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Sample records for plug-in hybrid electric

  1. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  3. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  4. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  5. Simulating the Household Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Distribution and its Electric Distribution Network Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Liu, Cheng; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for modeling spatial distribution of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership at local residential level, discovering plug-in hybrid electric vehicle hot zones where ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and estimating the impacts of the increasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. We use Knox County, Tennessee as a case study to highlight the simulation results of the agent-based simulation framework.

  6. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  7. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  8. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  9. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  10. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the electrical current in Amps to and from the hybrid electric vehicle battery during the FTP... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.116-12 Section...

  11. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  12. An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Smith, David E

    2011-01-01

    The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

  13. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Tribioli, L. Cozzolino, R.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  15. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.308-12 Section 600.308-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... vehicles. Fuel economy labels for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles must meet the specifications described... electric range” if the vehicle's engine starts only after the battery is fully discharged, or...

  16. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.308-12 Section 600.308-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... vehicles. Fuel economy labels for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles must meet the specifications described... electric range” if the vehicle's engine starts only after the battery is fully discharged, or...

  17. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.308-12 Section 600.308-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... vehicles. Fuel economy labels for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles must meet the specifications described... electric range” if the vehicle's engine starts only after the battery is fully discharged, or...

  18. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.

  19. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by

  20. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  1. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

  2. ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Derek M.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-07-01

    This addendum adds to the analysis of 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' (D M Lemoine et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014003) to the case of all-electric vehicles (EVs). We pay particular attention to grid impacts, break-even battery costs, and the three ways in which EVs could dramatically change the results we obtained for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

  3. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-07-25

    This study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. When workplace charging is available, the optimal electric driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Moreover, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.

  4. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. When workplace charging is available, the optimal electric driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Moreover, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.

  5. Socially optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kontou, Eleftheria; Yin, Yafeng; Lin, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the optimal electric driving range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that minimizes the daily cost borne by the society when using this technology. An optimization framework is developed and applied to datasets representing the US market. Results indicate that the optimal range is 16 miles with an average social cost of 3.19 per day when exclusively charging at home, compared to 3.27 per day of driving a conventional vehicle. The optimal range is found to be sensitive to the cost of battery packs and the price of gasoline. When workplace charging is available, the optimal electricmore » driving range surprisingly increases from 16 to 22 miles, as larger batteries would allow drivers to better take advantage of the charging opportunities to achieve longer electrified travel distances, yielding social cost savings. If workplace charging is available, the optimal density is to deploy a workplace charger for every 3.66 vehicles. Moreover, the diversification of the battery size, i.e., introducing a pair and triple of electric driving ranges to the market, could further decrease the average societal cost per PHEV by 7.45% and 11.5% respectively.« less

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  8. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  9. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

  10. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  11. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2009-07-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

  12. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  13. Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, J.; Bharathan, D.; Emadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculation method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.

  14. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  15. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  16. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for recharging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs.

  17. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  18. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2006-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future tasks will be proposed to better define the interaction electricity and transportation, and how society can better prepare for their confluence.

  19. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  20. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model. It was found that increasing AER of plug-in hybrids was a more cost effective solution to reducing gasoline consumption than installing charging infrastructure. Comparison of results to current subsidy structure shows various options to improve future PHEV or other vehicle subsidy programs.

  2. Economic Value of LFC Substitution by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    There are lots of global warming countermeasures. In the power sector, nuclear power plants play an important role because they do not produce CO2 emissions during production of electricity. However, if the generation share of nuclear is too high at nighttime, it becomes difficult to keep enough capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) because nuclear power plants do not change the output (i.e., without load following operation) in Japan. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEV is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate LFC capacity in nighttime. In this study, we evaluated the economic value of charging power control by using an optimal generation planning model, and obtained the following results. Charging power control is effective in reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of economic efficiency of power system. Particularly, even in the low market share of PHEVs, the charge control has a high economic value because it substitutes nuclear power plant, base-load provider with low fuel cost, for LNG-CC, LEC provider with high fuel cost.

  3. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Power Generation Best Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In transport section, it is necessary to reduce amount of CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. Bio fuels and Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Electric Vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are expected to reduce CO2 emissions and Oil dependence. We focus on PHEV. PHEV can reduce total energy Consumptions because of its high efficiency and can run with both oil and electricity. Introduction of PHEV reduces oil consumptions, however it also increases electricity demands. Therefore we must evaluate PHEV's CO2 reduction potential, not only in transport section but also in power grid section. To take into account of the distribution of the daily travel distance is also very important. All energy charged in the PHEV's battery cannot always be used. That influences the evaluation. We formulate the total model that combines passenger car model and power utility grid model, and we also consider the distribution of the daily travel distance. With this model, we show the battery cost per kWh at which PHEV begins to be introduced and oil dependence in passenger car section is to be reduced to 80%. We also show PHEV's CO2 reduction potentials and effects on the power supply system.

  4. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    PubMed

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

  5. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  6. Integrated thermal and energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams-Zahraei, Mojtaba; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Kutter, Steffen; Bäker, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    In plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the engine temperature declines due to reduced engine load and extended engine off period. It is proven that the engine efficiency and emissions depend on the engine temperature. Also, temperature influences the vehicle air-conditioner and the cabin heater loads. Particularly, while the engine is cold, the power demand of the cabin heater needs to be provided by the batteries instead of the waste heat of engine coolant. The existing energy management strategies (EMS) of PHEVs focus on the improvement of fuel efficiency based on hot engine characteristics neglecting the effect of temperature on the engine performance and the vehicle power demand. This paper presents a new EMS incorporating an engine thermal management method which derives the global optimal battery charge depletion trajectories. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is developed to enforce the charge depletion boundaries, while optimizing a fuel consumption cost function by controlling the engine power. The optimal control problem formulates the cost function based on two state variables: battery charge and engine internal temperature. Simulation results demonstrate that temperature and the cabin heater/air-conditioner power demand can significantly influence the optimal solution for the EMS, and accordingly fuel efficiency and emissions of PHEVs.

  7. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R; Markel, Lawrence C; Hadley, Stanton W; Hinds, Shaun; DeVault, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  8. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Sara Kathryn

    The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems and limitations on battery charging/discharging, (2) Reviewed standards for interconnection of distributed resources and electric vehicle charging [1], [2], (3) Explored strategies for distributed control of PHEV charging, (4) Developed controllers to accommodate PHEV regulation, and (5) Developed a simulator combining a power system model and PHEV/V2G components.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Gross, Thomas; Lin, Zhenhong; Sullivan, John; Cleary, Timothy; Ward, Jake

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  10. Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

    2007-05-01

    The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

  11. Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Short, W.

    2006-10-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

  12. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  13. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-01

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

  14. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chunting Chris; Xia, Bing; You, Chenwen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, an energy management method is proposed for a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Through analyzing the PHEV powertrain, a series of quadratic equations are employed to approximate the vehicle's fuel-rate, using battery current as the input. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is introduced to find the battery current commands by solving the Hamiltonian function. Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is applied to calculate the engine-on power and the maximum current coefficient. Moreover, the battery state of health (SOH) is introduced to extend the application of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verified that the proposed algorithm can reduce fuel-consumption compared to charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) mode.

  15. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

  16. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  17. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Hadley, Stanton W; McGill, Ralph N; Cleary, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

  18. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    PubMed

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further. PMID:19320180

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  20. Analysis of Plug-In hybrid Electric Vehicles' utility factors using GPS-based longitudinal travel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviquzzaman, Md

    The benefit of using a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) comes from its ability of substituting gasoline with electricity in operation. Defined as the share of distance traveled in the electric mode, the utility factor (UF) depends mostly on the battery capacity but also on many other factors, such as travel pattern and recharging pattern. Conventionally, the UFs are calculated from the daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) of vehicles by assuming motorists leaving home in the morning with full battery and return home in the evening. Such assumption, however, ignores the impact of the heterogeneity in both travel and charging behavior. The main objective of the thesis is to compare the UF by using multiday GPS-based travel data in regards to the charging decision. This thesis employs the global positioning system (GPS) based longitudinal travel data (covering 3-18 months) collected from 403 vehicles in the Seattle metropolitan area to investigate the impacts of such travel and charging behavior on UFs by analyzing the DVMT and home and work related tours. The UFs based on the DVMT are found close to those based on home-to-home tours. On the other hand, it is seen that the workplace charge opportunities largely improve UFs if the battery capacity is no more than 50 miles. It is also found that the gasoline price does not have significant impact on the UFs.

  1. Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any serious effects on power supply system in those scenarios. PHEV can run with both gasoline and electricity. Therefore we evaluate CO2 emissions not only from gasoline consumption but also from electricity consumption. To consider a distribution of daily-trip-distance is important for evaluating the economical merit and CO2 emissions by introducing of PHEV. Also, the battery cost in the future is very important for making a PHEV's growth scenario. The growth of the number of PHEV makes battery cost lower. Then, we formulate the total model that combines passenger car sector and power supply sector with considering a distribution of daily-trip-distance and Learning Curve on battery costs. We use the iteration method to consider a Learning Curve that is non- linear. Therefore we set battery cost only in the first year of the simulation. Battery costs in the later year are calculated in the model. We focus on the 25-year time frame from 2010 in Japan, with divided in 5 terms (1st∼5th). And that model selects the most economical composition of car type and power sources.

  2. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  3. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  4. Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Samir M.

    Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

  5. Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

    2007-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

  6. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

    2008-09-01

    Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

  7. Optimal economy-based battery degradation management dynamics for fuel-cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, François; Kelouwani, Sousso; Dubé, Yves; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses the economical dynamics of an optimized battery degradation management strategy intended for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with consideration given to low-cost technologies, such as lead-acid batteries. The optimal management algorithm described herein is based on discrete dynamic programming theory (DDP) and was designed for the purpose of PHEV battery degradation management; its operation relies on simulation models using data obtained experimentally on a physical PHEV platform. These tools are first used to define an optimal management strategy according to the economical weights of PHEV battery degradation and the secondary energy carriers spent to manage its deleterious effects. We then conduct a sensitivity study of the proposed optimization process to the fluctuating economic parameters associated with the fuel and energy costs involved in the degradation management process. Results demonstrate the influence of each parameter on the process's response, including daily total operating costs and expected battery lifetime, as well as establish boundaries for useful application of the method; in addition, they provide a case for the relevance of inexpensive battery technologies, such as lead-acid batteries, for economy-centric PHEV applications where battery degradation is a major concern.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

  9. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  10. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  11. Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Yukio; Yabe, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the earlier term than that on short-term economic basis. The costs in the accelerated term are higher, but the introduction costs in the later terms are cheaper by learning curve. This paper focuses on the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The ways to derive the results on short-term economic basis and the results on long-term economic basis are shown. The result of short-term behaviors can be derived by using the iteration method in which the battery costs in every term are adjusted to the learning curve. The result of long-term behaviors can be derived by seeking to the way where the amount of battery capacity is increased. We also estimate that how much subsidy does it need to get close to results on the long-term economic basis when social behavior is on the short-term economic basis. We assume subsidy for PHEV's initial costs, which can be financed by charging fee on petroleum consumption. In that case, there is no additional cost in the system. We show that the greater the total amount of money to that subsidy is, the less the amount of both CO2 emissions and system costs.

  12. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles traveled during CD operation is 25% for PHEV10 and 51% for PHEV40. Argonne's WTW analysis of PHEVs revealed that the following factors significantly impact the energy use and GHG emissions results for PHEVs and BEVs compared with baseline gasoline vehicle technologies: (1) the regional electricity generation mix for battery recharging and (2) the adjustment of fuel economy and electricity consumption to reflect real-world driving conditions. Although the analysis predicted the marginal electricity generation mixes for major regions in the United States, these mixes should be evaluated as possible scenarios for recharging PHEVs because significant uncertainties are associated with the assumed market penetration for these vehicles. Thus, the reported WTW results for PHEVs should be directly correlated with the underlying generation mix, rather than with the region linked to that mix.

  13. High voltage energy storage system design for a parallel-through-the-road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Bryan Whitney D.

    A parallel-through-the-road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pairs an engine powering the front wheels of a vehicle with an electric motor powering the rear wheels. This arrangement gives the flexibility of being able to operate the vehicle in an all-electric mode, an all biodiesel mode, or a combination of both to create maximum power. For this work, a 1.7 L CIDI engine running on biodiesel will be the engine being used and a 103 kW Magna motor will power the rear wheels. In order to power the motor, a high voltage (HV) energy storage system (ESS) needs to be designed and integrated into the vehicle. The goal for the mechanical design of the ESS is to create a structure that will enclose all of the batteries and battery control modules to protect them from environmental factors such as dirt and water as well as to prevent them from becoming dislodged in the event of a collision. The enclosure will also serve as a means to protect the consumer from the dangers of HV. The mechanical design also entailed designing a cooling system that will keep the batteries operating in an acceptable temperature range while they are charging and discharging. The electrical design focused on designing a HV system that could adequately supply enough current flow to each component to meet the peak loading condition yet be able to disconnect should a fault occur to prevent component damage. The system was also designed with safety in mind. Controllers will constantly be monitoring both the HV and LV systems to make sure that each is isolated from the other. Should a controller detect a problem, it will disconnect the HV system. The electrical system will have a high voltage interlock loop (HVIL). The HVIL will be a continuous LV circuit that passes through every HV connector and various switches, so that, if a connector is unplugged or a switch is flipped, the circuit will open. A controller will be monitoring the HVIL for LV. Should it not detect LV, the controller will disconnect the HV system. Several simulations and calculations were conducted as to whether six or seven batteries should be used. Seven batteries will allow the vehicle to accelerate quicker and have lower fuel consumption and emissions produced. However, there are several integration and cooling challenges that arise when trying to integrate seven batteries onto the vehicle. In the end, these challenges outweighed the benefits of seven batteries, and the six battery system was chosen. On top of all of the design and simulation results discussed above, there were also many lessons learned in regards to managing the design team involved in this project. The best way found to keep all members on task was to split the project into smaller sections, create a timeline with specific tasks and corresponding completion dates, and assign a person to be responsible for each task. This helped to gauge whether the project was behind schedule but also gave each member a responsibility and ownership to the project. It was also established that the best way to transmit data was to have a secure, networked drive that allowed members to access it from any computer at any time. This gave members the flexibility to work whenever and wherever was most convenient for them and allowed them to easily share data amongst members without having to attach large files to emails.

  14. Simulating the potential effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the energy budget and tax revenues for Onondaga County, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Stephen B.

    My objectives were to predict the energetic effects of a large increase in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and their implications on fuel tax collections in Onondaga County. I examined two alternative taxation policies. To do so, I built a model of county energy consumption based on prorated state-level energy consumption data and census data. I used two scenarios to estimate energy consumption trends over the next 30 years and the effects of PHEV on energy use and fuel tax revenues. I found that PHEV can reduce county gasoline consumption, but they would curtail fuel tax revenues and increase residential electricity demand. A one-cent per VMT tax on PHEV users provides insufficient revenue to replace reduced fuel tax collection. A sales tax on electricity consumption generates sufficient replacement revenue at low PHEV market shares. However, at higher shares, the tax on electricity use would exceed the current county tax rate. Keywords: electricity, energy, gasoline, New York State, Onondaga County, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, transportation model, tax policy

  15. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life cycle assessment to evaluate options and opportunities for large GHG reductions from plug-in hybrids. After the options and uncertainties are framed, engineering economic analysis is used to evaluate the policy actions required for adoption of PHEVs at scale and the implications for low-carbon electricity investments. A logistic PHEV adoption model is constructed to parameterize implications for low-carbon electricity infrastructure investments and climate policy. This thesis concludes with an examination of what lessons can be learned for climate, innovation, and low-carbon energy policies from the evolution of wind power from an emerging alternative energy technology to a utility-scale power source. Policies to promote PHEVs and other emerging energy technologies can take lessons learned from the successes and challenges of wind power's development to optimize low-carbon energy policy and R&D programs going forward. The need for integrated climate policy, energy policy, sustainability, and urban mobility solutions will accelerate in the next two decades as concerns regarding GHG emissions and petroleum resources continue to be environmental and economic priorities. To assist in informing the discussions on climate policy and low-carbon energy R&D, this research and its methods will provide stakeholders in government and industry with plug-in hybrid and energy policy choices based on life cycle assessment, engineering economics, and systems analysis.

  16. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

  17. Impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential transformer using stochastic and empirical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) have been identified as an option that can reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector. The electricity demand of one of these vehicles is comparable to that of a typical U.S. household and thus clustering of PEVs in a neighborhood might have adverse effects on the transformer and disruption of service. In this paper, the electricity demand of a neighborhood is modeled based on measured vehicle and household data. The electricity demand profile of the PEVs is modeled based on the vehicle type, arrival and departure times and the daily miles traveled, all taken from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). A thermal model is developed to calculate the hot spot temperature and loss of life of the transformer. Results show that Level 1 charging has a small impact on the transformer aging and that only in one case, with Level 2 charging, the transformer might fail due to excessive temperatures. Overall addition of a significant number of PEVs is manageable for the transformer. The negative effects on the life time can be mitigated by properly designing the transformers and using smart charging scenarios.

  18. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  20. Long-term assessment of economic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery lifetime degradation management through near optimal fuel cell load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, François; Dubé, Yves; Kelouwani, Sousso; Jaguemont, Joris; Agbossou, Kodjo

    2016-06-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) energy management process that relies on the active management of the degradation of its energy carriers - in this scenario, a lithium-ion battery pack and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) - to produce a near economically-optimal vehicle operating profile over its entire useful lifetime. This solution is obtained through experimentally-supported PHEV models exploited by an optimal discrete dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm designed to efficiently process vehicle usage cycles over an extended timescale. Our results demonstrate the economic and component lifetime gains afforded by our strategy when compared with alternative rule-based PHEV energy management benchmarks.

