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1

Modern Battery Systems for Plug - In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug - in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining increasing interest for both in dividual transportation and commercial application s . With the recent technical progress Li - Ion batteries are on their way to open new ways for the future of all type of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles , Mild Hybrids, Full Hybrids and especially Plug - In Hybrids .

Christian A Rosenkranz; Uwe Köhler

2

Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

2008-01-01

3

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-09-01

4

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Jeffrey R. Belt

2010-12-01

5

Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

2009-01-01

6

City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

None

2013-12-31

7

Evaluation of alternative battery technologies for a solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the various battery technologies available for use in solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractors In this context, solar assist plug-in hybrid electric tractors are those that may be used in light-duty agricultural operations. To determine the most suitable battery, four common technologies are analyzed looking at the environmental life-cycle effects and costs.

Hossein Mousazadeh; Alireza Keyhani; Arzhang Javadi; Hossein Mobli; Karen Abrinia; Ahmad Sharifi

2010-01-01

8

An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2011-01-01

9

Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

2013-12-01

10

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) on the French electric grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the automotive sector is undergoing a major change. During the next years it is expected that there will be a considerable increase in the numbers of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). Based on different charging scenarios, this paper investigates the impact of PHEVs on the French electric grid. Solutions are proposed to increase the maximum penetration rate. Hence we

H. Turker; S. Bacha; D. Chatroux

2010-01-01

11

2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

J. Wishart M. Shirk T. Gray

2013-01-01

12

Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of

Jian Cao; D. Bharathan; A. Emadi

2007-01-01

13

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid: Investigations Based on a Micro Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) could potentially trigger a stepwise electrification of the whole transportation sec- tor. But the impact on the electric grid by electrical vehicl e charging is still not fully known. This paper investigates several PHEV charging schemes, including smart charging, using a novel iterative approach. An agent based traffic demand model is used for

Rashid A. Waraich; Matthias D. Galus; Christoph Dobler; Michael Balmer; Göran Andersson; Kay W. Axhausen

14

Parameter Design and Implementation of Propulsion System of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of the series plug-in hybrid propulsion system on the transit bus are matched with the predetermined drive cycle, which include TBP (traction battery package) capacity, driver power, gear ratio and APU (auxiliary power unit) power. And hybrid factor is determined by vehicle fuel economy. Using ADVISOR, four urban drive cycles are applied to evaluate fuel economy of diesel, electric,

Ximing Cheng; Xiaosong Hu; Fengchun Sun

2009-01-01

15

Utilization and effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are uniquely capable of providing both transportation and battery storage interconnection to the electric power grid. This ability allows PHEVs the possibility of serving the power grid in the capacity of a mobile energy storage unit, providing the grid with additional stability, reliability, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency. Additionally, with the higher fuel efficiency of PHEVs, the

Steven D. Jenkins; John R. Rossmaier; Mehdi Ferdowsi

2008-01-01

16

Optimal energy management of a retailer with smart metering and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smart grid will integrate extensive distributed resources such as local generation sources, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and demand response (DR) programs. By using smart metering, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) facilitates consumer participation in DR programs and changes the consumption pattern of residential user via tariff schemes for electrical energy. 1 In addition, the smart grid will play an

Meysam Doostizadeh; Mojtaba Khanabadi; Ahad Esmaeilian; Mohsen Mohseninezhad

2011-01-01

17

Modeling and simulation of an energy management system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modeling, control strategy and simulation results of an energy management strategy (EMS) for a specific plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A good control strategy is required among components, such as the energy storage system, an electric motor, a power control unit, and an internal combustion engine in order to ensure that the vehicle achieve an improvement in

Salisa Abdul Rahman; Nong Zhang; Jianguo Zhu

2008-01-01

18

Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing Activities  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) testing in order to provide benchmark data for technology modeling and research and development programs, and to be an independent source of test data for fleet managers and other early adaptors of advanced-technology vehicles. To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 12 HEV models and accumulated 2.7 million fleet testing miles on 35 HEVs. The HEV baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed-track testing to document HEV performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model accumulate 160,000 test miles within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events and fuel use were recorded. Three models of PHEVs, from vehicle converters Energy CS and Hymotion and the original equipment manufacturer Renault, are currently in testing. The PHEV baseline performance testing includes 5 days of dynamometer testing with a minimum of 26 test drive cycles, including the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, and the US06 test cycle, in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The PHEV accelerated testing is conducted with dedicated drivers for 4,240 miles, over a series of 132 driving loops that range from 10 to 200 miles over various combinations of defined 10-mile urban and 10-mile highway loops, with 984 hours of vehicle charging. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Applications, with dynamometer testing conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

Donald Karner

2007-12-01

19

Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using PSAT (powertrain system analysis tool, vehicle simulation software). Power loss models of a SiC inverter are incorporated into PSAT powertrain models in order to study the impact of SiC devices on HEVs. Two types of HEVs are considered. One is the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV, the other is a plug-in HEV (PHEV), whose powertrain architecture is the same as that of the 2004 Toyota Prius HEV. The vehicle-level benefits from the introduction of the SiC devices are demonstrated by simulations. Not only the power loss in the motor controller but also those in other components in the vehicle powertrain are reduced. As a result, the system efficiency is improved and the vehicles consume less energy and emit less harmful gases. It also makes it possible to improve the system compactness with simplified thermal management system. For the PHEV, the benefits are more distinct. Especially, the size of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design.

Zhang, Hui [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

2008-01-01

20

Lithium-ion batteries life estimation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with life estimation of lithium batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). An aging model, based on the concept of accumulated charge throughput, has been developed to estimate battery life under ldquoreal worldrdquo driving cycles (custom driving cycles based on driving statistics). The objective is to determine the ldquodamagerdquo on the life related to each driving pattern

Vincenzo Marano; Simona Onori; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni; Nullo Madella

2009-01-01

21

A low-cost, digitally-controlled charger for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a low-cost onboard charger for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is presented and verified experimentally. The idea is to utilize the already available main traction and auxiliary motors and associated power electronics systems of an HEV to construct the charger circuit instead of building a standalone charger. Compared to the latter, it enables significant cost, weight, and

Lixin Tang; Gui-Jia Su

2009-01-01

22

Design considerations for a plug-in hybrid car electrical motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also students can contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of personal traffic. This paper presents the design of an electrical motor for the student project Vehicle Design Summit, which aims to develop a novel plug-in hybrid vehicle with a 95% reduction in life cycle costs. A switched reluctance motor has been selected because of low production cost and low thermal

T. Nobels; T. Gheysen; M. Vanhove; S. Stevens

2009-01-01

23

Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

Information Center

2009-03-31

24

Rule based algorithm for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) integration in residential electric grid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will strongly penetrate in the car fleet for the coming years. Based on databases of the houses Daily Loads Profiles (DLPs) build from real electricity consumption of domestic's electrical devices, this paper determines the minimal load power of PHEVs which assures the complete recharge of batteries before the next reuse of vehicles while avoiding

Harun Turker; Ahmad Hably; Seddik Bacha; Daniel Chatroux

2012-01-01

25

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying

Karen R Sikes; Lawrence C Markel; Stanton W Hadley; Shaun Hinds; Robert C DeVault

2009-01-01

26

Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity. Three sample optimizations were performed: a compact car, a, truck, and a sports car. The compact car benefits from increased battery capacity despite the associated higher cost. The truck returned the smallest possible battery of each chemistry, indicating that electrification is not advisable. The sports car optimization resulted in the largest possible battery, indicating large performance from increased electrification. These results mirror the current state of the electric vehicle market.

English, Jeffrey Robb

27

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

28

Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will benefit from their high-temperature capability, high-power density, and high efficiency. Moreover, the light weight and small volume will affect the whole power train system in a HEV, and thus performance and cost. In this work, the performance of HEVs is analyzed using

Hui Zhang; Leon M. Tolbert; Burak Ozpineci

2008-01-01

29

Integrated BiDirectional AC\\/DC and DC\\/DC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the result of a wide range of efforts to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology has been commercialized. HEVs show better mile per gallon (MPG) than conventional vehicles. As a new practical breakthrough to reduce air pollution and fuel consumption, particularly in urban areas, converting HEVs into plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Young-Joo Lee; A. Emadi

2007-01-01

30

Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC\\/DC and DC\\/DC Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology provides an effective solution for achieving higher fuel economy, better performance, and lower emissions, compared with conventional vehicles. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) are HEVs with plug-in capabilities and provide a more all-electric range; hence, PHEVs improve fuel economy and reduce emissions even more. PHEVs have a battery pack of high energy density and can run solely

Young-Joo Lee; Alireza Khaligh; Ali Emadi

2009-01-01

31

Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems  

SciTech Connect

Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculation method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.

Cao, J.; Bharathan, D.; Emadi, A.

2007-01-01

32

2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

2013-07-01

33

Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

2009-05-01

34

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

2006-11-01

35

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

2008-01-01

36

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-01-01

37

Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of social interactions in individuals’ assessments of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this study analyzes over 190 social (interpersonal) interactions elicited in interviews with 31 individuals in eight different social networks centered on households in the Sacramento, California region. Results are framed within five theoretical perspectives on social influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. Responses

Jonn Axsena; Kenneth S. Kurani

2009-01-01

38

Energy reserves and clearing in stochastic power markets: The case of plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle battery charging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on our previous work in plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging, we study the potential benefits of demand participating in precisely quantified quality of service trades. Given the equivalency of demand and generation modulation in effecting power system cost and stability, we consider demand and generation as market participants with equal rights who engage in a mix of energy and

Justin M. Foster; Michael C. Caramanis

2010-01-01

39

Evaluation of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Learning Curve on Battery and Power Generation Best Mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is one of the technologies to reduce amount of CO2 emissions in transport section. This paper presents one of the scenarios that shows how widely used the PHEVs will be in the future. And this paper also presents how amount of CO2 will be reduced by the introduction of PHEVs, and whether there are any

Yukio Shinoda; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

2009-01-01

40

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel\\/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW

A. Elgowainy; A. Burnham; M. Wang; J. Molburg; A. Rousseau

2009-01-01

41

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use

A. Elgowainy; J. Han; L. Poch; M. Wang; A. Vyas; M. Mahalik; A. Rousseau

2010-01-01

42

A three-phase high frequency semi-controlled battery charging power converter for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel analysis, design, and implementation of a battery charging three-phase high frequency semi-controlled power converter feasible for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The main advantages of the proposed topology include high efficiency; due to lower power losses and reduced number of switching elements, high output power density realization, and reduced passive component ratings proportionally to the frequency.

Mahmoud M. Amin; Osama A. Mohammed

2011-01-01

43

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

2010-02-01

44

Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles. Market penetration scenarios of electric drive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) are currently emerging in the market and are seen as a promising option towards a less carbon intensive road transport. This report presents a prospective analysis in relation with two of the current bottlenecks for the diffusion of electric vehicles. These concern batteries performance and cost, and the access to charging infrastructures. Based on projections on these

Francoise Nemry; Martijn Brons

45

Plug-in Hybrid and Battery-Electric Vehicles: State of the research and development and comparative analysis of energy and cost efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note is a first contribution from IPTS to a JRC more integrated assessment of future penetration pathways of new vehicles technologies in the EU27 market and of their impacts on energy security, GHG emissions and on the economy. The present report focuses on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). It provides a general overview

Francoise Nemry; Guillaume Leduc; Almudena Muñoz

46

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

2008-01-01

47

Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

48

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01

49

Energy and Battery Management of a Plug-In Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy logic is used to define a new quantity called the battery working state (BWS), which is based on both battery ter- minal voltage and state of charge (SOC), to overcome the problem of battery over-discharge and associated damage resulting from inaccurate estimates of the SOC. The BWS is used by a fuzzy logic energy-management system of a plug-in series

S. G. Li; S. M. Sharkh; F. C. Walsh; C. N. Zhang

2011-01-01

50

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Rep...

K. R. Genung L. C. Markel S. Hinds S. W. Hardley

2008-01-01

51

Development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and vehicle simulator for energy management assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation offers a description of the development of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle focusing on the propulsion architecture selection, propulsion system control, and high-level energy management. Two energy management techniques have been developed and implemented for real-time control of the vehicle. The first method is a heuristic method that relies on a short-term moving average of the vehicle power requirements. The second method utilizes an affine function of the short-term and long-term moving average vehicle power requirements. The development process of these methods has required the creation of a vehicle simulator capable of estimating the effect of changes to the energy management control techniques on the overall vehicle energy efficiency. Furthermore, the simulator has allowed for the refinement of the energy management methods and for the stability of the method to be analyzed prior to on-road testing. This simulator has been verified through on-road testing of a constructed prototype vehicle under both highway and city driving schedules for each energy management method. The results of the finalized vehicle control strategies are compared with the simulator predictions and an assessment of the effectiveness of both strategies is discussed. The methods have been evaluated for energy consumption in the form of both hydrogen fuel and stored electricity from grid charging.

Meintz, Andrew Lee

52

Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have received considerable recent attention for their potential to reduce petroleum consumption significantly and quickly in the transportation sector. Analysis to aid the design of such vehicles and predict their real-world performance and fuel displacement must consider the driving patterns the vehicles will typically encounter. This paper goes beyond consideration of standardized certification cycless by leveraging state-of-the-art travel survey techniques that use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to obtain a large set of real-world drive cycles from the surveyed vehicle fleet. This study specifically extracts 24-h, second-by-second driving profiles from a set of 227 GPS-instrumented vehicles in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area. The performance of midsize conventional, hybrid electric, and PHEV models is then simulated over the 227 full-day driving profiles to assess fuel consumption and operating characteristics of these vehicle technologies over a set of real-world usage patterns. In comparison to standard cycles used for certification procedures, the travel survey duty cycles include significantly more aggressive acceleration and deceleration events across the velocity spectrum, which affect vehicle operation and efficiency. Even under these more aggressive operating conditions, PHEVs using a blended charge-depleting energy management strategy consume less than 50% of the petroleum used by similar conventional vehicles. Although true prediction of the widespread real-world use of these vehicles requires expansion of the vehicle sample size and a refined accounting for the possible interaction of several variables with the sampled driving profiles, this study demonstrates a cutting-edge use of available GPS travel survey data to analyze the (highly drive cycle-dependent) performance of advanced technology PHEVs. This demonstration highlights new opportunities for using innovative GPS travel survey techniques and sophisticated vehicle system simulation tools to guide vehicle design improvements and to maximize the benefits offered by energy efficiency technologies.

Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.; Simpson, A.

2007-01-01

53

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself include (1) kWh battery storage capability; (2) kWh/km depletion rate of the vehicle (3) liters/km use of gasoline (4) average daily kilometers driven (5) annual share of trips exceeding the battery depletion distance (6) driving cycle(s) (7) charger location [i.e. on-board or off-board] (8) charging rate. Each of these factors is actually a variable, and many interact. Off the vehicle, considerations include (a) primary overnight charging spot [garage, carport, parking garage or lot, on street], (b) availability of primary and secondary charging locations [i.e. dwellings, workplaces, stores, etc] (c) time of day electric rates (d) seasonal electric rates (e) types of streets and highways typically traversed during most probable trips depleting battery charge [i.e. city, suburban, rural and high vs. low density]; (f) cumulative trips per day from charger origin (g) top speeds and peak acceleration rates required to make usual trips. Taking into account PHEV design trade-off possibilities (kW vs. kWh of battery, in particular), this paper attempts to extract useful information relating to these topics from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), and the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS). Costs per kWh of PHEVs capable of charge depleting (CD) all-electric range (CDE, or AER) vs. those CD in 'blended' mode (CDB) are examined. Lifetime fuel savings of alternative PHEV operating/utilization strategies are compared to battery cost estimates.

Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Duoba, M.; Alexander, M.; Energy Systems; EPRI

2008-09-01

54

Discussion Meeting on Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest is growing in hybrid vehicles that can recharge from wall-plug energy because of their high fuel economy and the potential to reduce petroleum use. Therefore, the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) convened a 2-day discussion m...

2006-01-01

55

Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles  

SciTech Connect

In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

2012-06-01

56

A novel axial-flux electric machine for in-wheel gearless drive in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low-speed axial-flux-modulated motor (AFMM) is presented. The proposed motor breaks the traditional design rule which stipulates that the pole-pair numbers of the stator and the rotor must be the same. It can be fit into the limited space such as the wheel rim of electric vehicles. Compared with those of radial-flux-modulated motor (RFMM), its manufacturing and assembling process

W. N. Fu; S. L. Ho

2010-01-01

57

Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: Hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple alternative vehicle and fuel options are being proposed to alleviate the threats of climate change, urban air pollution, and oil dependence caused by the transportation sector. We report here on the results from an extensive computer model developed over the last decade to simulate and compare the societal benefits of deploying various alternative transportation options including hybrid electric vehicles

C. E. Sandy Thomas

2009-01-01

58

Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powert...

A. Burnham A. Elgowainy A. Rousseau J. Molburg M. Wang

2009-01-01

59

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

60

Power and life enhancement of battery-electrical double layer capacitor for hybrid electric and charge-depleting plug-in vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a battery–EDLC hybrid power source under pulse-operated power systems is theoretically and experimentally analyzed.Electrical double layer capacitors (or EDLC) enhance the power of lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer in charging and discharging. Consequently, this hybrid technology is able to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The experimental results show considerable

Noshin Omar; Joeri Van Mierlo; Bavo Verbrugge; Peter Van den Bossche

2010-01-01

61

Simulated fuel economy and performance of advanced hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using in-use travel profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or “real world” driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System

Matthew Earleywine; Jeffrey Gonder; Tony Markel; Matthew Thornton

2010-01-01

62

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario  

SciTech Connect

In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

2008-07-01

63

Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles  

SciTech Connect

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

2010-01-01

64

Plug-in integrated/hybrid circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid circuitry can be installed into standard round bayonet connectors, to eliminate wiring from connector to circuit. Circuits can be connected directly into either section of connector pair, eliminating need for hard wiring to that section.

Stringer, E. J.

1974-01-01

65

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging ...

2012-01-01

66

Plug-in hybrids and new energy storages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development in batteries chemistry and technology allows preparing the lithium or Ni-MH cells with energy density over 360 kJ\\/kg. Plug-in hybrid vehicle PHEV mass production is prepared with operating range up to 100 km and for longer trips the engine-generator running at optimal efficiency supplies with constant power battery and motor. The supercapacitor SC gives better dynamics and

V. Brslica

2009-01-01

67

Characterization tests for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle application of graphite/LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 cells with two different separators and electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports and discusses the results of electrochemical tests carried out according to the DOE Battery Test Manual for plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) on laboratory high-voltage graphite/LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 cells with electrode formulation and mass-loading suitable for scale-up, and mixed ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate with two diverse lithium salts, lithium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and LiPF6, as electrolytes. The cells, assembled with two different separators, a polypropylene monolayer separator (Celgard®2400) and a reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride macroporous membrane (PVdF-NCC), were also tested by deep charge/discharge cycles. The results show the strong impact of the separator on high-rate cell functioning in PHEVs.

