicle market; they will also cost 18-50% more and will be slightly inferior to 1993 gasoline cars. AC induction motor is projected to be superior to DC and DC brushless motors by 2020, although the DC motor will be less expensive in 2000. DC brushless motors are projected to be the most expensive. Though generally declining, battery costs will remain high. EVs are believed to be effective in reducing urban emissions; however, their costs must be reduced drastically. Petroleum is expected to be the predominant fuel for hybrid vehicles through 2020. Mean energy equivalent fuel economy of electric drivetrain vehicles is projected to be 20-40% greater than for conventional vehicles in 2000, and to rise a few percents during the projection period. Respondents anticipate only a 16% increase in conventional vehicle fuel economy from 2000 to 2020.

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  13. Effect of channel length on the electrical response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors to deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed

    Salila Vijayalal Mohan, Hari Krishna; An, Jianing; Zhang, Yani; Wong, Chee How; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration provides an ideal electronic path for label-free detection of nucleic acid hybridization. The simultaneous influence of more than one response mechanism in hybridization detection causes a variation in electrical parameters such as conductance, transconductance, threshold voltage and hysteresis gap. The channel length (L) dependence of each of these parameters necessitates the need to include them when interpreting the effect of L on the response to hybridization. Using the definitions of intrinsic effective mobility (µe) and device field-effect mobility (µf), two new parameters were defined to interpret the effect of L on the FET response to hybridization. Our results indicate that FETs with ?300 µm long SWCNT exhibited the most appreciable response to hybridization, which complied with the variation trend in response to the newly defined parameters. PMID:25551036

  14. Design optimization of the electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, M.; Gao, Y.; Butler, K.

    1998-10-01

    Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A and M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, and system optimization work has been going on for this invention. This project was a first attempt in integrating the above developments into an optimized design of an ELPH passenger car. Design specifications were chosen for a full size passenger car, performing as well as any conventional car, over the EPA-FTP-75 combined city/highway drive cycles. The results of this design project were two propulsion systems. Both were appropriate for commercial production, from the points of view of cost, availability of the technologies, and components. One utilized regenerative braking and the other did not. Substantial fuel savings and emissions reductions resulted from simulating these designs on the FTP-75 drive cycle. For example, the authors` ELPH full size car, with regenerative braking, was capable of delivering over 50 miles per gallon in city driving, with corresponding reductions in its emissions. This project established the viability of the authors` ELPH concept and their design methodologies, in computer simulations. More work remains to be done on investigating more advanced power plants, such as fuel cells, and more advanced components, such as switched reluctance motor drives, for the authors` designs. Furthermore, the authors` design optimization can be carried out to more detailed levels, for prototyping and production.

  15. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  16. Feasibility of a Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface for Advanced Functional Electrical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Savi?, Andrej M.; Maleševi?, Nebojša M.; Popovi?, Mirjana B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a feasibility study of a novel hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system for advanced functional electrical therapy (FET) of grasp. FET procedure is improved with both automated stimulation pattern selection and stimulation triggering. The proposed hybrid BCI comprises the two BCI control signals: steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD). The sequence of the two stages, SSVEP-BCI and ERD-BCI, runs in a closed-loop architecture. The first stage, SSVEP-BCI, acts as a selector of electrical stimulation pattern that corresponds to one of the three basic types of grasp: palmar, lateral, or precision. In the second stage, ERD-BCI operates as a brain switch which activates the stimulation pattern selected in the previous stage. The system was tested in 6 healthy subjects who were all able to control the device with accuracy in a range of 0.64–0.96. The results provided the reference data needed for the planned clinical study. This novel BCI may promote further restoration of the impaired motor function by closing the loop between the “will to move” and contingent temporally synchronized sensory feedback. PMID:24616644

  17. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral CFL and future dimmable integral and plug-in versions of the EFL products.

  18. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  19. Rapid recharge capability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, F. A.; Shumard, P.; Dickinson, B.