  1. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  3. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells cold startup global strategy for fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, Nilson; Kelouwani, Sousso; Agbossou, Kodjo; Dubé, Yves

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Cold Startup problem within the specific context of the Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). A global strategy which aims at providing an efficient method to minimize the energy consumption during the startup of a PEMFC is proposed. The overall control system is based on a supervisory architecture in which the Energy Management System (EMS) plays the role of the power flow supervisor. The EMS estimates in advance, the time to start the fuel cell (FC) based upon the battery energy usage during the trip. Given this estimation and the amount of additional energy required, the fuel cell temperature management strategy computes the most appropriate time to start heating the stack in order to reduce heat loss through the natural convection. As the cell temperature rises, the PEMFC is started and the reaction heat is used as a self-heating power source to further increase the stack temperature. A time optimal self-heating approach based on the Pontryagin minimum principle is proposed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach is efficient and can be implemented in real-time on FC-PHEVs.

  4. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments. PMID:21506538

  5. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  6. Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jing; Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

  7. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  8. Comprehensive Well to Wheel Analysis for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2008-09-19

    The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. In doing so, it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil. This paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. LDV stock that could potentially be supported by the existing infrastructure, based on the 12 modified North American Electric Reliability Council regions, as of 2002. For the United States as a whole, about 70% of LDV fleet in the U.S. could be supported by the existing infrastructure with some degree of load management. This has an estimated gasoline displacement potential of 6.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or approximately 52% of the nation's oil imports. The paper also discusses the impact on overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a few hundred power plants. Overall, PHEVs could reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix. Total NOX emissions may or may not increase, dependent on the use of coal generation in the region. Any additional SO2 emissions associated with the expected increase in generation from coal power plants would need to be cleaned up to meet the existing SO2 emissions constraints. Particulate emissions would increase in 8 of the 12 regions. The emissions in urban areas are found to improve across all pollutants and regions as the emission sources shift from millions of tailpipes to a smaller number of large power plants in less-populated areas. This paper concludes with a discussion about possible grid impacts as a result of the PHEV load as well as the likely impacts on the plant and technology mix of future generation-capacity expansions.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R; Hinds, Shaun; Hadley, Stanton W; McGill, Ralph N; Markel, Lawrence C; Ziegler, Richard E; Smith, David E; Smith, Richard L; Greene, David L; Brooks, Daniel L; Wiegman, Herman; Miller, Nicholas; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo

    2008-07-01

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen R; Markel, Lawrence C; Hadley, Stanton W; Hinds, Shaun

    2008-04-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

  11. Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

    2010-01-01

    As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

  12. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  13. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  14. Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

  15. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  16. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  17. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  19. A control-oriented lithium-ion battery pack model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cycle-life studies and system design with consideration of health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    A crucial step towards the large-scale introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the market is to reduce the cost of its battery systems. Currently, battery cycle- and calendar-life represents one of the greatest uncertainties in the total life-cycle cost of battery systems. The field of battery aging modeling and prognosis has seen progress with respect to model-based and data-driven approaches to describe the aging of battery cells. However, in real world applications cells are interconnected and aging propagates. The propagation of aging from one cell to others exhibits itself in a reduced battery system life. This paper proposes a control-oriented battery pack model that describes the propagation of aging and its effect on the life span of battery systems. The modeling approach is such that it is able to predict pack aging, thermal, and electrical dynamics under actual PHEV operation, and includes consideration of random variability of the cells, electrical topology and thermal management. The modeling approach is based on the interaction between dynamic system models of the electrical and thermal dynamics, and dynamic models of cell aging. The system-level state-of-health (SOH) is assessed based on knowledge of individual cells SOH, pack electrical topology and voltage equalization approach.

  20. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  2. Capacity and power fade cycle-life model for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion battery cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordoba-Arenas, Andrea; Onori, Simona; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes and validates a semi-empirical cycle-life model for lithium-ion pouch cells containing blended spinel and layered-oxide positive electrodes. For the model development and validation experimental data obtained during an aging campaign is used. During the campaign the influence of charge sustaining/depleting operation, minimum state of charge (SOC), charging rate and temperature on the aging process is studied. The aging profiles, which are prescribed in power mode, are selected to be representative of realistic plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) operation. The proposed model describes capacity fade and resistance increase as function of the influencing stress factors and battery charge throughput. Due to its simplicity but still good accuracy, the applications of the proposed aging model include the design of algorithms for battery state-of-health (SOH) monitoring and prognosis, PHEV optimal energy management including battery aging, and the study of aging propagation among battery cells in advanced energy storage systems.

  3. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  4. Real-time immune-inspired optimum state-of-charge trajectory estimation using upcoming route information preview and neural networks for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles fuel economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Ahmad; Vajedi, Mahyar; Azad, Nasser L.

    2015-06-01

    The main proposition of the current investigation is to develop a computational intelligence-based framework which can be used for the real-time estimation of optimum battery state-of-charge (SOC) trajectory in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The estimated SOC trajectory can be then employed for an intelligent power management to significantly improve the fuel economy of the vehicle. The devised intelligent SOC trajectory builder takes advantage of the upcoming route information preview to achieve the lowest possible total cost of electricity and fossil fuel. To reduce the complexity of real-time optimization, the authors propose an immune system-based clustering approach which allows categorizing the route information into a predefined number of segments. The intelligent real-time optimizer is also inspired on the basis of interactions in biological immune systems, and is called artificial immune algorithm (AIA). The objective function of the optimizer is derived from a computationally efficient artificial neural network (ANN) which is trained by a database obtained from a high-fidelity model of the vehicle built in the Autonomie software. The simulation results demonstrate that the integration of immune inspired clustering tool, AIA and ANN, will result in a powerful framework which can generate a near global optimum SOC trajectory for the baseline vehicle, that is, the Toyota Prius PHEV. The outcomes of the current investigation prove that by taking advantage of intelligent approaches, it is possible to design a computationally efficient and powerful SOC trajectory builder for the intelligent power management of PHEVs.

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasato, Matt; Kosowski, Mark

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  6. Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

  7. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Constantine; Meisterling, Kyle

    2008-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. However, meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. We assess life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs and find that they reduce GHG emissions by 32% compared to conventional vehicles, but have small reductions compared to traditional hybrids. Batteries are an important component of PHEVs, and GHGs associated with lithium-ion battery materials and production account for 2-5% of life cycle emissions from PHEVs. We consider cellulosic ethanol use and various carbon intensities of electricity. The reduced liquid fuel requirements of PHEVs could leverage limited cellulosic ethanol resources. Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affectthe potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. PMID:18522090

  8. Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-09-30

    The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

  9. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

  10. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from -15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the perspective of PHEVs: (2) Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars; (3) Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars; and (4) Combining hybrid cars and synthetic fuels with electricity generation and carbon capture and storage. The study is noteworthy not only for the technical analyses and quantitative cost comparisons, but also for addressing questions relating to the transition from the current state of affairs to future 'optimal' scenarios. Multiple transportation fuel technologies/options (9 different fuels produced with 23 different technologies), vehicle technologies (36 types of cars, buses, trucks, and vans), and electric power generation technologies are considered under nine policy based scenarios. It is not possible to do justice to the thoroughness of the thesis within the context of this brief perspective, but one quote from the thesis may be appropriate: 'Across scenarios, time periods and reduction targets, our least-cost optimal configurations show a preference for biofuels and hybrid cars over electric or fuel cell cars. In addition to having lower costs, this allows for an easier transition as less infrastructure change is required to support hybrid cars than to facilitate large scale use of electric or hydrogen fuel cell cars.' Without forgetting that the analysis is specific to its setting in the Netherlands, it is nevertheless a challenging starting point for similar analyses elsewhere. The accompanying article to this perspective and the studies mentioned above point to the interest in, and the challenges associated with PHEV technology, its adoption and implementation over a realistic time frame, in different geographic regions. Elgowainy et al (2010) estimate the penetration of PHEV technology as 10% share of PHEVs in the 2020 US vehicle population. In one of van Vliet's (2010) scenarios (Forced Electric Car) a target of 90% share in 2050 for electric/fuel cell cars in the Netherlands is used. It is not possible to scrutinize here whether these are realistic estimates/scenarios, but it is clear that we can expect a significantly expanded role for electricity as an energy carrier in transportation. PHEVs are likely to play an important role in this transition. References Elgowainy A, Han J, Poch L, Wang M, Vyas A, Mahalik M and Rousseau A 2010 Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles ANL/ESD/10-1 (Argonne, IL: Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory) (available at: http://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-xkdaqgyk) Thompson T M, King C W, Allen D T and Webber M E 2011 Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios Environ. Res. Lett. 6 024004 van Vliet O P R 2010 Feasibility of alternatives to driving on diesel and petrol PhD Thesis Utrecht University, The Netherlands (available at: http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/2010-0819-200206/UUindex.html)

  11. A Plug-in Hybrid Consumer Choice Model with Detailed Market Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a consumer choice model for projecting U.S. demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in competition among 13 light-duty vehicle technologies over the period 2005-2050. New car buyers are disaggregated by region, residential area, attitude toward technology risk, vehicle usage intensity, home parking and work recharging. The nested multinomial logit (NMNL) model of vehicle choice incorporates daily vehicle usage distributions, refueling and recharging availability, technology learning by doing, and diversity of choice among makes and models. Illustrative results are presented for a Base Case, calibrated to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 Reference Updated Case, and an optimistic technology scenario reflecting achievement of U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) FreedomCAR goals. PHEV market success is highly dependent on the degree of technological progress assumed. PHEV sales reach one million in 2037 in the Base Case but in 2020 in the FreedomCARGoals Case. In the FreedomCARGoals Case, PHEV cumulative sales reach 1.5 million by 2015. Together with efficiency improvements in other technologies, petroleum use in 2050 is reduced by about 45% from the 2005 level. After technological progress, PHEV s market success appears to be most sensitive to recharging availability, consumers attitudes toward novel echnologies, and vehicle usage intensity. Successful market penetration of PHEVs helps bring down battery costs for electric vehicles (EVs), resulting in a significant EV market share after 2040.

  12. Cost Analysis of Plug-In Hybred Electric Vehicles Using GPS-Based Longitudinal Travel Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xing; Dong, Jing; Lin, Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Using spatial, longitudinal travel data of 415 vehicles over 3 18 months in the Seattle metropolitan area, this paper estimates the operating costs of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) of various electric ranges (10, 20, 30, and 40 miles) for 3, 5, and 10 years of payback period, considering different charging infrastructure deployment levels and gasoline prices. Some key findings were made. (1) PHEVs could help save around 60% or 40% in energy costs, compared with conventional gasoline vehicles (CGVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), respectively. However, for motorists whose daily vehicle miles traveled (DVMT) is significant, HEVs may be even a better choice than PHEV40s, particularly in areas that lack a public charging infrastructure. (2) The incremental battery cost of large-battery PHEVs is difficult to justify based on the incremental savings of PHEVs operating costs unless a subsidy is offered for largebattery PHEVs. (3) When the price of gasoline increases from $4/gallon to $5/gallon, the number of drivers who benefit from a larger battery increases significantly. (4) Although quick chargers can reduce charging time, they contribute little to energy cost savings for PHEVs, as opposed to Level-II chargers.

  13. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  14. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  15. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  16. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-09

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  17. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  18. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  19. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  20. GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bachega, José Fernando R.; Timmers, Luís Fernando S.M.; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R.; Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid quantum chemical (QC)/molecular mechanical (MM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions, that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo, that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

  1. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  2. The Effect of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Harmonic Analysis of Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarian, T.; Joorabian, M.; Reza, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of plug-in electric vehicles is studied on the smart distribution system with a standard IEEE 30-bus network. At first, harmonic power flow analysis is performed by Newton-Raphson method and by considering distorted substation voltage. Afterward, proper sizes of capacitors is selected by cuckoo optimization algorithm to reduce the power losses and cost and by imposing acceptable limit for total harmonic distortion and RMS voltages. It is proposed that the impact of generated current harmonics by electric vehicle battery chargers should be factored into overall load control strategies of smart appliances. This study is generalized to the different hours of a day by using daily load curve, and then optimum time for charging of electric vehicles batteries in the parking lots are determined by cuckoo optimization algorithm. The results show that injecting harmonic currents of plug-in electric vehicles causes a drop in the voltage profile and increases power loss. Moreover, charging the vehicle batteries has more impact on increasing the power losses rather than the harmonic currents effect. Also, the findings showed that the current harmonics has a great influence on increasing of THD. Finally, optimum working times of all parking lots was obtained for the utilization cost reduction.

  3. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikannan, Krishnanunni; McIntyre, Michael; Harper, Doug; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Megan; Lantham, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  4. Toyota Prius Hybrid Plug-in Conversation and Battery Monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Michael; Kessinger, Robert; Young, Maegan; Latham, Joseph; Unnikannan, Krishnanunni

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the performance of a Toyota Hybrid. We started off with a stock Toyota Prius and taking data by driving it in city and on the highway in a mixed pre-determined route. The batteries can be charged using standard 120V AC outlets. First phase of the project was to increase the performance of the car by installing 20 Lead (Pb) batteries in a plug-in kit. To improve the performance of the kit, a centralized battery monitoring system was installed. The battery monitoring system has two components, a custom data modules and a National Instruments CompactRIO. Each Pb battery has its own data module and all the data module are connected to the CompactRIO. The CompactRIO records differential voltage, current and temperature from all the 20 batteries. The LabVIEW software is dynamic and can be reconfigured to any number of batteries and real time data from the batteries can be monitored on a LabVIEW enabled machine.

  5. Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

    2014-02-01

    Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

  6. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  7. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Scoffield, Don R; Smart, John; Salisbury, Shawn

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  9. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Fast Charge Station Operational Analysis with Integrated Renewables: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.; Markel, T.

    2012-08-01

    The growing, though still nascent, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market currently operates primarily via level 1 and level 2 charging in the United States. Fast chargers are still a rarity, but offer a confidence boost to oppose 'range anxiety' in consumers making the transition from conventional vehicles to PEVs. Because relatively no real-world usage of fast chargers at scale exists yet, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed a simulation to help assess fast charging needs based on real-world travel data. This study documents the data, methods, and results of the simulation run for multiple scenarios, varying fleet sizes, and the number of charger ports. The grid impact of this usage is further quantified to assess the opportunity for integration of renewables; specifically, a high frequency of fast charging is found to be in demand during the late afternoons and evenings coinciding with grid peak periods. Proper integration of a solar array and stationary battery thus helps ease the load and reduces the need for new generator construction to meet the demand of a future PEV market.

  10. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the development of integrated plug-in/plug-out hybrid platforms. H2FCVs are described as one possible extension of this Me- product platform for the supply of clean, high-power, and profitable Me- services as the technologies and markets mature. Finally, the major findings of this study are summarized and directions for future work discussed. Together, the parts of this Me- innovation assessment reveal an initially expensive and limited but compelling (and possibly necessary) set of opportunities to help drive H2FCV and other electric-drive-vehicle commercialization.

  11. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  12. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  13. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomás; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Beer, Sebastian; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Battaglia, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    It is generally believed that plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer environmental and energy security advantages compared to conventional vehicles. Policies are stimulating electric transportation deployment, and PEV adoption may grow significantly. New technology and business models are being developed to organize the PEV interface and their interaction with the wider grid. This paper analyzes the PEVs' integration into a building's Energy Management System (EMS), differentiating between vehicle to macrogrid (V2M) and vehicle to microgrid (V2m) applications. This relationship is modeled by the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which finds optimal equipment combinations to meet microgrid requirements at minimum cost, carbon footprint, or other criteria. Results derive battery value to the building and the possibility of a contractual affiliation sharing the benefit. Under simple annual fixed payments and energy exchange agreements, vehicles are primarily used to avoid peak demand charges supplying cheaper off-peak electricity to the building during workdays.

  14. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  15. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  16. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  17. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Steve; Francfort, Jim

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  18. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  19. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yimin

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS, and then generates motor torque command (traction or braking) to the motor controller based on the control algorithm software embedded in the vehicle controller ECU. The vehicle controller ECU is a re-programmable electronic control unit. Any control algorithm software developed can be easily downloaded to vehicle controller ECU to test any newly developed control strategy. The flexibility of the control system significantly enhances the practical applicability of the LabRAT. A new test methodology has been developed for the LabRAT simulating any vehicles running on road with different weights from compact passenger car to light duty truck on an AC or eddy current dynamometers without much effort for modification of the system. LabRAT is equipped with a fully functional data acquisition system supplied by CyberMetrix. The measurement points along the drive train are DC electric power between battery pack and motor controller input, AC electric power between motor controller and electric motor, mechanical power between motor and rear axle. The data acquisition system is designed with more capability than current requirements in order to meet the requirements for phase II.

  20. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  1. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  2. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  3. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  4. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  5. The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Megel, Olivier; Gomez, Tomás; Marnay, Chris; Beer, Sebastian; Lai, Judy; Battaglia, Vincent

    2010-08-25

    Connection of electric storage technologies to smartgrids or microgrids will have substantial implications for building energy systems. In addition to potentially supplying ancillary services directly to the traditional centralized grid (or macrogrid), local storage will enable demand response. As an economically attractive option, mobile storage devices such as plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources and storage at the building. In general, it is assumed that they can improve the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of renewable and fossil based on-site generation (e.g. PV, fuel cells, or microturbines operating with or without combined heat and power). Also, mobile storage can directly contribute to tariff driven demand response in commercial buildings. In order to examine the impact of mobile storage on building energy costs and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a microgrid/distributed-energy-resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs applying CO2 taxes/CO2 pricing schemes. The problem is solved for a representative office building in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2020. By using employees' EVs for energy management, the office building can arbitrage its costs. But since the car battery lifetime is reduced, a business model that also reimburses car owners for the degradation will be required. In general, the link between a microgrid and an electric vehicle can create a win-win situation, wherein the microgrid can reduce utility costs by load shifting while the electric vehicle owner receives revenue that partially offsets his/her expensive mobile storage investment. For the California office building with EVs connected under a business model that distributes benefits, it is found that the economic impact is very limited relative to the costs of mobile storage for the site analyzed, i.e. cost reductions from electric vehicle connections are modest. Nonetheless, this example shows that some economic benefit is created because of avoided demand charges and on-peak energy. The strategy adopted by the office building is to avoid these high on-peak costs by using energy from the mobile storage in the business hours. CO2 emission reduction strategy results indicate that EVs' contribution at the selected office building are minor.

  6. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  7. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-04-01

    This thirteenth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413), referred to as the Act, complies with the reporting requirements established in section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. During FY 1989, significant progress was made in this program. There has been continuing interest shown by both the automobile manufacturers and supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. The three major domestic automobile manufacturers all are devoting some effort towards electric vehicles. Their participation includes cost-shared contracts with Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute as well as independently funded activities. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components continue to achieve significant progress in providing industry with technology that will result in vehicles that will be more economically competitive.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (EHV) Program is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to encourage the use of electricity and alternative fuels for transportation. This program supports the expanded DOE involvement as recommended in the National Energy Strategy. The transportation sector is the single largest user of petroleum; it consumed 63 percent of all petroleum used in the United States last year. Only a small fraction (5 percent) of electricity is generated from petroleum. Electric vehicles, which are themselves virtually pollution-free, could play a key role in helping to reduce both urban pollution and our dependence on petroleum imports. The program's goals are to develop, in cooperation with industry, the technology that will lead to the production and introduction of pollution-free electric vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet and substitute domestic sources of energy for petroleum-based fuels. This report describes progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY-91. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY-91 in the areas of battery, fuel-cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. In accordance with the reporting requirements of the Act, this annual report contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components and concludes with a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  10. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  11. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  13. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-31

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, Jim; Bennett, Brion; Carlson, Richard; Garretson, Thomas; Gourley, LauraLee; Karner, Donal; McGuire, Patti; Scoffield, Don; Kirkpatrick, Mindy; Shrik, Matthew; Salisbury, Shawn; Schey, Stephen; Smart, John; White, Sera; Wishard, Jeffery

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the vehicles and recharging decisions made. Data is reported for the use of more than 25,000 vehicles and charging units.

  15. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  16. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language handbook designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  17. Plug-in HEVs: A Near-Term Option to Reduce Petroleum Consumption from FY05 Milestone Report (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2006-01-19

    Presented to DOE management staff on September 14, 2005 at the DOE headquarters in Washington DC. Content was updated January 19, 2006 for publication. This presentation addresses plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market and technology issues for research and development efforts.

  18. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  19. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  20. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  1. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  2. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  3. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  4. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs. PMID:27026933

  5. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  6. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.116-12 Special... determined, to the nearest 0.1 mph, from observing the highest speed over the first duty cycle (FTP, HFET... consumption, and range must be based on 5-cycle testing or on values adjusted to be equivalent to...

  7. Playing with Plug-ins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have…

  8. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    DOEpatents

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  9. The Patriot's hybrid-electric drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, K.

    1994-12-01

    Hybrid powertrain concepts are not new. Sailing ships carried auxiliary steam power on trans-Atlantic trips in the 19th Century. The 1917 Woods dual power'' automobile had a small internal combustion engine and supplementary electric drive featuring regenerative braking. But hybrid automobiles have not been successful in the automotive marketplace. For such vehicles to be successful, Chrysler officials believe a hybrid powertrain must be designed for the specific duty cycle of the vehicle; the vehicle-performance compromise must be acceptable to the customer; component efficiency and durability will have to be improved; and major component cost reductions will be required. This article describes how Chrysler is using a road-racing vehicle in the development of hybrid powertrains.

  10. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  11. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  12. Efficient hybrid electric and thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. Winston; Parfenov, Alexander V.; Aye, Tin M.; Shih, Min-Yi

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a novel hybrid solar photovoltaic electrical and thermal energy cogeneration system with high efficiency, at potentially reduced overall weight and size compared with current solar energy systems. The new system is based on highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells and tubular water thermal receivers, incorporating holographic spectral beam light guide concentrators resulting in a more cost-effective solution. Details of fabrication and preliminary experimental testing results are presented.

  13. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

  14. Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids: Part 1: Technical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Schneider, Kevin P.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-01-31

    This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few power plants. The paper concludes with an outlook of the technology requirements necessary to manage the additional and potentially sizable new load to maintain grid reliability.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  16. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  18. Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

    This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to the same route and the same driver. The observation study of the commuting monitor reveals the following technical findings. Motor re-generation energy gradually decreases from hot season to cold season. Mahalanobis distance analysis could be found out the cause of the electric energy decrease when air conditioner unloaded. The high level of the air conditioner load affects the vehicle input (throttle openings). Although the re-generation load changes along with the environment temperature, the motor-assisted input load tends to steady states. That means the engine is supplied almost steady power from the motor irrespective with environment temperature. Battery keeps control the temperatures refer to environment temperature level. The hybrid air conditioner system worked efficiently which revealed with the difference of load levels between a travel mode and an idling stop mode. There is no notable running difference between an idling mode and the idling stop mode both in summer and in winter.

  19. 40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. 600.116-12 Section 600.116-12 Protection of Environment... procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. (a) Determine fuel economy values...

  20. Innovative hybrid gas/electric chiller cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Nowakowski, G.

    2000-04-01

    January Progress--A kick-off meeting was held in San Diego with Alturdyne on January 21st. The proposed hybrid gas/electric chiller/cogenerator design concept was discussed in detail. The requirements and functionality of the key component, a variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator was presented. Variations of the proposed design were also discussed based on their technical feasibility, cost and market potential. The discussion is documented in a Trip Report. February Progress--After significant GRI/Alturdyne discussion regarding alternative product design concepts, the team made a decision to continue with the proposed product design, a hybrid chiller capable of also providing emergency power. The primary benefits are: (a) the flexibility and operating cost savings associated with the product's dual fuel capability and (b) the emergency power feature. A variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator would significantly increase the cost of the product while providing marginal benefit. (The variable speed, constant frequency motor generator is estimated to cost $25,000 versus $4,000 for a constant speed version). In addition, the interconnection requirements to the electric grid would significantly limit market penetration of the product. We will proceed with a motor/generator design capable of serving as the electric prime mover for the compressor as well as the generator for emergency power needs. This component design is being discussed with two motor manufacturers. The first generation motor/generator will not be a variable speed, constant frequency design. The variable speed, constant frequency capability can be an advancement that is included at a later time. The induction motor/synchronous generator starts as a wound rotor motor with a brushless exciter and control electronics to switch between induction mode and synchronous mode. The exciter is a three-phase exciter with three phase rotating diode assembly. In the induction motor mode, the field windings are shorted out by SCRs located across the field. In the synchronous mode, a small ct on one of the exciter leads would power the rotating exciter electronics. Upon sensing exciter current, the electronics would automatically open the SCRs allowing synchronous operation. Quotes will be obtained from American Motor and Reuland, two motor/generator vendors. March Progress--A product layout was completed. The width is reduced significantly from the original hybrid design because the evaporator and condenser tube in shell heat exchangers are located below the engine/motor/compressor drive-line. Alturdyne is searching for a consultant to perform a drive-line torsional analysis. This analysis is necessary to ensure that the drive-line is not subject to undue vibrations operating through its entire speed range. Much effort was directed toward motor/generator selection. A decision was made to use Reuland Electric. A motor with double-end shafts will be purchased. The design effort which will be completed at Alturdyne will involve the modification of the wound rotor motor to also provide synchronous power. Work has been completed on developing the new controller which will be utilized for the original hybrid product as well as this advanced product. Work continues toward developing a manufacturing cost estimate. A detailed bill of material will be developed for the product. Key components include the engine, compressor and motor/generator.

  1. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  2. Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Huang Iu

    2009-05-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

  3. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    This report is concerned with the development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  4. Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A. F.

    1992-07-01

    The development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics is addressed. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

  5. A range extender hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B.K.; Pilutti, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a dynamic model possessing the key system components of a Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The model is suitable for dynamic analysis, control law synthesis, and prototype simulation.

  6. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  7. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

  8. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

    2012-11-01

    Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

  13. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.B.; Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

  14. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipke, K. B.; Hill, N.; Larsen, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the 'ground-up' hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a 1 km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

  15. Advanced Components for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricklett, K. L.; Cookson, Alan H.; Bartholomew, R. W.; Leedy, T.

    1994-03-01

    This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies to improve the design, performance, manufacturability, and economics of the critical components for the next generation of electric and hybrid electric vehicles for the year 2000 and beyond. The workshop began with invited speakers to cover the general topics of impact of the California legislation, federal agency programs, development of standards, infrastructure needs, advanced battery development, and the imperatives for commercial success of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Working sessions were five parallel meetings on energy conversion systems, energy storage systems, electric propulsion systems, controls and instrumentation, and ancillary systems.

  16. Electromagnetic Acceleration Characteristics of Laser-Electric Hybrid Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Koki; Takeda, Akihito; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kimura, Itsuro

    2006-05-02

    A fundamental study on a laser-electric hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-induced plasmas were generated through laser beam irradiation on to a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration using only a laser beam. As two typical cases of the hybrid propulsion systems, a feasibility study on electrostatic acceleration mode and electromagnetic acceleration mode of the laser ablation plasma were conducted including thrust performance tests with a torsion-balance, ion current measurements, and ICCD camera observations. It was confirmed that the thrust performances could be improved with electric energy inputs.

  17. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  18. Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

  19. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  20. Modeling the vehicle cycle impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    1997-03-13

    Pure and hybrid electric vehicles, considered environmentally benign, are being developed to reduce urban air pollutant emissions. The obvious emissions benefit of pure electric vehicles is that they produce no tailpipe emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. However, both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) do have their own environmental impacts. In order to quantify the potential benefits from introducing such vehicles, it is necessary to compare their impacts with those from the conventional vehicles they would replace. These impacts include energy use and emissions from the entire energy cycle, including fuel production, vehicle and battery production and recycling, and vehicle operation. Argonne`s previous work in collaboration with other national laboratories analyzed the total energy cycle of electric vehicles; this paper compares energy use and emissions for the total energy cycles of several HEV designs with those from modern conventional vehicles. The estimates presented indicate that use of HEVs can reduce energy use and emissions of greenhouse gases, volatile organic gases, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 micrometers. HEVs may, in some cases, increase emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Although some of the HEV designs illustrated in this paper could run a significant proportion of annual miles in all electric operation, no calculation of the emission reductions that result from using electricity from the utility grid is presented in this paper.

  1. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

  3. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.

    1999-02-12

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

  4. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  5. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making

  6. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  7. A hybrid electric propulsion system for a forest vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Carlini, M.; Abenavoli, R.I.; Kormanski, H.; Rudzinska, K.

    1997-12-31

    Typical caterpillar tractors, applied to wood gathering in forests, are powered by internal combustion (IC) engines, which are sized to meet the full drive train load. However, the maximum power is required only in a part of the total operation time during work cycles of logging tractors. For this reason the hybrid electric propulsion system, installed instead of IC engine-hydrostatic transmission system, may considerably improve vehicle performance indices such as fuel consumption, pollutant emission and noise level. In this paper the authors present a series hybrid electric power train configuration for a small (2,100 kg of mass) crawler tractor used for logging in forests. The drive train is composed of a thermal engine, an electric generator, a group of lead-acid batteries and electric drive motors with controllers. To calculate energy balance of the designed vehicle a special forest cycle was elaborated and discussed in the paper. The cycle was created on the basis of experimental data, measured in the actual tractor work. Since average power required during the forest cycle is much lower than the maximum one, the hybrid electric system needs a smaller IC engine than one in the conventional vehicle. This engine, coupled with electric generator, works in operation conditions yielding better fuel economy. The electric drive motors are fed both by the generator and the batteries in the full load cycle phase. The batteries are recharged during vehicle down-hill moving and standing phases. The proposed hybrid electric propulsion is also an attractive approach to improve crawler tractors for agriculture applications.

  8. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-04-01

    A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

  9. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  11. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li; Wang, Huaxiang; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Wuqiang

    2007-03-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique for reconstructing the conductivity distribution inside an inhomogeneous distribution by injecting currents at the boundary of a subject and measuring the resulting changes in voltage. A hybrid method is proposed for solving the inverse problem for EIT, which combines the Krylov subspace and the Tikhonov regularization for double levels of regularization to the ill-posed problem. Numerical simulation results using the hybrid method are presented and compared to those from truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) regularization and the Tikhonov regularization. Experimental results with the hybrid method are also presented, indicating that the hybrid method can reduce the computation time, and improve the resolution of reconstructed images with the regularization parameter automatically chosen by the L-curve method.

  12. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  13. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  14. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  15. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faisal H; Tolbert, Leon M; Webb, William E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

  16. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  17. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  18. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  19. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  20. A microfluidic platform for electrical detection of DNA hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Javanmard, M.; Davis, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods used for detection of DNA hybridization involve the use of DNA microarrays which require overnight incubation times along with bulky and expensive fluorescent scanners. Here, we demonstrate electrical detection of DNA hybridization in an oligonucleotide functionalized microfluidic channel. We use microchannels functionalized with DNA probes integrated with electrodes for measuring conductance across the channel. As beads conjugated with the target DNA passing through the channel are captured on the surface, we are able to electrically detect changes in resistance due to bead capture. Our assay can be completed in less than an hour using less than a microliter of reagent, and has the potential for extensive multiplexing. Such a device can be useful as a handheld platform in a clinical setting where one would need to rapidly genotype a small number of genes rapidly. PMID:23539142

  1. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  2. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-01-01

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  3. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2002-08-27

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  4. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Aeraj Ul

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  5. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  6. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  7. Electrically conductive epoxy nanocomposites with expanded graphite/carbon nanotube hybrid fillers prepared by direct hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Kang, Hyokyung; Lim, Yun-Soo; Lee, Churl Seung; Shin, Kwonwoo; Park, Ji Sun; Han, Jong Hun

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are generally used to promote the electrical conductivity of the polymer nanocomposites. However, in spite of their superior properties, CNT's high cost has limited their commercial application, so far. Thus, the development of hybrid carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) composed of CNTs and cheaper CNMs such as carbon fibers (CFs), expanded graphites (EGs), and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is important in terms of reducing the cost of CNT-based fillers. In this study, we prepared EG/CNT hybrid fillers via direct CNT synthesis on the EG support using modified combustion method and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and investigated the electrical conductivity of the expoxy nanocomposite with EG/CNT hybrid fillers. The epoxy nanocomposites with EG/CNT hybrid fillers at 20 wt% filler loading showed 260% and 170% electrical conductivity enhancement in comparison with the EG and the simply mixed EG and CNT fillers, respectively. Our approach provides various applications including electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials, thermal interface materials (TIMs), and reinforced nanocomposites. PMID:25971025

  8. Electric field directed nucleic acid hybridization on microchips.

    PubMed Central

    Edman, C F; Raymond, D E; Wu, D J; Tu, E; Sosnowski, R G; Butler, W F; Nerenberg, M; Heller, M J

    1997-01-01

    Selection and adjustment of proper physical parameters enables rapid DNA transport, site selective concentration, and accelerated hybridization reactions to be carried out on active microelectronic arrays. These physical parameters include DC current, voltage, solution conductivity and buffer species. Generally, at any given current and voltage level, the transport or mobility of DNA is inversely proportional to electrolyte or buffer conductivity. However, only a subset of buffer species produce both rapid transport, site specific concentration and accelerated hybridization. These buffers include zwitterionic and low conductivity species such as: d- and l-histidine; 1- and 3-methylhistidines; carnosine; imidazole; pyridine; and collidine. In contrast, buffers such as glycine, beta-alanine and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) produce rapid transport and site selective concentration but do not facilitate hybridization. Our results suggest that the ability of these buffers (histidine, etc.) to facilitate hybridization appears linked to their ability to provide electric field concentration of DNA; to buffer acidic conditions present at the anode; and in this process acquire a net positive charge which then shields or diminishes repulsion between the DNA strands, thus promoting hybridization. PMID:9396795

  9. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant fuel burn reduction can be achieved; however, this also proves to be detrimental in terms of vehicular efficiency. The potential in block fuel reduction diminishes with increasing design range - especially for low battery gravimetric specific energies. In addition, the narrow shape of the fuselage represents a volumetric constraint for the storage of the battery and typical cargo. It was concluded that the short-range/regional market segment would be the most suited for the application of such concepts. Concerning the influence of HP,USE on flight technique optimization, an increasing HP,USE was found to have a tendency of decreasing the optimum flight speed and altitude. Further investigation of more synergistic design and integration of the hybrid-electric motive power system needs to be conducted in order to explore the full benefit of such technologies.

  10. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use; (3) increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 14 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. The topics of this report include participants' experience with EV operation; an appraisal of the overall current status of EV's for transportation; program management; and a program experience overview, the result of analyzing Site Operator inputs, provides an insight into the variables that can affect electric vehicle performance and operating cost.

  11. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  12. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  13. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W.

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  16. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  17. Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert F.

    The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate electrochemical technologies. Finally, battery designs are recommended for the two major projected HEV applications, namely the so-called "fast-response" and "slow-response" systems identified in the DOE/PNGV Programme.

  18. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  20. Photoinduced electrical response in quantum dots/graphene hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromova, Yu.; Alaferdov, A.; Rackauskas, S.; Ermakov, V.; Orlova, A.; Maslov, V.; Moshkalev, S.; Baranov, A.; Fedorov, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the electrical photoresponse in a hybrid structure composed of multi-layer graphene flakes covered by a layer of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and placed between metal electrodes. The rate of the photoexcitation energy transfer from QDs to graphene, ( 0.5 - 2 ) × 10 9 s-1 which controls the photoelectrical response of the structure, was found from the analysis of photoluminescence intensities and decay times for QDs in solution, on a bare glass substrate and on the surface of multilayer graphene, and in the presence of ammonia vapors.

  1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

  2. Avioptic plug-in interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, Anthony L.; Lijoi, Bruno

    1989-05-01

    A secure interconnection is claimed for optical and avioptic cables located in exposed positions, which often occur on aircraft communications circuits, for connecting those cables into equipment such as circuit boards. In this invention the interconnection for optical fiber cables comprises a connector which is engaged in a receptacle in a mother board provided with optical circuitry. The connector comprises a cuplike body or plug containing a metal sleeve which encases the optical fiber cable such that the cable end is exposed. The mating receptacle comprises a cylindrical shell having its lower end embedded in the mother board. A hole in the receptacle shell wall receives the end of an optical fiber on the optical circuitry of the mother board. The end of the sleeve of the connector fits over the end of the receptacle shell protruding from the mother board. Beam deflection means in the receptacle or on the connector directs light between the fiber optic cable and the optical circuit element of the mother board. Electrical coupling can be incorporated into the interconnection such that the termination can accommodate electrical as well as optical functions.

  3. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of hybrid metal-polypyrrole nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gence, L.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Melinte, S.; Bayot, V.; Callegari, V.; Reynes, O.; Demoustier-Champagne, S.

    2007-09-01

    We present here the synthesis and structural characterization of hybrid Au-polypyrrole-Au and Pt-polypyrrole-Au nanowires together with a study of their electrical properties from room temperature down to very low temperature. A careful characterization of the metal-polymer interfaces by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure and mechanical strength of bottom and upper interfaces are very different. Variable temperature electrical transport measurements were performed on both multiple nanowires—contained within the polycarbonate template—and single nanowires. Our data show that the three-dimensional Mott variable-range-hopping model provides a complete framework for the understanding of transport in polypyrrole nanowires, including nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and magnetotransport at low temperatures.

  5. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Brown, H. L.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 13 program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  7. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  8. Electric/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine/battery hybrid vehicle. The program enables least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is employed for the battery. The heat engine performance model is based on engineering data for a production engine. A series/parallel configuration for the hybrid vehicle system is presently simulated. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle depends on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable battery depth of discharge, type and size of the heat engine, and the energy management strategy used. The program is written in PL/I language and can be run interactively on an IBM PC, COMPAQ, or other compatible microcomputer.

  9. Electric/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Walsh, W. J.

    1986-04-01

    A microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine/battery hybrid vehicle is described. The program permits least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is employed for the battery. The heat engine performance model is based on engineering data for a production engine. A series/parallel configuration for the hybrid vehicle system is presently simulated. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle depends on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable battery depth of discharge, type and size of the heat engine, and the energy management strategy used. The program is written in PL/I language and can be run interactively on an IBM PC, COMPAQ, or other compatible microcomputer.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    An elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base was developed using data obtained on sixteen electric, hybrid, and sub-compact production vehicles tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current four-passenger proto-type automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Vehicles were tested at yaw angles up to 40 degrees and a wing weighting analysis is presented which yields a vehicle's effective drag coefficient as a function of wing velocity and driving cycle. Other parameters investigated included the effects of windows open and closed, radiators open and sealed, and pop-up headlights. Complete six-component force and moment data are presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Only limited commentary is offered since, by its very nature, a data base should consist of unrefined reference material. A justification for pursuing efficient aerodynamic design of EHVs is presented.

  11. Challenges for the vehicle tester in characterizing hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.

    1997-08-01

    Many problems are associated with applying test methods, like the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), for HEVs. Although there has been considerable progress recently in the area of HEV test procedure development, many challenges are still unsolved. A major hurdle to overcoming the challenges of developing HEV test procedures is the lack of HEV designs available for vehicle testing. Argonne National Laboratory has tested hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) built by about 50 colleges and universities from 1994 to 1997 in annual vehicle engineering competitions sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). From this experience, the Laboratory has gathered information about the basics of HEV testing and issues important to successful characterization of HEVs. A collaboration between ANL and the Society of Automotive Engineer`s (SAE) HEV Test Procedure Task Force has helped guide the development of test protocols for their proposed procedures (draft SAE J1711) and test methods suited for DOE vehicle competitions. HEVs use an electrical energy storage device, which requires that HEV testing include more time and effort to deal with the effects of transient energy storage as the vehicle is operating in HEV mode. HEV operation with electric-only capability can be characterized by correcting the HEV mode data using results from electric-only operation. HEVs without electric-only capability require multiple tests conducted to form data correlations that enable the tester to find the result that corresponds to a zero net change in SOC. HEVs that operate with a net depletion of charge cannot be corrected for battery SOC and are characterized with emissions and fuel consumption results coupled with the electrical energy usage rate. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  13. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  14. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  15. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N.; Burress, B.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  16. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H; Ayers, Curtis William; Chiasson, J. N.; Burress, Timothy A; Marlino, Laura D

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  17. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  18. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO{sub 2} increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO{sub 2} totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO{sub 2} emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles.

  19. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO[sub x] and CO[sub 2] emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO[sub x] and CO[sub 2] emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO[sub 2] increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO[sub 2] totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO[sub 2] emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles.

  20. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  1. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  2. Baseline Testing of the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeffrey C.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Thompson, William K.

    1999-01-01

    A government, industry and academic cooperative has developed a Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). Goals of the program include doubling the fuel economy of city transit buses currently in service, and reducing emissions to one-tenth of EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors for the energy storage system and the planned use of a natural gas fueled turbogenerator, to be developed from a small jet engine. At over 17000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle to use ultra-capacitor energy storage. A description of the HETB, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are the subject of this report.

  3. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle. PMID:18262528

  4. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant. PMID:26222837

  5. Solar Thermal : Solar Electric Propulsion Hybrid Orbit Transfer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, Keith A.

    2000-07-01

    This effort examined the payoffs associated with the joint application of solar thermal propulsion (STP) and electric propulsion (EP) for orbit raising. The combined use of STP (800 second specific impulse) and EP (1800 second specific impulse) for a single orbit transfer mission is motivated by the desire to leverage the higher thrust of STP with the higher specific impulse of EP to maximize mission capability. The primary objectives of this analysis were to quantify the payload, mission duration, and hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio for a range of combined STP and EP orbit transfer missions to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and contrast them to results for STP only. For STP, the hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio is of particular interest due to payload fairing size constraints and the relatively low density of liquid hydrogen, which limit the mass of the STP propellant, and therefore the amount of payload that can be delivered. The results of the analysis include an 18% payload improvement associated with STP-EP hybrid propulsion over STP alone. The trip time needed for the STP-EP transfer varied from 101 to 143 days, compared to 41 days for the Solar only case. In addition, the amount of hydrogen propellant needed to accomplish the orbit raising to GEO per unit mass of payload decreased by 29% when the Solar Thermal - Solar Electric hybrid was used. While comprehensive comparisons of STP-EP to chemical propulsion (CP) only and to CP with EP orbit topping were also of interest, they were beyond the scope of this effort. However, a comparison of reference missions was performed. In comparison to the reference CP (328 second specific impulse) and CP-EP missions the STP-EP system provided 67% and 39% payload increases. respectively. The trip time for the CP-EP cases varied from 55 to 106 days.

  6. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and......

  7. Switched reluctance drives for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yelne, A.; Heitner, K.

    1996-09-01

    Several characteristics of switched reluctance drive (SRD) systems, such as high torque density, high efficiency, fault tolerant operation, and simplicity of construction make them potentially attractive for electric vehicle (EV) traction applications. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the design and performance aspects of switched reluctance (SR) drive technology, with special emphasis on EV traction. Rotor/stator design and construction, choice of materials, electronic component selection, and production costs are some of the important design and manufacturing issues analyzed. Performance characteristics such as drive control, torque ripple and noise, fault tolerance, efficiency, torque-speed characteristics, and regeneration are discussed. Several of these design and manufacturing issues are compared with similar issues for drive systems currently used for electric vehicle applications. The results of the assessment show several benefits of applying SR motors in EV drives, including, high efficiency and excellent torque characteristics over a wide speed range, rugged and fault tolerant design, and the potential for economic mass production. However, further work is necessary and is being applied to improve torque ripple, noise and other drive systems design issues. The performance of an EV-suitable SRD and three competitive EV drive systems were compared by modeling these drives using SIMPLEV, the electric and hybrid vehicle simulation software. Each of the four drives was modeled to provide 45 kW to a BMW-E1 electric vehicle over the LA-92 driving cycle. The results suggest that the performance of SRDs is comparable to other state-of-the-art EV drive technologies.

  8. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  9. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  10. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  11. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  12. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different modes of engine operation experimentally. The two modes were direct injection compression ignition (DICI) and "pseudo" homogeneously charged compression ignition (PHCCI). Simulation was performed to include HCCI operation in the study. The study showed that the HCCI operation resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure than that of DICI operation. A combined genetic algorithm-artificial neural network predictor model was used along with the simulation model to find the combination of engine parameters that yielded the highest engine efficiency. The predictor-simulator model suggested the most efficient combination of engine parameters.

  13. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  14. Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

  15. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  16. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum by Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigers, Shelby; Savadelis, Alexader; Carruba, Kathryn; Johns, Kiley; Adu, Kofi

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as potential candidate for reinforcements in lightweight metals. A composite consisting of CNTs embedded in an Al-matrix might work as an ultra-low-resistive material with the potential of having a room-temperature resistivity far below Al, Cu and Ag. While several advances have been made in developing Al-CNT composites, three major challenges: (1) interfacial bond strength between CNT and the Al matrix, (2) homogeneous dispersion of the CNTs in the Al matrix and impurity (CNTs) scattering centers, continue to limit progress in Al-CNT composites. Several conventional methods including powder metallurgy, melting and solidification, thermal spray and electrochemical deposition have been used to process Al and CNT to form composites. We present preliminary results that address these challenges and demonstrate the fabrication of easily drawable Al-CNT composites into wires of diameter <= 1.0mm with ~ 18% +/- 2% reduction in the electrical resistivity of Al-CNT composite using CNT-hybrid as reinforcement and an inductive melting technique that takes advantage of the induced eddy current in the melt to provide in-situ stirring. This Work is Supported by Penn State Altoona Undergraduate Research Sponsored Program and Penn State Materials Research Institute, University Park.

  17. Mass-reduction effort of the electric and hybrid vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R. B.; Jahnle, H. A.

    1980-03-01

    Weight reduction, cost competitiveness, and elimination of the intrusion beam resulted from the redesign and fabrication using composite materials of the door outer panel and intrusion beam from a 1977 Chevrolet Impala. The basis of the redesign involved replacing these two steel parts with a single compression molding using the unique approach of simultaneously curing a sheet molding compound outside panel with a continuous glass-fiber intrusion strap. A weight reduction of nearly 11 pounds per door was achieved. Additional weight savings are possible by taking advantage of the elimination of the intrusion beam to design thinner door structures. The parts-consolidation approach allows the composite structures to be cost-competitive with the original steel design for both the lower-production car models and for the near- to mid-term production contemplated for electric and hybrid vehicles using current state-of-the-art composite production techniques. In addition to the design, prototype fabrication, and costing phases, two appendices containing materials description, properties, and compression-molding production requirements are included.

  18. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics. 2 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Bogdan

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  20. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Ahlheim, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  1. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  2. Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

    2002-03-13

    This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

  3. HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION WITH WIND AND DIESEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind/hybrid operation data were collected using an independent hybrid test grid consisting of three diesel generator sets, AOC 15/50 and Enertech 44/40 wind turbines, two resistive load banks, pre-commercial controls, with a simulated village load. Two configurations were tested, one using a synchro...

  4. 2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  7. "Plug-In" for More Active Online Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses plug-ins, software programs that connect to an World Wide Web browser and enhance its functionality. Highlights finding the software; downloading and using plug-ins; and educational applications, including the document viewer, real-time chat, multimedia, map viewer, spelling checker, news network, sound and video, and real-time…

  8. Investigating electrical contact resistance losses in lithium-ion battery assemblies for hybrid and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Peyman; Hsieh, Scott; Bahrami, Majid

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are favored in hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles for their outstanding power characteristics. In this paper the energy loss due to electrical contact resistance (ECR) at the interface of electrodes and current-collector bars in Li-ion battery assemblies is investigated for the first time. ECR is a direct result of contact surface imperfections, i.e., roughness and out-of-flatness, and acts as an ohmic resistance at the electrode-collector joints. A custom-designed testbed is developed to conduct a systematic experimental study. ECR is measured at separable bolted electrode connections of a sample Li-ion battery, and a straightforward analysis to evaluate the relevant energy loss is presented. Through the experiments, it is observed that ECR is an important issue in energy management of Li-ion batteries. Effects of surface imperfection, contact pressure, joint type, collector bar material, and interfacial materials on ECR are highlighted. The obtained data show that in the considered Li-ion battery, the energy loss due to ECR can be as high as 20% of the total energy flow in and out of the battery under normal operating conditions. However, ECR loss can be reduced to 6% when proper joint pressure and/or surface treatment are used. A poor connection at the electrode-collector interface can lead to a significant battery energy loss as heat generated at the interface. Consequently, a heat flow can be initiated from the electrodes towards the internal battery structure, which results in a considerable temperature increase and onset of thermal runaway. At sever conditions, heat generation due to ECR might cause serious safety issues, sparks, and even melting of the electrodes.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-06-01

    As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

  10. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, JW

    2005-06-16

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

  11. Development of advanced nickel/metal hydride batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Paul; Adams, John; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srinivasan

    Nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have emerged as the battery technology of choice for electric vehicles. GM Ovonic L.L.C., a joint venture between General Motors and Ovonic Battery was established in 1994 to manufacture and commercialize Ovonic's proprietary Ni/MH batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. GM Ovonic is developing a `family of batteries' aimed at product improvement and cost reduction. Current performance of these new battery designs is described, as well as projections for future improvements. In addition, advances in cell and battery power have allowed further product diversification into cells and batteries specifically designed for a range of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).

  12. Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

  13. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  14. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  15. Amber Plug-In for Protein Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Oliva, Ricardo

    2004-05-10

    The Amber Plug-in for ProteinShop has two main components: an AmberEngine library to compute the protein energy models, and a module to solve the energy minimization problem using an optimization algorithm in the OPTI-+ library. Together, these components allow the visualization of the protein folding process in ProteinShop. AmberEngine is a object-oriented library to compute molecular energies based on the Amber model. The main class is called ProteinEnergy. Its main interface methods are (1) "init" to initialize internal variables needed to compute the energy. (2) "eval" to evaluate the total energy given a vector of coordinates. Additional methods allow the user to evaluate the individual components of the energy model (bond, angle, dihedral, non-bonded-1-4, and non-bonded energies) and to obtain the energy of each individual atom. The Amber Engine library source code includes examples and test routines that illustrate the use of the library in stand alone programs. The energy minimization module uses the AmberEngine library and the nonlinear optimization library OPT++. OPT++ is open source software available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. The minimization module currently makes use of the LBFGS optimization algorithm in OPT++ to perform the energy minimization. Future releases may give the user a choice of other algorithms available in OPT++.

  16. Amber Plug-In for Protein Shop

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-10

    The Amber Plug-in for ProteinShop has two main components: an AmberEngine library to compute the protein energy models, and a module to solve the energy minimization problem using an optimization algorithm in the OPTI-+ library. Together, these components allow the visualization of the protein folding process in ProteinShop. AmberEngine is a object-oriented library to compute molecular energies based on the Amber model. The main class is called ProteinEnergy. Its main interface methods are (1) "init"more » to initialize internal variables needed to compute the energy. (2) "eval" to evaluate the total energy given a vector of coordinates. Additional methods allow the user to evaluate the individual components of the energy model (bond, angle, dihedral, non-bonded-1-4, and non-bonded energies) and to obtain the energy of each individual atom. The Amber Engine library source code includes examples and test routines that illustrate the use of the library in stand alone programs. The energy minimization module uses the AmberEngine library and the nonlinear optimization library OPT++. OPT++ is open source software available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. The minimization module currently makes use of the LBFGS optimization algorithm in OPT++ to perform the energy minimization. Future releases may give the user a choice of other algorithms available in OPT++.« less

  17. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  18. Topology, Design, Analysis, and Thermal Management of Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Peng, F. Z.; Kelly, K. J.; O'Keefe, M.; Hassani, V.

    2008-01-01

    Power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit topologies, such as buck converters, voltage source inverters and bidirectional boost converters are challenged by system cost, efficiency, controllability, thermal management, voltage and current capability, and packaging issues. Novel topologies, such as isolated bidirectional DC/DC converters, multilevel converters, and Z-source inverters, offer potential improvement to hybrid vehicle system performance, extended controllability and power capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the topologies, design, and thermal management, and control of power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicle applications.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  20. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  1. Hybrid Metameterials Enable Fast Electrical Modulation Of Freely Propagating Terahertz Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating THz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. the devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconducor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial - Schottky diode structures. With an applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of THz radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which may be reduced for even faster operation.

  2. Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young-Ho; Kim, Je-Hyung; Jin, Li-Hua; Ko, Suk-Min; Kwon, Bong-Joon; Kim, Joosung; Kim, Taek; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Electrically driven quantum dot, wire, and well hybrid light-emitting diodes are demonstrated by using nanometer-sized pyramid structures of GaN. InGaN quantum dots, wires, and wells are formed at the tops, edges, and sidewalls of pyramids, respectively. The hybrid light-emitting diodes containing low-dimensional quantum structures are good candidates for broad-band highly efficient visible lighting sources. PMID:22002261

  3. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  4. Design of an innovative lead-acid battery for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxa, M. S.; Weinlein, C. E.

    An innovative lead acid battery was designed specifically for use in a hybrid car. The battery has exceeded all of the minimum performance goals, and in many cases the optimistic target goals. The eV-1300, which features electrolyte circulation, has excellent energy density, power characteristics, efficiency, and cycle life. It is a good candidate battery for other hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles which require a relatively small cell size.

  5. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles program. 5th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    This fifth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413, as amended by Public Law 95-238, referred to as the Act) complies with the reporting requirements established in Section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing the Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. The Annual Report represents the major summary of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program activities; since July 1981, DOE has ceased publication of the EHV Quarterly Reports with Congressional approval. The fourth quarter activities for FY 1981 are included in this report. During FY 1981, significant progress was made toward implementing the policies established by Congress in the Act. There has been a noticeable increase in interest shown by both the automobile manufacturing and the supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. This year, the emphasis in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program shifted from vehicle demonstration and preparation for production readiness to research, development, test, and evaluation of advanced technologies to achieve the attributes necessary to make electric and hybrid vehicles a practical transportation alternative. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components, as well as total vehicle systems, continue to reveal significant progress toward providing industry with technology options that will result in vehicles with greater public acceptance.

  7. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  8. Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 2×4 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

  9. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  10. The IIT hybrid electric vehicle for the 1995 HEV Challenge competition

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.M.; Ruiz, F.

    1997-09-01

    The Illinois Institute of Technology designed and built a Hybrid Electric Power-Assist Vehicle out a 1991 Saturn SL2. The standard engine was replaced by a smaller Geo Metro internal combustion engine and a GE electric motor and controller. The goal was to build a car that was simple, reliable and competitive. This paper outlines the Hybrid Electric Vehicle design by the Illinois Institute of Technology (HEV) team. The approach was to utilize 3 main components, A Suzuki (Geo Metro) 3-cylinder engine, a Suzuki 3 speed automatic transmission and a General electric DC shunt motor and controller. IIT had been successful in the past by keeping their designs simple, which ensured both the reliability of and competitiveness of the vehicle. Thus, the goal for this year`s competition was to keep the car simple, reliable and competitive.

  11. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes. PMID:20677207

  12. Wisconsin electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project. Final report, 1981-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-10

    In 1981, the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education (WBVTAE) was selected by the US Department of Energy for participation in the National Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration Program. On September 30, 1985, the data collection phase of the project was completed. The project was to purchase ten (10) electric vehicles and assign five (5) to Northeast Wisconsin Technical Institute (NWTI) in Green Bay and five (5) vehicles to the Madison Area Technical College.

  13. Mass impacts on fuel economies of conventional vs. hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F.; Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2004-01-01

    The strong correlation between vehicle weight and fuel economy for conventional vehicles (CVs) is considered common knowledge, and the relationship of mass reduction to fuel consumption reduction for conventional vehicles (CVs) is often cited without separating effects of powertrain vs. vehicle body (glider), nor on the ground of equivalent vehicle performance level. This paper challenges the assumption that this relationship is easily summarized. Further, for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) the relationship between mass, performance and fuel consumption is not the same as for CVs, and vary with hybrid types. For fully functioning (all wheel regeneration) hybrid vehicles, where battery pack and motor(s) have enough power and energy storage, a very large fraction of kinetic energy is recovered and engine idling is effectively eliminated. This paper assesses two important impacts of shifting from conventional to hybrid vehicles in terms of the mass vs. fuel economy relationship - (1) significant improvements in fuel economy with little or no change in mass, and (2) once a switch to hybrid powertrains has been made, the effectiveness of mass reduction in improving fuel economy will be diminished relative to conventional vehicles. In this paper, we discuss vehicle tractive load breakdowns and impacts of hybridization on vehicle efficiency, discuss capture of kinetic energy by conversion to electrical energy via regenerative braking, assess benefits of shutting off the engine when the vehicle does not require power, and investigate energy losses associated with vehicle mass.

  14. In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

  15. Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J.; Li, Chunyu; Byun, Joon-Hyung

    2009-08-01

    This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

  16. Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shoultout, Mohamed L.; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Chen, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

  17. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  18. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  19. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  20. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  1. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  2. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2015-04-01

    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  3. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

  4. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

  5. Electric Characteristics of Hybrid Polymer Membranes Composed of Two Lipid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohira, Koji; Toko, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Hiroshi; Yamafuji, Kaoru

    1995-09-01

    Electric characteristics of hybrid polymer membranes composed of two lipid species were studied, where one lipid species is positively charged in aqueous solution and the other is negatively charged. As a result, it was found that the hybrid membranes responded to taste substances in different ways according to the molar mixing ratio of these two kinds of lipids, and also showed different response characteristics from those of the single-lipid membranes. The membranes with the mixing ratio around 50% exhibited the largest responses to HCl (sourness) and monosodium glutamate (umami). Moreover, good quantitative agreements with the observed data on the response electric potential were obtained using a theory describing both the changes in surface electric potential and surface charge density with taste substances.

  6. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    2004-11-23

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  7. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  8. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flowmore » data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.« less

  9. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro Kalyan Perumalla, James Joseph

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flow data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.

  10. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  11. Plugging In: The Changing Face of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Like many businesses, public schools are not ready to move into the electronic data storage and transaction mode. Technological improvements such as keyboard alternatives (voice recognition software, electric pens, and optical scanners) will speed this paradigm shift. Increased speed, pocket-sized desktop computers, distance learning, and the…

  12. Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipke, K.

    1994-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

  13. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

  14. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

  18. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller allows the series hybrid's advantage of tightly managing engine efficiency to be extended to lighter ESS, as compared to the size of the ESS in available products in the market.

  19. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  20. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicle program, site operator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG&G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A&M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  3. Optical-electrical hybrid signal equalizer for ultra-high-speed transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Shinya; Tomishige, Kazunari; Kanno, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical-electrical hybrid equalizer, which comprises an optical domain equalizer fabricated using optical filter banks and an electrical filter in a digital domain by a digital signal processing, to experimentally demodulate degraded 40-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) required for a BER of 1 × 10-3 is improved to 7 dB without an optical equalizer (OEQ) under the back-to-back condition. The fluctuation in the OEQ strength between 0-6 dB will not affect signal quality significantly. The signal degradation caused by the frequency response of devices was minimized using by the hybrid equalizer.

  4. An ultracapacitor-battery energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienecker, Adam

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries are much more economical, but they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. This research presents a new cost-effective method for using these two energy storage components together in order to extend the life of the battery. This system is presently quite expensive, but it will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to the levels predicted by some manufacturers. This dissertation studies two different methods for implementation on a hybrid electric vehicle and presents performance data for a variety of simulations.

  5. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  7. Design Optimization and Performance of a Novel 6-Slot 5-Pole PMFSM with Hybrid Excitation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Erwan; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    With growing concerns over our environment, more and more people in automakers, governments and customers think that the electric drive becomes more attractive research. Since electric motors play an important role in both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric machines. As one of the candidates, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) with additional coil excitation has several attractive features compared to interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) conventionally employed in HEV. The variable flux control capability and robust rotor structure make this machine becoming more attractive to apply for high speed motor drive system coupled with reduction gear. This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of 6-slot 5-pole PMFSM with hybrid excitation for traction drives in HEVs. An improved design is examined to gain a better performance in its maximum torque and power production. The final designed machine enables to keep much power density compared to existing IPMSM installed on the commercial SUV-HEV.

  8. Thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy nanocomposites with thermally reduced graphene oxide-silica hybrid nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Chiang, Jen-Chi; Ho, Kuan-Ku; Chou, Tsung-Yu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Li-Hsueh; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2013-07-01

    We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 10(11)Ω cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m(-1) K(-1), which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m(-1) K(-1)). PMID:23695448

  9. Invader GT-5 with super compounded motor in 100 MPG diesel electric hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylor, R.

    1995-12-31

    The ultimate solution to environmental pollution from mobile emission sources is a complete transition to electrically powered vehicles operating from batteries deriving their power from non-polluting sources of energy, or from fuel cells using hydrogen. Carbon based fuels for engines or even fuel cells produce the {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} CO{sub 2}. Fuel cells can extract typically about three times as much energy from a fuel as an internal combustion engine (ICE) can. Room-temperature fuel cells using hydrogen obviously do not negatively impact the environment. With adequate hydrogen storage, a H{sub 2} fuel cell charging a battery pack in an electric car or an electric car with a super battery will be the ultimate solution. Without waiting for the economic realization of super batteries or low cost hydrogen fuel cells, the transitional solution to an economically-viable, low-cost, low-pollution vehicle is a hybrid electric automobile!

  10. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L.; Patterson, P.

    1997-09-17

    Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

  11. Technology reinvestment project`s focus area: Electric and hybrid tactical and commercial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The publication contains the transparencies from the Technology Reinvestment Projects`s (TRP`s) workshops held in Chicago, IL and Austin, TX in November, 1994. It includes general sessions on TRP, Technology Development, Regional Technology Alliances, and Manufacturing Education and Training, as well as the break out session on Electric and Hybrid Tactical and Commercial Vehicles. Also included are registration forms for both workshops.

  12. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  13. Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  16. Enhanced Electrical Networks of Stretchable Conductors with Small Fraction of Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Hybrid Fillers.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Young; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jin, Sunghwan; Ryu, Ho Jin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-02-10

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are known to be good conductive fillers due to their favorable electrical properties and high aspect ratios and have been investigated for application as stretchable composite conductors. A stretchable conducting nanocomposite should have a small fraction of conductive filler material to maintain stretchability. Here we demonstrate enhanced electrical networks of nanocomposites via the use of a CNT-graphene hybrid system using a small mass fraction of conductive filler. The CNT-graphene hybrid system exhibits synergistic effects that prevent agglomeration of CNTs and graphene restacking and reduce contact resistance by formation of 1D(CNT)-2D(graphene) interconnection. These effects resulted in nanocomposite materials formed of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), thermally reduced graphene (TRG), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which had a higher electrical conductivity compared with MWCNT/PDMS or TRG/PDMS nanocomposites until specific fraction that is sufficient to form electrical network among conductive fillers. These nanocomposite materials maintained their electrical conductivity when 60% strained. PMID:26784473

  17. [Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

  18. Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Manny

    Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

  19. 75 FR 49945 - In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Paice LLC (``Paice'') of Bonita Springs, Florida. 74 FR. 52258-59 (Oct. 9, 2009). The complaint named as... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... complaint alleges infringement by certain Toyota hybrid vehicles of claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970....

  20. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  1. All-SiC Inductively Coupled Charger with Integrated Plug-in and Boost Functionalities for PEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2016-01-01

    So far, vehicular power electronics integration is limited to the integration of on-board battery chargers (OBC) into the traction drive system and sometimes to the accessory dc/dc converters in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). These integration approaches do not provide isolation from the grid although it is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections. This is therefore a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. Furthermore, there is no previous study that proposes the integration of wireless charger with the other on-board components. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle users. The new topology is additionally compared with commercially available OBC systems from manufacturers.

  2. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

  3. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  4. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  5. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    PubMed Central

    Bucak, İhsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

  6. Enhancing the electrical conductivity of a hybrid POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer.

    PubMed

    Nezakati, Toktam; Tan, Aaron; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-12-01

    An electrically conductive polymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocage incorporated into a modified poly [caprolactone based urea-urethane] (PCL)/graphene hybrid nanocomposite is described. Multilayer graphene flakes (8nm) were homogeneously dispersed into POSS-PCL at 0.1, 2, 5, and 10wt.% concentrations. This dispersion process of the graphene flakes was achieved by the use of stable dimethylacetamide (DMAc), via solution intercalation with POSS-PCL nanocomposites. The impedance spectroscopy of 5.0wt.% and higher concentration of graphene in POSS-PCL represented major improvement in conductivity over pristine POSS-PCL. The percolation threshold occurred at 5.0wt.% graphene concentration, converting the insulator POSS-PCL into a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene hybrid nanocomposite. The structures of the obtained hybrid materials were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The conductivity of the resultant nanocomposite polymer was investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate a facile method of synthesizing, and describe the electrical properties of a conductive POSS-PCL/graphene nanocomposite polymer. PMID:25240216

  7. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The CMAC neural network approximates the hyper-plane generated from the instantaneous optimization algorithm and produces torque commands for the internal combustion engine and electric motor. The CMAC neural network controller saves on the required memory as compared to a large look-up table by two orders of magnitude. The CMAC controller also prevents the need to compute a hyper-plane or complex logic every time step.

  8. Electrical Properties of PVP-SiO2-TMSPM Hybrid Thin Films as OFET Gate Dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, A.; Shahbazi, M.

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic polyvinylpyrrolidone-silicon dioxide-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (PVP-SiO2-TMSPM) hybrid solutions have been synthesized using the sol-gel process with different amounts of TMSPM as coupling agent and equivalent amounts of PVP and SiO2. Hybrid solutions were deposited on p-type Si(111) substrates using the spin coating technique, as a gate dielectric material for use in thin-film transistors. The structural properties of the samples were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were applied to study the topography and morphology of the hybrid thin-film samples. Current-voltage ( I- V) curves, capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements, and the electrical properties of the organic hybrid thin-film gate dielectrics were also studied in a metal-insulator/polymer-semiconductor structure. According to the results, the J GS curves in terms of V GS showed gate leakage current densities small enough for use as gate dielectric material at interface layers. At V DS = 30 V, in the saturation region, I DS curves in terms of V GS presented higher charge carrier mobility ( μ FET,S = 0.0584 cm2 s-1 V-1) due to lower dielectric constant ( k = 11.43) in the sample with 0.05 weight ratio of TMSPM compared with other samples with different weight ratios of TMSPM.

  9. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggieri, Alison

    According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of incentives. Overall, these results suggest automobile manufacturing did not impact whether these policies were implemented, nor were they implemented to address air quality issues or gas price increases. Rather these policies were responses to popular support for hybrid vehicles. In addition, this dissertation identifies the average treatment effect of these incentives on state-level demand for hybrid vehicles. These effects are estimated using traditional parametric techniques, difference-in-difference regression, and fixed effects on two comparison groups: (1) the natural control group, states that did not adopt subsidies, and (2) a constructed control group, states that proposed subsidies during this same time period but did not adopt them. In addition to these parametric models, propensity score matching was used to construct a third comparison group using the models that identified determinants of the policy adoption. These findings were supplemented by exploratory analyses using the individual-level National Household Travel Survey. This multitude of evaluative analyses shows that overall, monetary hybrid incentives are not overwhelming effective in promoting the diffusion of this technology, but that HOV lane exemptions, however, if implemented in places with high traffic congestion, were found to impact aggregate demand and an individual's propensity to adopt a hybrid. The other two types of incentives, sales tax exemptions and income tax credits, were not found to be effective at the aggregate or the individual level. In addition, travel behavior was found to strongly predict adoption, more so than socioeconomic variables, stated attitudes, or characteristics of the built environment. The number of walking trips per month and the number of times a person used public transportation were found to be significant predictors of hybrid adoption, implying the decision to adopt a hybrid includes factors other than purely economic ones, such as environmental attitudes. These analyses provide insight into why states adopt certain policies and the circumstances in which these incentives are effective. Since people may be motivated by factors other than economic factors, creating effective incentives for energy efficiency technologies may be more challenging than just offsetting the price differential. Instead, customization to the local community's characteristics could help increase the efficacy of such policies.

  10. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals with the optimization of the hybrid system design (which consists of PV panels and/or wind turbines and/or storage devices for building applications) by developing an algorithm designed to make the system cost effective and energy efficient. Input data includes electrical load demand profile of the buildings, buildings' structural and geographical characteristics, real time pricing of electricity, and the costs of hybrid systems and storage devices. When the electrical load demand profile of a building that is being studied is available, a measured demand profile is directly used as input data. However, if that information is not available, a building's electric load demand is estimated using a developed algorithm based on three large data sources from a public domain, and used as input data. Using the acquired input data, the algorithm of this research is designed and programmed in order to determine the size of renewable components and to minimize the total yearly net cost. This dissertation also addresses the parametric sensitivity analysis to determine which factors are more significant and are expected to produce useful guidelines in the decision making process. An engineered and more practical, simplified solution has been provided for the optimized design process.

  11. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  12. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Online Stochastic Optimal Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing urgency to extract additional efficiency from hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms. In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes online the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.more » Both solutions achieved the same cumulative fuel consumption demonstrating that the online Pareto control policy is an optimal control policy.« less

  13. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Online Stochastic Optimal Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing urgency to extract additional efficiency from hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms. In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes online the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion. Both solutions achieved the same cumulative fuel consumption demonstrating that the online Pareto control policy is an optimal control policy.

  14. Graphene-graphene oxide-graphene hybrid nanopapers with superior mechanical, gas barrier and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xilian; Huang, Wenyi; Cabrera, Eusebio; Castro, Jose; Lee, L. James

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanopaper-like thin films with a graphene oxide (GO) layer sandwiched by two functionalized graphene (GP-SO3H) layers were successfully prepared from oxidized graphene and benzene sulfonic modified graphene. The hybrid graphene-graphene oxide-graphene (GP-GO-GP) nanopapers showed combination of high mechanic strength and good electrical conductivity, leading to desirable electromagnetic interference shielding performance, from the GP-SO3H layers, and superior gas diffusion barrier provided by the GO layer. These GP-GO-GP nanopapers can be readily coated onto plastic and composite substrates by thermal lamination and injection molding for various industrial applications such as fuel cell and natural gas containers.

  15. Dark and bright mode hybridization: From electric to magnetic Fano resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaro, S.; De Angelis, F.; Toma, A.

    2016-01-01

    The excitation of plasmonic Fano resonances leads to a dual advantage in nano-photonics, in terms of local field enhancement and far-field spectral selectivity. Nevertheless, a remarkable challenge related to the hybridization between bright and dark plasmonic modes, i.e. between the two elements cooperating to the Fano resonance generation, consists in the sub-wavelength activation of dark modes via near-field channel. In this regard, strongly coupled plasmonic nano-assemblies are ideal systems providing a highly efficient way towards their excitation. Here, we analyze two trimer nano-architectures supporting respectively electric and magnetic Fano resonances. The different approaches employed for describing the two systems highlighted the role that the near-field coupling and the LSPs de-phasing separately play in the Fano hybridization phenomena.

  16. Manipulating liquid plugs in microchannel with controllable air vents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao-Bing; Ting, Eng Kiat; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2012-01-01

    An air venting element on microchannel, which can be controlled externally and automatically, was demonstrated for manipulating liquid plugs in microfluidic systems. The element’s open and closed statuses correspond to the positioning and movement of a liquid plug in the microchannel. Positioning of multiple liquid plugs at an air venting element enabled the merging and mixing of the plugs. Besides these basic functions, other modes of liquid plug manipulations including plug partitioning, multiple plug mixing, and spacing adjustment between liquid plugs, were realized using combination of multiple elements. The structure, operation, and some functions of the element were demonstrated with a microfluidic chip application. The performances of the element including its failure modes, threshold flow rate, and structural optimization were also discussed. PMID:22662082

  17. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part II. Degradation mechanism under 2 C cycle aging

    SciTech Connect

    Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

    2011-12-01

    Degradation phenomena and inference of their underlying mechanisms during 2 C cycle aging in a cell design comprising {l_brace}LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4{r_brace} composite positive electrode are studied and reported in this work. We describe how aging phenomena in the cells were studied and incremental capacity analysis applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms in the cycle aging process. Two stages of degradation were observed in the life cycle under this aging regime. In the first stage, we conclude that loss of lithium inventory was the cause of capacity fade. As a result of such parasitic loss, the cell further suffered from loss of active materials in the second stage, in which the positive electrode kinetics was hampered and the capacity loss accelerated.

  18. Electrical spin injection from an organic-based ferrimagnet in a hybrid organic/inorganic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

    2012-02-01

    The development of organic-based magnets with room temperature magnetic ordering and semiconducting functionality promises to broaden the field of semiconductor spintronics, providing a route to all-organic spintronic devices and hybrid organic/inorganic structures capable of exploiting the multifunctionality and ease of production in organic systems as well as the well established spintronic functionality of inorganic materials. Our work demonstrates the successful extraction of spin polarized current from the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x (x˜2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene; TC > 400 K, EG ˜ 0.5 eV, σ˜ 10-2 S/cm) and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED) [1]. The spin current is detected by monitoring the polarization state of the photons emitted from the LED structure and tracks the magnetization of V[TCNE]x˜2, is weakly temperature dependent, and exhibits heavy hole / light hole asymmetry. This result opens the door to a new class of active, hybrid spintronic devices with multifunctional behavior defined by the optical, electronic and chemical sensitivity of the organic layer. In addition, spin transport in these hybrid structures provides the opportunity to leverage well-characterized inorganic materials as a probe of spin physics in organic and molecular systems and to explore the impact of the hybrid interface on spin injection efficiency. Initial studies exploring the impact of surface passivation of the inorganic layer with self-assembled monolayers of various chemistries will be presented, and additional experimental probes of the interfacial exchange interaction will be discussed. [4pt] [1] ``Electrical Spin Injection from an Organic-Based Ferrimagnet in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Heterostructure,'' Lei Fang, K. Deniz Bozdag, Chia-Yi Chen, P.A. Truitt, A.J. Epstein and E. Johnston-Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 156602 (2011).

  19. Steady propagation of Bingham plugs in 2D channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James

    2009-11-01

    The displacement of the yield-stress liquid plugs in channels and tubes occur in many biological systems and industrial processes. Among them is the propagation of mucus plugs in the respiratory tracts as may occur in asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema. In this work the steady propagation of mucus plugs in a 2D channel is studied numerically, assuming that the mucus is a pure Bingham fluid. The governing equations are solved by a mixed-discontinuous finite element formulation and the free surface is resolved with the method of spines. The constitutive equation for a pure Bingham fluid is modeled by a regularization method. Fluid inertia is neglected, so the controlling parameters in a steady displacement are; the capillary number, Ca, Bingham number ,Bn, and the plug length. According to the numerical results, the yield stress behavior of the plug modifies the plug shape, the pattern of the streamlines and the distribution of stresses in the plug domain and along the walls in a significant way. The distribution along the walls is a major factor in studying cell injuries. This work is supported through the grant NIH HL84370.

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  1. A Consumer-Oriented Control Framework for Performance Analysis in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shoultout, Mohamed L.; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Chen, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the associated tradeoffs among the HEV subsystems, e.g., the engine, the motor, and the battery, and investigate the related implications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences. The results of the proposed optimization approach can also be used to investigate the implications for HEV costs related to ownership and warranty.

  2. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-12-04

    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  3. Safe lithium-ion battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, Libero; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery featuring graphite anode, LiFePO4-C cathode and an innovative, safe, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, was assembled and characterized in terms of specific energy and power after the USABC-DOE protocol for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application. The test results show that the battery surpasses the energy and power goals stated by USABC-DOE and, hence, this safe lithium-ion battery should be suitable for application in the evolving HEV market.

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  5. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  6. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  7. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, B.V.

    2000-03-21

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  8. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  9. The prospects for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Second-stage results of a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.; Vyas, A.D.

    1996-08-01

    This study was conducted to collect information for a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994, while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. Key results: EVs will penetrate the market first, followed by internal combustion engine HEVs, while gas turbine and fuel cell HEVs will come after 2020. By 2020, EVs and internal combustion engine HEVs will have a 15% share of the new vehicle market; they will also cost 18-50% more and will be slightly inferior to 1993 gasoline cars. AC induction motor is projected to be superior to DC and DC brushless motors by 2020, although the DC motor will be less expensive in 2000. DC brushless motors are projected to be the most expensive. Though generally declining, battery costs will remain high. EVs are believed to be effective in reducing urban emissions; however, their costs must be reduced drastically. Petroleum is expected to be the predominant fuel for hybrid vehicles through 2020. Mean energy equivalent fuel economy of electric drivetrain vehicles is projected to be 20-40% greater than for conventional vehicles in 2000, and to rise a few percents during the projection period. Respondents anticipate only a 16% increase in conventional vehicle fuel economy from 2000 to 2020.

  10. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  11. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Ecodriving in hybrid electric vehicles - Exploring challenges for user-energy interaction.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thomas; Arend, Matthias Georg; McIlroy, Rich C; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can help to reduce transport emissions; however, user behaviour has a significant effect on the energy savings actually achieved in everyday usage. The present research aimed to advance understanding of HEV drivers' ecodriving strategies, and the challenges for optimal user-energy interaction. We conducted interviews with 39 HEV drivers who achieved above-average fuel efficiencies. Regression analyses showed that technical system knowledge and ecodriving motivation were both important predictors for ecodriving efficiency. Qualitative data analyses showed that drivers used a plethora of ecodriving strategies and had diverse conceptualisations of HEV energy efficiency regarding aspects such as the efficiency of actively utilizing electric energy or the efficiency of different acceleration strategies. Drivers also reported several false beliefs regarding HEV energy efficiency that could impair ecodriving efforts. Results indicate that ecodriving support systems should facilitate anticipatory driving and help users locate and maintain drivetrain states of maximum efficiency. PMID:26995034

  16. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  18. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  20. Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Prot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers.

    PubMed

    Ben Bakir, B; Descos, A; Olivier, N; Bordel, D; Grosse, P; Augendre, E; Fulbert, L; Fedeli, J M

    2011-05-23

    We report the first demonstration of an electrically driven hybrid silicon/III-V laser based on adiabatic mode transformers. The hybrid structure is formed by two vertically superimposed waveguides separated by a 100-nm-thick SiO2 layer. The top waveguide, fabricated in an InP/InGaAsP-based heterostructure, serves to provide optical gain. The bottom Si-waveguides system, which supports all optical functions, is constituted by two tapered rib-waveguides (mode transformers), two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a surface-grating coupler. The supermodes of this hybrid structure are controlled by an appropriate design of the tapers located at the edges of the gain region. In the middle part of the device almost all the field resides in the III-V waveguide so that the optical mode experiences maximal gain, while in regions near the III-V facets, mode transformers ensure an efficient transfer of the power flow towards Si-waveguides. The investigated device operates under quasi-continuous wave regime. The room temperature threshold current is 100 mA, the side-mode suppression ratio is as high as 20 dB, and the fiber-coupled output power is ~7 mW. PMID:21643289

  1. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  2. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  3. Rapid recharge capability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, F. A.; Shumard, P.; Dickinson, B.

    Range limitation is a significant drawback to the successful commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). An apt description of an EV is `a high performance vehicle with a one-gallon fuel tank'. In the absence of a `super battery', there are at least two approaches to resolving this drawback. The first approach is rapid recharge, i.e., recharging the battery as close as possible to the same time period as it takes to fill the petrol tank of an internal-combustion-engined (ICE) vehicle. Whilst not extending the vehicle range as such, this approach does enable high usage of the vehicle without experiencing unduly long recharge times. The ability of the battery to accept rapid recharge is paramount for this approach. The second approach is the development of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this case, the demand on the battery is the ability to provide, and also absorb from regenerative braking, high specific peak-power levels over a wide range of battery state-of-charge. This paper describes the ability, and indeed limitations, of the valve-regulated Genesis® lead-acid battery in meeting such requirements.

  4. Electrically engineered polymer-carbon hybrid heterojunction for high-performance printed transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Hwan; Kang, Gyu Won; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2014-10-01

    Molecularly hybridized materials composed of polymer semiconductors (PSCs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) may provide a new platform to exploit an advantageous combination of semiconductors, which yields electrical properties that are not available in a single component system. In this talk, we demonstrate high-performance ink-jet printed hybrid transistors with an electrically engineered heterostructure by using specially designed PSCs and semiconducting SWNTs (sc-SWNTs) whose system achieved a high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, no Von shift, a low off-current, and good bias-stability. We also revealed that binding energy between PSCs and sc-SWNT was strongly affected by side-chain length of PSCs, leading to the formation of homogeneous nanohybrid film. Eventually, understanding of electrostatic interactions in the heterostructure and experimental results suggest criteria for the design of nanohybrid heterostructures. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by a grant (Code No. 2011-0031628) from the Center for Advanced Soft Electronics under the Global Frontier Research Program of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea. The authors acknowledge Prof. Kilwon Cho for collaboration on the analysis of x-ray diffraction.

  5. Feasibility of a Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface for Advanced Functional Electrical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Andrej M.; Malešević, Nebojša M.; Popović, Mirjana B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a feasibility study of a novel hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system for advanced functional electrical therapy (FET) of grasp. FET procedure is improved with both automated stimulation pattern selection and stimulation triggering. The proposed hybrid BCI comprises the two BCI control signals: steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD). The sequence of the two stages, SSVEP-BCI and ERD-BCI, runs in a closed-loop architecture. The first stage, SSVEP-BCI, acts as a selector of electrical stimulation pattern that corresponds to one of the three basic types of grasp: palmar, lateral, or precision. In the second stage, ERD-BCI operates as a brain switch which activates the stimulation pattern selected in the previous stage. The system was tested in 6 healthy subjects who were all able to control the device with accuracy in a range of 0.64–0.96. The results provided the reference data needed for the planned clinical study. This novel BCI may promote further restoration of the impaired motor function by closing the loop between the “will to move” and contingent temporally synchronized sensory feedback. PMID:24616644

  6. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Lu, Meili; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  7. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  8. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance. PMID:25637924

  9. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  10. A dual-channel flux-switching permanent magnet motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Wu, Zhongze; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Baoan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    The flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motor is a relatively novel brushless machine having both magnets and concentrated windings in the stator, which exhibits inherently sinusoidal PM flux-linkage, back-EMF waveforms, and high torque capability. However, in the application of hybrid electric vehicles, it is essential to prevent magnets and armature windings moving in radial direction due to the possible vibration during operation, and to ensure fault-tolerant capability. Hence, in this paper based on an original FSPM motor, a dual-channel FSPM (DC-FSPM) motor with modified structure to fix both armature windings and magnets and improved reliability is proposed for a practical 10 kW integral starter/generator (ISG) in hybrid electric vehicles. The influences of different solutions and the end-effect on the static characteristics, are evaluated based on the 2D and 3D finite element analysis, respectively. Finally, both the predicted and experimental results, compared with a prototype DC-FSPM motor and an interior PM motor used in Honda Civic, confirm that the more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and lower torque ripple can be achieved in the DC-FSPM motor, whereas the torque is smaller under the same coil current.

  11. Hybrid Finite Element Method for Describing the Electrical Response of Biological Cells to Applied Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S.

    2007-01-01

    A novel hybrid finite element method for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid finite element method. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation. PMID:17405368

  12. Design optimization of the electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, M.; Gao, Y.; Butler, K.

    1998-10-01

    Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A and M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, and system optimization work has been going on for this invention. This project was a first attempt in integrating the above developments into an optimized design of an ELPH passenger car. Design specifications were chosen for a full size passenger car, performing as well as any conventional car, over the EPA-FTP-75 combined city/highway drive cycles. The results of this design project were two propulsion systems. Both were appropriate for commercial production, from the points of view of cost, availability of the technologies, and components. One utilized regenerative braking and the other did not. Substantial fuel savings and emissions reductions resulted from simulating these designs on the FTP-75 drive cycle. For example, the authors` ELPH full size car, with regenerative braking, was capable of delivering over 50 miles per gallon in city driving, with corresponding reductions in its emissions. This project established the viability of the authors` ELPH concept and their design methodologies, in computer simulations. More work remains to be done on investigating more advanced power plants, such as fuel cells, and more advanced components, such as switched reluctance motor drives, for the authors` designs. Furthermore, the authors` design optimization can be carried out to more detailed levels, for prototyping and production.

  13. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  14. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  15. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the GP model which in turn produces the pre-schedule of the optimal control model. Some preliminary results based on a hypothetical test case will be presented for the load forecasting module. The computer codes for the three modules will be made available fe adoption by bus operating agencies. Sample results will be provided using these models. The software will be a useful tool for supporting the control systems for the Electric Bus project of NASA.

  16. Effect of channel length on the electrical response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors to deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed

    Salila Vijayalal Mohan, Hari Krishna; An, Jianing; Zhang, Yani; Wong, Chee How; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration provides an ideal electronic path for label-free detection of nucleic acid hybridization. The simultaneous influence of more than one response mechanism in hybridization detection causes a variation in electrical parameters such as conductance, transconductance, threshold voltage and hysteresis gap. The channel length (L) dependence of each of these parameters necessitates the need to include them when interpreting the effect of L on the response to hybridization. Using the definitions of intrinsic effective mobility (e) and device field-effect mobility (f), two new parameters were defined to interpret the effect of L on the FET response to hybridization. Our results indicate that FETs with ?300 m long SWCNT exhibited the most appreciable response to hybridization, which complied with the variation trend in response to the newly defined parameters. PMID:25551036

  17. Effect of channel length on the electrical response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors to deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianing; Zhang, Yani; Wong, Chee How

    2014-01-01

    Summary A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) in a field-effect transistor (FET) configuration provides an ideal electronic path for label-free detection of nucleic acid hybridization. The simultaneous influence of more than one response mechanism in hybridization detection causes a variation in electrical parameters such as conductance, transconductance, threshold voltage and hysteresis gap. The channel length (L) dependence of each of these parameters necessitates the need to include them when interpreting the effect of L on the response to hybridization. Using the definitions of intrinsic effective mobility (e) and device field-effect mobility (f), two new parameters were defined to interpret the effect of L on the FET response to hybridization. Our results indicate that FETs with ?300 m long SWCNT exhibited the most appreciable response to hybridization, which complied with the variation trend in response to the newly defined parameters. PMID:25551036

  18. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project, 1977-1984: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D.; Roan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project was established in the spring of 1977. Originally administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and later by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace. The ERDA/DOE Program structure was divided into two major elements: (1) technology research and system development and (2) field demonstration and market development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been one of several field centers supporting the former Program element. In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: (1) Vehicle system developments (2) System integration and test (3) Supporting subsystem development (4) System assessments (5) Simulation tool development.

  19. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  20. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  1. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    SciTech Connect

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other integral CFL and future dimmable integral and plug-in versions of the EFL products.

  3. Search tool plug-in: imploements latent topic feedback

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-23

    IRIS is a search tool plug-in that is used to implement latent topic feedback for enhancing text navigation. It accepts a list of returned documents from an information retrieval wywtem that is generated from keyword search queries. Data is pulled directly from a topic information database and processed by IRIS to determine the most prominent and relevant topics, along with topic-ngrams, associated with the list of returned documents. User selected topics are then used to expand the query and presumabley refine the search results.

  4. Search tool plug-in: imploements latent topic feedback

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    IRIS is a search tool plug-in that is used to implement latent topic feedback for enhancing text navigation. It accepts a list of returned documents from an information retrieval wywtem that is generated from keyword search queries. Data is pulled directly from a topic information database and processed by IRIS to determine the most prominent and relevant topics, along with topic-ngrams, associated with the list of returned documents. User selected topics are then used tomore » expand the query and presumabley refine the search results.« less

  5. Method for preventing plugging in the pyrolysis of agglomerative coals

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-01-23

    To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.

  6. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by such hybrids.

  7. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices. PMID:24642903

  8. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. PMID:22378623

  9. Hybrid hydrogels containing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with anisotropic electrical conductivity for muscle myofiber fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Ostrovidov, Serge; Shiku, Hitoshi; Ramalingam, Murugan; Nakajima, Ken; Sakka, Yoshio; Bae, Hojae; Matsue, Tomokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Biological scaffolds with tunable electrical and mechanical properties are of great interest in many different fields, such as regenerative medicine, biorobotics, and biosensing. In this study, dielectrophoresis (DEP) was used to vertically align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in a robust, simple, and rapid manner. GelMA-aligned CNT hydrogels showed anisotropic electrical conductivity and superior mechanical properties compared with pristine GelMA hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels containing randomly distributed CNTs. Skeletal muscle cells grown on vertically aligned CNTs in GelMA hydrogels yielded a higher number of functional myofibers than cells that were cultured on hydrogels with randomly distributed CNTs and horizontally aligned CNTs, as confirmed by the expression of myogenic genes and proteins. In addition, the myogenic gene and protein expression increased more profoundly after applying electrical stimulation along the direction of the aligned CNTs due to the anisotropic conductivity of the hybrid GelMA-vertically aligned CNT hydrogels. We believe that platform could attract great attention in other biomedical applications, such as biosensing, bioelectronics, and creating functional biomedical devices.

  10. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  11. Transient motion of mucus plugs in respiratory airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Hu, Yingying; Helenbrook, Brian; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Airway closure occurs in lung diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema which have an excess of mucus that forms plugs. The reopening process involves displacement of mucus plugs in the airways by the airflow of respiration. Mucus is a non-Newtonian fluid with a yield stress; therefore its behavior can be approximated by a Bingham fluid constitutive equation. In this work the reopening process is approximated by simulation of a transient Bingham fluid plug in a 2D channel. The governing equations are solved by an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method through an in-house code. The constitutive equation for the Bingham fluid is implemented through a regularization method. The effects of the yield stress on the flow features and wall stresses are discussed with applications to potential injuries to the airway epithelial cells which form the wall. The minimum driving pressure for the initiation of the motion is computed and its value is related to the mucus properties and the plug shape. Supported by HL84370 and HL85156.

  12. DC-AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design for EV and HEV applications implemented without the use of inductors is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a dc power supply. The proposed design uses a standard three-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the dc power source. A fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a five-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed dc-ac cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted ac voltage without the use of inductors.

  13. Hybrid fiber optic voltage sensor for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziuda, L.; Niewczas, Pawel; Fusiek, G.; McDonald, James R.

    2005-06-01

    We report on the design and experimental evaluation of the hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) piezoelectric voltage sensor developed specifically for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump (ESP) motors. Unlike a previously reported transducer based on a single piezoelectric element, the voltage rating of the presented device could be as low as 500 V due to the use of a multilayer piezoelectric stack as the primary voltage-to-strain transducer. This enables the use of such sensors across a wider range of ESP applications, which often have subkilovolt voltage ratings. In addition to the design details, we present details of the full characterization of the device, including the hysteresis and temperature-dependence characteristics and discuss ways of eliminating or reducing these effects. We also demonstrate that the sensor can be used to simultaneously measure voltage and temperature.

  14. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  15. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  16. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  17. Electrically, Chemically, and Photonically Powered Torsional and Tensile Actuation of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Márcio D.; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Haines, Carter S.; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D.; Fonseca, Alexandre F.; Madden, John D. W.; Voit, Walter E.; Galvão, Douglas S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2012-11-01

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate.

  18. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Tyler; Shirk, Matthew; Wishart, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. A Unique Approach to Power Electronics and Motor Cooling in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Curtis William; Hsu, John S; Lowe, Kirk T; Conklin, Jim

    2007-01-01

    An innovative system for cooling the power electronics of hybrid electric vehicles is presented. This system uses a typical automotive refrigerant R-134a (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane) as the cooling fluid in a system that can be used as either part of the existing vehicle passenger air conditioning system or separately and independently of the existing air conditioner. Because of the design characteristics, the cooling coefficient of performance is on the order of 40. Because liquid refrigerant is used to cool the electronics directly, high heat fluxes can result while maintaining an electronics junction temperature at an acceptable value. In addition, an inverter housing that occupies only half the volume of a conventional inverter has been designed to take advantage of this cooling system. Planned improvements should result in further volume reductions while maintaining a high power level.

  1. Electrically, chemically, and photonically powered torsional and tensile actuation of hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcio D; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Haines, Carter S; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D; Fonseca, Alexandre F; Madden, John D W; Voit, Walter E; Galvão, Douglas S; Baughman, Ray H

    2012-11-16

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate. PMID:23161994

  2. A design for improved performance of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seong Yeop; Lee, Ju

    2006-04-01

    This paper investigates the layout of a magnet shape on the performance of an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor. The motor is used in a hybrid electric vehicle. The IPM motor is a pancake shaped motor that has permanent magnets inside the rotor. The motor acts as a rotational electrodynamic machine between the engine and transmission. The main purpose of redesigning the shape of the magnet is to improve the motor performance, especially the back-emf wave form, the efficiency, and the rated torque, within a restricted volume. The electromagnetic performance of the conventional model and the proposed design is analyzed using the finite element method. The theoretical results have been confirmed by comparing them with experimental results for the back-emf wave form, the torque versus current characteristics, and the motor efficiency.

  3. Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Brett A; Joushaghani, Arash; Poon, Joyce K S

    2012-10-01

    We present two types of designs for plasmonic switches based on hybridization between single interface surface plasmon polaritons and modes of a thin film of transition metal oxide material, vanadium dioxide (VO(2)). The design includes integrated, localized heaters that activate the VO(2) transition. The device operation is investigated and optimized by electromagnetic, electrical, and thermal simulations. The large change in the VO(2) refractive index in the infrared wavelength range enables highly compact and efficient plasmonic switches. The proposed designs achieve extinction ratios of 23-32 dB using only a 5 μm active region, a switching voltage of about 60 mV, and a switching power of about 9 mW. PMID:23188324

  4. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  5. Design of Hybrid Electrochromic Materials with Large Electrical Modulation of Plasmonic Resonances.

    PubMed

    Ledin, Petr A; Jeon, Ju-Won; Geldmeier, Jeffrey A; Ponder, James F; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; El-Sayed, Mostafa; Reynolds, John R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-05-25

    We present a rational approach to fabricating plasmonically active hybrid polymer-metal nanomaterials with electrochemical tunability of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of noble metal nanostructures embedded in an electroactive polymer matrix. The key requirement for being able to significantly modulate the LSPR band position is a close overlap between the refractive index change [Δn(λ)] of a stimuli-responsive polymeric matrix and the intrinsic LSPR bands. For this purpose, gold nanorods with a controlled aspect ratio, synthesized to provide high refractive index sensitivity while maintaining good oxidative stability, were combined with a solution-processable electroactive and electrochromic polymer (ECP): alkoxy-substituted poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) [PProDOT(CH2OEtHx)2]. Spectral characteristics of the ECP, in particular the Δn(λ) variation, were evaluated as the material was switched between oxidized and reduced states. We fabricated ultrathin plasmonic electrochromic hybrid films consisting of gold nanorods and ECP that exhibited a large, stable, and reversible LSPR modulation of up to 25-30 nm with an applied electrical potential. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm a good match between the experimentally measured refractive index change in the ECP and the plasmonic response during electrochemical modulations. PMID:27145297

  6. Enhanced mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of carbon-nanotube/TiC hybrid fibers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qinghua; Dai, Xiao; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Lou, Yanhui; Su, Xiaodong; Li, Qingwen; Sun, Baoquan; Zheng, Honghe; Shen, Mingrong; Wang, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon nanotube/TiC hybrid fibers using a polymer-assisted chemical solution approach. Ti metal ions are bound to aqueous polyethyleneimine (PEI) to form precursor solution. Amphiphilic PEI with Ti easily permeates the CNT fibers. Upon annealing in a controlled atmosphere, a homogeneous TiC network is formed in the CNT fibers. The obtained CNT/TiC hybrid fibers show prominent enhancement in mechanical strength and electrical conductivity. The tensile strength and conductivity of CNT/TiC fibers can be improved to 0.67 GPa and 1650 S cm(-1) at room temperature, respectively. More importantly, a tensile modulus as high as 420 GPa has been achieved for the CNT/TiC fibers. Analysis shows that the cross-linking matrix of hard TiC plays a significant role in the improvement of mechanical strength. Furthermore, the electrons are transported in the CNT/TiC fiber by a three dimensional hopping mechanism. PMID:23787809

  7. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  8. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  9. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  10. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  11. Project Integration Office for the electric and hybrid vehicle R and D program. Eighth progress report, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    The Project Integration Office (PIO) was established to assist the US DOE with the direction and coordination of its multiple electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle research programs in order to get the maximum payoff from these research efforts. In addition, the PIO performs objective independent technical and economic studies, analyses and modeling, and maintains a technical information liaison service to facilitate information exchange between the program participants and industry. Progress in each of these activities is reported. (LCL)

  12. Recent advances in the US Department of Energy's energy storage technology research and development programs for hybrid electric and electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, Irwin B.

    This paper provides an overview of recent advances in battery technology resulting from the Department of Energy's (DOE's) energy storage research and development (R&D) programs for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electrical vehicles (EVs). The DOE's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) is working with industry, national laboratories, universities, and other government agencies to develop technologies that will lead to a reduction in the petroleum used and the emissions generated by the transportation sector. The programs reviewed in this paper are focused on accelerating the development of energy storage technologies that are critical for the commercialization of HEVs and EV. These include the research conducted at DOE's national laboratories to develop the high-power batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the collaborative research with the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop the high-energy batteries needed for EVs.

  13. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  14. Fabrication and electrical characterization of a polycarbazole/ZnO based organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Aditi; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper a hybrid heterojuction of an organic and inorganic semiconductor junction diode has been proposed. The p-polycarbazole/n-ZnO hybrid-heterojunction (HHJ) diode has been fabricated and characterized. The organic semiconducting polymer has been deposited on the ITO coated glass by electrochemical method followed by deposition of inorganic ZnO semiconductor by vacuum thermal evaporation method. The electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio and reverse saturation current are extracted from the measured I-V characteristics of the hybrid heterojunction. The proposed hybrid heterojunction exhibits a very low dark current (∼10-11 A) and is therefore expected to have great commercial applications.

  15. Electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluene sulfonate films hybridized with reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluene sulfonate (rGO-PEDOT:PTS) hybrid electrode films were synthesized directly on a substrate by interfacial polymerization between an oxidizing solid layer and liquid droplets of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) produced by electrospraying. The EDOT reduced the graphene oxide by donating electrons during its transformation into PEDOT:PTS, and hybrid films consisting of rGO distributed in a matrix of PEDOT:PTS were obtained. These rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films showed excellent electrical conductivities as high as 1,500 S/cm and a sheet resistance of 70 Ω sq-1. The conductivity values are up to 50% greater than those of films containing conductive PEDOT:PTS alone. These results confirm that highly conductive rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films can potentially be used as organic transparent electrodes. PMID:25520593

  16. Electrical conductivity of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): p-toluene sulfonate films hybridized with reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Taek; Choi, Sul-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Yeol

    2014-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): p-toluene sulfonate (rGO-PEDOT:PTS) hybrid electrode films were synthesized directly on a substrate by interfacial polymerization between an oxidizing solid layer and liquid droplets of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) produced by electrospraying. The EDOT reduced the graphene oxide by donating electrons during its transformation into PEDOT:PTS, and hybrid films consisting of rGO distributed in a matrix of PEDOT:PTS were obtained. These rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films showed excellent electrical conductivities as high as 1,500 S/cm and a sheet resistance of 70 Ω sq-1. The conductivity values are up to 50% greater than those of films containing conductive PEDOT:PTS alone. These results confirm that highly conductive rGO-PEDOT:PTS hybrid films can potentially be used as organic transparent electrodes.

  17. Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio Rizzoni

    2005-09-30

    Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a laboratory facility that will include: electric drive and IC engine test benches; a test vehicle designed for rapid installation of prototype drives; benches for the measurement and study of HEV energy storage components (batteries, ultra-capacitors, flywheels); hardware-in-the-loop control system development tools. (2) The creation of new courses and upgrades of existing courses on subjects related to: HEV modeling and simulation; supervisory control of HEV drivetrains; engine, transmission, and electric drive modeling and control. Specifically, two new courses (one entitled HEV Component Analysis: and the other entitled HEV System Integration and Control) will be developed. Two new labs, that will be taught with the courses (one entitled HEV Components Lab and one entitled HEV Systems and Control lab) will also be developed. (3) The consolidation of already existing ties among faculty in electrical and mechanical engineering departments. (4) The participation of industrial partners through: joint laboratory development; internship programs; continuing education programs; research project funding. The proposed effort will succeed because of the already exceptional level of involvement in HEV research and in graduate education in automotive engineering at OSU, and because the PIs have a proven record of interdisciplinary collaboration as evidenced by joint proposals, joint papers, and co-advising of graduate students. OSU has been expanding its emphasis in Automotive Systems for quite some time. This has led to numerous successes such as the establishment of the Center of Automotive Research, a graduate level course sequence with GM, and numerous grants and contracts on automotive research. The GATE Center of Excellence is a natural extension of what educators at OSU already do well.

  18. Enabling Renewable Energy and the Future Grid with Advanced Electricity Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun; Baskaran, Suresh; Imhoff, Carl H.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2010-08-06

    Environmental concerns about using fossil fuels and their resource constrains, along with that on energy security, have spurred great interests in generating electrical energy from renewable sources such as wind and solar. The variable and stochastic nature of renewable sources however makes solar and wind power difficult to manage, especially at high levels of penetration. To effectively use the intermittent renewable energy and enable its delivery demand electrical energy storage (EES) that can also improve the reliability, stability, and efficiency of the electrical grid, which is expected to support plug-in electrical vehicles; enable real-time, two-way communication to balance demand and supply. While EES has gained wide attention for hybrid and electrical vehicle (e.g. plug-in-hybrid electrical) needs, public awareness and understanding of the critical challenges in energy storage for renewable integration and the future grid is relatively lacking. This paper examines the benefits and challenges of EES, in particular electrochemical storage or battery technologies, and discusses the fundamental principles, economics, and feasibility of the storage technologies. It intends to provide an understanding of the needs and challenges of electrical storage technologies for the stationary applications and offer general directions of research and development to the materials community.

  19. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  20. DNA hybridization and contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis for identification of enterococci to the species level.

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, S; Chow, J W; Shlaes, D M; Green, M; Zervos, M J

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 113 Enterococcus faecium, 37 Enterococcus faecalis, 24 Enterococcus gallinarum, 15 Enterococcus raffinosus, and 13 Enterococcus casseliflavus clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were evaluated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. Thirty-one of the E. faecium, 22 of the E. faecalis, 24 of the E. gallinarum, 15 of the E. raffinosus, and 13 of the E. casseliflavus isolates were also evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Genomic DNAs from type strains E. faecalis ATCC 19433, E. faecium ATCC 19434, E. gallinarum ATCC 49573, E. raffinosus ATCC 49427, and E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 were labeled with biotin for use as probes. E. faecalis differed from all other species in always having a largest fragment of > 400 kb. E. gallinarum was different from all other species in having all SmaI fragments of < 200 kb. Biotin-labeled probes showed a high degree of hybridization with genomic DNA from the same species and a low degree of hybridization when hybridized to genomic DNA from different species for all isolates tested except for four isolates identified as E. faecium by conventional biochemical methods. The DNA from these four isolates hybridized strongly to DNA from E. gallinarum ATCC 49573 and weakly to E. faecium ATCC 19434 DNA and had all SmaI fragments of < 200 kb in size. These data suggest that these isolates are nonmotile E. gallinarum. DNA from each ATCC type strain hybridized strongly with itself and had only a low degree of hybridization with DNA from other ATCC type strains tested. These results suggest that contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization with biotin-labeled probes may be of use for species differentiation of some enterococci. PMID:7699030

  1. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  2. The design of an electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.; Hoff, C.J.