Arbizzani, C.; De Giorgio, F.; Mastragostino, M.

2014-11-01

68

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV m...

2011-01-01

69

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2011-09-01

70

Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

DeVault, Robert C [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-14

71

2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition: Whatâs Next for the Electric Highway?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains speaker presentations from the 2013 Plug-In Conference and Exposition. This conference took place September 30, 2013 to October 3, 2013 at Liberty Station in San Diego, CA and had the theme Whatâs Next for the Electric Highway? This event brought together automotive manufacturers, component suppliers, electric utilities, government agencies, academia, and the environmental community to collaborate on the next steps in plug-in electric vehicle technology, infrastructure, policies and regulations, and market development.

Institute, Electric P.

72

Modeling and evaluation of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin acquired a plug-in hybrid fuel cell bus for demonstration and model development under a program funded through the USDOT-FTA. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance and use of the bus while developing a model that could predict overall performance and energy consumption on daily driving

C. S. Hearn; M. C. Lewis; R. C. Thompson; R. G. Longoria

2009-01-01

73

Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2013-03-01

74

Mitigation of harmonics in smart grids with high penetration of plug-in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart grids provide an excellent opportunity to improve the performance and the power quality of distribution system. This paper addresses a simple and effective approach to improve the quality of electric power in smart grids with high penetration of smart appliances such as plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). Assuming a typical daily load curve, decupled harmonic load flow (DHLF) formulation is

Mohammad A. S. Masoum; Sara Deilami; Syed Islam

2010-01-01

75

Predicting the Market Potential of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Using Multiday GPS Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed GPS data for a years worth of travel by 255 households from the Seattle area were used to investigate how plug-in electric vehicle types may affect adoption rates and use levels. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100 ...

K. Kockelman M. Khan

2011-01-01

76

Economical comparison of three hybrid electric car solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the benchmark of hybrid solutions adopted by most manufacturers in China, three hybrid electric car solutions, which are parallel system with ISG and single clutch (SCP), parallel system with ISG and dual clutches (DCP), and plug-in series system (PIS), are selected to be analyzed. A mid-size car is chosen as the baseline car for developing hybrid electric car.

Weiwei Xiong; Zhiwei Wu; Chengliang Yin; Li Chen

2008-01-01

77

Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial effects would be more pronounced. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions (Elgowainy et al 2010). The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model. Two PHEV designs are investigated through a Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model: the power-split configuration (e.g. the current Toyota Prius model with Hymotion conversion), and a future series configuration where the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle. Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation (e.g., Illinois marginal mix) produce GHG emissions comparable to those of baseline gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (with a range from -15% to +10%) but significantly higher than those of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (with a range from +20% to +60%). In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions. In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at various fuel and vehicle technologies. Three chapters are of particular interest from the pers

Karman, Deniz

2011-06-01

78

Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

2014-12-01

79

Power quality of smart grids with Plug-in Electric Vehicles considering battery charging profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of different battery charging rates of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) on the power quality of smart grid distribution systems is studied in this paper. PEV battery chargers are high power nonlinear devices that can generate significant amount of current harmonics. PEVs will be an integral component to the operation of smart grids and therefore their power quality impacts

Paul S. Moses; Sara Deilami; Amir S. Masoum; Mohammad A. S. Masoum

2010-01-01

80

An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2013-01-01

81

GTKDynamo: a PyMOL plug-in for QC/MM hybrid potential simulations.  

PubMed

Hybrid quantum chemical/molecular mechanical (QCMM) potentials are very powerful tools for molecular simulation. They are especially useful for studying processes in condensed phase systems, such as chemical reactions that involve a relatively localized change in electronic structure and where the surrounding environment contributes to these changes but can be represented with more computationally efficient functional forms. Despite their utility, however, these potentials are not always straightforward to apply since the extent of significant electronic structure changes occurring in the condensed phase process may not be intuitively obvious. To facilitate their use, we have developed an open-source graphical plug-in, GTKDynamo that links the PyMOL visualization program and the pDynamo QC/MM simulation library. This article describes the implementation of GTKDynamo and its capabilities and illustrates its application to QC/MM simulations. PMID:24137667

Bachega, José Fernando R; Timmers, Luís Fernando S M; Assirati, Lucas; Bachega, Leonardo R; Field, Martin J; Wymore, Troy

2013-09-30

82

Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an

Oscar P. R. van Vliet; Thomas Kruithof; Wim C. Turkenburg

2010-01-01

83

Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

2013-04-01

84

The added economic and environmental value of plug-in electric vehicles connected to commercial building microgrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connection of electric storage technologies to smartgrids or microgrids will have substantial implications for building energy systems. In addition to potentially supplying ancillary services directly to the traditional centralized grid (or macrogrid), local storage will enable demand response. As an economically attractive option, mobile storage devices such as plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources

Michael Stadler; Ilan Momber; Olivier Megel; Tomás Gomez; Chris Marnay; Sebastian Beer; Judy Lai; Vincent Battaglia

2010-01-01

85

Plug-in Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources for Cost and Emission Reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electricity and transportation industries are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions on Earth. Renewable energy, mainly wind and solar, can reduce emission from the electricity industry (mainly from power plants). Likewise, next- generation plug-in vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) and EVs with vehicle-to-grid capability, referred to as \\

Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

2011-01-01

86

Estimating the HVAC energy consumption of plug-in electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plug in electric vehicles are vehicles that use energy from the electric grid to provide tractive and accessory power to the vehicle. Due to the limited specific energy of energy storage systems, the energy requirements of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for cabin conditioning can significantly reduce their range between charges. Factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, length of the trip and thermal soak have been identified as primary drivers of cabin conditioning loads and therefore of vehicle range. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed systems-level approach to connect HVAC technologies and usage conditions to consumer-centric metrics of vehicle performance including energy consumption and range. This includes consideration of stochastic and transient inputs to the HVAC energy consumption model including local weather, solar loads, driving behavior, charging behavior, and regional passenger fleet population. The resulting engineering toolset is used to determine the summation of and geographical distribution of energy consumption by HVAC systems in electric vehicles, and to identify regions of US where the distributions of electric vehicle range are particularly sensitive to climate.

Kambly, Kiran R.; Bradley, Thomas H.

87

Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

Trowler, Derik Wesley

88

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

1979-01-01

89

Electric and hybrid vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents innovative design concepts for electric vehicles and their components. Topics include: Hybrid/Electric Vehicle Design Options and Evaluations; Electric Drivetrain for the Hybrid Electric Bus; Variable Speed Compressor, HFC-134a Based Air Conditioning System for electric Vehicles; Performance Testing of the Extended-Range (Hybrid) Electric G Van; and Development of an Electric Concept Vehicle with a Super Quick Charging System.

Not Available

1992-01-01

90

Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

91

Plugged In  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plugged In is a non-profit group which brings computer-based educational programs to children from low-income communities. Based in East Palo Alto, California, the site contains curriculum materials, online projects by kids and completed multimedia projects by kids.

92

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

1998-01-01

93

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-95-2-0011.

1997-01-01

94

Hybrid Electric Transit Bus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

Viterna, Larry A.

1997-01-01

95

(Hybrid gas\\/electric vehicle)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to build a long-range, parallel hybrid gas\\/electric vehicle capable of driving beyond the communter capabilities of series hybrid vehicles. It was envisioned that since the gas engine would be able to independently propel the car when needed and that the electric motor would be capable of doing the same, then you have a very

Lavery

1985-01-01

96

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

D. C. Pasma

1982-01-01

97

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

Pasma, D. C.

98

Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PH...

J. Smart S. Schey

2012-01-01

99

Impacts of plug-in electric vehicles on Germany's power plant portfolio - A model based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanding market for electric mobility and its associated increasing electricity demand will affect the long term development of the European energy system. This effect depends on various framework conditions, such as the emission trading system, coupling requirements with renewable energy supplies, load shifting potentials, load infrastructure and the European transmission grid. Thus electric mobility will affect the investment strategies

Heidi U. Gerbracht; D. Most; W. Fichtner

2010-01-01

100

An electrically assisted, hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an electrically assisted, hybrid electric vehicle. The mechanical and electrical system modifications required to convert a 1995 Dodge Neon Sedan are presented. Results of dynamic testing with regards to fuel economy, vehicle range, and emissions are presented to illustrate the benefits of operating the vehicle as an HEV

Scott Aylor; Micheal Parten; Tim Maxwell; Jesse Jones

1998-01-01

101

Application of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface: Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will lead to transmission line congestion, transformer overload, necessary power plant construction, and power quality problems on the electric grid. In this work, Multi-port Power Electronics Interface (MPEI) is proposed as a solution. It is shown that MPEI, especially coupled with some distributed generation source(s), can perform the required functions to eliminate the harsh

Matthew McDonough; Pourya Shamsi; Babak Fahimi

2012-01-01

102

Hybrid Gas/Electric Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to build a long-range, parallel hybrid gas/electric vehicle capable of driving beyond the communter capabilities of series hybrid vehicles. It was envisioned that since the gas engine would be able to independently propel t...

T. J. Lavery

1985-01-01

103

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

104

Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project  

SciTech Connect

This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

None

2013-12-31

105

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimentation and Assessment (HEVEA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimentation and Assessment (HEVEA) research program is to 1) Develop Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Fuel Economy and performance Test Operating Procedures (TOP); 2) Determine the fuel economy benefits of HEV...

2007-01-01

106

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

1999-08-31

107

Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

1999-08-31

108

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE...label values related to fuel economy, energy consumption, and range must be based...end-of-test criterion is based on a 1 percent Net Energy Change as specified in Section...

2013-07-01

109

Electrically pumped hybrid plasmonic waveguide.  

PubMed

Active plasmonic waveguiding has become a key requirement for designing and implementing nanophotonic devices. We study theoretically the performance of an Au/GaSb-based, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure acting as a hybrid electrically pumped waveguide with gain. The surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) mode supported by this configuration is analyzed in the third telecommunication window and discussed in detail. Changes in the effective mode index, confinement factor and effective mode area are illustrated for different core widths and layer thicknesses. Electrical behavior of the MIS junction is analyzed using a self-consistent numerical technique and used to study variations in the material and model gains within the semiconducting region of the device. Our results indicate the possibility of achieving low loss SPP propagation while maintaining a strong field confinement. PMID:24663560

Wijesinghe, Thamani; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

2014-02-10

110

Inverter Losses Reduction Control Techniques for Plug-In HEV and FEV Traction Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) or Full Electric Vehicle (FEV) can be very useful in order to meet fuel economy and\\u000a to reduce pollutant emissions in transport in particular for use in the urban area. This kind of vehicles needs a medium to\\u000a large battery stack in order to assure a good range in pure electric with zero emissions (30-40

Federico Cheli; Davide Tarsitano; Ferdinando Mapelli

111

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles—A low-carbon solution for Ireland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible—at least in part—for Ireland’s probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland’s transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil—a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent

William J. Smith

2010-01-01

112

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.

Stanton W. Hadley; Alexandra A. Tsvetkova

2009-01-01

113

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate

Karen Sikes; Stanton W Hadley; Ralph N McGill; Timothy Cleary

2010-01-01

114

Projected characteristics of hybrid-electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in the all-electric mode without use of the ICE, thus providing most of the benefits of electric cars without their range limitation. The

W. F. Hamilton; R. L. Curtis

1979-01-01

115

Projected Characteristics of Hybrid-Electric Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in th...

W. F. Hamilton R. L. Curtis

1979-01-01

116

Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

2006-09-11

117

Electrical Transport in Graphene Hybrid Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene, monolayer carbon atoms with honey-comb lattice, has intrigued condensed matter physics field for its unique electrical properties since its first discovery in 2004. The graphene hybrid structures that consist of both single and bi-layers were also experimentally studied recently for its novel properties. We will present our experimental study on the electron transport in graphene hybrid structures and the

Feng Miao; Wenzhong Bao; Hang Zhang; Chun Ning Lau

2009-01-01

118

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the project is to assess the impact of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants associated with internal combustion engines. The study also quantifies the fuel economy benefits of various...

1998-01-01

119

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Systems Assessment Seminar: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimiz...

1984-01-01

120

Cascaded multilevel inverter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is an emerging technology in the modern world because of the fact that it mitigates environmental pollutions and at the same time increases fuel efficiency of the vehicles. Multilevel inverter controls electric drive of HEV of high power and enhances its performance which is the reflection of the fact that it can generate sinusoidal voltages with

A. K. Verma; P. R. Thakura; K. C. Jana; G. Buja

2011-01-01

121

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; John M. Miller

2007-01-01

122

Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to

Toshiyuki Sakamoto

2009-01-01

123

Energy control strategies comparison for a city car Plug-In HEV  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few year many control strategies regarding the energy management in hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) have been discussed. This paper aims to compare different strategies with a particular attention to plug-in-HEVs (P-HEV) energy management algorithms. In facts many control strategies have been developed and discussed on traditional parallel HEV in order to find out the most efficient energy

Ferdinando Mapelli; Marco Mauri; Davide Tarsitano

2009-01-01

124

Optimal power management of plug-in HEV with intelligent transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have demonstrated their capability of improving the fuel economy and emission. The plug-in HEV (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a more attractive upgrade of HEV. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2007-01-01

125

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric a...

S. Sluder R. Larsen M. Duoba

1996-01-01

126

Playing with Plug-ins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's complex music software packages, many features can remain unexplored and unused. Software plug-ins--available in most every music software package, yet easily overlooked in the software's basic operations--are one such feature. In this article, I introduce readers to plug-ins and offer tips for purchasing plug-ins I have…

Thompson, Douglas E.

2013-01-01

127

Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present status of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, none of the available energy sources can solely fulfill all the demands of EVs to enable them to compete with gasoline powered vehicles. In this paper, an energy management system, adopting the so-called hybridization of energy sources, is proposed to coordinate multiple energy sources for EVs. Hence, the unique advantages of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2001-01-01

128

Adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decentralized adaptive control system (ACS) for a four motor-generator four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is designed and its ability to deal with unknown tire dynamics, changing road surfaces, and vehicle loading is evaluated. A system composed of four separate adaptive controllers is designed to control the vehicle's speed, steering, side slip, and energy management system. A nonlinear simulation

Richard Saeks; Chadwick J. Cox; James C. Neidhoefer; Paul R. Mays; John J. Murray

2002-01-01

129

Motor controller design for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor and its control technology is one of main components of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). To meet the fast torque response demands of HEV, rotor flux-oriented based vector control algorithm with simulation model is concerned and modular design for hardware and software of controller is present in the paper. Series of anti-jamming and vibration isolation measurements are taken especially to

Yafu Zhou; Jing Lian; Dianting Cao; Wei Wang

2009-01-01

130

Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, c...

M. Duoba S. Quong N. LeBlanc R. P. Larsen

1995-01-01

131

AUTO-1440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College provides an introduction to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Material covered includes alternative fuels, HEV batteries and accessories, HEV maintenance and diagnostics, regenerative braking, and safety procedures. Included educational materials for this course are crosswords, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre/post assessments, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If youâre an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of ten modules that may be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. Module subjects are: Carbon Fuels and the Environment, Intro to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Systems, Gasoline and Alternative Fuels, HEV Batteries and Service, Electric Motors, Generators, and Controllers, Regenerative Braking, HEV Transmissions and Transaxles, HEV Climate Control, and HEV First Resonder and Safety Procedures

132

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and a...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

133

Intermolecular hybridization governs molecular electrical doping.  

PubMed

Current models for molecular electrical doping of organic semiconductors are found to be at odds with other well-established concepts in that field, like polaron formation. Addressing these inconsistencies for prototypical systems, we present experimental and theoretical evidence for intermolecular hybridization of organic semiconductor and dopant frontier molecular orbitals. Common doping-related observations are attributed to this phenomenon, and controlling the degree of hybridization emerges as a strategy for overcoming the present limitations in the yield of doping-induced charge carriers. PMID:22400758

Salzmann, Ingo; Heimel, Georg; Duhm, Steffen; Oehzelt, Martin; Pingel, Patrick; George, Benjamin M; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Vollmer, Antje; Koch, Norbert

2012-01-20

134

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

135

Development of design tool for hybrid power systems of hybrid electric military combat vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a developed hybrid power modeling and simulation tool for series hybrid electric military combat vehicles. A simulation tool for determining optimal hybrid power in hybrid components such as motor, engine, generator, and storages and for evaluating designed driving control strategy and energy management strategy is essential in designing a hybrid system. The developed tool is based on

Dong Hwan Choi; Seong Jun Lee; Bo-Hyung Cho; Yeo Giel Yoon

2010-01-01

136

Catalog of Components for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design and performance specifications are presented for electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, instrumentation, heat exchanger, space conditioning and control equipment which can be used in electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. The components listed in this c...

H. C. Eissler

1981-01-01

137

The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.  

PubMed

Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy. PMID:18605548

King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

2008-06-15

138

DTIC Review. Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. Volume 4, Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hybrid vehicles combine the best of gasoline, electricity and energy storage systems. Government and industry research and development programs are working on the multimillion dollar program to develop a fleet of experimental hybrid vehicles. The DARPA El...

C. C. Cupp P. Levine

1998-01-01

139

Advanced Subsystems for Practical Electric Vehicles. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystems Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Subsystem Technology Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with developing the advanced technology base, other than energy storage, necessary for practical electric and hybrid vehicles. The success o...

1979-01-01

140

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course was developed by Dr. Vladimir V. Vantsevich through seed funding from CAAT and is offered at Lawrence Technical Institute as a 3 credit senior level mechanical engineering course. Included in this course are PowerPoint presentations, labs, assignments (no solutions), and syllabus. If youâre an instructor and need access to solutions, please contact the CAAT. The course focuses on hybrid electric and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) mechatronics and components, power flow and management, power storage and design, engineering problems faced when engineering HEV drivetrain systems, and applications for commercial, industrial, and military use. The labs and workshops provide students with hands-on experience using 4x4 dynamometers, hydraulically-controlled systems, and simulation software. For a more comprehensive summary of the course, please refer to the syllabus.

University, Lawrence T.

141

A seasonal hybrid procedure for electricity demand forecasting in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity is a special energy which is hard to store, so the electricity demand forecasting in China remains an important problem. This paper aims at developing an improved hybrid model for electricity demand in China, which takes the advantages of moving average procedure, combined method, hybrid model and adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm, known as MA-C-WH. It is designed for

Suling Zhu; Jianzhou Wang; Weigang Zhao; Jujie Wang

2011-01-01

142

A series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for industrial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years there is a growing interest in electric and hybrid electric propulsions due to environmental concerns. In particular industrial vehicles are a promising field of application for their duty cycles characterized by low velocities, frequent start and stop jobs, long periods of idling and material-handling tool power peaks. In this paper a series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain for

Sergio Grammatico; A. Balluchi; E. Cosoli

2010-01-01

143

Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to the same route and the same driver. The observation study of the commuting monitor reveals the following technical findings. Motor re-generation energy gradually decreases from hot season to cold season. Mahalanobis distance analysis could be found out the cause of the electric energy decrease when air conditioner unloaded. The high level of the air conditioner load affects the vehicle input (throttle openings). Although the re-generation load changes along with the environment temperature, the motor-assisted input load tends to steady states. That means the engine is supplied almost steady power from the motor irrespective with environment temperature. Battery keeps control the temperatures refer to environment temperature level. The hybrid air conditioner system worked efficiently which revealed with the difference of load levels between a travel mode and an idling stop mode. There is no notable running difference between an idling mode and the idling stop mode both in summer and in winter.

Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

144

Electric power divider of hybrid car propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the power splitting synchronous permanent magnet generator used in hybrid electric cars. The synchronous permanent magnet generator is special electric double rotor generator which acts as power divider. This special electric machine concentrates planetary gear and electric generator, known from other solutions, into one special electric double rotor machine. The paper deals with this new machine

Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

2007-01-01

145

Optimal powertrain component sizing of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using multi-objective genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable efforts have been made recently to develop a completely zero-emission and highly fuel efficient vehicle. Due to clean and efficient power generation, the hydrogen fed fuel cell vehicle (FCVs) has received considerable attention. However, major obstacles such as cost of the hydrogen infrastructure, driving range, and cost of the fuel cell greatly influence FCV development. At the same time,

Manu Jain; Chirag Desai; Nawwaf Kharma; Sheldon S. Williamson

2009-01-01

146

Bidirectional power architectures for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although electric vehicles (EVs) and plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) yield significant gains in driving efficiency and CO2 reduction, the value of these systems are diminished by the cost of the battery subsystem. To offset the cost of electric vehicles, this paper presents two bi-directional charging architectures that use the batteries from electric vehicles for grid ancillary and facility

Christopher Hinkle; Alan Millner; William Ross

2011-01-01

147

AUTO-2440 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three credit course offered at Macomb Community College discusses the practical application of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power management systems. Areas of study include computer controls of the internal combustion engine (ICE), battery types, HEV thermal management, motors, safety, and HEV/EV accessories. System types, service procedures, and diagnostic procedures are covered for Ford, General Motors, Honda, and Lexus/Toyota vehicles. Included educational materials for this course are homework, sample exams and quizzes, labs, lesson plans, pre-assessment, and syllabus. Solutions are not provided with any materials. If youâre an instructor and would like complete exams, quizzes, or solutions, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of six modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or taught together as a complete course. These modules are Intro to HEVs,Honda HEVs, Toyota HEVs,Ford HEVs, GM HEVs, and Fuel Cells

148

Electrical machine topologies and technologies for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper overviews various electrical machine technologies, including brushless permanent magnet, induction, switched reluctance, and brushless reluctance machines, with particular emphasis on the concept of hybrid electrical machine topologies, and compares their relative merits, in terms of torque and power density, operating speed range, over load capability, and efficiency, for application in electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. electric vehicles.

Z. Q. Zhu; C. C. Chan

2008-01-01

149

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

150

Opportunity to Plug Your Car Into the Electric Grid is Arriving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are hitting the U.S. market for the first time this year. Similar to hybrid electric vehicles, they feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows consumers to replace a portion of their fossil fuel by simply plugging their cars into standard 110-volt outlets at home or wherever outlets are available. If these vehicles become widely

Griego

2010-01-01

151

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation. [Using HEAVY computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

Pasma

1982-01-01

152

Optimum Design of Series Hybrid Electric Buses by Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new software is introduced that is developed to give the most appropriate solution for the com- ponent selection and design of a hybrid electric bus. There are several simulation programs that can simulate behavior of a hybrid electric bus, but most of them are not able to suggest the best design and the best choice of

A. Hasanzadeh; B. Asaei; A. Emadi

2005-01-01

153

A permanent magnet hysteresis hybrid synchronous motor for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, analysis and PWM vector control of a hybrid permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous (PMHS) motor with a view to improve the performances of motors for electric vehicle applications. This hybrid design combines the advantageous performance features of both conventional hysteresis motors and permanent magnet motors. Electrical equivalent circuits of the PMHS motor are developed for both

M. Azizur Rahman; Ruifeng Qin

1997-01-01

154

Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing oil prices, there is fast growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) globally. Thus, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop emerging energy-efficient devices for various kinds of HEVs, including the micro hybrids, mild hybrids, and full hybrids. In this paper, three key emerging energy-efficient technologies are identified and discussed: 1) the thermoelectric waste-heat recovery and

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

2007-01-01

155

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric\\/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric

1982-01-01

156

Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge

Eckhard Karden; Serv ´ e Ploumen; Birger Fricke; Ted Miller; Kent Snyder

2007-01-01

157

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

158

FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The...

C. C. Crafts D. H. Doughty

2006-01-01

159

Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Nagi G.

1999-07-01

160

Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and performance specifications are presented for electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, instrumentation, heat exchanger, space conditioning and control equipment which can be used in electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. The components listed in this catalog are presented by individual product category. There are fifty product categories and each has it's individual code as part of the page number. These category codes are

Eissler

1981-01-01

161

Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

John G. Smart; Huang Iu

2009-05-01

162

ETT 4150 - Fundamentals of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains presentations from a three credit course offered at Wayne State University focused on the following hybrid electric and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) technologies: concepts and design, energy analysis, unified model approach, hybridization, hybrid powertrain architectures, internal combustion engines for HEVs, transmissions used in HEVs, and on-board energy storage. At WSU, ET 3450 (Applied Calculus and Differential Equations) and PHY 2140 (General Physics) are prerequisites to this course. The presentation titles are: 1. Introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV/PHEV), 2. Overview of Vehicle Road Load, 3. Hybrid Powertrain Configurations, 4. Vehicle Electrification, 5. Hybrid Powertrain Components, 6. Overview of Electrically Variable Transmissions (EVT), 7. Electric Machines, 8. Power Electronics Pt. 1, 9. Power Electronics Pt. 2, 10. On-Board Energy Storage, Battery Cell Management, State Estimation, Cell Balancing, and Charging Schemes, 11. Battery Management Systems (BMS), 12. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking, 13. Modeling and Simulation Software for Vehicle System and Driveline Analysis, and 14. HEV/PHEV/EV Future Trends.

163

Advanced Continuously Variable Transmissions for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT ...

S. H. Loewenthal

1980-01-01

164

Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

Gonder, J. D.

2008-01-01

165

Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component cost performance estimating relationships (CPER) developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Cost and Eco...

2003-01-01

166

2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including te...

J. Wishart M. Shirk T. Gray

2013-01-01

167

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

Burke, A.F.

1993-09-01

168

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

Burke, A. F.

1993-09-01

169

Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

2000-01-01

170

Power Management Decoupling Control for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of power flow in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is challenging because of the hybrid structure of the driveline and conflicting performance objectives: fuel consumption minimization, state of charge (SOC) regulation, and drivability. The flexibility and dynamic reconfigurability of modern HEV driveline architectures enable the design of power management control strategies that are able to better address these

Osvaldo Barbarisi; Eric R. Westervelt; Francesco Vasca; Giorgio Rizzoni

2005-01-01

171

A permanent magnet hysteresis hybrid motor drive for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, analysis and PWM vector control of a hybrid permanent magnet hysteresis synchronous motor with a view to improve the performances of the motors for electric vehicle application. This hybrid design combines the advantageous performance features of both the conventional hysteresis motors and the permanent magnet motors. A PWM vector control simulation and experimental results for

M. A. Rahman; Ruifeng Qin

1996-01-01

172

Retrofitting a used car with hybrid electric propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design concept of converting a conventional used car to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The existing propulsion system using an internal combustion engine(ICE) was replaced by an electric drive, which is supplied by batteries and an on-board generator. The propulsion system is configured as a series-hybrid concept. The input energy can come either from the on-board

Nisai H. Fuengwarodsakul

2009-01-01

173

Effects of drivetrain hybridization on fuel economy and dynamic performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles have proved to be the most practical solution in reaching very high fuel economy as well as very low emissions. However, there is no standard solution for the optimal size or ratio of the internal combustion engine and the electric system. The optimum choice includes complex tradeoffs between the heat engine and electric propulsion system on one

Srdjan M. Lukic; Ali Emadi

2004-01-01

174

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

175

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

176

2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

177

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

178

Development of a compressed natural gas electric hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A near term compressed natural gas (CNG) parallel electric hybrid vehicle has been developed which utilizes the Plymouth Neon as a base vehicle. The primary aim was to retain all the consumer desired features of the base vehicle as well as providing in addition short range electric capability

M. R. Seal

1995-01-01

179

Hardware development of Voltage Source Inverter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global desire to reduce the vehicle emissions and improve fuel economy accelerated the development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The technology advancements in the area of electric drive systems, battery technologies, fuel cells and the internal combustion engine (ICE) resulted in highly efficient HEV. In this paper the hardware details of three phase, 50Hz, 6KW, 180 0 conduction mode

S. Umamaheswari; P. R. Thakura; R. K. Keshri

2011-01-01

180

High Temperature Device Characterization for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature inverter involves thermal management, packaging, semiconductor device, switching circuit, and control circuitry. This paper is to focus on the drivetrain inverter design consideration for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Basic structure and switching characteristics of different insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs) will be discussed. The use of silicon carbide Schottky diode in parallel with silicon IGBT will also be evaluated and

Jih-Sheng Lai; Wensong Yu; Hao Qian; Pengwei Sun; Parish Ralston; Kathleen Meehan

2009-01-01

181

Novel fault tolerant power conversion system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the demand for fuel efficient electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) has been growing globally. Due to the increased number of switching devices in the electrified vehicles, the probability of the semiconductor device failure is much higher than in other application areas. A sudden failure in one of the power switches and insufficient power management ability in

T. Kim

2011-01-01

182

Hybrid permanent magnet generators for electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In transportation systems, the energy consumed by vehicles is considered a primary source of energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Some of the pollution problems have been resolved by the development of electric vehicles (EVs). There are some drawbacks related to EVs due mainly to limited driving range, excessive volume capacity of batteries, and long time battery charge. Therefore, hybrid electric

A. S. Al-Adsani; N. Schofield

2009-01-01

183

Redox flow batteries for hybrid electric vehicles: Progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles have been the focus of much research over the last two decades as the world has sought improved energy utilization and reduced emissions. However, the lengthy charging time, modest range and relatively sluggish performance of batteries have restricted the commercialization of electric vehicles. Hybrid propulsion can overcome most of these shortcomings, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions

Mohd R. Mohamed; Suleiman M. Sharkh; Frank C. Walsh

2009-01-01

184

The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where environment protection and energy conservation are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has taken on an accelerated pace. The dream of having commercially viable EVs and HEVs is becoming a reality. EVs and HEVs are gradually available in the market. This paper will provide an overview of the present

C. C. Chan

2002-01-01

185

Ultracapacitors as sole energy storage device in hybrid electric cars?  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of electric capacitors may provide, within several years, power capacitors which could be used as energy storage devices in serial hybrid electric car drives instead of a battery. This paper discusses how to determine the required size of such a capacitor used as the sole energy storage device. The performance requirements and parameters influencing the size of the

A. Farkas; R. Bonert

1994-01-01

186

Development of PMSM Drives for Hybrid Electric Car Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent synchronous electric machine (PMSM) drives for the FAW hybrid electric car is investigated in this paper. The power system configuration of the FAW is introduced. The influences of the stator winding turn and the permanent magnet width on the torque-speed characteristic are analyzed. The torque-speed characteristic that the specification required is obtained by proper choice of these two parameters.

Ying Dai; Liwei Song; Shumei Cui

2007-01-01

187

System design and development of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) are a promising means of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performance. Reducing emissions is important because pollution in cities is almost entirely due to transport and is linked to the illness and death of many people. This paper describes the

B. A. Kalan; H. C. Lovatt; M. Brothers; V. Buriak

2002-01-01

188

A simple power based control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high cost of fossil fuel and environmental concerns forced the automotive industry to seek innovative ways to improve gas mileage. The short term solution to these concerns is the concept of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) that combines the use of an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor (EM). The energy of the battery used by a HEV

A. Bedir; A. T. Alouani

2009-01-01

189

Optimal sizing and selection of hybrid electric vehicle components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper execution of a successful hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design for transportation applications requires optimal sizing of key mechanical, electrical, and power electronic components. An active program for HEV development is described. The basic objective of an HEV design is to match the performance of a standard automobile while drastically reducing emissions. Constraints imposed while optimizing critical component selection are:

Robert A. Weinstock; Philip T. Krein; Robert A. White

1993-01-01

190

Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge  

SciTech Connect

From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

1995-06-01

191

Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2011-01-01

192

Determining marginal electricity for near-term plug-in and fuel cell vehicle demands in California: Impacts on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

California has taken steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. One example is the recent adoption of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which aims to reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuels. To effectively implement this and similar policies, it is necessary to understand well-to-wheels emissions associated with distinct vehicle and fuel platforms, including those using electricity.

Ryan McCarthy; Christopher Yang

2010-01-01

193

Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

2012-11-01

194

Hybrid-Electric Transit Buses: NYCT (New York City Transit) Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses: Final Results (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Final results of the New York City Transit Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Study. Hybrid buses had lower emissions, higher fuel economy, and higher operating costs compared with diesel buses. New York City Transit (NYCT), part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York, began operating the first of 10 heavy-duty diesel hybrid-electric transit bus prototypes (Model VI) from Orion Bus Industries in 1998. All 10 buses were in revenue service by mid-2000. The hybrid buses are intended to provide NYCT with increased fuel economy and lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions, compared with NYCT's diesel transit buses. Between 1999 and 2001 (over various predefined fuel and maintenance evaluation periods), these first 10 hybrid buses were part of a data collection and analysis project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The operating costs, efficiency, emissions, and overall performance of these low-floor hybrid buses were compared against those of 14 conventional high-floor diesel transit buses (7 each from NovaBUS Corporation and Orion) operated by NYCT in similar service. Results indicate that the hybrid buses operate with greater fuel efficiency and much lower emissions, compared with the diesel buses. Maintenance costs for the prototype hybrid buses were significantly higher than those of the diesel buses during this evaluation. However, these costs are expected to decline for the next-generation Orion VII buses, currently being procured by NYCT, as repair technicians become more familiar with the advanced hybrid propulsion systems.

Not Available

2002-07-01

195

Unified modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridizing automotive drivetrains, or using more than one type of energy converter, is considered an important step toward very low pollutant emission and high fuel economy. The automotive industry and governments in the United States, Europe, and Japan have formed strategic initiatives with the aim of cooperating in the development of new vehicle technologies. Efforts to meet fuel economy and

Giorgio Rizzoni; Lino Guzzella; Bernd M. Baumann

1999-01-01

196

Hybrid car with electric and heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set of rear wheels. There is also a system for selecting electric or heat engine drive either manually or automatically and a

G. M. Fields; R. G. Metzner

1982-01-01

197

Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

2007-09-18

198

Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model-based strategy for the real-time load control of parallel hybrid vehicles is presented. The aim is to develop a fuel-optimal control which is not relying on the a priori knowledge of the future driving conditions (global optimal control), but only upon the current system operation. The methodology developed is valid for those problem that are characterized

Antonio Sciarretta; Michael Back; Lino Guzzella

2004-01-01

199

A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to

Constantine Samaras

2008-01-01

200

Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy

F. A. Wyczalek

1999-01-01

201

Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery-powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle

Floyd A. Wyczalek

1996-01-01

202

Hybrid electric vehicles (EVS-13 Osaka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995,

Floyd A. Wyczalek

1996-01-01

203

Power management of passive multi-source hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-source hybrid electric vehicle which contains a gasoline-generator set (genset), a lead acid battery pack and an ultracapacitor is designed and implemented based on a commercial all terrain utility type of electric vehicle. In order to study the natural power flow on the 48V DC Bus, DC-DC converters are omitted between lead acid battery and the DC Bus as

Zhiguang Zhou; Chris Mi; Zheng Chen; Abul Masrur; Yi Lu Murphey

2011-01-01

204

Design and Implementation of a New Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Hybrid Energy System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to newly develop the multiple-input single-ended primary inductor converter to simultaneously regulate the thermoelectric and photovoltaic generators in such a way that the total output power can be maximized. Both design and implementation of the proposed system are discussed. Experimental results are

Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau

2011-01-01

205

Toyota Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Technical System Overview and Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains two short courses created by Toyota Motors for training technicians on the operation and diagnosis of their HEVs. Of the two included courses, one is focused on the overview of HEV systems and the second is on HEV diagnosis. Each course is composed of individual modules that can also be taught separately with each containing lab activities and additional supplemental materials that can be used for presentations or student handouts. The first course is titled âHEV Overviewâ and includes the following modules: (1) Hybrid System Overview, (2) Hybrid System Operation, (3) High-Voltage Battery, (4) Engine, (5) Chassis, and (6) Body Electrical. The course is titled âHEV Diagnosisâ and includes the following modules: (1) Principals of Operations, (2)Engine Control System, (3) Fuel and EVAP System, (4) Hybrid Vehicle Control System, (5) High-Voltage Battery Control System, (6) Brake System, (7) Electric Power System, and (8) Other Systems.

Autoshop 101

206

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Environmental Control Subsystem Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the n...

K. L. Heitner

1980-01-01

207

Framework of CANopen Protocol for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the profile framework of CANopen protocol for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Based on the analysis of the CANopen protocol and the HEV system structure, a preliminary version of CANopen profiles for the HEV is firstly drafted out. Then the object dictionary for each HEV module and communication mechanism of the vehicle network is described in detail.

Jianmin Duan; Jinjun Xiao; Mingjie Zhang

2007-01-01

208

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,0...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

209

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,0...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

210

Modeling of an electrical power transmission system using hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we proceed to the modeling of an electric power transmission system, using hybrid input\\/output automata (HIOA), based on a framework presented in our previous work. The system is assumed to consist of several distinct components. Some of them such as loads drive the continuous dynamics while others such as protection devices exhibit event-driven discrete dynamics. Such behavior

George K. Fourlas

2005-01-01

211

Reliability Prediction for Inverters in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing importance of power electronic components in automobiles, it becomes necessary to consider their reliability. This applies especially to hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) where a malfunction of the power electronics may prevent the vehicle to operate. Of paramount importance for the reliability of power electronics is the component operating temperature and temperature cycling. This paper deals with

Dirk Hirschmann; Dietmar Tissen; Stefan Schroder; Rik W. De Doncker

2007-01-01

212

Advanced lead acid battery designs for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a high power, lead acid battery design that has demonstrated long life. The design uses horizontal plates with multiple lug connectors to deliver high power for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The horizontal plate configuration helps improve life by allowing for better thermal management and mechanical compression. They use computer models that were previously developed

Dean B. Edwards; Charles Kinney

2001-01-01

213

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and\\/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100

A. F. Burke

1993-01-01

214

Power electronics system integration for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview of the basic requirements, concepts, and trends regarding a system integration of power electronics in hybrid (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). A site-of-action system integration of the various power electronics subsystems minimizes costs and construction space requirements. New technologies that foster a system integration of power electronics and a merging with the mechanical environment are

Martin März; Andreas Schletz; Bernd Eckardt; Sven Egelkraut; Hubert Rauh

2010-01-01

215

Optimized energy management for fuelcell-supercap hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining a fuel cell (FC) as primary power source with a supercap (SC) as a buffer for high power demands is a promising approach for future hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The objective of an energy management is to minimize the hydrogen consumption and to assure power availability at any time. A simulation environment incorporating models of the FC and SC

Julia Schiffer; Oliver Bohlen; Rik W. De Doncker; Dirk Uwe Sauer; Kyun Young Ahn

2005-01-01

216

Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2002-01-01

217

Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE\\/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the

Robert F Nelson

2000-01-01

218

United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

Not Available

2010-02-01

219

Load Leveling Device Selection for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animportant component inmany hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) concepts is the load leveling device (LLD). Thebest type of LLD forHEVs isunder debate. This paper identifies the important concept selection criteria for the three leading types of LLDs being considered for useinHEVs. The performance of electrochemical batteries, ultracapacitors, andflywheels is compared using thesecriteria. The conceptselection methodology indicates that at the present time

Paul B. Koeneman; Daniel A. McAdams

220

First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by the CAAT.