    Range limitation is a significant drawback to the successful commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). An apt description of an EV is `a high performance vehicle with a one-gallon fuel tank'. In the absence of a `super battery', there are at least two approaches to resolving this drawback. The first approach is rapid recharge, i.e., recharging the battery as close as possible to the same time period as it takes to fill the petrol tank of an internal-combustion-engined (ICE) vehicle. Whilst not extending the vehicle range as such, this approach does enable high usage of the vehicle without experiencing unduly long recharge times. The ability of the battery to accept rapid recharge is paramount for this approach. The second approach is the development of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this case, the demand on the battery is the ability to provide, and also absorb from regenerative braking, high specific peak-power levels over a wide range of battery state-of-charge. This paper describes the ability, and indeed limitations, of the valve-regulated Genesis® lead-acid battery in meeting such requirements.

  20. Hybrid optical-electrical detection of donor electron spins with bound excitons in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C.; Urdampilleta, M.; Ross, P.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Mansir, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical detection of spin resonance is a powerful technique for understanding the dynamics of spins in semiconductors. For electrons bound to shallow donors in silicon, thus far it has been demonstrated by coupling donors to spin readout partners, such as paramagnetic defects or conduction electrons, which fundamentally limit the donor coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor bound excitons in a silicon device, and show that the spin-selective bound exciton transitions can be exploited for the electrical detection of coherent spin manipulation of isolated donors. We use this method to measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and we are able to obtain long intrinsic electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration. Furthermore, we address critical issues for adopting such a hybrid optical-electrical detection scheme for single spin detection in silicon nanodevices, laying the foundations for realizing a versatile readout method for single spin readout with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunneling. [arXiv:1411.1324

  1. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  2. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  3. Ultra clean burner for an AMTEC system suitable for hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High power Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) systems have the potential to make the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) program a success by meeting the challenging standards put forth by the EPA for the automobile industry. The premise of the whole concept of using AMTEC cells, as discussed by Hunt et al. (1995), for power generation in HEV`s is based on the utilization of a high efficiency external combustion system. The key requirement being a burner which will produce extremely low quantities of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen, emit minimal amounts of hydrocarbon, will have high radiative and convective efficiencies and at least a 4:1 turndown ratio. This work presents one such burner which has the potential to meet all of these demands and more. After investigation of a number of burners, including, metal fiber, ported metal, ceramic fiber and ported ceramic, it is believed that cellular ceramic burners will be the best candidates for integration with AMTEC cells for a high power system suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. A detailed study which includes the operating range, radiation efficiency, total heat transfer efficiency, spectral intensity, exit gas temperature and pollutant emission indices measurement has been carried out on circular and square shaped burners. Total heat transfer efficiencies as high as 65--70% have been measured using a water calorimeter. With efficient recuperation, a burner/recuperator efficiency of 80% at peak power and 90% at peak efficiency operating points are conceivable with this burner. Establishment of combustion within the porous matrix leads to low peak temperatures and hence lower NO{sub x}. The emission indices of CO and HC are also quite low. The stability range measurements show a 6:1 turndown ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.9.

  4. Transient motion of mucus plugs in respiratory airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Hu, Yingying; Helenbrook, Brian; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Airway closure occurs in lung diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema which have an excess of mucus that forms plugs. The reopening process involves displacement of mucus plugs in the airways by the airflow of respiration. Mucus is a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress; therefore its behavior can be approximated by a Bingham fluid constitutive equation. In this work the reopening process is approximated by simulation of a transient Bingham fluid plug in a 2D channel. The governing equations are solved by an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method through an in-house code. The constitutive equation for the Bingham fluid is implemented through a regularization method. The effects of the yield stress on the flow features and wall stresses are discussed with applications to potential injuries to the airway epithelial cells which form the wall. The minimum driving pressure for the initiation of the motion is computed and its value is related to the mucus properties and the plug shape. Supported by HL84370 and HL85156.

  5. Supporting Runtime System Adaptation through Product Line Engineering and Plug-in Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Wolfinger; Stephan Reiter; Deepak Dhungana; Paul Grünbacher; Herbert Prähofer

    2008-01-01

    Product line engineering and plug-in techniques pursue different but complementary goals. Software product line engineering strives for modeling the variability of software systems on different levels of abstraction, whereas plug-in systems support software extensibility, customizability, and evolution. We present an approach demonstrating the benefits of integrating those two areas and discuss the integration of a plug-in platform for enterprise software

  6. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by such hybrids.