    1998-07-01

    An electro-hydraulically controlled, manual transmission has been developed for the Department of Energy's FutureCar Challenge. This project which is jointly sponsored by the DOE and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) seeks to modify a production mid-size car to reach 80 mpg, yet still maintain the safety and consumer acceptability of the original vehicle. To meet this challenge, a 1996 Ford Taurus has been modified into a parallel drive, hybrid electric vehicle. The propulsion system of this vehicle is based on a DC electric motor, which is coupled via a belt drive, in parallel, with a 1.9 liter turbo-charged, direct injection diesel engine. Both propulsion units are then coupled to the transmission. The OEM automatic transmission has been replaced with a five-speed, manual transmission, which was adapted from an earlier model year production Taurus SHO vehicle. This transmission is both lighter and more mechanically efficient than the automatic transmission. In order to provide the automatic transmission shifting capabilities expected by the consumer for a vehicle of this size, an electro-hydraulic control unit was designed and built. This unit automatically engages the clutch and shifts gears as required during vehicle operation. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC), which utilizes throttle and vehicle speed input signals. Additionally, the driver may select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector. This paper discusses the final design of this system and provides an evaluation of its performance.

  3. Modulating the Electron-Hole Interaction in a Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite with an Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Leijtens, Tomas; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Eperon, Giles E; Grancini, Giulia; D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Ball, James M; Stranks, Samuel D; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-12-16

    Despite rapid developments in both photovoltaic and light-emitting device performance, the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of hybrid lead halide perovskites is still incomplete. In particular, the polarizability of the material, the presence of molecular dipoles, and their influence on the dynamics of the photoexcitations remain an open issue to be clarified. Here, we investigate the effect of an applied external electric field on the photoexcited species of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films, both at room temperature and at low temperature, by monitoring the photoluminescence (PL) yield and PL decays. At room temperature we find evidence for electric-field-induced reduction of radiative bimolecular carrier recombination together with motion of charged defects that affects the nonradiative decay rate of the photoexcited species. At low temperature (190 K), we observe a field-induced enhancement of radiative free carrier recombination rates that lasts even after the removal of the field. We assign this to field-induced alignment of the molecular dipoles, which reduces the vibrational freedom of the lattice and the associated local screening and hence results in a stronger electron-hole interaction. PMID:26579724

  4. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  5. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field driven by the lower-hybrid-wave in a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shaojie

    2011-10-15

    A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the counter-current rotation driven by the lower-hybrid-wave observed in the tokamak lower-hybrid-wave parallel current drive experiments. It is found that ions absorb the toroidal momentum indirectly from the wave through collisional friction with the resonant electrons that directly take the momentum from the wave through Landau resonance. This momentum coupling pumps out the ions to produce a negative radial electric field and makes the plasma rotate in the counter-current direction.

  6. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  7. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  8. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    SciTech Connect

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D.; Benmoussa, H.

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  9. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission. PMID:16112553

  10. On parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, J. Y.; Gonzalez, L. F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a review of existing and current developments and the analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems (HEPS) for small fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Efficient energy utilisation on an UAV is essential to its functioning, often to achieve the operational goals of range, endurance and other specific mission requirements. Due to the limitations of the space available and the mass budget on the UAV, it is often a delicate balance between the onboard energy available (i.e. fuel) and achieving the operational goals. One technology with potential in this area is with the use of HEPS. In this paper, information on the state-of-art technology in this field of research is provided. A description and simulation of a parallel HEPS for a small fixed-wing UAV by incorporating an Ideal Operating Line (IOL) control strategy is described. Simulation models of the components in a HEPS were designed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. An IOL analysis of an UAV piston engine was used to determine the most efficient points of operation for this engine. The results show that an UAV equipped with this HEPS configuration is capable of achieving a fuel saving of 6.5%, compared to the engine-only configuration.

  11. Status and evaluation of hybrid electric vehicle batteries for short term applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this task is to compile information regarding batteries which could be use for electric cars or hybrid vehicles in the short term. More specifically, this study applies lead-acid batteries and nickel-cadmium battery technologies which are more developed than the advanced batteries which are presently being investigated under USABC contracts and therefore more accessible in production efficiency and economies of scale. Moreover, the development of these batteries has advanced the state-of-the-art not only in terms of performance and energy density but also in cost reduction. The survey of lead-acid battery development took the biggest part of the effort, since they are considered more apt to be used in the short-term. Companies pursuing the advancement of lead-acid batteries were not necessarily the major automobile battery manufacturers. Innovation is found more in small or new companies. Other battery systems for short-term are discussed in the last part of this report. We will review the various technologies investigated, their status and prognosis for success in the short term.

  12. Parameters optimization for the energy management system of hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chyuan-Yow; Hung, Yi-Hsuan; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Huang, Yu-Jen

    2007-12-01

    Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been widely studied recently due to its high potential in reduction of fuel consumption, exhaust emission, and lower noise. Because of comprised of two power sources, the HEV requires an energy management system (EMS) to distribute optimally the power sources for various driving conditions. The ITRI in Taiwan has developed a HEV consisted of a 2.2L internal combustion engine (ICE), a 18KW motor/generator (M/G), a 288V battery pack, and a continuous variable transmission (CVT). The task of the present study is to design an energy management strategy of the EMS for the HEV. Due to the nonlinear nature and the fact of unknown system model of the system, a kind of simplex method based energy management strategy is proposed for the HEV system. The simplex method is a kind of optimization strategy which is generally used to find out the optimal parameters for un-modeled systems. The way to apply the simplex method for the design of the EMS is presented. The feasibility of the proposed method was verified by perform numerical simulation on the FTP75 drive cycles.

  13. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  14. Hybrid solar sail and solar electric propulsion for novel Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we propose a pole-sitter spacecraft hybridising solar electric propulsion (SEP) and solar sailing. The intriguing concept of a hybrid propulsion spacecraft is attractive: by combining the two forms of propulsion, the drawbacks of the two systems cancel each other, potentially enabling propellant mass saving, increased reliability, versatility and lifetime over the two independent systems. This almost completely unexplored concept will be applied to the continuous monitoring of the Earth's polar regions through a pole-sitter, i.e. a spacecraft that is stationary above one pole of the Earth. The continuous, hemispherical, real-time view of the pole will enable a wide range of new applications for Earth observation and telecommunications. In this paper, families of 1-year-periodic, minimum-propellant orbits are found, for different values of the sail lightness number and distance from the pole. The optimal control problem is solved using a pseudo-spectral method. The process gives a reference control to maintain these orbits. In addition, for stability issues, a feedback control is designed to guarantee station-keeping in the presence of injection errors, sail degradation and temporary SEP failure. Results show that propellant mass can be saved using a medium-sized solar sail. Finally, it is shown that the feedback control is able to maintain the spacecraft on-track with only minimal additional effort from the SEP thruster.

  15. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  16. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-01-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105�C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  17. A novel multimode hybrid energy storage system and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Zhou, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel topology of multimode hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and its energy management strategy for electric vehicles (EVs). Compared to the conventional HESS, the proposed multimode HESS has more operating modes and thus it could in further enhance the efficiency of the system. The rule-based control strategy and the power-balancing strategy are developed for the energy management strategy to realize mode selection and power distribution. Generally, the DC-DC converter will operate at peak efficiency to convey the energy from the batteries to the UCs. Otherwise, the pure battery mode or the pure ultracapacitors (UCs) mode will be utilized without the DC-DC converter. To extend the battery life, the UCs have the highest priority to recycle the energy and the batteries are isolated from being recharged directly during regenerative braking. Simulations and experiments are established to validate the proposed multimode HESS and its energy management strategy. The results reveal that the energy losses in the DC-DC converter, the total energy consumption and the overall system efficiency of the proposed multimode HESS are improved compared to the conventional HESS.

  18. Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Burress, T A; Coomer, C L; Campbell, S L; Seiber, L E; Marlino, L D; Staunton, R H; Cunningham, J P

    2008-04-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American automotive manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler began a five-year, cost-shared partnership in 1993. Currently, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. Under the FCVT program, support is provided through a three-phase approach [1] which is intended to: • Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry’s recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; • Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and • Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed in this area will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  19. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm-2, which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  20. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm(-2), which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels. PMID:24504242

  1. Conceptual design analysis for hybrid-cycle OTEC plants for co-production of electric power and desalinated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

    Hybrid-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants are shown to be potentially the most flexible and cost effective in obtaining any specific mix of electrical power and desalinated water. This paper describes two particular hybrid configurations. One achieves maximum power production and the other achieves maximum water production for a given cold sea-water flow rate and pipe size. When power is the desired commodity and desalinated water is the by-product, the most effective configuration is the conventional hybrid cycle. When only water production is required, the desired configuration combines a multistage flash evaporator and a closed-cycle power OTEC plant, the latter generates the power to run the support equipment with no net or minimal power generation.

  2. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  3. RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Telias, G.; Day, K.; Dietrich, P.

    2011-01-01

    Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends in fuel cell vehicle technology and related policy. The technological description includes trends in system configuration as well as a review of the most relevant components including the fuel cell stack, batteries, and hydrogen storage. Results from fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects around the world and an overview of the successful implementation of fuel cells in specific transport niche markets will also be discussed. The final section of this report provides a detailed description of national research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts worldwide.

  4. Coexistence of electrical conductivity and ferromagnetism in a hybrid material formed from reduced graphene oxide and manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Murashima, Yusuke; Ohtani, Ryo; Matsui, Takeshi; Takehira, Hiroshi; Yokota, Ryotaro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Lindoy, Leonard F; Hayami, Shinya

    2015-03-21

    The coexistence of electrical conductivity and ferromagnetism has been achieved in a reduced graphene oxide/manganese oxide hybrid (rGO-Mn) synthesized by chemical reduction of a graphene oxide and Mn(2+) (as its GO-Mn(2+) complex) using hydrazine. The rGO-Mn and GO-Mn(2+) complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In rGO-Mn the Mn was present as manganese oxide nanoparticles located on the rGO nanosheets. This rGO-Mn exhibits both electrical conductivity and ferromagnetism. The synthesis of hybrids incorporating rGO and metal oxides is proposed as a useful strategy for generation of new multifunctional nano-composite materials. PMID:25697449

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

  6. Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-03-01

    This evaluation compared six hybrids and six standard diesels in UPS facilities in Phoenix, Arizona. Dispatch and maintenance practices are the same at both facilities. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of these step delivery vans. The hybrids' average monthly mileage rate was 18% less than the diesel vans. The hybrids consistently were driven a fewer number of miles throughout the evaluation period. The hybrids idled more and operating at slower speeds than the diesels, and the diesels spent slightly more time operating at greater speeds, accounting for much of the hybrids fewer monthly miles. The average fuel economy for the hybrid vans is 13.0 mpg, 23% greater than the diesel vans 10.6 mpg. Total hybrid maintenance cost/mile of $0.141 was 9% more than the $0.130 for the diesel vans. Propulsion-related maintenance cost/mile of $0.037 for the hybrid vans was 25% more than the $0.029 for the diesel vans. Neither difference was found to be statistically significant. The hybrid group had a cumulative average of 96.3% uptime, less than the diesel group's 99.0% uptime. The hybrids experienced troubleshooting and recalibration issues related to prototype components that were primarily responsible for the lower uptime figures.

  7. Electric and magnetic losses modeled by a stable hybrid with explicit-implicit time-stepping for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Halleroed, Tomas Rylander, Thomas

    2008-04-20

    A stable hybridization of the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme for Maxwell's equations with electric and magnetic losses is presented for two-dimensional problems. The hybrid method combines the flexibility of the FEM with the efficiency of the FDTD scheme and it is based directly on Ampere's and Faraday's law. The electric and magnetic losses can be treated implicitly by the FEM on an unstructured mesh, which allows for local mesh refinement in order to resolve rapid variations in the material parameters and/or the electromagnetic field. It is also feasible to handle larger homogeneous regions with losses by the explicit FDTD scheme connected to an implicitly time-stepped and lossy FEM region. The hybrid method shows second-order convergence for smooth scatterers. The bistatic radar cross section (RCS) for a circular metal cylinder with a lossy coating converges to the analytical solution and an accuracy of 2% is achieved for about 20 points per wavelength. The monostatic RCS for an airfoil that features sharp corners yields a lower order of convergence and it is found to agree well with what can be expected for singular fields at the sharp corners. A careful convergence study with resolutions from 20 to 140 points per wavelength provides accurate extrapolated results for this non-trivial test case, which makes it possible to use as a reference problem for scattering codes that model both electric and magnetic losses.

  8. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the prototype electric truck with a different battery pack, the prototype electric truck with a higher power drivetrain and higher towing capability, and an electric city transit bus. Performance advantages provided by the HESS are demonstrated and verified for these vehicles in several areas including: longer vehicle range, improved low-temperature operation with lithium-ion batteries, and reduced battery losses and cycling stresses.

  9. Hybrid MIL-STD-1553B/1773 electrical/optical buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William G.

    The proper operation of two hybrid MIL-STD-1553B/1773 bus operations is demonstrated. Gateways were developed which made it possible to pass signals between the 1553B and 1773 segments of these hybrid buses. It is found that hybrid buses preserve the MIL-STD-1553B advantage of easy daisy chain connection of bus terminals while adding the DOD-STD-1773 advantages of fiber optics.

  10. Conjugated polymers/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid materials--preparation, electrical transport properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Couderc, Elsa; De Girolamo, Julia; Pron, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This critical review discusses specific preparation and characterization methods applied to hybrid materials consisting of π-conjugated polymers (or oligomers) and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials are of great importance in the quickly growing field of hybrid organic/inorganic electronics since they can serve as active components of photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors and other devices. The electronic energy levels of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrid can be tuned individually and thin hybrid films can be processed using low cost solution based techniques. However, the interface between the hybrid components and the morphology of the hybrid directly influences the generation, separation and transport of charge carriers and those parameters are not easy to control. Therefore a large variety of different approaches for assembling the building blocks--conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals--has been developed. They range from their simple blending through various grafting procedures to methods exploiting specific non-covalent interactions between both components, induced by their tailor-made functionalization. In the first part of this review, we discuss the preparation of the building blocks (nanocrystals and polymers) and the strategies for their assembly into hybrid materials' thin films. In the second part, we focus on the charge carriers' generation and their transport within the hybrids. Finally, we summarize the performances of solar cells using conjugated polymer/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrids and give perspectives for future developments. PMID:21152569

  11. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  12. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  13. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a power density surpassed by no other machine design.

  14. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a high power density.

  15. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  17. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the GT-Suite model can be easily accommodated to simulate propulsion systems that store regenerative power when braking, making it available for acceleration and off-road maneuvering.

  18. The Plug-In School: A Learning Environment for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesanelli, David

    1993-01-01

    Describes the "Plug-In School" concept that transforms the school into a hub for receiving learning modules that are "injected" into its classrooms. Two examples of how this concept would work are provided. (GR)

  19. Adjusted Oscillator Strength Matching for Hybrid Magnetic and Electric Excitations in Dy3Fe5O12 Garnet

    SciTech Connect

    P Rogers; Y Choi; E Standard; T Kang; K Ahn; A Dubroka; P Marsik; C Wang; C Bernhard; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Far-infrared spectra of magnetodielectric Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnet were studied using a combination of transmittance, reflectivity, and rotating analyzer ellipsometry. In addition to purely dielectric and magnetic modes, we observed several hybrid modes with a mixed magnetic and electric dipole activity. Using 4 x 4 matrix formalism for materials with {mu}({omega}){ne}1, we modeled the experimental optical spectra and determined the far-infrared dielectric and magnetic permeability functions. The matching condition {mu}({omega}{sub h})S{sub e} = {var_epsilon}({omega}{sub h})S{sub m} for the oscillator strengths S{sub e(m)} explains the observed vanishing of certain hybrid modes at {omega}{sub h} in reflectivity.

  20. Simulations of the energy performance of a solar photovoltaic residence and hybrid electric automobile in Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reuyl, J.S.; Schutt, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The hour-by-hour energy performance of a photovoltaic residence and hybrid electric vehicle system that could be built with 1980s' technology is analyzed. Thermal and electrical performance in both stand-alone and grid-connected configurations were simulated with computer models using actual hourly solar and weather data for Fresno, California. The system centers around an energy-efficient residence that incorporates passive heating and cooling. For the simulations in this study, 110 square meters of GE photovoltaic shingle modules (9.6 kW(e) rated power), a 10 kW(e) dc-ac inverter, and advanced lead-acid batteries of 61 kWh(e) capacity were added to the residence. The auto has 30 kWh(e) of lead-acid batteries and a 40-hp electric drive motor for propulsion. The auto was assumed to travel 100 km (62 miles) each day (36,500 km (22,680 miles) annually). A small (10 kW(e)) backup liquid-fueled engine/generator in the auto provides supplemental electricity on cloudy days and for long-distance travel. The utility would provide backup electricity for the residence, or the auto engine/generator can provide this backup power to the residence as well as so-called waste heat from the engine for space heating and domestic hot water. Year-round heating and cooling needs are met primarily with passive design features, and most hot water comes from a solar water heater. The PV array meets all the electrical loads of the residence on 315 days and part of the load on the other 50 days. The PV array also meets the entire auto electricity load on 166 days, and part of the load on another 116 days. A brief cost analysis indicates that both stand-alone and grid-connected systems would be competitive with grid electricity and conventional autos within this decade.