221

Parallel hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model and powertrain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

1997-01-01

222

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VIII. Scenario Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scenarios are described which have been generated in support of the Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task under the JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Systems Research and Development Project. The primary function of the scenario generation is to develop ...

K. O. Leschly

1979-01-01

223

Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving policy targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation will likely require significant adoption of battery-electric, plug-in hybrid, or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. These vehicles use electricity either directly as fuel, or indirectly for hydrogen production or storage. As they gain share, currently disparate electricity and transportation fuels supply systems will begin to “converge.†Several studies consider impacts

Ryan W. McCarthy

2009-01-01

224

Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1980-01-01

225

Optimization of Hybrid Electric Cars by Neuro-Fuzzy Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of the optimization of energetic\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009flows in hybrid electric vehicles is faced. We consider a hybrid electric \\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009vehicle\\u0009equipped with batteries, a thermal engine (or fuel cells), ultracapacitors\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009and an electric engine. The energetic flows are optimized by using a\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009control strategy based on the prediction of short-term and medium-term\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009vehicle states (energy consumption, vehicle

Fabio Massimo Frattale Mascioli; Antonello Rizzi; Massimo Panella; Claudia Bettiol

2007-01-01

226

Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

Huang Iu; John Smart

2009-04-01

227

Techniques to control the electricity generation in a series hybrid electrical vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV), an electric generator feeds a DC busbar (containing an electrochemical accumulator), which, in turns, feeds the vehicle traction system. A very important part of the vehicle is its control system, which has to maximize the vehicle efficiency while keeping the emissions within predetermined limits. To attain this goal, it can act in two

Stefano Barsali; Massimo Ceraolo; Andrea Possenti

2002-01-01

228

Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected

McKeever

2005-01-01

229

Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle\\/hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be “scaled-up safely”, i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes

Said Al-Hallaj; J. R Selman

2002-01-01

230

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable

D. J. Adams; J. S. Hsu; R. W. Young; F. Z. Peng

1997-01-01

231

Comprehensive Efficiency Modeling of Electric Traction Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research done in the recent past has proven that power electronic converters and electric propulsion motors are extremely critical components for modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion applications. Therefore, it is essential that both the traction motor and the associated drive operate at their optimal efficiencies throughout the driving schedule. In typical HEV propulsion applications, the traction motor and

Sheldon S. Williamson; Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara

2007-01-01

232

Synthetic Fuels for Transportation. Background Paper Number 1: The Future Potential of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It discusses the technology, performance, and limitations of probable future electric and hybrid vehicles; the infrastruc...

L. M. Morecraft W. F. Hamilton W. M. Carriere

1982-01-01

233

2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusi...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

234

2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusi...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

235

Overview of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing concerns on our environment, there is a fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs) from automakers, governments, and customers. As electric drives are the core of both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric-drive systems. In this paper, an overview of permanent-magnet (PM) brushless (BL) drives for

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan; Chunhua Liu

2008-01-01

236

Investigating electrical contact resistance losses in lithium-ion battery assemblies for hybrid and electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are favored in hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles for their outstanding power characteristics. In this paper the energy loss due to electrical contact resistance (ECR) at the interface of electrodes and current-collector bars in Li-ion battery assemblies is investigated for the first time. ECR is a direct result of contact surface imperfections, i.e., roughness and out-of-flatness, and

Peyman Taheri; Scott Hsieh; Majid Bahrami

2011-01-01

237

Can EV (electric vehicles) address Ireland’s CO 2 emissions from transport?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the period 1990–2007, CO2 emissions from Ireland’s Transport sector increased by 181%. It has been proposed that a transition to EV (electrically-powered vehicles) – either BEV (battery-powered) or PHEV (plug-in hybrids) – offers the potential for significant reductions in these emissions. However, the benefits of PHEV – and of plug-in vehicles generally – accrue because some fraction of the

William J. Smith

2010-01-01

238

A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1978-01-01

239

Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

Kurtz, D. W.

1980-01-01

240

Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

2008-12-01

241

2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

2013-07-01

242

State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

1978-01-01

243

Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Multilevel Cascaded Converter using Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel converters as a novel kind of converters used in high voltage and high power application field, can generate near sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; and have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage. This paper presents 11-level cascaded converter as an application for high-power and\\/or high-voltage hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The cascade inverter is a natural fit

P. G. Song; E. Y. Guan; L. Zhao; S. P. Liu

2006-01-01

244

Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

Eissler, H. C.

1981-01-01

245

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of

Robert H Staunton; Curtis William Ayers; J. N. Chiasson; Timothy A Burress; Laura D Marlino

2006-01-01

246

DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DSP based ultracapacitor system for hybrid-electric vehicles has been implemented and tested successfully. The system can work with different primary power sources like fuel-cells, microturbines, zinc-air batteries or other supply unable to recover energy from regenerative braking, or with scarce power capacity for fast acceleration. The ratings of the ultracapacitor bank are: nominal voltage: 300 Vdc; nominal current: 200

Juan W. Dixon; Micah Ortúzar; Jorge Moreno

247

Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

1999-03-01

248

Performance analysis of a PMSM drive for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of two different control strategies applied to a bidirectional dc-dc boost converter in a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive for hybrid electric vehicles. A constant rated voltage-fed inverter and a variable voltage control strategy that takes into account the motor mechanical speed to adjust the dc-dc converter output voltage are considered. Moreover, single IGBT open-circuit

Jorge O. Estima; A. J. Marques Cardoso

2010-01-01

249

Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy

R. H. Staunton; T. A. Burress; L. D. Marlino

2006-01-01

250

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

1992-01-01

251

NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Program Status Update  

SciTech Connect

Program status update focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet. This report is part of an ongoing Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies program to study heavy-duty alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting the Transit Bus Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel or advanced technology and diesel fuel buses. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel or advanced technology buses currently being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel buses serving as controls within the same fleet. This report highlights the New York City Transit (NYCT) alternative fuel and advanced technology programs including its diesel hybrid-electric buses. As part of the NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project, data collection and evaluation of the Orion VI diesel hybrid-electric buses at NYCT are nearly complete. Final reports from the evaluation are being prepared by NREL and Battelle (NREL's support contractor for the project) and will be available in early 2002. If you want to know more about this transit bus program, its components, advanced technology vehicles, or incentive programs, contact any of the following personnel or visit the Web sites listed.

Not Available

2002-03-01

252

Novel multi-mode single leg converter for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly growing demand for electric power systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) requires simpler, cost-effective, and higher performance components. In this paper, a novel power conversion system for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed for these needs. The proposed power conversion system reduces the cost while preserving the same functionality. The proposed power conversion system can

Taehyung Kim

2011-01-01

253

Electric-car range extension through hybrid modification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A gasohol powered generator set has been installed on a 1210 pound electrically powered Citicar. A power supply has been designed to convert the alternating current of the generator to run the car at a level of 36 vdc maximum. This is less than the 48 vdc used by the Citicar battery pack but which greatly exceeds the ratings on the 3.5 hp General Electric motor. Tests were done to see the minimum stepping voltage to give smooth acceleration and this was found to be 18 vdc. Tests with the generator-power supply set showed a level path consumption of 35 to 40 mpg. Switching between the generator and battery supplies is accomplished manually. The conclusion is that hybridization can be accomplished fairly reasonably but much needs to be done on the development of the electric car itself and particularly battery systems.

Not Available

1982-06-30

254

Hybrid electric cars, combustion engine driven cars and their impact on environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper stresses the negative influence of cars on the environment. Hybrid cars technology can diminish the fuel consumption and green house gases production. Different types of electric hybrid powertrains are described Special attention is paid to electric power splitting. Comparison of fuel consumption and CO2 production of one hybrid car and one classic car on European driving cycle is published.

Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

2008-01-01

255

Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.  

SciTech Connect

The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

2011-02-16

256

Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

2001-03-06

257

Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W. [Vehicle Research Institute, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225 (United States)

1999-03-01

258

Electric and hybrid vehicle system R/D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work being done to characterize the level of current propulsion technology through component testing is described. Important interactions between the battery and the propulsion system will be discussed. Component development work, involving traction motors, motor controllers and transmissions are described and current results are presented. Studies of advanced electric and hybrid propulsion system studies are summarized and the status of propulsion system development work supported by the project is described. A strategy for fostering joint industry/government projects for commercialization of propulsion components and systems is described briefly.

Schwartz, H. J.

1980-01-01

259

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

260

Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

1981-01-01

261

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

Heitner, K. L.

1980-01-01

262

Modeling Mechanical Subsystems of the Hybrid Electric Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is part of the course âIntro to Mechatronicsâ at Lawrence Technological University and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. In the lab students are introduced to the use of planetary gearsets and their application to hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmissions. Students are first familiarized with the planetary gearset equation and then use MAT Lab software to visualize the relationship between input data and the resulting output torque and speed through the gear set. All MAT Lab files are included.

University, Lawrence T.

263

Quantitative Analysis of a Hybrid Electric HMMWV for Fuel Economy Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a quantitative analysis and comparison of fuel economy and performance of a series hybrid electric HMMWV (High Mobility Multi- purpose Wheeled Vehicle) military vehicle with a conventional HMMWV of equivalent size. Hybrid vehicle power...

A. Masrur A. Nedungadi R. Smith

2012-01-01

264

2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

265

A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

Schwartz, H. J.

1983-01-01

266

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01

267

Fuzzy Nonlinear Programming Based Life Cycle Cost Optimization for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicle technologies are extensively attracted to researchers for the environmental consciousness of related fields in recent years. HEV gain the benefit of both gasoline engines and electric motors. They are developed and configured to achieve various objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, and lowered emission. Design of the hybrid electric vehicle systems involves the selection of

Chang-Pin Lin; I-Hsiang Chan

2012-01-01

268

Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle using Modelica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the modelling of a hybrid electric vehicle using the object-oriented modelling language Modelicar will be presented. The main focus shall be the real-time simulation in connection with a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) test-bench system. The paper presents the main components of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using the Micro Hybrid architecture. Micro Hybrids allow the use of Start\\/Stop operation

Dietmar Winkler; Clemens Gühmann

269

Electric vehicle requirements for operation in smart grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid

Francesco Marra; Dario Sacchetti; Chresten Traeholt; Esben Larsen

2011-01-01

270

Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

1999-09-28

271

A multiphase dual-inverter supplied drive structure for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-end winding variable speed drives with dual-inverter supply have been extensively investigated for various applications, including series hybrid powertrains and propulsion motors. The existing body of work is restricted to the three-phase electric machinery. This paper looks at the possibility of using machines with higher phase numbers in an open-end winding configuration with dual multiphase inverter supply for these applications.

Emil Levi; Martin Jones; Wahyu Satiawan

2010-01-01

272

A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

Sun, Hongqiao

273

An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies with Auto Electrical Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, labs, and syllabus designed to enhance automotive electrical courses with HEV technologies and was developed through seed funding from the CAAT. The PowerPoint provides a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. Itâs 190 slides and has two areas of focus: basic theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), electrical differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEVs (Ex: voltage, starter, and air conditioning), transaxle integration, power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, and multimeter use).Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs' electrical systems and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing. The labs supplementing the presentation cover HEV battery information, safety, system overview, insulation testing, and jump starting. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where HEV technologies were incorporated into an automotive electrical course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

274

Light Fuel-Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Predictive Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a predictive control-based fuel- cell hybrid electric vehicle system. Employing hybrid power sources, an ultracapacitor (UC), and a battery, the hybrid system maximizes the energy efficiency and protects the battery while achieving faster torque response based on predictive controllers residing in the boost converter, UC manager, and motor drive. The predictive controller implemented in the brushless dc

Woonki Na; Taehyung Kim; Sangshin Kwak

2011-01-01

275

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

276

High Power Density Design of 6Slot–8Pole Hybrid Excitation Flux Switching Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, many automotive companies have been commercializing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as one of candidates for sustainable human life. Some of the recent HEVs employ electric propulsion systems using a combination of reduction gear and interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) operated by relatively high-speed more than 12 000 r\\/min, resulting in achieving high torque and power

E. Sulaiman; T. Kosaka; N. Matsui

2011-01-01

277

A high power spiral wound lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optima Batteries, Inc. is developing a high power (660 W\\/kg) spiral wound lead-acid 6 V battery with a nominal capacity of 15 Ah. Its exceptional power and excellent thermal characteristics make it a promising choice for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The hybrid electric vehicle presents a new and unique challenge for energy storage systems. The batteries require high power for

John B. Olson; Elizabeth D. Sexton

1997-01-01

278

Environmental control subsystems for electric and hybrid vehicles. A study evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of parallel contracts awarded by the US Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program to TRW and MTI are summarized. Both contractors conducted studies to compare all known heating and cooling mechanisms and methods for the purpose of determining those best suited for the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), a nonpropulsion technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. Rationale is

Zeldin

1982-01-01

279

Evaluation of the benefits of using dual-source energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are often used as energy storage in hybrid and electric vehicles. Despite of the development, technical characteristics of batteries are the most limiting factor for further increasing the energy conversion efficiency and pure electric operation of these vehicles. In this research, dual-source energy storage system, a battery pack and ultracapacitors, has been studied by simulation of hybrid city bus

Antti Lajunen

2010-01-01

280

A new energy control strategy for a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and simulation of a Through The Road (TTR) Parallel Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) with continuous variable transmission (CVT) is described in this paper. The model of a Parallel Hybrid Electric powertrain in ADVISOR is modified for simulation of it. To achieve a better fuel economy and less emission, the internal combustion engine (ICE) should operate at high efficiency regions.

Behzad Asaei; Mahdi Habibidoost

2010-01-01

281

Hybrid electric vehicle with permanent magnet traction motor: a simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model for a hybrid electric vehicle is developed. A permanent magnet synchronous motor is considered for the drive part of the hybrid electric vehicle which comprises three energy sources: (i) a fuel cell, (ii) a battery bank, and (iii) a supercapacitor. A rotor-oriented speed controller is designed, and also verified by simulation results, to achieve trajectory tracking requirements

Levent U. Giikdere; Khalid Benlyazid; Enrico Santi; Charles W. Brice; Roger A. Dougal

1999-01-01

282

General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formulation of the instantaneous power split strategy between an IC engine and an electric machine in a charge-sustaining hybrid-electric vehicle is given. It is based on the instantaneous optimization of an equivalent fuel consumption. This approach involves a heuristic formulation to convert the electrical power flow into equivalent fuel cost based on the average “cost” of electricity through

Gino Paganelli; Gabriele Ercole; Avra Brahma; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni

2001-01-01

283

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01

284

Rapid determination of single base mismatch mutations in DNA hybrids by direct electric field control  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated that controlled electric fields can be used to regulate transport, concentration, hybridization, and denaturation of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides. Discrimination among oligonucleotide hybrids with widely varying binding strengths may be attained by simple adjustment of the electric field strength. When this approach is used, electric field denaturation control allows single base pair mismatch discrimination to be carried out rapidly (<15 sec) and with high resolution. Electric field denaturation takes place at temperatures well below the melting point of the hybrids, and it may constitute a novel mechanism of DNA denaturation.

Sosnowski, Ronald G.; Tu, Eugene; Butler, William F.; O'Connell, James P.; Heller, Michael J.

1997-01-01

285

Intramedullary plugs in cemented hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The use of intramedullary plugs in cemented total joint arthroplasty is currently considered standard practice by most surgeons. In this in vitro study, the authors evaluated the holding power, migration, and leakage of four commonly used plug types--bone, acrylic bone cement, and two polymeric plugs from different manufacturers. Only acrylic bone cement plugs prevented distal leakage of cement and did not migrate under the influences of pressurized cement injection. PMID:2746246

Beim, G M; Lavernia, C; Convery, F R

1989-01-01

286

Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different modes of engine operation experimentally. The two modes were direct injection compression ignition (DICI) and "pseudo" homogeneously charged compression ignition (PHCCI). Simulation was performed to include HCCI operation in the study. The study showed that the HCCI operation resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure than that of DICI operation. A combined genetic algorithm-artificial neural network predictor model was used along with the simulation model to find the combination of engine parameters that yielded the highest engine efficiency. The predictor-simulator model suggested the most efficient combination of engine parameters.

Toth-Nagy, Csaba

287

Comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems. [Hybrid system for producing electric power and thermal power for heating or air conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various silicon hybrid systems are modeled and compared with a gallium arsenide hybrid system. The hybrid systems modeled produce electric power and also thermal power which can be used for heating or air conditioning. Various performance indices are defined and are used to compare the system performance. The performance indices are: capital cost per unit electric power out; capital cost

J. H. Heinbockel; A. S. Jr. Roberts

1977-01-01

288

Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

Moore, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

289

Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics.

Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

290

Simulation of Battery SOC State of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report evaluates a position of SOC (State of Charge) along with a down hill drive on a real world to its simulation on an emission chassis dynamometer with a gradient road load. On a down hill drive, a vehicle kinetic energy regenerates the battery continuously and an amount of charge volume which shifts the battery SOC up. Excessive charge is a negative factor for the battery life which is designed both a long term of life and a long distance of drive. This regenerating driving mode could not be evaluated on a flat road. A gradient drive way or a gradient simulation system forced energy into a vehicle could evaluate the mode. To evaluate, on the one hand some necessary investigation is carried out to a realization of a down hill drive simulation on an emission chassis dynamometer and problems hitting upon the investigation has been clarified. On the other hand the real world data driving down hill is measured by HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle). The real world data collected by GPS (Global Positioning System) has fluctuated widely. This report proposes a method of spline interpolation to the data for a chassis simulation test and reviews the results of the test to the real world mode and evaluates the studies. And here we also report an applied chassis simulation for the study of this method.

Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

291

Manganese-based lithium batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A manganese-based lithium ion battery was developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The cell consists of an improved manganese spinel as the positive electrode and hard carbon for the negative electrode. The Mn-based Li ion cell for HEVs was developed by adding a high power density modification to a pure-EV (EV) cell of high energy density specification. It has a power density as high as 2000 W/kg at 50% depth of discharge (DOD) and 25 °C. Storage tests at various temperatures suggest a practical calendar life of more than 5 years. The 48-cell battery module was developed for use in an HEV. It also proved to have an excellent output power density of 1350 W/kg at 50% DOD. Based on the excellent characteristics of the lithium ion battery, it seems very promising to apply this battery not only to EV, HEV and other motor-assisting drive systems but also to other high power applications.