  7. Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Center Seminar "Electric Vehicle Recharging: Decision Support Tools for Drivers Conference Center Refreshments available at 3:30 pm Abstract: Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have become electric vehicles. #12;

  8. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. PMID:22378623

  9. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): A Feasible Approach to Optical Electrical Hybrid Data Storage Using Phase Change Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Jun Sun; Li-Song Hou; Yi-Qun Wu; Feng-Xiao Zhai

    2008-01-01

    We present our experimental results supporting optical-electrical hybrid data storage by optical recording and electrical reading using Ge2Sb2Te5as recording medium. The sheet resistance of laser-irradiated Ge2Sb2Te5 films exhibits an abrupt change of four orders of magnitude (from 107 to 103 Omega\\/sq) with increasing laser power, current-voltage curves of the amorphous area and the laser-crystallized dots, measured by a conductive atomic

  11. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; de Visser, P. J.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-01

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  12. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  13. Electricity generation from hybrid of hydro power, solar and wind energies for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Kurukulasuriya, M. [Kurukulasuriya (Mahinda), Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-31

    Developing countries will require substantial investments in order to meet the increasing demand for energy services and to develop and transport the energy supply, as well as to develop indigenous energy resources (bioenergy), fossil fuels and abundantly available renewable sources of energy. Capital requirements of this scale can only be met by enhancing the mobilization of financing from national private and public sources, including end-users in some cases (in cash or in kind); increased access to international funding; foreign-direct investment; and the expansion of bilateral and multilateral assistance programs. Taking into account the critical socio-economic situation in many developing countries, important prerequisite issues concerning sustainable development and use of renewable energy sources sufficiently available in rural areas, electricity generation from a Hybrid for basic purposes of life has been proposed.

  14. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  15. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Tyler [Interek; Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory; Wishart, Jeffrey [Interek

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin D.; Chon, Haewon; Keisler, Jeffrey M.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion batteries. Averaging across experts we find that U.S. government expenditures of $150 M/year lead to a 66% chance of achieving a battery that costs less than $200/kWh, and a 20% chance for a cost of $90/kWh or less. Reducing the cost of batteries from a baseline of $384 to $200 could lead to a savings in the cost of reducing greenhouse gases of about $100 billion in 2050.

  18. Electrically, chemically, and photonically powered torsional and tensile actuation of hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Haines, Carter S; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D; Fonseca, Alexandre F; Madden, John D W; Voit, Walter E; Galvão, Douglas S; Baughman, Ray H

    2012-11-16

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate. PMID:23161994

  19. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-10-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO2) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  20. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  1. A Unique Approach to Power Electronics and Motor Cooling in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    An innovative system for cooling the power electronics of hybrid electric vehicles is presented. This system uses a typical automotive refrigerant R-134a (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane) as the cooling fluid in a system that can be used as either part of the existing vehicle passenger air conditioning system or separately and independently of the existing air conditioner. Because of the design characteristics, the cooling coefficient of performance is on the order of 40. Because liquid refrigerant is used to cool the electronics directly, high heat fluxes can result while maintaining an electronics junction temperature at an acceptable value. In addition, an inverter housing that occupies only half the volume of a conventional inverter has been designed to take advantage of this cooling system. Planned improvements should result in further volume reductions while maintaining a high power level.

  2. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  3. Electrical detection of hybridization and threading intercalation of deoxyribonucleic acid using carbon nanotube network field-effect

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Electrical detection of hybridization and threading intercalation of deoxyribonucleic acid using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors Ee-Ling Gui, Lain-Jong Li,a P. S. Lee, Anup Lohani deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sensing characteristics of carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors CNNFETs

  4. Study on the incorporation of photovoltaic systems as an auxiliary power source for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giannouli; P. Yianoulis

    We investigate the use of photovoltaic systems as auxiliary power generators in hybrid and electric vehicles. This technology provides an as yet unexploited possibility with the advantages of a new power source, which is light, noiseless, maintenance-free and continuously working. A notable reduction of air emissions can be achieved through a synergy of various technological breakthroughs, such as the method