Horiba, T.; Hironaka, K.; Matsumura, T.; Kai, T.; Koseki, M.; Muranaka, Y.

292

An Overview of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a lab, PowerPoint presentation, and modified syllabus which all relate to Toyota's continuously variable HEV transmission. All materials were developed under a seed grant from the CAAT. The PowerPoint discusses the following: the use of a dry dampener in place of a torque converter,the various roles and controls of each motor in the transmission, structure and efficiency of motor magnets by angle orientation, speed sensor operation through magnets and coils, and power flow through the internal combustion engine, electric motors, batteries, transmission, and invertor under various driving conditions.The lab is intended to familiarize technicians with common service point locations and procedures on a Prius Hybrid (2003-2011) such as coolant bleed and fill (engine and inverter), transmission fluid drain and fill, high voltage wiring, auxiliary battery and precautions, and activating Inspection Mode. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where the HEV transmission was incorporated into an automotive transmissions and transaxles course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

293

Dual-function wheel drives using rotary-linear actuators in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric and hybrid vehicles represent the future of ground transportation. In such vehicles, electric motor\\/s provide the propulsion thrust - eventually aiding the engine in case of parallel and mixed power trains. On the other hand, x-by-wire technologies are spreading, typically using electric drives to also perform actions such as steering, braking, active suspension etc. Any active wheel may then

P. Bolognesi; O. Bruno; L. Taponecco

2009-01-01

294

A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. The parallel HEV control problem involves the determination of the time profiles of the power flows from the engine and the electric motor. This is also referred to as the power split between the conventional and the electric sources. The objective of HEV

Pierluigi Pisu; Giorgio Rizzoni

2007-01-01

295

A control strategy to minimize fuel consumption of series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the problem of controlling the electricity generation of series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs) and proposes an algorithm with the goal to minimize fuel consumption. Starting from the knowledge of the vehicle electric generator consumption maps, as well as information on the vehicle battery behavior, and on some overall parameters characterizing the expected trip, the

Stefano Barsali; Carmine Miulli; Andrea Possenti

2004-01-01

296

Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motor and drives applied on a mid-size hybrid electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric machine and drives are key parts of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) power train. Demands for electric machines and drives are different. In general, such characteristics as large torque, high rotation speed, high power density, quick response, good reliability and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are demanded of. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and drive are developed and applied on a mid-size

Qianfan Zhang; Xiaofei Liu

2008-01-01

297

Optimal Power and Torque Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor\\/Generator Drive in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the advanced control methods to minimize torque ripple and to maximize power density of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor\\/generator system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are presented. A simple and straightforward torque ripple control method with copper loss minimization for BLDC machines is proposed first. Then, an optimal power control to maximize power

Taehyung Kim; Hyung-Woo Lee; Leila Parsa; Mehrdad Ehsani

2006-01-01

298

Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu

2012-06-01

299

Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ahlheim, M.C. [Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-08-01

300

Environmental Control Subsystems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. A Study Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of parallel contracts awarded by the US Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program to TRW and MTI are summarized. Both contractors conducted studies to compare all known heating and cooling mechanisms and methods for the purpose of...

B. Zeldin

1982-01-01

301

Mechanical Energy Storage Technology Development for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy authorized the E and HV-MEST Project in September, 1977, to provide a focus for its efforts to develop mechanical energy storage technology for application to electric and hybrid vehicles. Technical management responsibility for t...

T. M. Barlow

1978-01-01

302

Reducing Stiffness and Electrical Losses of High Channel Hybrid Nerve Cuff Electrodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For restoration of grasp in disabled people by means of functional electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, 18 polar Hybrid Cuff Electrodes were developed. These electrodes consisted of a micromachined polyimide-based thin-film structure with integrat...

M. Schuettler T. Stieglitz M. Gross D. Altpeter A. Staiger

2001-01-01

303

Are Newspapers Steering Potential Hybrid Drivers Off Course? An Analysis of U.S. Newspaper Coverage of Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines newspaper coverage of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) by reviewing a random sample of 153 articles about these vehicles published in the U.S.A. between November 2002 and 2003. Articles were more likely to mention environmental attributes of HEVs (47%) than other attributes important to potential consumers such as reliability (0%), performance (8%), and safety (3%). Promoting the latter

Todd Pollak; Michaela Zint

2006-01-01

304

Particle Swarm Optimization for optimal powertrain component sizing and design of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimal design to minimize the cost, mass and volume of the fuel cell (FC) and supercapacitor (SC) in a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle is presented. Because of the hybrid powertrain, component sizing significantly affects vehicle performance, cost and fuel economy. Hence, during sizing, various design and control constraints should also be satisfied simultaneously. In this

Omar Hegazy; Joeri Van Mierlo

2010-01-01

305

Investigation of the Energy Regeneration of Active Suspension System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the idea of the energy regeneration of active suspension (AS) system in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For this purpose, extensive simulation and control methods are utilized to develop a simultaneous simulation in which both HEV powertrain and AS systems are simulated in a unified medium. In addition, a hybrid energy storage system (ESS) comprising electrochemical batteries and

Morteza Montazeri-Gh; Mehdi Soleymani

2010-01-01

306

Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration

Vanessa Paladini; Teresa Donateo; Arturo de Risi; Domenico Laforgia

2007-01-01

307

Simulation-based analysis of short circuit fault in parallel-series type hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many papers that propose diagnosis and fault detection in hybrid electric vehicles. However just a few of them con-cern in short circuit fault. In HEVs battery is one of the most crucial pars and can failure because of the short circuit due to several causes. In this paper, Matlab\\/Simulink Environment based hybrid powertrain system modeling and simulation for

Ibrahim Sefik; Dimas Anton Asfani; Takashi Hiyama

2011-01-01

308

Evaluation of Motor and Battery Requirements for Hybrid-Electric Powertrains during Cranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are an emerg- ing technology for improving fuel economy and emissions. However, hybrid powertrains are expen- sive to manufacture because of the sophisticated electronics required. In particular, the motor and battery requirements must be carefully considered because of the cost and weight of these components. For this reason, it is important to conduct an up- front

Michael M. Tiller

2005-01-01

309

The solution of hybrid electric vehicle information system by modbus protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the hybrid electric vehicle information system, which is realized by modbus protocol. Using a remote terminal control unit (RTU) with EVEW touch-screen, the system achieves the communication between electronic control units (ECU) and the RTU by means of the modbus protocol at the baud rate 38400kb\\/s, and it finishes the task of human-machine exchange. Hybrid electric vehicle

Song Xuehua; Lu Min; Wu Hesheng; Wang Hong; Liu Fei

2011-01-01

310

MODELING OF AN UNMANNED SIX-WHEELED SKID-STEERED HYBRID-ELECTRIC MILITARY VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army TACOM-TARDEC sponsored development of a high-fidelity six-degree-of-freedom vehicle model to simulate and evaluate the performance of unmanned hybrid-electric military vehicles designed for autonomous operations. The vehicle model is a six-wheeled, skid-steered vehicle with a series hybrid-electric power system with in-hub drive motors linked to a diesel engine, Lithium Ion battery, and generator via extensive power and energy

David Milner; Jarrett Goodell; Mike Pozolo; Jason Ueda; Nancy Saxon

311

Design of Electrical\\/Mechanical Hybrid 4Redundancy Brushless DC Torque Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a novel electrical\\/mechanical hybrid 4-redundancy brushless DC torque motor (BLDCM), which has found applications in direct drive actuators (DDA) of aerial vehicles. This motor is characteristic of electrical\\/mechanical hybrid 4-redundancy by securing two stators along with two rotors on the same shaft. Each stator contains two sets of windings embedded in separated slots. Furthermore, compared to the

Guo Hong; Wang Wei; Xing Wei; Li Yanming

2010-01-01

312

Design and research on electrical\\/mechanical hybrid four-redundancy Brushless DC Motor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redundancy structure is widely adopted by motors in aircrafts and special vehicles with rigorous reliability requirements. This paper presents an electrical\\/mechanical hybrid four-redundancy brushless DC motor (BLDCM) and the corresponding driving control system. High reliability can be achieved by adopting the electrical\\/mechanical hybrid structure. An engineering prototype is designed and developed whereas the reliability of the BLDCM is analyzed theoretically.

Hong Guo; Wei Wang; Wei Xing; Yanming Li

2008-01-01

313

Neural-based electricity load forecasting using hybrid of GA and ACO for feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to deregulation of electricity industry, accurate load forecasting and predicting the future electricity demand play an\\u000a important role in the regional and national power system strategy management. Electricity load forecasting is a challenging\\u000a task because electric load has complex and nonlinear relationships with several factors. In this paper, two hybrid models\\u000a are developed for short-term load forecasting (STLF). These

Mansour Sheikhan; Najmeh Mohammadi

314

2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

315

2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

316

Electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons based on hybrid Au-GaAs QW structures.  

PubMed

In this paper, the electrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based on a hybrid metal-semiconductor quantum well (QW) structure is investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and experiments. The metal-QW hybrid structure is made of a metal grating structure deposited on a semiconductor QW with small separation between them. When electron-hole pairs are excited using current injection into the QW, SPPs are generated and coupled out by a metal grating. The spectral and imaging measurements were performed to confirm the electrical excitation of SPPs. The hybrid structure could serve as a plasmonic source for integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:23900526

Li, Jing; Wei, Hong; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhuoxian; Zhao, Zhensheng; Duan, Xuanming; Xu, Hongxing

2013-09-21

317

Optimizing the Hybridization Factor for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Small Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADVISOR simulations of 75,100 and 125 kW total power, parallel hybrid small cars show that the hybridization factor (HF) giving maximum fuel efficiency (termed optimal HF) for the 75 kW small car is 0.49. For the 100 kW small car the optimal HF is 0.58. For the 125 kW small car, the optimal HF is 0.6. At these hybridization factors,

Courtney Holder; J. Gover

2006-01-01

318

Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

319

Electrical Insulating and Heat-Resistive Properties of PDMS-TEOS Hybrid with Different Molar Ratio of TEOS to PDMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrids prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) have been well known to be rubbery hybrid materials. In this report, the authors have investigated the electrical insulating and heat resistive properties of the hybrids by changing the molar ratio of TEOS to PDMS. The electrical insulating properties are evaluated by volume resistivity and AC breakdown strength at room temperature.

Makoto Sugiura; Fumitoshi Imasato; Atsushi Ohno; Yusuke Aoki; Shuhei Nakamura; Tetsushi Okamoto; Takuya Shindou

2007-01-01

320

Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

Stout, C. W.

1976-01-01

321

An electric-field-responsive discotic liquid-crystalline hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid.  

PubMed

A novel hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid is shown to self-assemble into a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline phase, and respond to applied electric fields resulting in uniform homeotropic or parallel alignment depending upon the electrode structure. Furthermore, the columnar orientation can be maintained even after removal of the electric field unless the material is heated above the clearing temperature. PMID:24818257

Hu, Nan; Shao, Renfan; Shen, Yongqiang; Chen, Dong; Clark, Noel A; Walba, David M

2014-04-01

322

Acoustic Characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Safety of Pedestrians Who are Blind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order to do...

A. Hastings B. Samiljan C. Scarpone J. K. Pollard L. Garay-Vega

2010-01-01

323

Wind-solar hybrid electrical power production to support national grid: Case study - Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the next generation of power energy systems using solar- and wind-energy systems for the country of Jordan. Presently with the oil prices are on the rise, the cost of electrical power production is very high. The opportunity of a large wind and solar hybrid power production is being explored. Sights are chosen to produce electricity using the

Ghassan Halasa; Johnson A. Asumadu

2009-01-01

324

Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982  

SciTech Connect

As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

None

1982-06-01

325

Comparative evaluation of machines for electric and hybrid vehicles based on dynamic operation and loss minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method to evaluate induction machines for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Some performance aspects of induction machines are also compared to permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs). An overview of static efficiency maps is presented, but efficiency maps miss dynamic effects and under-predict induction machine efficiencies. The proposed evaluation method is based on dynamic

Ali M. Bazzi; Philip T. Krein

2010-01-01

326

Simulation-based optimal sizing of hybrid electric vehicle components for specific combat missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are currently supporting the development of conceptual military vehicle designs capitalizing on maturing technologies associated with hybrid electric vehicle propulsion and advanced electrical loads. Preliminary trade studies associated with these concepts often focus on determining the “best” mix of power system components to achieve the desired performance levels at

Scott Fish; Troy B. Savoie

2001-01-01

327

Fuzzy-logic-based torque control strategy for parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), torque assisting and battery recharging control using the electric machine is the key point for efficient driving. In this paper, by adopting the decision-making property of fuzzy logic, the driving map for an HEV is made according to driving conditions. In this fuzzy logic controller, the induction machine torque command is generated from

Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul

1998-01-01

328

Starter-alternator for hybrid electric vehicle: comparison of induction and variable reluctance machines and drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results of using induction and variable reluctance machines as the starter-alternator in a hybrid electric vehicle. The frame sizes of these machines are dictated by transient engine cranking loads. Therefore, in their design, the machines are assumed to be in deep magnetic saturation and the resultant thermally constrained electric loadings are predicted from the calculated

John M. Miller; A. R. Gale; P. J. McCleer; F. Leonardi; J. H. Lang

1998-01-01

329

Prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020: results of a Delphi Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric an...

H. K. Ng D. J. Santini A. D. Vyas

1999-01-01

330

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to

David Holloway

2005-01-01

331

Hybrid trigeneration system management with a double DC-bus configuration on the electrical side  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new control strategy is proposed to manage the electrical power of a hybrid trigeneration system composed of a concentrated photovoltaic and thermal captator, an electrical storage group (including lead acid batteries and supercapacitors), a genset and a lithium bromide absorption machine. The architecture is based on a double DC-bus configuration. An improved control management of the

L. Petrucci; Chiara Boccaletti; B. Francois; P. Di Felice

2009-01-01

332

Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

Not Available

2011-11-01

333

Application of Direct-Drive Wheel Motor for Fuel Cell Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a gearless wheel motor drive system specifically designed for fuel cell electric and hybrid electric vehicle propulsion application. The system includes a liquid-cooled axial flux permanent-magnet machine designed to meet the direct-drive requirements. The machine design implements techniques to increase the machine inductance in order to improve machine constant power range and high-speed efficiency. The implemented technique

Khwaja M. Rahman; Nitin R. Patel; Terence G. Ward; James M. Nagashima; Federico Caricchi; Fabio Crescimbini

2006-01-01

334

Modelling of battery temperature effect on electrical characteristics of Li-ion battery in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an enhanced modelling method for the commonly used energy storage device i.e. lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery of a hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV). In this enhanced modelling method, the thermal effect, an important part of the battery electrical model, is considered to generate a holistic understanding, hence the characteristic of the Li-ion battery. Because of the high temperature sensitivity

Yen Kheng Tan; J. C. Mao; King Jet Tseng

2011-01-01

335

Test and evaluation report of the ERDC Hybrid-Electric Van (HEVAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HEVAN or Hybrid-Electric Van is a battery-powered electric vehicle with an on-board gasoline-fueled electric power generation unit. The HEVAN was developed from a Volkswagen transporter chassis. It is propelled by a series-wound DC traction motor rated at 20 HP (14.9 kW) which is powered by sixteen 6-volt SGL lead-acid batteries of nominally 96 volts. The motor power is controlled

Klose

1979-01-01

336

Experience derived from the conversion of a conventional car to a hybrid electric vehicle -analysis of the powertrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the experience gained from the conversion of a conventional vehicle to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV).The resulting concept vehicle is a hybrid SUV that features an additional electric drivetrain, which is composed of a three - phase asynchronous motor, a battery pack, the power converters and the transmission system. The placement of the electric and the

A. Panagiotis Asimakopoulos; B. Theodoros Boumis; C. Efstathios Patsias; D. Athanasios Safacas; E. Epaminondas Mitronikas

2010-01-01

337

"Plug-In" for More Active Online Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses plug-ins, software programs that connect to an World Wide Web browser and enhance its functionality. Highlights finding the software; downloading and using plug-ins; and educational applications, including the document viewer, real-time chat, multimedia, map viewer, spelling checker, news network, sound and video, and real-time…

Tuttle, Harry G.

1997-01-01

338

A decoupled controller for fuel cell hybrid electric power split  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power management of an hybrid system composed of a fuel cell, a battery and a DC\\/DC power converter is developed. A decoupled control strategy is proposed, aimed at balancing the power flow between the stack and the battery and avoiding electrochemical damage due to low oxygen concentration in the fuel cell cathode. The controller is composed of two components.

Domenico Di Domenico; Giovanni Fiengo

2008-01-01

339

Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Peng; Jessy W. Grizzle; Jun-Mo Kang

2003-01-01

340

Topology, Design, Analysis, and Thermal Management of Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

Power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit topologies, such as buck converters, voltage source inverters and bidirectional boost converters are challenged by system cost, efficiency, controllability, thermal management, voltage and current capability, and packaging issues. Novel topologies, such as isolated bidirectional DC/DC converters, multilevel converters, and Z-source inverters, offer potential improvement to hybrid vehicle system performance, extended controllability and power capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the topologies, design, and thermal management, and control of power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicle applications.

Mi, C.; Peng, F. Z.; Kelly, K. J.; O'Keefe, M.; Hassani, V.

2008-01-01

341

State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

1977-01-01

342

Label-free electrical detection of DNA hybridization for the example of influenza virus gene sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microarrays based on DNA–DNA hybridization are potentially useful for detecting and subtyping viruses but require fluorescence labeling and imaging equipment. We investigated a label-free electrical detection system using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy that is able to detect hybridization of DNA target sequences derived from avian H5N1 influenza virus to gold surface-attached single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide probes. A 23-nt probe is able to

Andreas Kukol; Peng Li; Pedro Estrela; Paul Ko-Ferrigno; Piero Migliorato

2008-01-01

343

Electrically driven quantum dot/wire/well hybrid light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

Electrically driven quantum dot, wire, and well hybrid light-emitting diodes are demonstrated by using nanometer-sized pyramid structures of GaN. InGaN quantum dots, wires, and wells are formed at the tops, edges, and sidewalls of pyramids, respectively. The hybrid light-emitting diodes containing low-dimensional quantum structures are good candidates for broad-band highly efficient visible lighting sources. PMID:22002261

Ko, Young-Ho; Kim, Je-Hyung; Jin, Li-Hua; Ko, Suk-Min; Kwon, Bong-Joon; Kim, Joosung; Kim, Taek; Cho, Yong-Hoon

2011-12-01

344

Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and Future Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

As hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are gaining more popularity in the market, the rule of the energy management system in the hybrid drivetrain is escalating. This paper classifies and extensively overviews the state-of-the-art control strategies for HEVs. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. From different perspectives, real-time solutions are qualitatively compared. Finally, a couple of important issues

Farzad Rajaei Salmasi

2007-01-01

345

Status Review of Power Control Strategies for Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell-hybrid electric vehicles (FC-HEVs) have become one of the most promising alternatives for the development of low emission and fuel efficient vehicles. A fuel cell vehicle can significantly benefit from being hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS), in terms of vehicle performance, fuel economy, and vehicle cost. A power control strategy is essentially required for FC-HEVs, in order

Di Wu; S. S. Williamson

2007-01-01

346

Application study on a control strategy for a hybrid electric public bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the control strategy used in a hybrid electric public bus and then proposes a torque-balancing\\u000a control strategy. Simulations were performed using the designed control strategies, and the results were analyzed under different\\u000a conditions. The torque-balancing control strategy was improved on the basis of the efficiency-first ideas of the hybrid system.\\u000a Finally, experiments were performed to verify

B. H. Wang; Y. G. Luo

2011-01-01

347

Electrical resistance behavior of vinylester composites filled with glass-carbon hybrid fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinylester (bismethacryloxy derivative of a bisphenol-A type EP resin, VE) composites with glass-carbon hybrid fibers (CF-GF)\\u000a weight fraction of 50%, were prepared by the compress molding method. The distribution of carbon fiber in the hybrids was\\u000a observed by stereomicroscope. The electrical resistance behavior of the composites filled with different carbon fiber (CF)\\u000a weight contents (0.5% to 20%) was studied. The

Jun Wang; Lianmeng Zhang; Renxin Xu; Huajun Duan; Xiaoli Yang; Xiang Wang

2009-01-01

348

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Braking and Steering Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, lab sheet, and syllabi discussing HEVs' braking and steering systems. These materials are derived from three courses offered at Lewis and Clark Community College on automotive alignment, braking, and steering systems and were developed through a seed grant from the CAAT. The presentation discusses the circuitry and operations for HEV braking and steering systems, variations from traditional braking and steering power assist, and how to service brake pads on a Ford Escape Hybrid. The lab sheet should familiarize students with the variations and similarities between hybrid and conventional systems when servicing a HEV's brake pads such as placing the vehicle in âPad Service Mode.â The provided syllabi includes highlighted sections where these HEV technologies were incorporated into alignment, brakes, and suspension courses at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

349

Integrated Hybrid-Simulation of Electric Power and Communications Systems  

SciTech Connect

The modern power grid is strongly integrated with its communication network. While a power system primarily consists of elements that are modeled by continuous equations, a communication system has discrete event dynamics. We model the integrated operation of these two systems with a hybrid modeling and simulation technique. Systematically combining continuous and discrete event system models is necessary for correctly simulating critical system behaviors. This paper discusses an approach based on the discrete event system specification (DEVS) that characterizes the interaction of the two systems formally to preserve simulation correctness. We demonstrate the implementation of our integrated hybrid simulation technique with detailed generator and network models in a wide-area cooperative automatic load-control scenario.

Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Miller, Laurie E [ORNL; Mullen, Sara [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

2007-01-01

350

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

351

Electrical detection of DNA immobilization and hybridization by streaming current measurements in microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Label-free electrical detection of surface DNA immobilization and hybridization via streaming current measurements in a microchannel is demonstrated. Streaming currents generated by the flow of deionised water through a polydimethysiloxane microchannel sealed on glass are measured using integrated Au electrodes and are sensitive to the density and polarity of the charge on the channel surface. An in-channel DNA hybridization protocol was developed. Streaming currents were monitored after each of protocol steps. The technique was applied to label free recognition of DNA hybridization and could distinguish between assays with complementary and non-complementary DNA strands.

Martins, D. C.; Chu, V.; Prazeres, D. M. F.; Conde, J. P.

2011-10-01

352

PNGV Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar and cycle life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle and calendar life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.

Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T.; Sutula, R.

2002-06-01

353

Important kinetic effects in the hybrid ElectricOIL system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser action at 1315 nm on the I(2P 1/2) --> I(2P 3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O II(a1?) produced using a low-pressure electric discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds significantly higher levels of complexity to the post-discharge kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O II (a1?) generation system. In this paper, the discharge species output for laser operating conditions are discussed. Spatial measurements of O II(a1?) and O II (b1?) are reported, and various methods for the determination of atomic oxygen levels are discussed and compared. The injection of NO X into the system to benefit O II(a1?) production is investigated.

Zimmerman, Joseph W.; King, Darren M.; Palla, Andrew D.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Carroll, David L.; Laystrom, Julia K.; Benavides, Gabriel; Woodard, Brian S.; Solomon, Wayne C.; Rawlins, W. Terry; Davis, Steve J.; Heaven, Michael C.

2006-05-01

354

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites  

SciTech Connect

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J. Jr. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Li Chunyu [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Byun, Joon-Hyung [Composite Materials Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-010 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-17

355

System-level thermal modeling and co-simulation with hybrid power system for future all electric ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to performing thermal-electrical coupled co-simulation of hybrid power system and cooling system of future all-electric Navy ships. The goal is to study the transient interactions between the electrical and the thermal sub-systems. The approach utilizes an existing solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) \\/gas turbine (GT) hybrid electrical power model and the ship cooling system model

Ruixian Fang; Wei Jiang; Jamil Khan; Roger Dougal

2009-01-01

356

An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation and lab provide a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. Both were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through seed funding from the CAAT. The included slides reflect these changes made for HEV technologies. This resource has two areas of focus: HEV theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: Types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEV (Ex: intake, motor and transaxle integration), power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, multimeter use, and oil change). Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing.

College, Lewis A.

357

Demand for electric vehicles in hybrid households: an exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the potential market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) from different research streams have failed to converge on a single, robust estimate. What these previous research streams share are untested or implausible assumptions about consumer response to new transportation technology. We frame the BEV purchase decision in terms of a household's entire stock of vehicles, car purchase behavior

Kenneth S. Kurani; Tom Turrentine; Daniel Sperling

1994-01-01

358

Solar Thermal : Solar Electric Propulsion Hybrid Orbit Transfer Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This effort examined the payoffs associated with the joint application of solar thermal propulsion (STP) and electric propulsion (EP) for orbit raising. The combined use of STP (800 second specific impulse) and EP (1800 second specific impulse) for a single orbit transfer mission is motivated by the desire to leverage the higher thrust of STP with the higher specific impulse

Keith A. McFall

2000-01-01

359

Electric-Car Range Extension Through Hybrid Modification. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gasohol powered generator set has been installed on a 1210 pound electrically powered Citicar. A power supply has been designed to convert the alternating current of the generator to run the car at a level of 36 vdc maximum. This is less than the 48 vdc...

1982-01-01

360

Electrically Controlled Magnetic Memory and Programmable Logic based on Graphene\\/Ferromagnet Hybrid Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the combining of the electrical effect on the exchange bias field with giant magneto-resistance effect of the graphene\\/ferromagnet hybrid structures reveals a new non-volatile magnetic random access memory device conception. In such device an electric bias realizes the writing bits instead a magnetic field of remote word line with high energy consumption. Interplay of two

Y. G. Semenov; J. M. Zavada; K. W. Kim

2009-01-01

361

Design and implementation of a novel hybrid-electric-motorcycle transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hybrid power system incorporates a mechanical type rubber V-belt, continuously-variable transmission (CVT) and chain drives to combine power of the two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. The system uses four different modes in order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions: electric-motor mode; engine mode; engine\\/charging mode; and power mode. The main advantages of this

Kuen-Bao Sheu; Tsung-Hua Hsu

2006-01-01

362

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies\\/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter

Robert H Staunton; John S Hsu; Michael R Starke

2006-01-01

363

Reduction of Electrical Crosstalk in Hybrid Backside Illuminated CMOS Imagers using Deep Trench Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid backside illuminated CMOS imagers with zero pixel-to-pixel electrical crosstalk were developed. The application of highly doped polysilicon filled high aspect ratio trenches between pixels to reduce crosstalk is unique. These 1¿m wide 50¿m deep trenches enforce a lateral drift field between pixels, which counteracts diffusion and drastically reduces electrical crosstalk. Quantitative crosstalk characterization of trenched and non-trenched imagers is

Kyriaki Minoglou; Koen de Munck; Deniz Sabuncuoglu Tezcan; Tom Borgers; Wouter Ruythooren; Jan Bogaerts; Iacopo Ficai Veltroni; Igor Zayer; Roland Meynart; Jean-Loup Bezy; Chris van Hoof; Piet de Moor

2008-01-01

364

A gaming environment approach to analysis of energy storage for electric\\/hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplayer gaming environment, combining the multi-disciplinary engineering simulation software, Virtual Test Bed (VTB), and the gaming tool, Unity3D, is introduced to realize the analysis of energy storage for electric\\/hybrid vehicle through a vehicle driving game. The gaming engine couples the three-dimensional (3D) multibody vehicle system, especially developed in VTB at proper level of complexity for electrical engineers, with the

Tianlei Zhang; Jeremiah Shepherd; Jijun Tang; Roger A. Dougal

2011-01-01

365

Advanced design of valve-regulated lead–acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles HEVs . The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery . capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge PSoC rfast-charge, electric-vehicle

L. T. Lam; R. H. Newnham; H. Ozgun; F. A. Fleming

2000-01-01

366

A PSIM-based modeling tool for conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The More Electric Vehicles (MEV) concept emphasizes the utilization of electrical systems instead of mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems to optimize vehicle fuel economy, emissions, performance, and reliability. In addition, the need for improvement in comfort, convenience, entertainment, safety, security, and communications necessitates more electric automotive systems. As a result, an electric power distribution system with larger capacity and more

S. Onoda; S. M. Lukic; A. NAsiri; A. Emadi

2002-01-01

367

The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.  

PubMed

Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes. PMID:20677207

Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

2010-09-24

368

RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends

G. Telias; K. Day; P. Dietrich

2011-01-01

369

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Barnitt, R. A.

2008-06-01

370

A Fuzzy Energy Management Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Predictive Control and Durability Extension of the Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are superior to conventional vehicles from the standpoint of environmental issues. Many factors involve in designing HEVs such as fuel consumption, emission and performance. A major challenge for development of hybrid vehicles is coordination of multiple energy sources and converters, and in case of a HEV, power flow control for both mechanical and electrical path. This

M. H. Hajimiri; F. R. Salmasi

2006-01-01

371

Penalty for Fuel Economy— System Level Perspectives on the Reliability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles During Normal and Graceful Degradation Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally people tend to think only in terms of fuel economy and additional cost premium on vehicle price while discussing about hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This paper tries to emphasize that the overall acceptability of a vehicle also has to do with its system level reliability. It discusses the issue of system level reliability in hybrid electric vehicles from a

M. Abul Masrur

2008-01-01

372

Solving Electrical Distribution Problems Using Hybrid Evolutionary Data Analysis Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Real-world electrical engineering problems can take advantage of the last Data Analysis methodologies. In this paper we will show that Genetic Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems and Genetic Programming,techniques are good choices for tackling with some,practical modeling,problems. We claim that both evolutionary processes may produce good numerical results while providing us with a model,that can be interpreted by a human,being. We

Oscar Cordón; Francisco Herrera; Luciano Sánchez

1999-01-01

373

Hybrid fiber optic voltage sensor for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the design and experimental evaluation of the hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) piezoelectric voltage sensor developed specifically for remote monitoring of electrical submersible pump (ESP) motors. Unlike a previously reported transducer based on a single piezoelectric element, the voltage rating of the presented device could be as low as 500 V due to the use of a

Lukasz Dziuda; Pawel Niewczas; Grzegorz Fusiek; James R. McDonald

2005-01-01

374

Hybridization approach of plant models for enhancing ship electrical system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a Hybrid Model Library (HML) for enhancing the analysis of ship electrical systems. Lots of studies were made in order to select the most appropriated software platform to test the new models developed. This work shows examples of models developed in Simulink-MATLAB and PSIM platforms. Later on, we present a research methodology based on modeling techniques by

R. Iza; E. Irigoyen; V. Go?mez; F. Artaza; H. Etxebeste

2010-01-01

375

Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life

Mikhail Granovskii; Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

2006-01-01

376

Hybrid Method to Assess Sensitive Process Interruption Costs Due to Faults in Electric Power Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a new hybrid method for risk assessment regarding interruptions in sensitive processes due to faults in electric power distribution systems. This method determines indices related to long duration interruptions and short duration voltage variations (SDVV), such as voltage sags and swells in each customer supplied by the distribution network. Frequency of such occurrences and their impact on

Juan C. Cebrian; Nelson Kagan

2010-01-01

377

Toyota Highlander (2006)-6395 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,0...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

378

Sliding mode based MTPA control system of IPMSM for hybrid electrical vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

mode variable structure control (SMVSC) strategy is applied to maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) vector control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) in order to meet the demand of strong anti­ disturbance ability for hybrid electric vehicles. Due to existence of intrinsic chattering in the sliding mode control, the sliding mode current controller based on an improved variable

Xudong Wang; Ningzhi Jin; Hanying Gao; Hesong Cui

2011-01-01

379

A 600V driver IC with new short protection in hybrid electric vehicle IGBT inverter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a 600V high voltage half-bridge gate driver IC used to drive large current inverters such as those used in HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles). In order to improve the robustness of short circuit operation, a new short protection circuit and a noise removal circuit were proposed. Furthermore, a reduction of the short circuit current was examined. Thus, this

Katsumi Ishikawa; Koichi Suda; Masataka Sasaki; Hideki Miyazaki

2005-01-01

380

Accurate modelling of traction inverter losses for efficiency calculation in parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a precise and simple methodology will be introduced for modeling and calculating the voltage source inverter (VSI) losses in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) application. The noteworthy traction inverter losses, consisting switching and conduction losses of diodes and IGBTs, are important for evaluating the overall efficiency and obtaining the optimized value of its dc-link voltage as well. For

Mohammad Reza Nikzad; Ahmad Radan

2009-01-01

381

Design and optimization of a fuzzy-rule based hybrid electric vehicle controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economical and regulatory pressures place on the automotive industry to develop vehicles with increased fuel efficiency will continue to grow over the coming decade. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a solution which has received a large degree of interest from government, academia, and automotive manufacturers. This paper studies the potential of using a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the

Travis A. Anderson; Joseph M. Barkman; Chris Mi

2008-01-01

382

Power and energy storage devices for next generation hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel conservation and environmental pollution control are the principal motivating factors that are urging at present widespread research and development activities for electric and hybrid vehicles throughout the world. The paper describes different possible energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor, and power sources, such as gasoline engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell for next

B. K. Bose; M.-H. Kim; M. D. Kankam

1996-01-01

383

A New Hybrid Multi-Objective Quick Service Restoration technique for Electric Power Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a New Hybrid Multi-Objective Quick Service restoration (QSR) technique for Electrical Power Distribution Systems (EPDS). The main features of this new technique includes the development New Network Connectivity Method, objective function formulation with the consideration of various constraints in addition to the Priority Based Load Constraints and the incorporation of Service Restoration Time Estimation which helps the

K. Manjunath; M. R. Mohan

2007-01-01

384

On the integration of optimal energy management and thermal management of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a supervisory control for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV). It is based on Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) extended with a new state reflecting the thermal state of the engine. A new consumption law taking into account the losses due to low engine temperature is therefore included in the optimal control problem. The strategy is tested offline on

Julien Lescot; Antonio Sciarretta; Yann Chamaillard; Alain Charlet

2010-01-01

385

A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1978-01-01

386

Hybrid-Electric Vehicles for advanced urban mobility: a New Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are currently a hot research topic in the field of clean and sustainable mobility. HEVs can make a difference especially in urban areas where, due to the typical driving patterns with frequent stops and standing starts, traditional internal combustion engines (ICEs) operate at very low levels of efficiency. The authors believe that personal urban mobility is the

C. Concari; G. Franceschini; A. Toscani

2008-01-01

387

Energy-management system for a hybrid electric vehicle, using ultracapacitors and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very efficient energy-management system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), using neural networks (NNs), was developed and tested. The system minimizes the energy requirement of the vehicle and can work with different primary power sources like fuel cells, microturbines, zinc-air batteries, or other power supplies with a poor ability to recover energy from a regenerative braking, or with a scarce

Jorge Moreno; Micah E. Ortúzar; Juan W. Dixon

2006-01-01

388

Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. Economics play a major role as evidenced by oil prices in North America pressing upwards of $100\\/Bbl coupled with a customer preference for full size crossover and sport utility vehicles. The situation in Oceania is milder, but emerging markets such as China are experiencing automotive sector growth

John M. Miller

2006-01-01

389

New DC–DC Converter for Energy Storage System Interfacing in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energy storage devices such as batteries or supercapacitors is almost mandatory in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles, in order to guarantee load leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in transient operations. To this end, converters with bidirectional power flows are needed to connect the accumulators to the dc-link of the motor drive system. In this

Mario Marchesoni; Camillo Vacca

2007-01-01

390

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

1980-11-01

391

Hybrid solar sail and solar electric propulsion for novel Earth observation missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a pole-sitter spacecraft hybridising solar electric propulsion (SEP) and solar sailing. The intriguing concept of a hybrid propulsion spacecraft is attractive: by combining the two forms of propulsion, the drawbacks of the two systems cancel each other, potentially enabling propellant mass saving, increased reliability, versatility and lifetime over the two independent systems. This almost completely

Matteo Ceriotti; Colin R. McInnes

2011-01-01

392

A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE DESIGN VARIABLES FOR A HYBRID ELECTRIC CAR WITH SOLAR CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various prototypes have demonstrated the feasibility of light cars powered with solar energy. While the case of cars powered only by the sun seems not yet feasible for practical uses, the concept of a small electric hybrid car assisted by solar cells appears more realistic. In the paper, a systematic study on the sizing and the performance of a vehicle

I. Arsie; A. Di Domenico; M. Marotta; C. Pianese; G. Rizzo; M. Sorrentino

393

The history of alternative fuels in transportation: The case of electric and hybrid cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes and presents a critical analysis of the long history of alternative fuels and propulsion technologies, particularly in automobile applications. Cases are electric and hybrid cars. The term “critical analysis” refers to the analysis of the various alternative technologies in relation to their societal contexts. In particular, these are the varying contexts of energy security, energy policy, environmental

Karl Georg Høyer

2008-01-01

394

Novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles utilizing car navigation over a commuting route  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel energy management system for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed system predicts a future driving pattern based on past driving data and determines the appropriate distribution of energy. In order to realize this strategy, previous driving data must be stored effectively because the large amount of driving data makes on-line realization of this strategy difficult. In this

Shinji Ichikawa; Yasuhiro Yokoi; Shinji Doki; Shigeru Okuma; Takashi Naitou; Toshihiro Shiimado; Nobuaki Miki

2004-01-01

395

Integrative control strategy of regenerative and hydraulic braking for hybrid electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electric braking involvement, the braking system of an EV, HEV and FCV becomes much more complex than conventional mechanical alone braking system. The target in this hybrid braking system is to recover the braking energy as much as possible and meanwhile maintain a good braking performance for vehicle safety. For this purpose, the control of this braking system is

Liang Chu; Wanfeng Sun; Liang Yao; Yongsheng Zhang; Yang Ou; Wenruo Wei; Minghui Liu; Jun Li

2009-01-01

396

Advanced Ovonic high-power nickel-metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to intense development of hybrid electric vehicles throughout the world spurred by energy and environmental concerns, Ovonic Battery Company has developed a series of high power batteries suitable for a range of vehicle design concepts. We have developed a 60 Ah HEV battery with a power capability of 620 W\\/kg and 1700 W\\/L. This high power capability was

I. Menjak; P. H. Gow; D. A. Corrigan; S. Venkatesan; S. K. Dhar; R. C. Stempel; S. R. Ovshinsky

1998-01-01

397

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of strategies for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are proposed in the literature. A key challenge is to achieve near-optimality while keeping the methodology simple. The Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) is suggested as a viable real-time strategy. In this brief, the global optimality of the principle under reasonable assumptions is de- scribed from a mathematical

Namwook Kim; Sukwon Cha; Huei Peng

2011-01-01

398

FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. FedEx is a large commercial fleet that operates more than 22,000 moto...