  5. ADVISOR-based model of a battery and an ultra-capacitor energy source for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Baisden; Ali Emadi

    2004-01-01

    An energy source is the heart of a hybrid electric vehicle. If it is capable of supplying enough power at all times, then it is an adequate source. Major problems presently facing the industry include the size, cost, and efficiency of the energy source. The primary energy source presently used in automotive systems is a battery. In order to reduce

  6. Design and control of a single stator dual PM rotors axial synchronous machine for hybrid electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucian Nicolae Tutelea; Sorin Ioan Deaconu; Ion Boldea; Fabrizio Marignetti; Gabriel Nicolae Popa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is presenting the preliminary designing and control of a synchronous machine with axial airgap single stator dual-rotor with permanent surface magnets and different pole pairs number, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) applications. For machine’s designing was used the equivalent magnetic circuits method that takes into account the saturation and dispersion of the magnetic field. The control

  7. Control development for a hybrid-electric sport-utility vehicle: strategy, implementation and field test results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gino Paganelli; Makoto Tateno; Avra Brahma; Giorgio Rizzoni; Yann Guezennec

    2001-01-01

    The control strategy presented and evaluated was developed for a parallel hybrid vehicle designed for the FutureTruck 2000 competition. The control strategy implemented focuses on fuel efficiency optimization in the context of charge-sustaining operation. It is based on an equivalent consumption minimization strategy, accounting for both the actual fuel cost and a suitably formulated equivalent fuel cost for the electric

  8. An environmental-economic evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles: Toyota's Prius vs. its conventional internal combustion engine Corolla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lester B Lave; Heather L MacLean

    2002-01-01

    We compare the second generation of the first commercial hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Toyota Prius, to the conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) Toyota Corolla. The more complicated and expensive Prius has lower pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions and better fuel economy than the Corolla. In a world of limited resources and many petroleum users and emissions sources, the policy

  9. Design of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for a flywheel energy storage system within a hybrid electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Jiang; John Salmon; Andrew M. Knight

    2009-01-01

    As an energy storage device, the flywheel has significant advantages over conventional chemical batteries, such like higher energy density, higher efficiency, longer life time, and less environment pollution. Flywheel technology have been widely used in varies of areas, including power system, space craft, and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). An effective flywheel system mainly attribute to its good motor \\/generator (M\\/G)

  10. EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Barcelona, Spain, November 17-20, 2013

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS27 Barcelona for the diagnosis of electrochemical generators (batteries or fuel cell). It is now possible to acquire. Keywords: EIS, broadband signals, identification, impedance, Li-ion battery. 1 Introduction Electrochemical

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  12. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  13. DC-AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Du, Zhong [ORNL; Chiasson, John N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design for EV and HEV applications implemented without the use of inductors is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a dc power supply. The proposed design uses a standard three-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the dc power source. A fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a five-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed dc-ac cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted ac voltage without the use of inductors.

  14. Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Rizzoni

    2005-09-30

    Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a laboratory facility that will include: electric drive and IC engine test benches; a test vehicle designed for rapid installation of prototype drives; benches for the measurement and study of HEV energy storage components (batteries, ultra-capacitors, flywheels); hardware-in-the-loop control system development tools. (2) The creation of new courses and upgrades of existing courses on subjects related to: HEV modeling and simulation; supervisory control of HEV drivetrains; engine, transmission, and electric drive modeling and control. Specifically, two new courses (one entitled HEV Component Analysis: and the other entitled HEV System Integration and Control) will be developed. Two new labs, that will be taught with the courses (one entitled HEV Components Lab and one entitled HEV Systems and Control lab) will also be developed. (3) The consolidation of already existing ties among faculty in electrical and mechanical engineering departments. (4) The participation of industrial partners through: joint laboratory development; internship programs; continuing education programs; research project funding. The proposed effort will succeed because of the already exceptional level of involvement in HEV research and in graduate education in automotive engineering at OSU, and because the PIs have a proven record of interdisciplinary collaboration as evidenced by joint proposals, joint papers, and co-advising of graduate students. OSU has been expanding its emphasis in Automotive Systems for quite some time. This has led to numerous successes such as the establishment of the Center of Automotive Research, a graduate level course sequence with GM, and numerous grants and contracts on automotive research. The GATE Center of Excellence is a natural extension of what educators at OSU already do well.