R. Barnitt

2010-01-01

399

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12Month Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel

Barnitt

2011-01-01

400

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

401

An ultracapacitor-battery energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries are much more economical, but they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the

Adam Stienecker

2005-01-01

402

A Novel ECMS and Combined Cost Map Approach for High-Efficiency Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim in the control of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is to decrease the fuel consumption and emissions without significant loss of driving performance. The performance of the vehicle in terms of fuel economy and emissions is very much dependent on the vehicle's supervisory control strategy. In this paper, the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is developed with

Volkan Sezer; Metin Gokasan; Seta Bogosyan

2011-01-01

403

A Torque Control Strategy with Charge Buffer for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new kind of vehicles with low fuel cost and low emission, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been given more and more attention in recent years. The key technique in the HEV is the optimal control strategy for the best performance. This paper proposed a new torque control strategy with charge buffer (TCSCB) to control the two power sources

Xi Huang; Ying Tan; Xingui He

2010-01-01

404

Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System. FY 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and...

M. Olszewski

2006-01-01

405

Analysis of multi-power sources energy management system for electric hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new energy management system (EMS) for small hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which utilizes energy from the combination of battery, fuel cell (FC) and super capacitors (SC). These alternative energy sources are excellent potential solution to the ever-rising price of petrol. The major focus of this paper is the energy management system, which consists of a strategy

M A Hannan; F A Azidin; A Mohamed

2011-01-01

406

Genetic optimization of charging current for lead-acid batteries in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

VRLA batteries are of great importance in hybrid electric vehicle technology. They are generally equipped with intelligent chargers. The battery charger should be able to produce the desired charging current profile. Although reduction in charging time is unavoidable but the battery state of the health should not be sacrificed. In this paper a new model based optimization cost function is

H. Saberi; F. R. Salmasi

2007-01-01

407

Intelligent Test System on the Power Battery of Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management system of battery plays an important role in prolong the service time of battery, improve the vehicle driving dynamic economy, reduce the using cost of hybrid electric vehicles and guarantee the safe, reliable operation. This article introduce a system of simulation and experience of based on ABIN company's computer hardware platform and software package. The system using distributed

Zhiyuan Zhang; Jie Zhang

2010-01-01

408

An aging model of Ni-MH batteries for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) today requires establishing an accurate model of battery aging and life. During a battery's lifetime, its performance slowly deteriorates because of the degradation of its electrochemical constituents. Battery manufacturers usually provide aging data that will show this degradation. However the data they provide result from standard aging tests, in which

Lorenzo Serrao; Z. Chehab; Y. Guezennee; G. Rizzoni

2005-01-01

409

Evaluation of electric motor and gasoline engine hybrid car using solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the utility of a hybrid car in which both power sources of an electric motor and a gasoline engine are used and solar cells are settled on the roof and the bonnet. An array of 1.6 kW solar cells was installed on the top of a building to charge the batteries by solar energy. Though the capacities of

K. Sasaki; M. Yokota; H. Nagayoshi; K. Kamisako

1997-01-01

410

Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area

Giorgio Rizzoni

2005-01-01

411

Electrical and thermal conductivity of hybrid nanocomposites with giant strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, conformable sensors, and lightweight solar cells. The optimization of electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of conductive and extensible materials is necessary for the application of energy device. Here we demonstrate the theoretical prediction for the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites compared with experimental results. Also, we present the giant dependence of electrical conductivity on strain and the large positive thermal expansion that can be expected for the elastomer matrix. The percolation threshold (26 vol% of Ag, average interparticle distance model) and Poisson's ratio (Vt=0.33, Vw=0.2) of nanocomposites are significant factors that can determine the electrical and thermal conductivity with giant strain. The thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric film is relatively high at the zero-strain state, and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport. The observed combinational property of a very small dependence of conductivity on temperature with an exponential dependence can be suitable for for the mechanical strain sensing.

Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

2013-04-01

412

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military\\/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control

Chan-Chiao Lin; Zoran Filipi; Yongsheng Wang; Loucas Louca; Huei Peng; Dennis Assanis; Jeffrey Stein

2001-01-01

413

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

David Holloway

2005-09-30

414

Design and implementation of a high-efficiency on- board battery charger for electric vehicles with frequency control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design and implementation of 3.3 kW on-board battery charger for electric vehicles or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A series-loaded resonant dc-dc converter and frequency control are adopted in consideration of efficiency, reliability, volume, cost, and so on. In order to obtain high efficiency and less volume within 6 liters, a prototype of the charger is designed

Jong-Soo Kim; Gyu-Yeong Choe; Hye-Man Jung; Byoung-Kuk Lee; Young-Jin Cho; Kyu-Bum Han

2010-01-01

415

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

416

Electrical voltage manipulation of ferromagnetic microdomain structures in a ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on electrical bias voltage manipulation of the magnetic domain structures of patterned ferromagnetic Fe dots on a ferroelectric BaTiO3 underlayer using a scanning probe microscope technique. Piezoresponse force microscopy is used to apply local electric field on the Fe dots/BaTiO3 hybrid structure and to map the ferroelectric domain structures simultaneously. Magnetic force microscope observation also demonstrates that the magnetic domain structures of the Fe dots significantly change with the application of voltage at room temperature through the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetostrictive effects, indicating that the Fe dots/BaTiO3 hybrid structure provides a promising basis for controlling micromagnetic domain structures using electric voltage.

Taniyama, T.; Akasaka, K.; Fu, D.; Itoh, M.; Takashima, H.; Prijamboedi, B.

2007-05-01

417

Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamics experiment and study were carried out for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that are expected as the power sources for electric and hybrid vehicles. It is confirmed that the heat coming in and going out depend on charging and discharging, respectively. And the thermal generation factors will be decomposed to three elements: reaction heat value Qr, polarization heat value Qp, and Joule heat value QJ. Furthermore, the contribution degree of each factor was able to be expressed quantitatively by dividing these thermal generation factors for charging and discharging. The accuracy of thermodynamics logic was verified since the thermodynamics calculation coincided with the experimental data of thermal generation for the practical Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EV). It is possible to utilize the calculation and simulation for the development of Li-ion battery and the establishment of thermal control technology not only for EV but also for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV).

Sato, Noboru

418

Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

Warren, J.F.

1992-05-01

419

Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

Wipke, K.

1994-09-01

420

Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial

Frederick G. Harmon

2005-01-01

421

Low cost, compact high efficiency, traction motor for electric vehicles\\/hybrid electric vehicles. Final report for the period September 1998 - December 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report details technical accomplishments for Phase I of the ''Low Cost, Compact High Efficiency, Traction Motor for Electric Vehicles\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicles'' program. The research showed that the segmented-electromagnetic array (SEMA) technology combined with an Integrated Motion Module (IMM) concept is highly suited for electric vehicles. IMMs are essentially mechatronic systems that combine the motor, sensing, power electronics, and

Jerry Mitchell; Roy Kessinger

2000-01-01

422

Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

Koprubasi, Kerem

423

Deterioration mechanism of nickel metal-hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deterioration mechanism of nickel metal-hybrid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) has been investigated. For HEV use, the deterioration of the batteries is caused by the degradation of the positive electrode which is influenced by the migration of the constituent elements of the negative electrode alloy as well as by the oxidation of the negative electrode. Based on the elucidated deterioration mechanism, the degradation of the positive electrode has been suppressed by employing a hydrogen-absorbing alloy with higher oxidation resistibility for the negative electrode, prolonging the cycle life of nickel metal-hydride batteries for HEVs.

Shinyama, Katsuhiko; Magari, Yoshifumi; Kumagae, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Takee, Masao; Ishiwa, Koji

424

Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

1979-01-01

425

NMR, DSC and high pressure electrical conductivity studies of liquid and hybrid electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have been carried out on liquid electrolytes such as ethylene carbonate:propylene carbonate (EC:PC) and EC:dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing LiPF 6 (and LiCF 3SO 3 for NMR) and films plasticized using the same liquid electrolytes. The films are based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) copolymerized with hexafluoropropylene and contain fumed silica. All measurements were carried out at atmospheric pressure from room temperature to about -150°C and the electrical conductivity studies were performed at room temperature at pressures up to 0.3 GPa. The liquids and hybrid electrolytes are similar in that the electrical conductivity of the EC:PC-based substances exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) behaviour while that for the EC:DMC-based substances does not. Part of the deviation from VTF behaviour for the EC:DMC-based materials is attributed to crystallization. Further, the glass transition temperatures as determined from NMR, DSC and electrical conductivity measurements are about the same for the liquids and hybrid electrolytes. However, substantial differences are found. The electrical conductivity of the hybrid electrolytes at room temperature is lower than expected and, more importantly, the relative change of conductivity with pressure is larger than for the liquids. In addition, above the glass transition temperature, the NMR T1 values are smaller and the NMR linewidths are larger for the hybrid electrolytes than for the liquids while at both low and high temperature the NMR linewidths are larger. Consequently, it is concluded that significant solid matrix-lithium ion interactions take place.

Stallworth, P. E.; Fontanella, J. J.; Wintersgill, M. C.; Scheidler, Christopher D.; Immel, Jeffrey J.; Greenbaum, S. G.; Gozdz, A. S.

426

40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Including Hybrid Gasoline-Electric Vehicles With No Plug-In Capabilities...Including Hybrid Gasoline-Electric Vehicles with No Plug-In Capabilities...Including Hybrid Diesel-Electric Vehicles with No Plug-In...

2013-07-01

427

Long-Term Behaviour of Plug-in Connectors with Copper Beryllium Contact Lamellas Depending on Stress Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in connectors with contact lamellas, so-called Multilams, are distinguished by multifaceted application possibilities and various dimensions. The Multilams investigated in this paper are used for high current applications and consist of age-hardened copper beryllium (CuBe2) characterised by high mechanical strength, great spring properties and also good electrical conductivity. The ageing of electrical connectors with Multilams depending on stress relaxation is

Nils Lücke; S. Grossmann; H. Lo?bl; T. Ledermann; G. Freudiger

2010-01-01

428

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

429

Design Optimization and Performance of a Novel 6-Slot 5-Pole PMFSM with Hybrid Excitation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With growing concerns over our environment, more and more people in automakers, governments and customers think that the electric drive becomes more attractive research. Since electric motors play an important role in both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric machines. As one of the candidates, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) with additional coil excitation has several attractive features compared to interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) conventionally employed in HEV. The variable flux control capability and robust rotor structure make this machine becoming more attractive to apply for high speed motor drive system coupled with reduction gear. This paper presents an investigation into design possibility of 6-slot 5-pole PMFSM with hybrid excitation for traction drives in HEVs. An improved design is examined to gain a better performance in its maximum torque and power production. The final designed machine enables to keep much power density compared to existing IPMSM installed on the commercial SUV-HEV.

Sulaiman, Erwan; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

430

Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

431

Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose an advanced brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low cost and high performance electric propulsion system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It includes reduced parts power converter topologies and an optimal PWM control strategy to produce the desired dynamic and static speed and torque characteristics. The theoretical explanation and operational

B. K. Lee; M. Ehsani

2001-01-01

432

Application of a new hybrid neuro-evolutionary system for day-ahead price forecasting of electricity markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new forecast strategy is proposed for day-ahead prediction of electricity prices, which are so valuable for both producers and consumers in the new competitive electric power markets. However, electricity price has a nonlinear, volatile and time dependent behavior owning many outliers. Our forecast strategy is composed of a preprocessor and a Hybrid Neuro-Evolutionary System (HNES). Preprocessor

Nima Amjady; Farshid Keynia

2010-01-01

433

The impact of electric passenger transport technology on the demand for coal-fired power with CCS under a climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall US CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2009-01-01

434

An ultracapacitor-battery energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries are much more economical, but they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. This research presents a new cost-effective method for using these two energy storage components together in order to extend the life of the battery. This system is presently quite expensive, but it will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to the levels predicted by some manufacturers. This dissertation studies two different methods for implementation on a hybrid electric vehicle and presents performance data for a variety of simulations.

Stienecker, Adam

435

Thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy nanocomposites with thermally reduced graphene oxide-silica hybrid nanosheets.  

PubMed

We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 10(11)? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m(-1) K(-1), which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m(-1) K(-1)). PMID:23695448

Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Chiang, Jen-Chi; Ho, Kuan-Ku; Chou, Tsung-Yu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Li-Hsueh; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2013-07-01

436

Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

2012-02-01

437

Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

Gutmann, Günter

438

[Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

Not Available

1993-01-01

439

Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

440

Electrical conductivity of synergistically hybridized nanocomposites based on graphite nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, a recent model for assessing the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites comprising a single type of conductive nanofiller was expanded to cases with mixtures of nanofillers. The extended model considers electron tunneling as the effective mechanism for insulator-conductor transition. The model was validated with relevant experimental data based on a mono-nanofiller. Using the extended model, the effective electrical conductivity of a nanocomposite comprising both graphite nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes was investigated. It was observed that the hybridized nanocomposites filled with a mixture of these conductive nanofillers attain, synergistically, enhanced electrical conductivities at lower volume fractions. The lower filler contents assist in preserving the intrinsic properties of the host polymer in support of several applications. It was also observed that the relative aspect ratios of the conductive fillers play significant roles on the electrical conductivity of the hybrid nanocomposite. Simulations revealed that, generally, the addition of minimal amounts of a higher aspect ratio auxiliary phase to a lower aspect ratio main phase enhances the electrical conductivity of the composite by orders of magnitude

Safdari, M.; Al-Haik, M.

2012-10-01

441

Online fault diagnosis of hybrid electric vehicles based on embedded system Changqing Song  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, embedded system was used to work for the online fault diagnosis of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This system took 32-bit embedded one as a hardware platform, customized a WinCE6.0 operation system and used Embedded Visual C++ (EVC) as the tool to design the embedded application. Through this online diagnosis device, the failure phenomenon, failure causes and failure

Changqing Song; Jun Li; Dawei Qu; Dongqing Zhou; Luyan Fan

2010-01-01

442

Conceptual design of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity is investigated in this report. Hydrogen refrigeration station is placed on every 10 km of the unit section. The rated current is 10 kA, and operation voltage is 100 kV (+ 50 kV and -50 kV for ground). Delivery capacity of the liquid hydrogen is 100 tons

S. Yamada; Y. Hishinuma; T. Uede; K. Schippl; N. Yanagi; T. Mito; M. Sato

2010-01-01

443

Influence of control strategies on motor\\/generator load characteristics in parallel hybrid electric power train  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper propose a framework to understand how different control strategies influence on the power split and the power load on the motor\\/generator (M\\/G) unit. First the configuration of the single-shaft parallel hybrid electric powertrain model is described. Then two rule-based strategies including baseline control strategy and Honda Insight control strategy and one global optimization control strategy were analyzed and

Li Wen; Zhang Chengning; Chen Ke

2011-01-01

444

Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1D electrochemical, lumped thermal model is used to explore pulse power limitations and thermal behavior of a 6Ah, 72 cell, 276V nominal Li-ion hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted\\/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative\\/positive electrodes consistently cause end of high-rate (?25C) pulse discharge at the 2.7Vcell?1 minimum limit, indicating solid-state diffusion is the limiting mechanism. The

Kandler Smith; Chao-Yang Wang

2006-01-01

445

Advanced ElectroThermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful implementation and commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) rely largely on energy storage systems. Lithium-ion batteries offer potential advantages in energy density, power density, and cost for this purpose. One of the challenges imposed by lithium-ion battery is the thermal management. The best operating temperature of lithium-ion battery is from -10degC to 50degC. An effective thermal management system

Chris Mi; Ben Li; D. Buck; N. Ota

2007-01-01

446

Energy Management in a Fuel Cell\\/Supercapacitor Multisource\\/Multiload Electrical Hybrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a flatness-based nonlinear control method is proposed to control a multisource\\/multiload electrical hybrid system (EHS). The EHS is composed of a fuel cell and a supercapacitor-bank (SCB) as the main and auxiliary sources. They supply two independent loads, connected to a dc-bus through unidirectional buck converters. The proposed method is able to control the fuel cell output

Alireza Payman; Serge Pierfederici; Farid Meibody-Tabar

2009-01-01

447

Hybrid material polyvinyl alcohol-copper oxide and its electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hybrid material polyvinyl alcohol-copper oxide was produced by the thermal decomposition of polyvinyl alcohol-copper hydroxide complex compound. It was analyzed by means of XRD, UV-VIS, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. It was concluded that the most part of copper oxide has an amorphous structure and consists of -(Cu-O) n - chains. The electrical properties of this material were investigated at direct and alternating current in 80-375 K temperature range.

Prosanov, I. Yu.; Bulina, N. V.; Chesalov, Yu. A.

2012-08-01

448

Vehicle Stability Enhancement of Four-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Rear Motor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle stability enhancement control algorithm for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed using rear motor driving, regenerative braking control, and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated

Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

2008-01-01

449

The impact of hybrid and electric powertrains on vehicle dynamics, control systems and energy regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background to the development of so-called green or low-carbon vehicles continues to be relentlessly reviewed throughout the literature. Research and development (R&D) on novel powertrains – often based on electric or hybrid technology – has been dominating automotive engineering around the world for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Inevitably, most of the R&D has focused on

David A. Crolla; Dongpu Cao

2012-01-01

450

Lead\\/acid battery development for heat engine\\/electric hybrid vehicles. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program was undertaken to develop a lead\\/acid battery system for use in a hybrid heat engine\\/electric vehicle. The basic requirements are that the battery be capable of supplying high-rate power pulses and of accepting high-rate charge pulses, both of short duration. The feasibility of developing a bipolar lead\\/acid battery system which conforms to these specifications was investigated by using

J. Giner; A. H. Taylor; F. Goebel

1971-01-01

451

A Hybrid Neural Model in Long-Term Electrical Load Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hierarchical hybrid neural model to the problem of long-term electrical load forecasting is proposed in this paper.\\u000a The neural model is made up of two self-organizing map nets — one on top of the other —, and a single-layer perceptron. It\\u000a has application into domains which require time series analysis. The model is compared to a multilayer perceptron.