  15. Volante -Principal A minha vida com o Toyota Prius Plug-In

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Volante - Principal A minha vida com o Toyota Prius Plug-In Autor: N.D. Editora: Medipress, Lda Id A minha vida com o Toyota Prius Plug-In Autor: N.D. Editora: Medipress, Lda Id: 1633751 Data Publicação

  16. Polyaniline nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrid network vapour sensors with switchable chemo-electrical polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Park, Bong Jun; Kumar, Bijandra; Castro, Mickaël; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Feller, Jean-François

    2010-06-01

    Chemo-resistive sensors were prepared from monodisperse poly(aniline) nanoparticles (PaniNP) synthesized via oxidative dispersion polymerization. Poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA) was used as the stabilizer and dopant agent. PaniNP transducers were assembled by spraying layer by layer a solution containing different concentrations of PaniNP and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) onto interdigitated electrodes. This process led to stable sensors with reproducible responses upon chemical cycling. Chemo-electrical properties of these sensors have been investigated in sequential flows of pure nitrogen and nitrogen saturated with a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Interestingly the sensing mode of PaniNP transducers (the NVC or PVC effect) can be switched simply by increasing PaniNP content or by the addition of only 0.5% of MWNT to reach a resistance lower than 150 ?. Due to their original conducting architecture well imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), i.e. a double percolated conductive network, PaniNP-MWNT hybrids present both higher sensitivity and selectivity than other formulations, demonstrating a positive synergy. Mechanisms are proposed to describe the original chemo-electrical behaviours of PaniNP-based sensors and explain the origin of their selectivity and sensing principle. These features make them attractive to be integrated in e-noses.

  17. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  18. Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world`s largest HEV fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

  19. US residential charging potential for electric vehicles Elizabeth J. Traut a

    E-print Network

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    US residential charging potential for electric vehicles Elizabeth J. Traut a , TsuWei Charlie market, conventional vehicles (CV) make up the vast majority of market share, hy- brid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent less than 4% share, and sales of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including plug-in hy

  20. Modulation of molecular hybridization and charge screening in a carbon nanotube network channel using the electrical pulse method.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jun-Myung; Kim, Seok Hyang; Chun, Honnggu; Kim, Sung Jae; Ahn, Jinhong; Park, Young June

    2013-09-21

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electrical pulse bias on DNA hybridization events in a biosensor platform, using a Carbon Nanotube Network (CNN) and Gold Nano Particles (GNP) as an electrical channel. The scheme provides both hybridization rate enhancement of bio molecules, and electrical measurement in a transient state to avoid the charge screening effect, thereby significantly improving the sensitivity. As an example, the probe DNA molecules oscillate with pulse trains, resulting in the enhancement of DNA hybridization efficiency, and accordingly of the sensor performances in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer solution, by as much as over three times, compared to the non-biasing conditions. More importantly, a wide dynamic range of 10(6) (target-DNA concentration from 5 pM to 5 ?M) is achieved in human serum. In addition, the pulse biasing method enables one to obtain the conductance change, before the ions within the Electrical Double Layer (EDL) are redistributed, to avoid the charge screening effect, leading to an additional sensitivity enhancement. PMID:23900200

  1. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 8, Number 1, June 2010 Simplified Thermal Model of PM Motors in Hybrid Vehicle Applications Taking

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    to develop a complete and representative model of the heat processes in the electric motors. In this paper in Ansoft ePhysics soft- ware. Keywords hybrid electric vehicle, surface permanent magnet synchronous motors needs to be thor- oughly understood. The optimal design of electrical motors with solid thermal

  2. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 9, Number 1, June 2011 Uncontrolled Generation of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are provided with advantages of small size, light weight, and high power density, therefore PMSM are primary choice as traction motors in hybrid vehicles. In addition hybrid vehicles use PMSM [Kassakian , 2000]. However, interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM

  3. Design of a fuzzy controller for energy management of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Estrada Gutierrez, Pedro Cuauhtemoc

    1997-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design of a control scheme based on Fuzzy Logic to minimize automobile fuel consumption and exhaust emissions while maximizing battery state of charge (SOC) for hybrid vehicles. The advantages the hybrid vehicle has over...

  4. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72?mW?cm(-2), which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels. PMID:24504242

  5. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72?mW?cm-2, which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  6. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  7. Status and evaluation of hybrid electric vehicle batteries for short term applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Machinery Technology Div.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this task is to compile information regarding batteries which could be use for electric cars or hybrid vehicles in the short term. More specifically, this study applies lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium battery technologies which are more developed than the advanced batteries which are presently being investigated under USABC contracts and therefore more accessible in production efficiency and economies of scale. Moreover, the development of these batteries has advanced the state-of-the-art not only in terms of performance and energy density but also in cost reduction. The survey of lead-acid battery development took the biggest part of the effort, since they are considered more apt to be used in the short-term. Companies pursuing the advancement of lead-acid batteries were not necessarily the major automobile battery manufacturers. Innovation is found more in small or new companies. Other battery systems for short-term are discussed in the last part of this report. We will review the various technologies investigated, their status and prognosis for success in the short term.

  8. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  9. Application of Z-Source Inverter for Traction Drive of Fuel Cell—Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Zheng Peng; Miaosen Shen; Kent Holland

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Z-source inverter control strategy used to control power from the fuel cell, power to the motor, and state of charge (SOC) of the battery for fuel cell (FC)-battery hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV). Traditional pulsewidth modulation inverter always requires an extra dc\\/dc converter to interface the battery in FCHEVs. The Z-source inverter utilizes an exclusive Z-source (LC)

  10. System Integration and Power-Flow Management for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Supercapacitors and Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunjae Yoo; Seung-Ki Sul; Yongho Park; Jongchan Jeong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, system integration and power-flow management algorithms for a four-wheel-driven series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) having multiple power sources composed of a diesel-engine-based generator, lead acid battery bank, and supercapacitor bank are presented. The super-capacitor is utilized as a short-term energy storage device to meet the dynamic performance of the vehicle, while the battery is utilized as a

  11. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vasebi; S. M. T. Bathaee; M. Partovibakhsh

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in

  12. Neural network sliding mode control based on on-line identification for electric vehicle with ultracapacitor-battery hybrid power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Bo Cao; Bing-Gang Cao

    2009-01-01

    In order to deal with three major problems of electric vehicle (EV): the short driving range, the short life of batteries,\\u000a and the poor ability of start-up, a hybrid power system was designed and applied to the EV. It was composed of an ultracapacitor\\u000a with high-specific power and long life, four lead-acid batteries, and a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter. To improve

  13. Design procedure for low cost, low mass, direct drive, in-wheel motor drivetrains for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard C Lovatt; Darrell Elton; Laurence Cahill; Duc Hau Huynh; Alex Stumpf; Ambarish Kulkarni; Ajay Kapoor; Mehran Ektesabi; Himani Mazumder; Thomas Dittmar; Gary White

    2011-01-01

    Direct drive, in-wheel motors are ideal for electric and hybrid vehicles because the packaging of the drivetrain is so simple, because drivetrain losses are eliminated, and because individual wheel control improves handling and safety. In applications where cost is not a constraint, e.g. solar car racing, direct drive, in-wheel motors are the norm. In-wheel motors are also regularly demonstrated in

  14. Electrical and thermal conductivities of novel metal mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Chien Hsiao; Shu-Hang Liao; Ming-Yu Yen; Chen-Chi M. Ma; Shuo-Jen Lee; Yung-Hung Chen; Chih-Hung Hung; Yu-Feng Lin; Xiao-Feng Xie

    2010-01-01

    This study prepares novel metal mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) via inserting a copper or aluminum mesh in polymer composites. The composition of polymer composites consists of 70wt% graphite powder and 0–2wt% modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs). Results indicate that the in-plane electrical conductivity of m-MWCNTs\\/polymer composite bipolar plates increased from 156Scm?1

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

  16. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davisâ??s existing GATE centers have become the campusâ??s research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  17. Electric and magnetic losses modeled by a stable hybrid with explicit-implicit time-stepping for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Halleroed, Tomas [Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: tomas.hallerod@chalmers.se; Rylander, Thomas [Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: rylander@chalmers.se

    2008-04-20

    A stable hybridization of the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme for Maxwell's equations with electric and magnetic losses is presented for two-dimensional problems. The hybrid method combines the flexibility of the FEM with the efficiency of the FDTD scheme and it is based directly on Ampere's and Faraday's law. The electric and magnetic losses can be treated implicitly by the FEM on an unstructured mesh, which allows for local mesh refinement in order to resolve rapid variations in the material parameters and/or the electromagnetic field. It is also feasible to handle larger homogeneous regions with losses by the explicit FDTD scheme connected to an implicitly time-stepped and lossy FEM region. The hybrid method shows second-order convergence for smooth scatterers. The bistatic radar cross section (RCS) for a circular metal cylinder with a lossy coating converges to the analytical solution and an accuracy of 2% is achieved for about 20 points per wavelength. The monostatic RCS for an airfoil that features sharp corners yields a lower order of convergence and it is found to agree well with what can be expected for singular fields at the sharp corners. A careful convergence study with resolutions from 20 to 140 points per wavelength provides accurate extrapolated results for this non-trivial test case, which makes it possible to use as a reference problem for scattering codes that model both electric and magnetic losses.

  18. How much do electric drive vehicles matter to future U.S. emissions?

    PubMed

    Babaee, Samaneh; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles--known collectively as electric drive vehicles (EDVs)--may represent a clean and affordable option to meet growing U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) demand. The goal of this study is 2-fold: identify the conditions under which EDVs achieve high LDV market penetration in the U.S. and quantify the associated change in CO2, SO2, and NOX emissions through midcentury. We employ the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES), a bottom-up energy system model, along with a U.S. data set developed for this analysis. To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. Across these scenarios, oil prices and battery cost have the biggest effect on EDV deployment. The model results do not demonstrate a clear and consistent trend toward lower system-wide emissions as EDV deployment increases. In addition to the trade-off between lower tailpipe and higher electric sector emissions associated with plug-in vehicles, the scenarios produce system-wide emissions effects that often mask the effect of EDV deployment. PMID:24386958

  19. A Concurrency Testing Tool and Its Plug-Ins for Dynamic Analysis and Runtime Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?ena, Bohuslav; Letko, Zden?k; Nir-Buchbinder, Yarden; Tzoref-Brill, Rachel; Ur, Shmuel; Vojnar, Tomáš

    This paper presents a tool for concurrency testing (abbreviated as ConTest) and some of its extensions. The extensions (called plug-ins in this paper) are implemented through the listener architecture of ConTest. Two plug-ins for runtime detection of common concurrent bugs are presented—the first (Eraser+) is able to detect data races while the second (AtomRace) is able to detect not only data races but also more general bugs caused by violation of atomicity presumptions. A third plug-in presented in this paper is designed to hide bugs that made it into the field so that when problems are detected they can be circumvented. Several experiments demonstrate the capabilities of these plug-ins.

  20. Conjugated polymers/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid materials--preparation, electrical transport properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Couderc, Elsa; De Girolamo, Julia; Pron, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This critical review discusses specific preparation and characterization methods applied to hybrid materials consisting of ?-conjugated polymers (or oligomers) and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials are of great importance in the quickly growing field of hybrid organic/inorganic electronics since they can serve as active components of photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors and other devices. The electronic energy levels of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrid can be tuned individually and thin hybrid films can be processed using low cost solution based techniques. However, the interface between the hybrid components and the morphology of the hybrid directly influences the generation, separation and transport of charge carriers and those parameters are not easy to control. Therefore a large variety of different approaches for assembling the building blocks--conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals--has been developed. They range from their simple blending through various grafting procedures to methods exploiting specific non-covalent interactions between both components, induced by their tailor-made functionalization. In the first part of this review, we discuss the preparation of the building blocks (nanocrystals and polymers) and the strategies for their assembly into hybrid materials' thin films. In the second part, we focus on the charge carriers' generation and their transport within the hybrids. Finally, we summarize the performances of solar cells using conjugated polymer/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrids and give perspectives for future developments. PMID:21152569