Otávio Augusto S. Carpinteiro; Isa ´ ias Lima; Rafael C. Leme; Antonio C. Zambroni De Souza; Edmilson M. Moreira; Carlos A. M. Pinheiro

2006-01-01

452

Comparing DC-DC converters for power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of DC-DC converters for power electronic interfaces in power management systems for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a very challenging task. To this end, this paper presents an analysis, design, and comparison study of several bi-directional non-isolated DC-DC converter topologies that could be considered potential candidates for the power electronic interface of HEV energy\\/power sources, in particular an

R. M. Schupbach; J. C. Balda

2003-01-01

453

Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents transformerless multilevel converters as an application for high-power hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) make an HEV more accessible\\/safer and open wiring possible for most of an HEV's power system. The cascade inverter is

Leon M. Tolbert; Fang Zheng Peng; Tim Cunnyngham; John N. Chiasson

2002-01-01

454

Dynamic simulation for analysis of hybrid electric vehicle system and subsystem interactions, including power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can be classified into steady-state and dynamic models, according to their purpose. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysis. The information gained is helpful for assessing long-term behavior of the vehicle. Tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the short-term behavior of sublevel components. In this paper, a dynamic

Marco Amrhein; Philip T. Krein

2005-01-01

455

A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

Bauer, J. L.

1979-01-01

456

FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6Month Interim Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed

Barnitt

2010-01-01

457

Development of a high power lithium secondary battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium secondary battery (Type II cell) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) was developed on the basis of previous battery techniques (Type I cell with amorphous carbon\\/Li1+xMn2O4). It used an improved cathode material and more advanced electrolyte. Cell performances of the Type II cell were evaluated and compared with a Type I cell of the same cell size, i.e. 40?

J. Arai; T. Yamaki; S. Yamauchi; T. Yuasa; T. Maeshima; T. Sakai; M. Koseki; T. Horiba

2005-01-01

458

Control system and dynamic model validation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC-induction

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; R. C. Baraszu; B. K. Powell

1999-01-01

459

Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements.

Saakes, Michel; Kluiters, Edwin; Schmal, Dick; Mourad, Salem; ten Have, Peter T. J. H.

460

Thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy nanocomposites with thermally reduced graphene oxide-silica hybrid nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 1011 ? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m-1 K-1, which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m-1 K-1).We herein report on the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, which had enhanced thermal conductivities but were still electrical insulators, incorporating hybrid nanosheets (NSs) with sandwich structures composed of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) and silica. The silica layer covered the surface of the TRGO, hindering electrical conduction and effectively forming a 3D phonon transport channel that had a unique effect on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy matrix. A 1 wt% TRGO-silica NS epoxy nanocomposite maintained an electrical resistivity of 2.96 × 1011 ? cm, and its thermal conductivity was 0.322 W m-1 K-1, which is 61% higher than the conductivity of an epoxy nanocomposite without TRGO-silica NSs (0.2 W m-1 K-1). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01471a

Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Chiang, Jen-Chi; Ho, Kuan-Ku; Chou, Tsung-Yu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Li-Hsueh; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2013-06-01

461

Electric Field Distribution in Hybrid Solar Cells Comprising an Organic Donor Polymer and Amorphous Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the performance and analysis of hybrid solar cells comprising a planar heterojunction between between a conjugated donor polymer, P3HT or PCPDTBT, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A comparison of the modeled absorption spectra of the layer stack with the measured external quantum efficiency is used to investigate the contribution of the inorganic and organic material to the photocurrent generation in the device. Although both materials contribute to the photocurrent, the devices exhibit poor quantum efficiencies and low short circuit currents. Bandstructure simulations of the hybrid layer structure reveal that an unfavorable electric field distribution within the planar multilayer structure limits the performance. Using electroabsorption measurements we can show that the electric field is extremelyweak in the amorphous silicon but strong in the organic material. The situation changes drasticallywhen the conjugated polymer is p-doped. Doping not only increases the conductivity of the organic material, but also restores the electric field in the amorphous silicon layer. Optimized hybrid solar cells comprising thin doped P3HT layers exhibit energy conversion efficiencies (ECE) up to 2.8 %.

Schaefer, S.; Albrecht, S.; Neher, D.; Schulze, T. F.; Conrad, E.; Korte, L.; Rech, B.; Wördenweber, J.; Gordijn, A.; Scherf, U.; Dumsch, I.

2014-06-01

462

Electrochemical synthesis of CdTe/SWNT hybrid nanostructures and their tunable electrical and optoelectrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile electrodeposition technique was utilized to deposit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with cadmium telluride (CdTe) with well-controlled size, density, surface morphology, and composition. By controlling the applied charge, the morphology of these hybrid nanostructures was altered from CdTe nanoparticles on SWNTs to SWNT/CdTe core/shell nanostructures and the composition of the CdTe nanoparticles was altered from Te-rich (29 at% Cd) to Cd-rich (79 at% Cd) CdTe by adjusting the deposition potential. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of these hybrid nanostructures showed that photo-induced current can be tuned by tailoring the conductivity type (n-type or p-type), morphology, and size of the CdTe nanostructures, with a maximum photosensitivity (?I/I0) of about 30% for SWNT/Cd-rich CdTe (n-type) core/shell nanostructures. This work demonstrates a novel approach for synthesizing metal chalcogenide/SWNT hybrid nanostructures for various electrical and optoelectrical applications.A facile electrodeposition technique was utilized to deposit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with cadmium telluride (CdTe) with well-controlled size, density, surface morphology, and composition. By controlling the applied charge, the morphology of these hybrid nanostructures was altered from CdTe nanoparticles on SWNTs to SWNT/CdTe core/shell nanostructures and the composition of the CdTe nanoparticles was altered from Te-rich (29 at% Cd) to Cd-rich (79 at% Cd) CdTe by adjusting the deposition potential. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of these hybrid nanostructures showed that photo-induced current can be tuned by tailoring the conductivity type (n-type or p-type), morphology, and size of the CdTe nanostructures, with a maximum photosensitivity (?I/I0) of about 30% for SWNT/Cd-rich CdTe (n-type) core/shell nanostructures. This work demonstrates a novel approach for synthesizing metal chalcogenide/SWNT hybrid nanostructures for various electrical and optoelectrical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images and XRD patterns of undeposited SWNTs and SWNTs deposited with CdTe NPs are shown for comparison of surface morphology and structural property. In addition, photoresponse of undeposited SWNTs is shown as a reference. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33029f

Chang, Chong Hyun; Jung, Hyunsung; Rheem, Youngwoo; Lee, Kyu-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Chan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V.

2013-01-01

463

Neural Network Control of a Parallel Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, or reconnaissance (ISR). The benefits in...

F. G. Harmon A. A. Frank J. Chattot S. S. Joshi

2004-01-01

464

The affect of battery pack technology and size choices on hybrid electric vehicle performance and fuel economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a comparative study of three hybrid-electric vehicles, three powertrains per vehicle and three battery technologies to determine the optimum configuration required to maximize fuel economy and vehicle performance. The qualitative analysis discusses various design decisions and sets forth the advantages and disadvantages associated with different hybrid configurations. Numerous computer modeling simulations are performed to investigate the various

Robert C. Balch; Andy Burke; A. A. Frank

2001-01-01

465

Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Control System for Wind Farms Based on Flow Battery and Electric Double-Layer Capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy storage system (ESS) in a wind farm is required to be able to absorb wind power fluctuations during gusts, and improve the power quality and stability. This paper puts forward a flow-battery and electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) hybrid ESS to provide both large power and energy capacity. The hybrid ESS is connected to the point of common coupling.

Jia Hongxin; Fu Yang; Zhang Yu; He Weiguo

2010-01-01

466

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

467

Design and optimization of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power sources for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel Cell powered Hybrid electric Vehicles (FCHVs) are considered to be the most promising alternatives of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles. One of the most important research aspects of FCHVs is their hybrid power sources study; however, current research is insufficient and there are many open problems to be further studied, such as hybrid power sources topology analysis, vehicle power sources design and optimization, and related dynamic models construction. Also a powerful simulation package of FCHVs is indispensable to evaluate and support the related research. Addressing these problems, this dissertation carries out a series of studies step by step which includes the following three parts. The first part is focused on modeling electrochemical components. A novel fully dynamic lithium-ion battery model is developed, which accounts for battery nonlinear equilibrium potentials, rate- and temperature-dependencies, thermal effects and response to transient power demand. A multi-stage resistor capacitor ladder supercapacitor model is constructed with unique characteristics including automatic order selection and capacity scaling. In the modeling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, each component is first modeled separately, and then these modules are coupled together into an integrative unit. The second part concentrates on the study of hybrid power source topology analysis. Firstly, the concepts of passive hybrid and active hybrid are defined. Secondly, an active hybrid is constructed and explored through both experiments and simulations. Finally, the comparison of passive and active hybrids, along with battery alone, is undertaken to study the performance extension of power sources using power converters. The study process is further extended and applied in hybrid power source design for FCHVs. In the third part, a complete simulation package for FCHVs is constructed in the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) computational environment. The modeling approach is forward looking (causal) and the system setup is modular, thus the package recognizes the dynamic interaction among different vehicle components and provides a powerful capability to simulate different topologies. After that, a novel 8-step energy component size determination and optimization method is proposed, which is based on the operation of the decreasing rearrangement distribution function of drive cycles.

Gao, Lijun

468

Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

469

Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine  

PubMed Central

In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

Bucak, Ihsan Omur

2010-01-01

470

Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.  

PubMed

In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion. PMID:22294906

Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

2010-01-01

471

Nanoscale investigation of the electrical properties in semiconductor polymer-carbon nanotube hybrid materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and electrical properties of hybrids of a semiconducting polymer (namely poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT) and carbon nanotubes are investigated at the nanoscale with a combination of Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques, i.e., Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) and time-resolved Current Sensing Force Spectroscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNA™). This allows us to probe the electrical properties of the 15 nm wide P3HT nanofibers as well as the interface between the polymer and single carbon nanotubes. This is achieved by applying controlled, low forces on the tip during imaging, which allows a direct comparison between the morphology and the electrical properties at the nanometre scale.The morphology and electrical properties of hybrids of a semiconducting polymer (namely poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT) and carbon nanotubes are investigated at the nanoscale with a combination of Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques, i.e., Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) and time-resolved Current Sensing Force Spectroscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNA™). This allows us to probe the electrical properties of the 15 nm wide P3HT nanofibers as well as the interface between the polymer and single carbon nanotubes. This is achieved by applying controlled, low forces on the tip during imaging, which allows a direct comparison between the morphology and the electrical properties at the nanometre scale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11888b

Desbief, Simon; Hergué, Noémie; Douhéret, Olivier; Surin, Mathieu; Dubois, Philippe; Geerts, Yves; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Leclère, Philippe

2012-03-01

472

Electrochemical synthesis of CdTe/SWNT hybrid nanostructures and their tunable electrical and optoelectrical properties.  

PubMed

A facile electrodeposition technique was utilized to deposit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with cadmium telluride (CdTe) with well-controlled size, density, surface morphology, and composition. By controlling the applied charge, the morphology of these hybrid nanostructures was altered from CdTe nanoparticles on SWNTs to SWNT/CdTe core/shell nanostructures and the composition of the CdTe nanoparticles was altered from Te-rich (29 at% Cd) to Cd-rich (79 at% Cd) CdTe by adjusting the deposition potential. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of these hybrid nanostructures showed that photo-induced current can be tuned by tailoring the conductivity type (n-type or p-type), morphology, and size of the CdTe nanostructures, with a maximum photosensitivity (?I/I(0)) of about 30% for SWNT/Cd-rich CdTe (n-type) core/shell nanostructures. This work demonstrates a novel approach for synthesizing metal chalcogenide/SWNT hybrid nanostructures for various electrical and optoelectrical applications. PMID:23334800

Chang, Chong Hyun; Jung, Hyunsung; Rheem, Youngwoo; Lee, Kyu-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Chan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V

2013-02-21

473

Plug-in connector socket accepts coaxial cable end  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connector which includes a spring-loaded contact to receive a protruding center conductor and an internal collet to clamp against a collar attached to a woven outer conductor, is used as a receptacle for the end of a coaxial cable. This plug-in connector socket is used successfully with remote manipulators.

Mitchell, D.; Van Loon, J.

1966-01-01

474

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

475

FeaturePlugin: feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature modeling is a key technique used in product-line development to model commonalities and variabilities of product-line members. In this paper, we present FeaturePlugin, a feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse. The tool supports cardinality-based feature modeling, specialization of feature diagrams, and configuration based on feature diagrams.

Michal Antkiewicz; Krzysztof Czarnecki

2004-01-01

476

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

477

Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The CMAC neural network approximates the hyper-plane generated from the instantaneous optimization algorithm and produces torque commands for the internal combustion engine and electric motor. The CMAC neural network controller saves on the required memory as compared to a large look-up table by two orders of magnitude. The CMAC controller also prevents the need to compute a hyper-plane or complex logic every time step.

Harmon, Frederick G.

478

Thermal Endurance, Electrical Insulating, and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Made with Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Tetraethoxysilane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the heat-resisting properties of a hybrid made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) through a sol-gel reaction. It is found that the hybrid with ratio TEOS/PDMS = 10 shows a weight loss of less than 3% after aging treatment at 200 °C for 480 h in air. The reason for the good thermal endurance property is that low-molecular-weight PDMS chains bond to the surfaces of silica derived from TEOS, leading to the suppression of the thermal decomposition of the chains. After the aging treatment, the mechanical properties of the elastic modulus and breaking stress are improved and elongation at breaking decreases. It is also found that the electrical insulating properties are stable upon aging treatment.

Okamoto, Tetsushi; Nakamura, Shuhei

2008-01-01

479

Design and Implementation of Virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulator for Educational Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this paper is to describe the development of an educational purpose computer-based simulator for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology. The tremendous capital investment, tedious and time-consuming tasks required to establish a full function of HEV laboratory are convincing evidence that the HEV curriculum is in need of a low-cost, computer-based virtual HEV simulator. An interactive, LabVIEW-based simulation software was developed for different configurations of hybrid powertrains under several driving conditions. The developed software is capable of simulating, illustrating and displaying (on the PC-based screen) the multiple energy flows in the HEV based on its configuration and driving conditions. The software integrated with actuator assembles the simulator which serves as a hands-on experience unit for multidiscipline students enrolled in the HEV technology courses. The virtual HEV simulator not only enhances the HEV training and education, but also increases studentsâ interest in the green movement of transportation.

College, Wayne S.

480

Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration; thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

Ma, Mei-Zhong; Zhu, Zheng-He; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Mao, Hua-Ping; Shen, Xiao-Hong

2005-06-01

481

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

Samuel C. Nelson

2002-01-01

482

Efficiency analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction motor-inverter drive for varied driving load demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well-understood fact that power electronic converters and electric propulsion motors are extremely critical for every hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. It is essential that the traction motor must meet demands of varied driving schedules, and at the same time, it should run at its most optimal operating points to achieve higher drive train efficiency. Therefore, modeling the

Xin Li; Sheldon S. Williamson

2008-01-01

483

Design considerations for high-voltage DC bus architecture and wire mechanization for hybrid and electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications high-voltage (HV) DC bus is shared by multiple power converter units and energy storage systems. Each of these components should meet a set of common HV bus design requirements besides their own functional requirements. Selection of an appropriate HV DC bus architecture is intertwined with control dynamics and filter component sizing, together with

Mohammad N. Anwar; Sean E. Gleason; Timothy M. Grewe

2010-01-01

484

A New Battery\\/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage System Design and Its Motor Drive Integration for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new energy storage system (ESS) design, including both batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle applications. The conventional designs require a DC-DC converter to interface the UC unit. Herein, the UC can be directly switched across the motor drive DC link during the peak power demands. The resulting wide voltage variation

Shuai Lu; Keith A. Corzine; Mehdi Ferdowsi

2007-01-01

485

Application of electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) propulsion system to a full-size passenger car with simulated design verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrically peaking hybrid electric (ELPH) propulsion system is being developed that has a parallel configuration. A small engine is used to supply power approximately equal to the average load power. The operation of the engine is managed by a vehicle controller and an engine controller such that the engine always operates with nearly full load-the optimal fuel economy operation.

Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; Karen L. Butler

1999-01-01

486

Electrical spin injection from an organic-based ferrimagnet in a hybrid organic/inorganic heterostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of organic-based magnets with room temperature magnetic ordering and semiconducting functionality promises to broaden the field of semiconductor spintronics, providing a route to all-organic spintronic devices and hybrid organic/inorganic structures capable of exploiting the multifunctionality and ease of production in organic systems as well as the well established spintronic functionality of inorganic materials. Our work demonstrates the successful extraction of spin polarized current from the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x (x˜2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene; TC > 400 K, EG ˜ 0.5 eV, ?˜ 10-2 S/cm) and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED) [1]. The spin current is detected by monitoring the polarization state of the photons emitted from the LED structure and tracks the magnetization of V[TCNE]x˜2, is weakly temperature dependent, and exhibits heavy hole / light hole asymmetry. This result opens the door to a new class of active, hybrid spintronic devices with multifunctional behavior defined by the optical, electronic and chemical sensitivity of the organic layer. In addition, spin transport in these hybrid structures provides the opportunity to leverage well-characterized inorganic materials as a probe of spin physics in organic and molecular systems and to explore the impact of the hybrid interface on spin injection efficiency. Initial studies exploring the impact of surface passivation of the inorganic layer with self-assembled monolayers of various chemistries will be presented, and additional experimental probes of the interfacial exchange interaction will be discussed. [4pt] [1] ``Electrical Spin Injection from an Organic-Based Ferrimagnet in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Heterostructure,'' Lei Fang, K. Deniz Bozdag, Chia-Yi Chen, P.A. Truitt, A.J. Epstein and E. Johnston-Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 156602 (2011).

Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

2012-02-01

487

Sources of variability and uncertainty in LCA of single wall carbon nanotubes for Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production alternatives for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) such as chemical vapor deposition, laser, arc and flame, vary widely in material and energy yields, catalyst requirements and product characteristics. The overall environmental profile must be assessed relative to performance in a specific end-use application, such as lithium ion batteries for electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles. Although in general SWCNT have several

Thomas P. Seager; Ryne P. Raffaelle; Brian J. Landi

2008-01-01

488

High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle  

DOEpatents

A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

2000-01-01

489

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

Not Available

1993-08-01

490

Adaptive Characterization and Modeling of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control and adaptive characterization of batteries or supercapacitors, which are central to the construction of electrochemical energy storage devices operating in hybrid electric vehicles, require that the state estimator forming the basis of the control system be informed by the underlying electrochemistry. In this chapter, we overview tools and methods useful for the integration of batteries and supercapacitors into HEV systems, with a focus on the construction of state estimators. The approach discussed may be viewed as combining electroanalytical procedures with formal controls methods.

Verbrugge, Mark W.

491

2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric