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1

Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the requirements for reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, automotive companies are developing electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of these environmentally friendlier vehicles and implementing the advanced electrical architectures to meet the demands for increased electric loads. In this paper, a brief review of the current trends

Ali Emadi; Young Joo Lee; Kaushik Rajashekara

2008-01-01

2

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

Not Available

2008-03-01

3

Design, demonstrations and sustainability impact assessments for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can draw and store energy from an electric grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. This simple functional change to the conventional hybrid electric vehicle allows a plug-in hybrid to displace petroleum energy with multi-source electrical energy. This has important and generally beneficial impacts on transportation energy sector petroleum

Thomas H. Bradley; Andrew A. Frank

2009-01-01

4

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

Yao, Yin

5

Aggregated Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Electricity Demand Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution i nu rban areas, and dependence on fossil fuels are among the challenges threatening the sustainable development of the transportation sector. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is one of the most promising solutions to tackle the situation. While PHEVs partially rely on electricity from the power grid, they raise concerns about their negative impacts

Zahra Darabi; Mehdi Ferdowsi

2011-01-01

6

Possible applications of plug-in hybrid electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the evolution of hybrid electric ships and the upcoming changes in hybrid electric propulsions by the addition of a battery based ESS. The inverter topology most suited for the expansion of the hybrid electric drive is the VSI inverter because this topology allows a DC\\/DC converter to control the power flow between the battery and the DC-bus

S. De Breucker; E. Peeters; J. Driesen

2009-01-01

7

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations opera...

J. E. Francfort

2009-01-01

8

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Locational Marginal Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the potential impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on locational marginal prices (LMPs). PHEVs are the next generation of hybrid electric vehicles with batteries that can be recharged by plugging into a standard electric power outlet. On the one hand, PHEVs produce less emissions, have higher mileage, and reduce dependency on foreign supplies of oil. On

Lizhi Wang

2008-01-01

9

Long-term electric system investments to support Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) represent a promising pathway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with the U.S. transportation sector. A large-scale shift from gasoline-powered automobiles to PHEVs would inextricably link the U.S. transportation system with its electric system. We build on [4] to perform a regional emissions analysis of a PHEV use pattern where PHEVs are charged at night

Seth Blumsack; Constantine Samaras; Paul Hines

2008-01-01

10

A Robust Optimization Approach for Planning the Transition to Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new technique to analyze the electricity and transport sectors within a single integrated frame- work to realize an environmentally and economically sustainable integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) into the electric grid, considering the most relevant planning uncertainties. The method isbased on a comprehensiverobust optimization plan- ning that considers the constraints of both the electricity

Amir H. Hajimiragha; Claudio A. Canizares; Michael W. Fowler; Somayeh Moazeni; Ali Elkamel

2011-01-01

11

Optimal energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A converted Toyota Prius 2007 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) uses additional large capacity battery, so that it can enhance the pure electric drivability and increase its electric range. To accomplish real time energy distribution management system in this PHEV, firstly, a specific model is established which contains most of the powertrain properties and partly vehicle dynamics. Secondly, an optimal

Xiao Lin; H. Banvait; S. Anwar; Yaobin Chen

2010-01-01

12

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid: Investigations Based on a Micro Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) could potentially trigger a stepwise electrification of the whole transportation sec- tor. But the impact on the electric grid by electrical vehicl e charging is still not fully known. This paper investigates several PHEV charging schemes, including smart charging, using a novel iterative approach. An agent based traffic demand model is used for

Rashid A. Waraich; Matthias D. Galus; Christoph Dobler; Michael Balmer; Göran Andersson; Kay W. Axhausen

13

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications

Sara Kathryn Mullen

2009-01-01

14

The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: a review and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that the more important question is “what impact will PHEVs have on distribution networks nationwide?”. This paper finds that the impact of

Robert C. Green II; Lingfeng Wang; Mansoor Alam

2010-01-01

15

The role of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in demand response and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the electric utility industry continues to move towards becoming more of a deregulated entity, demand response programs are playing a much larger role. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to increase the ability of residential customers to participate in demand response programs. However, there may need to be changes made in order to incorporate the spatially mobile

Megan Mallette; Giri Venkataramanan

2010-01-01

16

Modeling the prospects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models the CO2 emissions from electric (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and compares the results to published values for the CO2 emissions from conventional vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICE). PHEVs require fewer batteries than EVs which can make them lighter and more efficient than EVs. PHEVs can also operate their onboard ICEs more efficiently

Reed T. Doucette; Malcolm D. McCulloch

2011-01-01

17

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak

Stanton W Hadley; Alexandra A Tsvetkova

2008-01-01

18

Transient modeling of an integrated charger for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMSynRel) machine for an integrated charger application for use in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The integrated charger functionality means that the machine is also used when the battery is charged from the electrical grid. A finite element model (FEM) is presented from which a transient model of the complete

Shuang Zhao; Saeid Haghbin; Oskar Wallmark; Mats Leksell; Sonja Lundmark; Ola Carlson

2011-01-01

19

Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

Short, W.; Denholm, P.

2006-04-01

20

Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing Activities  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) testing in order to provide benchmark data for technology modeling and research and development programs, and to be an independent source of test data for fleet managers and other early adaptors of advanced-technology vehicles. To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 12 HEV models and accumulated 2.7 million fleet testing miles on 35 HEVs. The HEV baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed-track testing to document HEV performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model accumulate 160,000 test miles within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events and fuel use were recorded. Three models of PHEVs, from vehicle converters Energy CS and Hymotion and the original equipment manufacturer Renault, are currently in testing. The PHEV baseline performance testing includes 5 days of dynamometer testing with a minimum of 26 test drive cycles, including the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, and the US06 test cycle, in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The PHEV accelerated testing is conducted with dedicated drivers for 4,240 miles, over a series of 132 driving loops that range from 10 to 200 miles over various combinations of defined 10-mile urban and 10-mile highway loops, with 984 hours of vehicle charging. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Applications, with dynamometer testing conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

Donald Karner

2007-12-01

21

Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

2007-12-01

22

Preliminary Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged fr...

W. Short P. Denholm

2006-01-01

23

Effects of optimised plug-in hybrid vehicle charging strategies on electric distribution network losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution network operators (DNOs) require assessment tools on the tradeoffs plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) technology will have on their assets. This paper employs a time coordinated optimal power flow (TCOPF) formulation to show that, through the control of PHEV storage units and tap-changers (OLTCs), electric network operators can influence savings in energy losses. Case studies are performed in which PHEV

Salvador Acha; Tim C. Green; Nilay Shah

2010-01-01

24

Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into building energy management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart building and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) are two promising emerging technologies. The integration of these two technologies shows great promise in reinforcing the reliability and flexibility in building energy management. The control challenge of the smart building is to maximize the customer comfort with minimum power consumption. Multi-agent technology with particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been proposed

Zhu Wang; Lingfeng Wang; Anastasios I. Dounis; Rui Yang

2011-01-01

25

Evaluating the impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on composite power system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a matter of pressing importance for modern society. One method that has been suggested for mitigating the role that fossil fuel based transportation plays in this issue is the introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) in order to electrify the transportation sector. While these vehicles would have a significant impact in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs), they

Robert C. Green II; Lingfeng Wang; Mansoor Alam; Soma Shekara Sreenadh Reddy Depuru

2011-01-01

26

Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

27

A novel bidirectional battery energy controller for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the conventional Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the Plug-in HEV (PHEV) has the battery with higher capacity, which could be charged from power grid. It brings the importance for battery charge and discharge technique. In the paper, a bidirectional battery energy controller for the PHEV is introduced, which could not only charge the battery efficiently, but also discharge the

Zheng Chen; Hui Lin; Bingqiang Li; Rong Qi

2011-01-01

28

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden

S.-L. Andersson; A. K. Elofsson; M. D. Galus; L. Göransson; S. Karlsson; F. Johnsson; G. Andersson

2010-01-01

29

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would

Stanton W. Hadley; Stanton W

2006-01-01

30

The issue of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' grid integration and its control solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a bi-directional battery charger is applied as an interface between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and the grid. The major issue of using power electronics interface for grid integration of PHEVs is high frequency resonance. This resonance is caused by a high order filter, which is composed of the charger's LC filter and the grid impedance. An active

Xiaohu Zhou; Jun Li; Zhigang Liang; A. Huang; S. Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

31

Universal utility interface for Plug-in Hybrid electric vehicles with vehicle-to-grid functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel topology for Electrical Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles with controllable power factor with 3-phase input and unity power factor with single phase input. The proposed on-board topology provides bidirectional power flow to\\/from the grid, low weight, low volume, and isolation. A control scheme is devised and a complete simulation of power control is performed

Nathan D. Weise; Krushna K. Mohapatra; Ned Mohan

2010-01-01

32

Impact of driving cycles and all-electric range on plug-in hybrid vehicle component size and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHEV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) are developing quickly for their outstanding advantages. Their potential cost which is highly linked to the configuration of PHEV, including components size and hybrid types. This study focuses on the impact of driving cycle, most daily trips demand, hybrid types and control patterns on the electric system. Based on series hybrid architecture, several vehicles were

Li Yufang; Zhou Lili

2009-01-01

33

Development of a hardware in-the-loop platform for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the system dynamics and verify the control strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), this paper studied the techniques for developing a real-time PHEV simulator and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform. For PHEV modeling, a graphical program was constructed. Subsystems of a PHEV include: driving cycles, driver's behavior, the SI engine, the traction motor, the high-power lithium battery,

Yi-Hsuan Hung; Chien-Hsun Wu; Shih-Ming Lo; Bing-Ren Chen; E-In Wu; Pin-Yung Chen

2010-01-01

34

Power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using neural network based trip modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a next-generation HEV with great promise of higher fuel economy. Global optimization charge-depletion power management would be desirable. This has so far been hampered due to the a priori nature of the trip information and the almost prohibitive computational cost of global optimization techniques such as dynamic programming

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhongren Peng

2009-01-01

35

Integrated Power Electronics Interface for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), the battery system would be recharged from the AC grid at home or at work and would thus allow for a reduction in the overall fuel consumption. This paper proposes an advanced power electronics interface (APEI) for PHEV applications, which mainly comprises a Bidirectional Multi-Device Interleaved Converter (BMDIC) and Eight-Switch Inverter (ESI), in order

Omar Hegazy; Joeri Van Mierlo; Philippe Lataire; Mohamed El Baghdadi

2012-01-01

36

ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This addendum adds to the analysis of 'An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles' (D M Lemoine et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014003) to the case of all-electric vehicles (EVs). We pay particular attention to grid impacts, break-even battery costs, and the three ways in which EVs could dramatically change the results we obtained for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Lemoine, Derek M.; Kammen, Daniel M.

2009-07-01

37

The Challenges and Policy Options for Integrating Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle into the Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle may be prime candidates for the next generation of vehicles, but they offer several technological and economical challenges. This article assesses current progress in PHEV technology, market trends, research needs, challenges ahead and policy options for integrating PHEVs into the electric grid.

Anurag K. Srivastava; Bharath Annabathina; Sukumar Kamalasadan

2010-01-01

38

In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate methodology for characterization of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), taking into account gasoline and electricity consumption and emissions associated with each. Field measurements were made of a Toyota Prius with 1.5 liter gasoline engine, Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) system with an original battery, and retrofitted Hymotion plug-in system with a second

H. Christopher Frey; Hyung-Wook Choi; Ewan Pritchard; Josh Lawrence

39

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing the share of driving on electricity that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles might exhibit, thus reducing their gasoline consumption. Vehicle activity data obtained from a global positioning system tracked household travel survey in Austin, Texas, is used to estimate gasoline and electricity consumptions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Drivers within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger availability, is modeled. It is found that public charging offers greater fuel savings for hybrid electric vehicles s equipped with smaller batteries, by encouraging within-day recharge, and providing an extensive public charging service is expected to reduce plug-in hybrid electric vehicles gasoline consumption by more than 30% and energy cost by 10%, compared to the scenario of home charging only.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

40

40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. 600.308-12 Section 600.308-12...GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12...requirementsâplug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Fuel economy labels for...

2013-07-01

41

Scenario-Based Analysis on the Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles' (PHEV) Penetration into the Transportation Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the improved awareness of negative environmental impact from traditional automobile fuel consumption and the fluctuating increase of gas price, fuel demand and supply in the transportation sector and strategies of securing it has gained governmental and public attentions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), as an alternative to the conventional vehicles, become appealing. A PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle

Ye Li

2007-01-01

42

Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Analysis and Rationale (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Slide presentation to EVS-23 conference describing NREL work to help identify appropriate requirements for batteries to be useful for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). Suggested requirements were submitted to the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium, which used them for a 2007 request for proposals. Requirements were provided both for charge-depleting mode and charge-sustaining mode and for high power/energy ratio and hige energy/power ration batteries for each (different modes of PHEV operation), along with battery and system level requirements.

Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01

43

Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

2009-05-01

44

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect

The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

James E. Francfort

2009-07-01

45

Optimal Transition to Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Ontario-Canada Considering the Electricity Grid Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the feasibility of optimally utilizing Ontario's grid potential for charging Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) during off-peak periods. Based on a simplified zonal model of Ontario's electricity transmission network and a zonal pattern of base-load generation capacity from 2009 to 2025, an optimization model is developed to find the optimal as well as maximum penetrations of PHEVs

Amirhossein Hajimiragha; Claudio A. Ca; Michael W. Fowler; Ali Elkamel

2009-01-01

46

Optimal Transition to Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Ontario, Canada, Considering the Electricity-Grid Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the feasibility of optimally utilizing Ontario's grid potential for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) during off-peak periods. Based on a simplified zonal model of Ontario's electricity-transmission network and a zonal pattern of base-load generation capacity from 2009 to 2025, an optimization model is developed to find the optimal, as well as maximum, penetrations of PHEVs into

Amirhossein Hajimiragha; C. A. Caizares; Michael W. Fowler; Ali Elkamel

2010-01-01

47

Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

2009-05-01

48

Energy-Optimal Control of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Real-World Driving Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are cur- rently recognized as a promising solution for reducing fuel con- sumption and emissions due to the ability of storing energy through direct connection to the electric grid. Such benefits can be achieved only with a supervisory energy management strategy that optimizes the energy utilization of the vehicle. This control problem is particularly challenging

Stephanie Stockar; Vincenzo Marano; Marcello Canova; Giorgio Rizzoni; Lino Guzzella

2011-01-01

49

Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

2013-06-01

50

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

2006-11-01

51

Trip based optimal power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gas-kinetic traffic flow model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, is considered a next-generation hybrid electric vehicles with great promise of higher fuel economy. The charge-depletion mode is more appropriate for the power management of PHEV, i.e. the state of charge (SOC) is expected to drop to a low threshold when the vehicle reaches the destination of the trip. Global

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2008-01-01

52

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-01-01

53

Impacts of plug-in hybrid vehicles and combined heat and power technologies on electric and gas distribution network losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution network operators (DNOs) require strategies that can offset the tradeoffs new embedded technologies have on their assets. This paper employs modelling to show that through control device manipulation, gas and electric (G&E) network operators can influence savings in energy losses under the presence of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) and combined heat and power technologies (CHPs). An integrated gas and

Salvador Acha; Tim C. Green; Nilay Shah

2009-01-01

54

Performance Evaluation of an EDA-Based Large-Scale Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticipation of a large penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) into the market brings up many technical problems that need to be addressed. In the near future, a large number of PHEVs in our society will add a large-scale energy load to our power grids, as well as add substantial energy resources that can be utilized. An emerging

Wencong Su; Mo-Yuen Chow

2012-01-01

55

Maximizing societal benefits associated with alternative fuel subsidies: The case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have many societal benefits, including improving energy security, economic, environmental, and health benefits. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the location of PHEV deployment. This paper develops and applies a methodology for ranking regions throughout the U.S. based on PHEV benefits. The independent variables in this ranking method include population density, health benefits from

Samir M. Nazir

2010-01-01

56

Grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems with Plug-In Hybrid electric Vehicles(PHEV) as energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach for the control and optimization of power flow by integrating Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system. Optimization of Power flow reduces the dependency for electric power from the grid and control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered. The system built to achieve the goal is a

A. Nagarajan; W. Shireen

2010-01-01

57

Control and Power Management of a Grid Connected Residential Photovoltaic System with Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Load  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to design and analyze a residential photovoltaic system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load, in addition to regular residential requirements. This system is a combination of two subsystems which are cascaded through a DC link. First subsystem is the solar energy harvesting part with PV array, current controlled boost converter and maximum power

Yusuf Gurkaynak; Alireza Khaligh

2009-01-01

58

In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.  

PubMed

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO?, NO(x), SO?, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption. PMID:21902202

Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

2011-09-26

59

Power system modeling and performance evaluation of series\\/ parallel-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a simulator was built to simulate a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power system. Specifically, a model adopting a series\\/parallel hybrid system with a planetary gear mechanism was created. With this model, the impacts of the engine on\\/off control and drive distance on environmental performance were analyzed using a homologation driving schedule for Japan. It was proven

K. Ochiai; Y. Wada; Y. Kamiya; Y. Daisho; K. Morita

2010-01-01

60

Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability  

SciTech Connect

Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

61

The effect of communication architecture on the availability, reliability, and economics of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle-to-grid ancillary services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have proposed that fleets of plug-in hybrid vehicles could be used to perform ancillary services for the electric grid. In many of these studies, the vehicles are able to accrue revenue for performing these grid stabilization services, which would offset the increased purchase cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles. To date, all such studies have assumed a vehicle command architecture

Casey Quinn; Daniel Zimmerle; Thomas H. Bradley

2010-01-01

62

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel\\/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW

A. Elgowainy; A. Burnham; M. Wang; J. Molburg; A. Rousseau

2009-01-01

63

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use

A. Elgowainy; J. Han; L. Poch; M. Wang; A. Vyas; M. Mahalik; A. Rousseau

2010-01-01

64

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

2009-01-01

65

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a source of distributed frequency regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement to transform the North American power grid into a smart grid may be accomplished by expanding integrated sensing, communications, and control technologies to include every part of the grid to the point of end-use. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) provide an opportunity for small-scale distributed storage while they are plugged-in. With large numbers of PHEV and the communications and sensing associated with the smart grid, PHEV could provide ancillary services for the grid. Frequency regulation is an ideal service for PHEV because the duration of supply is short (order of minutes) and it is the highest priced ancillary service on the market offering greater financial returns for vehicle owners. Using Simulink a power system simulator modeling the IEEE 14 Bus System was combined with a model of PHEV charging and the controllers which facilitate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) regulation supply. The system includes a V2G controller for each vehicle which makes regulation supply decisions based on battery state, user preferences, and the recommended level of supply. A PHEV coordinator controller located higher in the system has access to reliable frequency measurements and can determine a suitable local automatic generation control (AGC) raise/lower signal for participating vehicles. A first step implementation of the V2G supply system where battery charging is modulated to provide regulation was developed. The system was simulated following a step change in loading using three scenarios: (1) Central generating units provide frequency regulation, (2) PHEV contribute to primary regulation analogous to generator speed governor control, and (3) PHEV contribute to primary and secondary regulation using an additional integral term in the PHEV control signal. In both cases the additional regulation provided by PHEV reduced the area control error (ACE) compared to the base case. Unique contributions resulting from this work include: (1) Studied PHEV energy systems and limitations on battery charging/discharging, (2) Reviewed standards for interconnection of distributed resources and electric vehicle charging [1], [2], (3) Explored strategies for distributed control of PHEV charging, (4) Developed controllers to accommodate PHEV regulation, and (5) Developed a simulator combining a power system model and PHEV/V2G components.

Mullen, Sara Kathryn

66

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : How does one determine their potential for reducing U.S. oil dependence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) ability to reduce U.S. gasoline use is difficult and complex. Although techniques have been proposed to estimate the vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) that can be electrified, these methods may be inadequate and\\/or inappropriate for early market introduction circumstances. Factors that must be considered with respect to the PHEV itself

Anant Vyas; Danilo Santini; Michael Duoba; Mark Alexander

2008-01-01

67

A novel grid-tied, solar powered residential home with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analyses of a grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV) system containing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) load is presented in this paper. In this system, PV arrays and battery packs are cascaded to supply power to the load. Solar energy is harvested by PV arrays, the terminal voltage of PV arrays is regulated by a DC\\/DC converter to

Yusuf Gurkaynak; Zhihao Li; Alireza Khaligh

2009-01-01

68

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

2010-02-01

69

Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory  

SciTech Connect

The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

2007-05-01

70

Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

Denholm, P.; Short, W.

2006-10-01

71

A rule-based energy management strategy for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) combine the power from an electric motor with that from an internal combustion engine to propel the vehicle. The HEV electric motor is typically powered by a battery pack through power electronics. The HEV battery is recharged either by the engine or from regenerative braking. The electric drive mode is very limited for an HEV due

H. Banvait; S. Anwar; Yaobin Chen

2009-01-01

72

Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found

Niklas Hartmann

2012-01-01

73

Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

PubMed

This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns. PMID:22568681

Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

2012-05-21

74

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Emissions Reduction Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine

David E Smith; Henning Lohse-Busch; David Kim Irick

2010-01-01

75

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 1: Analytical Development of Energy Management Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine

David E Smith; Henning Lohse-Busch; David Kim Irick

2010-01-01

76

Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles - A Vision for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the unique advantages of plug-in hybrid vehicles is their capability to integrate the transportation and electric power generation sectors in order to improve the efficiency, fuel economy, and reliability of both systems. This goal is performed via integration of the onboard energy storage units of plug-in vehicles with the power grid by power electronic converters and communication systems.

M. Ferdowsi

2007-01-01

77

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

2008-01-01

78

Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power systems with demand response and wind power.  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses a new unit commitment model which can simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). Four PHEV charging scenarios are simulated for the Illinois power system: (1) unconstrained charging, (2) 3-hour delayed constrained charging, (3) smart charging, and (4) smart charging with DR. The PHEV charging is assumed to be optimally controlled by the system operator in the latter two scenarios, along with load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs. The simulation results show that optimally dispatching the PHEV charging load can significantly reduce the total operating cost of the system. With DR programs in place, the operating cost can be further reduced.

Wang, J.; Liu, C.; Ton, D.; Zhou, Y.; Kim, J.; Vyas, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES); (ED); (Kyungwon Univ.)

2011-07-01

79

Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01

80

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions. By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consisten...

D. L. Greene K. R. Genung N. Miller R. D. Smith V. Marano

2008-01-01

81

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate

Karen R Sikes; Shaun Hinds; Stanton W Hadley; Ralph N McGill; Lawrence C Markel; Richard E Ziegler; David E Smith; Richard L Smith; David L Greene; Daniel L Brooks; Herman Wiegman; Nicholas Miller; Vincenzo Marano

2008-01-01

82

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Rep...

K. R. Genung L. C. Markel S. Hinds S. W. Hardley

2008-01-01

83

Battery, Ultracapacitor, Fuel Cell, and Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Electric, Hybrid Electric, Fuel Cell, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel economy and all-electric range (AER) of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are highly dependent on the onboard energy-storage system (ESS) of the vehicle. Energy-storage devices charge during low power demands and discharge during high power demands, acting as catalysts to provide energy boost. Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Increasing the AER of vehicles by 15%

Alireza Khaligh; Zhihao Li

2010-01-01

84

Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NOx emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NOx from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NOx emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

Thompson, Tammy M.; King, Carey W.; Allen, David T.; Webber, Michael E.

2011-04-01

85

Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

86

Maximizing Societal Benefits Associated With Alternative Fuel Subsidies: The Case of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Government seeks to improve the welfare of its citizenry and intervenes in marketplaces to maximize benefits when externalities are not captured. By analyzing how welfare changes from area to area across the country in response to the same intervention informs where government should act. This thesis analyzes the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have many societal benefits, including improving national security, economic, environmental, and health advantages. The magnitude and distribution of these benefits depends on where PHEVs are deployed. This thesis develops and applies a methodology to determine if the benefits from PHEV deployment vary across the country and for ranking regions where positive PHEV consequences are likely to be maximized. The metrics in this method are proxies of key variables which predict the level of benefits in a county from the deployment of a PHEV there; they include population, health benefits from reduced ozone concentration, vehicle miles traveled per capita, existence of non-federal policies, and CO 2 intensity of electricity. By shedding light on how benefits from PHEV deployment vary across counties, this thesis seeks to better inform where to enact government interventions to maximize the benefits of this technology.

Nazir, Samir M.

87

Load Frequency Control Method by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with LFC Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the power sector, total capacity of wind power generations has been increasing drastically. However, the wind power affects the power grid frequency and the tie-line flow adversely because of the instability of output. In particular, these problems become significant at nighttime when the capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) tends to be insufficient. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as environmentally friendly vehicles. The electric energy of PHEVs is charged mainly during nighttime. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate the LFC capacity in the nighttime. In this study, we propose a control method based on frequency characteristic of PHEV KPHEV, which is defined as a ratio of the change in charging power to the change in frequency. Area Requirement (AR) calculated by the LFC system is a required increment in generation; hence, we can also keep the balance of supply-and-demand by decreasing as much demand as AR. LFC signal fshift calculated by the following equation fshift = -AR/KPHEV is transmitted to all PHEVs in the area; then, PHEVs control the charging power on the basis of input signal. We evaluated the proposed control method by using an interconnected 2-area model and obtained the following results. Charging power control based on the proposed method can effectively suppress the tie-line flow deviation and it could substitute for LFC capacity.

Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

88

The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates.  

SciTech Connect

This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various PHEV charge-depleting (CD) ranges were evaluated, and 100% CD mode and potential blended modes were analyzed. The NHTS data were also examined to evaluate the potential for PHEV battery charging multiple times a day. Data from the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS) were analyzed to evaluate the availability of garages and carports for at-home charging of the PHEV battery. The AHS data were also reviewed by census region and household location within or outside metropolitan statistical areas. To illustrate the lag times involved, the historical new vehicle market share increases for the diesel power train in France (a highly successful case) and the emerging hybrid electric vehicles in the United States were examined. A new vehicle technology substitution model is applied to illustrate a historically plausible successful new PHEV market share expansion. The trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle sales and light-duty vehicle stock were evaluated to estimate the time required for hypothetical successful new PHEVs to achieve the ultimately attainable share of the existing vehicle stock. Only when such steps have been accomplished will the full oil savings potential for the nation be achieved.

Vyas, A. D.; Santini, D. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

2009-01-01

89

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study. Interim Report: Phase 1 Scenario Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sentech, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, General Electric Global Research, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Center for Automotive Research at Ohio State University have completed Phase 1 of an in-depth study that investigates the benefits, ...

2009-01-01

90

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

91

Computationally efficient optimal power management for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on spatial-domain two-scale dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), utilizing more battery power, has become a next-generation HEV with great promise of higher fuel economy. Global optimization charge-depletion power management would be desirable. This has so far been hampered due to the a priori nature of the trip information and the almost prohibitive computational cost of global optimization techniques such as dynamic programming

Qiuming Gong; Yaoyu Li; Zhong-Ren Peng

2008-01-01

92

A zero voltage switching full-bridge DC-DC converter with capacitive output filter for a plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle battery charger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel zero voltage switching full-bridge converter with trailing edge pulse width modulation and capacitive output filter is presented. The target application for this work is the second stage dc-dc converter in a two stage 1.65 kW on-board charger for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). For this application the design objective is to achieve high efficiency

Deepak Gautam; Fariborz Musavi; Murray Edington; Wilson Eberle; William G. Dunford

2012-01-01

93

A novel design and feasibility analysis of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are receiving global attention, stimulated by the urgent need for more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, current challenges for fuel cells such as high cost, sizing problem, and limited driving range, greatly affect the pace of FCV development. At the same time, domestic and renewable energy resource usage is frequently being encouraged for future electric propulsion

Di Wu; Sheldon S. Williamson

2008-01-01

94

Gaining vehicle-to-grid benefits with unidirectional electric and plug-in hybrid vehicle chargers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to confirm that unidirectional power flow, given a significant penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), is sufficient to provide a utility with reactive power support and other vehicle-to-grid benefits. This work addresses the reactive power support capability of unidirectional chargers and power demand scheduling schemes aimed at minimizing peak loading on a distribution feeder due

Mcdavis A. Fasugba; Philip T. Krein

2011-01-01

95

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31

96

Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the earlier term than that on short-term economic basis. The costs in the accelerated term are higher, but the introduction costs in the later terms are cheaper by learning curve. This paper focuses on the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The ways to derive the results on short-term economic basis and the results on long-term economic basis are shown. The result of short-term behaviors can be derived by using the iteration method in which the battery costs in every term are adjusted to the learning curve. The result of long-term behaviors can be derived by seeking to the way where the amount of battery capacity is increased. We also estimate that how much subsidy does it need to get close to results on the long-term economic basis when social behavior is on the short-term economic basis. We assume subsidy for PHEV's initial costs, which can be financed by charging fee on petroleum consumption. In that case, there is no additional cost in the system. We show that the greater the total amount of money to that subsidy is, the less the amount of both CO2 emissions and system costs.

Shinoda, Yukio; Yabe, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

97

Simulating the potential effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the energy budget and tax revenues for Onondaga County, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My objectives were to predict the energetic effects of a large increase in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and their implications on fuel tax collections in Onondaga County. I examined two alternative taxation policies. To do so, I built a model of county energy consumption based on prorated state-level energy consumption data and census data. I used two scenarios to estimate energy consumption trends over the next 30 years and the effects of PHEV on energy use and fuel tax revenues. I found that PHEV can reduce county gasoline consumption, but they would curtail fuel tax revenues and increase residential electricity demand. A one-cent per VMT tax on PHEV users provides insufficient revenue to replace reduced fuel tax collection. A sales tax on electricity consumption generates sufficient replacement revenue at low PHEV market shares. However, at higher shares, the tax on electricity use would exceed the current county tax rate. Keywords: electricity, energy, gasoline, New York State, Onondaga County, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, transportation model, tax policy

Balogh, Stephen B.

98

Plug-In Hybrid Market Transformation by Leveraging a Niche Market: School Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like with the passenger car and transit bus markets, school buses can benefit from plug-in hybrid technology. Advanced energy corporation established the plug-in hybrid electric school bus (HESB) project to create the demand for plug-in hybrid school buses required for a bus manufacturer to invest in the development of this technology. Nationwide 12 school districts in NY, PA, VA, DC,

Sadia Sadiq; Ewan Pritchard; Ken Dulaney; Ali Emadi

2007-01-01

99

Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

2010-05-01

100

Transportation options in a carbon-constrained world: Hybrids, plug-in hybrids, biofuels, fuel cell electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple alternative vehicle and fuel options are being proposed to alleviate the threats of climate change, urban air pollution, and oil dependence caused by the transportation sector. We report here on the results from an extensive computer model developed over the last decade to simulate and compare the societal benefits of deploying various alternative transportation options including hybrid electric vehicles

C. E. Sandy Thomas

2009-01-01

101

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

102

Evaluation of Expanded Allowable Capacity of Wind Power in Power Systems by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the total capacity of wind power plants connected to power grid has increased drasticaly. However, intermittent output of wind power affect the frequency of the power system. In the night-time the capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) tends to be insufficient. On the other hand, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are being developed as environment-friendly vehicles. PHEV is a kind of hybrid electric vehicles that can be charged from power grid. The batteries of PHEVs are charged mainly in night-time. In this paper, the authors proposed the charge control of batteries for PHEVs that compensate the capacity of LFC in the night-time and evaluated the allowable capacity of wind power generations in the penetration scenarios of PHEVs in three areas in Japan. The charge of the batteries was based on driving patterns of passenger vehicles and charging patterns in the night-time that the authors analyzed in this paper. Thereafter, charge control for PHEVs was simulated using transfer fanction models. The authors conducted the simulations and obtained the following results. (1) Charge control for PHEVs can suppress the frequency deviation caused by short period fluctuation of wind power. (2) Charge control for PHEVs including optimal scheduling of charging electric energy with centralized control would suppress the frequency deviation more efficiently than charge control without optimal scheduling.

Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji

103

Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

2006-11-01

104

Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

2010-01-01

105

Within-Day Recharge of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Energy Impact of Public Charging Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the role of public charging infrastructure in increasing PHEV s share of driving on electricity and the resulting petroleum use reduction. Using vehicle activity data obtained from the GPS-tracking household travel survey in Austin, Texas, gasoline and electricity consumptions of PHEVs in real world driving context are estimated. Driver s within-day recharging behavior, constrained by travel activities and public charger network, is modeled as a boundedly rational decision and incorporated in the energy use estimation. The key findings from the Austin dataset include: (1) public charging infrastructure makes PHEV a competitive vehicle choice for consumers without a home charger; (2) providing sufficient public charging service is expected to significantly reduce petroleum consumption of PHEVs; and (3) public charging opportunities offer greater benefits for PHEVs with a smaller battery pack, as within-day recharges compensate battery capacity.

Dong, Jing [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

2012-01-01

106

Comprehensive Well to Wheel Analysis for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. In doing so, it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil. This paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. LDV stock that could potentially be supported by the existing infrastructure, based on the 12 modified North American Electric Reliability Council regions, as of 2002. For the United States as a whole, about 70% of LDV fleet in the U.S. could be supported by the existing infrastructure with some degree of load management. This has an estimated gasoline displacement potential of 6.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or approximately 52% of the nation's oil imports. The paper also discusses the impact on overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a few hundred power plants. Overall, PHEVs could reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix. Total NOX emissions may or may not increase, dependent on the use of coal generation in the region. Any additional SO2 emissions associated with the expected increase in generation from coal power plants would need to be cleaned up to meet the existing SO2 emissions constraints. Particulate emissions would increase in 8 of the 12 regions. The emissions in urban areas are found to improve across all pollutants and regions as the emission sources shift from millions of tailpipes to a smaller number of large power plants in less-populated areas. This paper concludes with a discussion about possible grid impacts as a result of the PHEV load as well as the likely impacts on the plant and technology mix of future generation-capacity expansions.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Schneider, Kevin P.

2008-09-19

107

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions/Business Model for Further Study  

SciTech Connect

The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007 served as the Task 1 Milestone for this study. Feedback from all five Workshop breakout sessions has been documented in a Workshop Summary Report, which can be found at www.sentech.org/phev. In this report, the project team compiled and presented a comprehensive list of potential value propositions that would later serve as a 'grab bag' of business model components in Task 2. After convening with the Guidance and Evaluation Committee and other PHEV stakeholders during the Workshop, several improvements to the technical approach were identified and incorporated into the project plan to present a more realistic and accurate case study and evaluation. The assumptions and modifications that will have the greatest impact on the case study selection process in Task 2 are described in more detail in this deliverable. The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with input from the Committee) has defined as its primary scenario to be tested in depth for the remainder of Phase 1. Plans for the second and third highest priority/probability business scenarios are also described in this deliverable as proposed follow up case studies in Phase 2. As part of each case study description, the proposed utility system (or subsystem), PHEV market segment, and facilities/buildings are defined.

Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.

2008-04-01

108

Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles  

SciTech Connect

As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

2010-01-01

109

Impact-analysis of the charging of plug-in hybrid vehicles on the production park in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal combustion engines (ICE) are combined with electric motors and batteries in both hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to improve efficiency and achieve a limited all electric range. This paper determines the electrical power required for charging a fleet of PHEVs in Belgium. A stochastic model based on the driving behavior of Western European drivers,

Frederik Geth; Koen Willekens; Kristien Clement; Johan Driesen; Sven De Breucker

2010-01-01

110

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2011-01-01

111

One million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is mentioned that one million plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles will be on the road by 2015 in United States to reduce emission. If one million electric vehicles (EVs) are connected to the existing electric grid randomly, peak load will be very high. Electrified transportation based on a traditional thermal power system will be costly economically and environmentally though

Ahmed Yousuf Saber; Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy

2009-01-01

112

Potential impacts assessment of plug-in electric vehicles on the Portuguese energy market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which obtain their fuel from the grid by charging a battery, are set to be introduced into the mass market and expected to contribute to oil consumption reduction. In this research, scenarios for 2020 EVs penetration and charging profiles are studied integrated with different hypotheses for electricity production mix. The impacts

C. Camus; T. Farias; J. Esteves

2011-01-01

113

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: A Practical Plan for Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines public policies toward Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), taking into account the promise and limitations of PEVs, recent improvements in battery technology, market dynamics, and the proliferation of policies around the world that prom...

2011-01-01

114

Real-time optimal control of plug-in hybrid vehicles with trip preview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global optimal solutions of energy management of hybrid electric vehicles depend on future driving conditions. This paper investigates a potential real-time methodology to integrate long-horizon preview information for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Equivalent Fuel Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is deployed as an instantaneous real-time minimization strategy with parameters adjusted by estimated future driving conditions and obtained either from Dynamic Programming

Chen Zhang; A. Vahid

2010-01-01

115

Integrating plug-in electric vehicles into the electric power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and plug-in battery-only electric vehicles (EVs)---collectively termed plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)---could be successfully integrated with the electric power system. The research addresses issues at a diverse range of levels pertaining to light-duty vehicles, which account for the majority of highway vehicle miles traveled, energy consumed by highway travel modes, and carbon dioxide emissions from on-road sources. Specifically, the following topics are investigated: (i) On-board power electronics topologies for bidirectional vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle power transfer; (ii) The estimation of the electric energy and power consumption by fleets of light-duty PEVs; (iii) An operating framework for the scheduling and dispatch of electric power by PEV aggregators; (iv) The pricing of electricity by PHEV aggregators and how it affects the decision-making process of a cost-conscious PHEV owner; (v) The impacts on distribution systems from PEVs under aggregator control; (vi) The modeling of light-duty PEVs for long-term energy and transportation planning at a national scale.

Wu, Di

116

Hybrid electric vehicle commercialization issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. One of the largest issues in commercializing hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the cost and life of the batteries. This is particularly true with plug-in HEVs that can provide all-electric operation for a given range. In this study, various hybrid electric vehicle configurations were analyzed for battery size, cost and predicted battery life. Battery

L. Browning; S. Unnasch

2001-01-01

117

Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

None

2010-09-14

118

Evaluation of energy consumption, emissions and cost of plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are gaining attention over the world due to their ability to reduce gasoline\\/diesel consumption by using electricity from the grid. Despite the efforts of Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J1711, it has not yet been established a worldwide methodology for calculation of fuel consumption and emission factors when regarding emission standards, with distinct driving

Carla Silva; Marc Ross; Tiago Farias

2009-01-01

119

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Not Available

2011-09-01

120

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

Markel, T.

2010-04-01

121

Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need to explore path dependence of aging processes in batteries developed for long-term usage, such as lithium-ion cells used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) applications that may then be “retired” to be utilized in grid applications. To better understand the foremost influences on path dependence in the PHEV context, this work

Kevin L. Gering; Sergiy V. Sazhin; David K. Jamison; Christopher J. Michelbacher; Bor Yann Liaw; Matthieu Dubarry; Mikael Cugnet

2011-01-01

122

Economic Assessment and Impacts Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities And Regional U.S. Power Grids  

SciTech Connect

Part 2 provides an economic assessment of the impacts of PHEV adoption on vehicle owners and on electric utilities. The paper finds favorable impacts on LCC to vehicle owners, and average costs of power for both types of utilities.

Scott, Michael J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Elliott, Douglas B.; Warwick, William M.

2007-01-31

123

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS PART 1: TECHNICAL ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. This would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the

Michael Kintner-Meyer; Kevin Schneider; Robert Pratt

2007-01-01

124

Self-learning control system for plug-in hybrid vehicles  

DOEpatents

A system is provided to instruct a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle how optimally to use electric propulsion from a rechargeable energy storage device to reach an electric recharging station, while maintaining as high a state of charge (SOC) as desired along the route prior to arriving at the recharging station at a minimum SOC. The system can include the step of calculating a straight-line distance and/or actual distance between an orientation point and the determined instant present location to determine when to initiate optimally a charge depleting phase. The system can limit extended driving on a deeply discharged rechargeable energy storage device and reduce the number of deep discharge cycles for the rechargeable energy storage device, thereby improving the effective lifetime of the rechargeable energy storage device. This "Just-in-Time strategy can be initiated automatically without operator input to accommodate the unsophisticated operator and without needing a navigation system/GPS input.

DeVault; Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-12-14

125

System architecture of a modular direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging technology in the market and are helping to offset the negative effects of existing transportation methods that primarily rely on fossil fuel sources. As PHEVs are being introduced into the market, renewable energy sources such as solar power are taking a larger part in the energy sector. A need for high efficiency

Christopher Hamilton; Gustavo Gamboa; John Elmes; Ross Kerley; Andres Arias; Michael Pepper; John Shen; Issa Batarseh

2010-01-01

126

Assessment of the Impact of Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) present environ- mental and energy security advantages versus conventional gasoline vehicles. In the near future, the number of plug-in electric vehicles will likely grow significantly in the world. Despite the aforementioned advantages, the connection of PEV to the power grid poses a series of new challenges for electric utilities. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for

Luis Pieltain Fernandez; Tomás Gomez San Roman; Rafael Cossent; Carlos Mateo Domingo; Pablo Frias

2011-01-01

127

A plug-in hybrid “Blue-Angel III” for vehicle to grid system with a wireless grid interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle to grid (V2G) concept is becoming increasingly popular, but it essentially requires some form of a power interface between the electric vehicle (EV) and the grid. In contrast to wired power interfaces, a user-friendly and secure wireless interfaces with no physical contacts are preferable. This paper presents a V2G system that comprises of a plug-in hybrid vehicle, called Blue-Angel

Vinzenz V. Haerri; Udaya K. Madawala; D. J. Thrimawithana; R. Arnold; A. Maksimovic

2010-01-01

128

Modeling and evaluation of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell shuttle bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin acquired a plug-in hybrid fuel cell bus for demonstration and model development under a program funded through the USDOT-FTA. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance and use of the bus while developing a model that could predict overall performance and energy consumption on daily driving

C. S. Hearn; M. C. Lewis; R. C. Thompson; R. G. Longoria

2009-01-01

129

Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

2013-03-01

130

Predicting the Market Potential of Plug-In Electric Vehicles Using Multiday GPS Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed GPS data for a years worth of travel by 255 households from the Seattle area were used to investigate how plug-in electric vehicle types may affect adoption rates and use levels. The results suggest that a battery-electric vehicle (BEV) with 100 ...

K. Kockelman M. Khan

2011-01-01

131

Load rates of low voltage transformers and medium voltage profile assessments on a real distribution electric grid based on average Daily Load Profile (DLP) of a housing for a high penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact of PHEVs on a real medium voltage distribution electric grid based on average Daily Loads Profiles (DLPs) of a PHEV and of a housing. For three penetration rates, we show the important effects on load rates of low voltage transformers which compose the studied urban substation. Nevertheless, we demonstrate the robustness of medium voltage electric

H. Turker; A. Florescu; S. Bacha; D. Chatroux

2011-01-01

132

Dynamic competition between plug-in hybrid and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for personal transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of the diffusion of hydrogen cars in the market, particularly the competition with electric cars for the replacement of conventional vehicles. Using the multi-technological competition model developed by Le Bas and Baron-Sylvester’s (Diffusion technologique non binaire et schéma épidémiologique. Une reconsidération. Economie Appliquée 1995; tome XLVIII(3):71–101), it is shown that the early deployment of plug-in

Nuno Bento

2010-01-01

133

Impacts of battery charging rates of Plug-in Electric Vehicle on smart grid distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) will be an integral part of smart grids in the near future. This paper studies the impacts of different PEV battery charging profiles on the performance of smart grid distribution systems. PEVs are already growing in popularity as a low emission mode of transport versus conventional petroleum based vehicles. Utilities are becoming concerned about the potential

Amir S. Masoum; Sara Deilami; Paul S. Moses; A. Abu-Siada

2010-01-01

134

An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

2013-01-01

135

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

136

Batteries and Ultracapacitors for Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of batteries and ultracapacitors in electric energy storage units for battery powered (EV) and charge sustaining and plug-in hybrid-electric (HEV and PHEV) vehicles have been studied in detail. The use of IC engines and hydrogen fuel cells as the primary energy converters for the hybrid vehicles was considered. The study focused on the use of lithium-ion batteries and

Andrew F. Burke

2007-01-01

137

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

1981-01-01

138

Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

Trowler, Derik Wesley

139

Impacts of plug-in vehicles and distributed storage on electric power delivery networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses studies funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) via SunPower, Inc. and the California Energy Commission (CEC), performed by New Power Technologies and Optimal Technologies that showed that high-penetrations of distribution-connected storage devices or plug-in vehicles can have adverse grid impacts due to their charging loads. Randomly-located or unmanaged additions, such as plug-in vehicles, can also

Peter B. Evans; S. Kuloor; B. Kroposki

2009-01-01

140

Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to...

D. Hochard J. Francfort J. Wishart K. Morrow

2011-01-01

141

Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start\\/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

Zhiming Gao; Veerathu K Chakravarthy; C Stuart Daw

2011-01-01

142

Analysis of adverse effects on vehicle performance due to deterioration in capacity of batteries installed in plug-in hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of analysis into the adverse effects on vehicle performance caused by the deterioration in capacity of lithium ion batteries installed in plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). Specifically, detailed evaluations were conducted based on simulations to determine the adverse effects on the seven PHEV vehicle performance indices stipulated in Japan. It was concluded that the battery capacity

Hiroki Matsumura; Kazuki Ochiai; Fuliang Huang; Yusuke Sumida; Yushi Kamiya; Yasuhiro Daisho; Kenji Morita

2011-01-01

143

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-95-2-0011.

1997-01-01

144

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains quarterly reports on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

1998-01-01

145

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

D. C. Pasma

1982-01-01

146

An overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented. This encapsulates factors that necessitate the development of hybrid electric vehicles, classifications of hybrid electric vehicles based on the arrangement of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor for traction. The types of batteries required and the use of power electronic converters for effective power processing and utilization in hybrid

Omonowo D. Momoh; Michael O. Omoigui

2009-01-01

147

Application of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface: Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will lead to transmission line congestion, transformer overload, necessary power plant construction, and power quality problems on the electric grid. In this work, Multi-port Power Electronics Interface (MPEI) is proposed as a solution. It is shown that MPEI, especially coupled with some distributed generation source(s), can perform the required functions to eliminate the harsh

Matthew McDonough; Pourya Shamsi; Babak Fahimi

2012-01-01

148

Plug-in electric vehicles as storage devices within an Autonomous power system. Optimization issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern Power Electric Systems (PES) consisting of diverse sources of energy supply, uncertainty regarding the availability of some renewable sources-based generation plants is one of the major issues affecting the task of sizing the capacity of conventional generation plants. Energy storage devices are able to mitigate the intermittence of the availability of renewable resources and, consequently, successfully reduce the

P. Lombardi; P. Vasquez; Z. A. Styczynski

2009-01-01

149

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

150

Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCV), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen Fuel Cell plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions for 2030. The study includes an analysis of data on distance currently travelled by private car users daily in the UK. Results show that there may be diminishing

G. J. Offer; M. Contestabile; D. A. Howey; R. Clague; N. P. Brandon

2011-01-01

151

1994 Hybrid electric vehicle challenge  

SciTech Connect

This book includes the winning papers in a US Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored HEV Paper Design Contest and design reports from the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge sponsored by the Saturn Corporation and DOE. Papers/reports from 37 top engineering schools are included.

NONE

1995-12-31

152

Hybrid electric vehicles-year 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the year 2000, the automotive manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This re-direction of electric vehicle (EV) development effort was highlighted at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS 2000), where, the world's major automobile manufacturers displayed twenty three hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Thirteen HEV were configured with an internal combustion piston engine and electric traction

Floyd A. Wyczalek

2000-01-01

153

Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed

G. J. Offer; D. Howey; M. Contestabile; R. Clague; N. P. Brandon

2010-01-01

154

TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To enhance Tactical Wheeled Vehicle (TWV) mobility for future systems through experimentation, performance analyses and demonstration of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) capabilities and enabling technologies.

G. Khalil

2011-01-01

155

40 CFR 600.116-12 - Special procedures related to electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...respectively; Vmph = velocity in miles/hour...44704 converts speed from miles/hour... Vt-1 = the velocity in miles/hour...point in the 10 Hz speed vs. time table...between each successive velocity data point; 0.44704 converts speed from...

2013-07-01

156

Adaptive control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the demand for more fuel efficient vehicles increases, hybrid electric vehicles are gaining in popularity. However, the hybrids currently offered are far from fully utilizing their fuel saving potential, although they are more efficient than their conventional counterparts. The reason for not fully utilizing the potential of hybrids lays in the controller used in virtually all of them. In

Antonis I. Antoniou; Ali Emadi

2009-01-01

157

Inverter Losses Reduction Control Techniques for Plug-In HEV and FEV Traction Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) or Full Electric Vehicle (FEV) can be very useful in order to meet fuel economy and\\u000a to reduce pollutant emissions in transport in particular for use in the urban area. This kind of vehicles needs a medium to\\u000a large battery stack in order to assure a good range in pure electric with zero emissions (30-40

Federico Cheli; Davide Tarsitano; Ferdinando Mapelli

158

Dynamic simulation model for hybrid electric scooters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a dynamic simulation model for a hybrid electric scooter (HES) designed by NPUST in Taiwan. The HES is built in a parallel hybrid configuration with a 24 V 370 W auxiliary power electric motor, a 24 V 600 W generator, a 24 V 15 AH battery, and an electronically controlled fuel injection internal combustion engine (ICE). Because

Chyuan-Yow Tseng; Yeou-Feng Lue; Yuan-Ting Lirr; Jheng-Cin Siao; Chien-Hsiung Tsai; Lung-Ming Fu

2009-01-01

159

Power Distribution of Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicles is analyzed by the rated power of the engine and the motor. The analysis was based on the published data only. Hybrid ratio and normalized fuel consumption are defined. As the result, the key for the high mileage of hybrid electric vehicle is to use the high power motor and the low power engine.

Kato, Kenta; Morimoto, Masayuki

160

Study on LPG-Electric Hybrid Bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) - electric hybrid bicycle is designed in this paper. In accordance with the different traffic conditions, the hybrid system, which contains a hub motor and a LPG engine, can work at engine-mode, battery-mode, and hybrid-mode, separately or in cooperation. The switching of these modes is electrically controlled. Thus the internal combustion engine can work in

Xiong Shu-sheng; Wu Xi-jiang; Zhang Chao-shan; Li Wei; Shi Wei; Ren Xiao-shuai; Jiang Yao-hua; Qu Zhen-ai; Lv Yin-ding; He Wen-hua

2010-01-01

161

Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.

Stanton W. Hadley; Alexandra A. Tsvetkova

2009-01-01

162

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stak...

K. Sikes R. N. McGill S. W. Hadley T. Cleary

2010-01-01

163

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles—A low-carbon solution for Ireland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible—at least in part—for Ireland’s probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland’s transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil—a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent

William J. Smith

2010-01-01

164

Hybrid electric vehicles: year 2000 status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the year 2000, the automotive manufacturers turned their attention to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). This re-direction of Electric Vehicle (EV) development effort was highlighted at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS 2000), where, the World's major automobile manufacturers displayed twenty three HEVs. Thirteen HEV were configured with an internal combustion piston engine and electric traction motor, while, ten

F. A. Wyczalek

2001-01-01

165

Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

2006-09-11

166

Top 10 tech cars [hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of new hybrid electric vehicle owners have expressed their disappointment with their purchase because of poor mileage. Official ratings for fuel use, based on the outdated driving patterns of US government test, turned out to be a poor predictor for what typical buyers could expect. Still, though hybrids are hot, no single vehicle is likely to make as

J. Voelcker

2005-01-01

167

A hybrid electric vehicle powertrain dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation as key elements in the iterative process that includes the development of vehicle hardware system performance measures, computer control software, and ultimately, hybrid electric vehicle powertrain system synthesis. A hybrid powertrain system is synthesized via amalgamation of a conventional internal combustion engine powerplant-alternator combination with a lead acid battery-AC

K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

1995-01-01

168

Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

2009-03-01

169

Commercializing light-duty plug-in\\/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called “Mobile Electricity” is characterized. Mobile Electricity (Me-) redefines H2FCVs as innovative products able to import and export electricity across the traditional vehicle boundary. Such vehicles could provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support

Brett D. Williams; Kenneth S. Kurani

2007-01-01

170

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the project is to assess the impact of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants associated with internal combustion engines. The study also quantifies the fuel economy benefits of various...

1998-01-01

171

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Systems Assessment Seminar: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimiz...

1984-01-01

172

Plug-in HEVs: A Near-Term Option to Reduce Petroleum Consumption from FY05 Milestone Report (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented to DOE management staff on September 14, 2005 at the DOE headquarters in Washington DC. Content was updated January 19, 2006 for publication. This presentation addresses plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market and technology issues for research and development efforts.

Markel, T.; O'Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

2006-01-19

173

Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Architecture and Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric traction is one of the most promising technologies that can lead to significant improvements in vehicle performance, energy utilization efficiency, and polluting emissions. Among several technologies, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction is the most promising technology that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range. Moreover, the technologies of all the component

Mehrdad Ehsani; Yimin Gao; John M. Miller

2007-01-01

174

Energy utilization of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses energy utilization and power train efficiency of electric and electric\\/flywheel hybrid vehicles. Results of EVSIM (a digital simulation program) and test data obtained from a mini-computer controlled dynamometer facility are presented. It is shown that the marginal improvement of vehicle range due to regenerative braking does not justify the complexity of its controls. Similarly, while the electric\\/flywheel

P. D. Agarwal; T. C. Wang

1982-01-01

175

Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to

Toshiyuki Sakamoto

2009-01-01

176

Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in

Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

2011-01-01

177

Adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decentralized adaptive control system (ACS) for a four motor-generator four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is designed and its ability to deal with unknown tire dynamics, changing road surfaces, and vehicle loading is evaluated. A system composed of four separate adaptive controllers is designed to control the vehicle's speed, steering, side slip, and energy management system. A nonlinear simulation

Richard Saeks; Chadwick J. Cox; James C. Neidhoefer; Paul R. Mays; John J. Murray

2002-01-01

178

Hybridization of energy sources in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present status of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, none of the available energy sources can solely fulfill all the demands of EVs to enable them to compete with gasoline powered vehicles. In this paper, an energy management system, adopting the so-called hybridization of energy sources, is proposed to coordinate multiple energy sources for EVs. Hence, the unique advantages of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2001-01-01

179

Online Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits from EM, many solution methods have been presented. Optimal solution methods are typically not feasible

John T. B. A. Kessels; Michiel W. T. Koot; Paul P. J. van den Bosch; Daniel B. Kok

2008-01-01

180

Let's Keep Timetables Realistic in Moving Toward a Low-Carbon Electricity Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses technology transformation (energy efficiency, renewables, carbon capture and storage, advanced coal technologies, new nuclear energy, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles), economic analysis, and economic safeguards when moving towards a low-carbon electricity future.

Quin Shea

2008-01-01

181

Design Optimization of the Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A&M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, an...

M. Ehsani Y. Gao K. Butler

1998-01-01

182

Intermolecular hybridization governs molecular electrical doping.  

PubMed

Current models for molecular electrical doping of organic semiconductors are found to be at odds with other well-established concepts in that field, like polaron formation. Addressing these inconsistencies for prototypical systems, we present experimental and theoretical evidence for intermolecular hybridization of organic semiconductor and dopant frontier molecular orbitals. Common doping-related observations are attributed to this phenomenon, and controlling the degree of hybridization emerges as a strategy for overcoming the present limitations in the yield of doping-induced charge carriers. PMID:22400758

Salzmann, Ingo; Heimel, Georg; Duhm, Steffen; Oehzelt, Martin; Pingel, Patrick; George, Benjamin M; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blum, Ralf-Peter; Vollmer, Antje; Koch, Norbert

2012-01-18

183

Design of a docking station for solar charged electric and fuel cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of constant increase in the price of hydrocarbon-based fuels and the resulting pollution of environment have motivated researchers and the automobile industry to take a serious look at electric vehicles (EV). Hybrid technologies have also found their place in the automobile industry. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are being developed and improved constantly. An electric vehicle

Diego M. Robalino; Ganapathy Kumar; L. O. Uzoechi; U. C. Chukwu; S. M. Mahajan

2009-01-01

184

Propulsion system design of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Efforts are directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles applications. This paper is aimed at developing the system design philosophies of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. The vehicles' dynamics are studied in an attempt to find an optimal torque-speed profile

Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Hamid A. Toliyat

1997-01-01

185

Electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Specific topics include: (1) hybrid electric bus, (2) hybrid vehicle turbogenerator, (3) emissions study, (4) electric vehicles, (5) flywheels, (6) hybrid propulsion, (7) electric generators, and (8) charging systems.

NONE

1998-03-01

186

Electrical battery model for use in dynamic electric vehicle simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles over driving schedules within a full dynamic hybrid and electric vehicle simulator requires battery models capable of predicting state-of-charge, I-V characteristics, and dynamic behavior of different battery types. A battery model capable of reproducing lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, and lead- acid I-V characteristics (with minimal model alterations) is proposed.

Ryan C. Kroeze; Philip T. Krein

2008-01-01

187

Optimal neuro-fuzzy control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an optimal method based on neuro-fuzzy for controlling parallel hybrid electric vehicles is presented. In parallel hybrid electric vehicles the required torque for driving and operating the onboard accessories is generated by a combination of internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The power sharing between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor is the key

M. Mohebbi; M. Charkhgard; M. Farrokhi

2005-01-01

188

Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid.

John Smart; Stephen Schey

2012-01-01

189

Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

190

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-12-01

191

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC  

SciTech Connect

Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

Not Available

1992-01-01

192

Role of high power semiconductor devices in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A couple of decade ago when auto engineers decided to increase the voltage level of electrical power system drive, it was the advancement of silicon technology supporting their dream. Today the power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits

Madhwi Kumari; P. R. Thakura; D. N. Badodkar

2011-01-01

193

Innovative hybrid gas/electric chiller cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

January Progress--A kick-off meeting was held in San Diego with Alturdyne on January 21st. The proposed hybrid gas/electric chiller/cogenerator design concept was discussed in detail. The requirements and functionality of the key component, a variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator was presented. Variations of the proposed design were also discussed based on their technical feasibility, cost and market potential. The discussion is documented in a Trip Report. February Progress--After significant GRI/Alturdyne discussion regarding alternative product design concepts, the team made a decision to continue with the proposed product design, a hybrid chiller capable of also providing emergency power. The primary benefits are: (a) the flexibility and operating cost savings associated with the product's dual fuel capability and (b) the emergency power feature. A variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator would significantly increase the cost of the product while providing marginal benefit. (The variable speed, constant frequency motor generator is estimated to cost $25,000 versus $4,000 for a constant speed version). In addition, the interconnection requirements to the electric grid would significantly limit market penetration of the product. We will proceed with a motor/generator design capable of serving as the electric prime mover for the compressor as well as the generator for emergency power needs. This component design is being discussed with two motor manufacturers. The first generation motor/generator will not be a variable speed, constant frequency design. The variable speed, constant frequency capability can be an advancement that is included at a later time. The induction motor/synchronous generator starts as a wound rotor motor with a brushless exciter and control electronics to switch between induction mode and synchronous mode. The exciter is a three-phase exciter with three phase rotating diode assembly. In the induction motor mode, the field windings are shorted out by SCRs located across the field. In the synchronous mode, a small ct on one of the exciter leads would power the rotating exciter electronics. Upon sensing exciter current, the electronics would automatically open the SCRs allowing synchronous operation. Quotes will be obtained from American Motor and Reuland, two motor/generator vendors. March Progress--A product layout was completed. The width is reduced significantly from the original hybrid design because the evaporator and condenser tube in shell heat exchangers are located below the engine/motor/compressor drive-line. Alturdyne is searching for a consultant to perform a drive-line torsional analysis. This analysis is necessary to ensure that the drive-line is not subject to undue vibrations operating through its entire speed range. Much effort was directed toward motor/generator selection. A decision was made to use Reuland Electric. A motor with double-end shafts will be purchased. The design effort which will be completed at Alturdyne will involve the modification of the wound rotor motor to also provide synchronous power. Work has been completed on developing the new controller which will be utilized for the original hybrid product as well as this advanced product. Work continues toward developing a manufacturing cost estimate. A detailed bill of material will be developed for the product. Key components include the engine, compressor and motor/generator.

Nowakowski, G.

2000-04-01

194

On improving design aspects of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicles are becoming very popular in the market. With increase in demand for performance and efficiency in the market, new technologies are evolving. Use of electronics in automobile control systems, have become very popular. Hybrid vehicles have a very complex control system. The use of fuzzy logic in making such controllers for hybrid electric vehicles is the motive of

Gautham Thyagarajan

2011-01-01

195

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, a hybrid vehicle can outperform a traditional vehicle. In designing a hybrid vehicle, the task of finding optimal component sizes and an appropriate control strategy

Edward D. Tate; Stephen P. Boyd

196

Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids: Part 1: Technical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few power plants. The paper concludes with an outlook of the technology requirements necessary to manage the additional and potentially sizable new load to maintain grid reliability.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Schneider, Kevin P.; Pratt, Robert G.

2007-01-31

197

Development of a Dual-Fuel Power Generation System for an Extended Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, there has been a growing global concern with regard to vehicle-generated greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting air pollution. In response, automotive original equipment manufacturers focus their efforts on developing ??greener?? propulsion solutions in order to meet the societal demand and ecological need for clean transportation. Hydrogen is an ideal vehicle fuel for use not only in

Matt Van Wieringen; Remon Pop-Iliev

2010-01-01

198

Optimal powertrain component sizing of a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using multi-objective genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable efforts have been made recently to develop a completely zero-emission and highly fuel efficient vehicle. Due to clean and efficient power generation, the hydrogen fed fuel cell vehicle (FCVs) has received considerable attention. However, major obstacles such as cost of the hydrogen infrastructure, driving range, and cost of the fuel cell greatly influence FCV development. At the same time,

Manu Jain; Chirag Desai; Nawwaf Kharma; Sheldon S. Williamson

2009-01-01

199

Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric Utilities and Regional US Power Grids: Part 1: Technical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few

Michael CW Kintner-Meyer; Kevin P. Schneider; Robert G. Pratt

2007-01-01

200

Offline Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the Dynamic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using dynamic programming (DP) which is a kind of global optimization algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With optimal control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.

Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang

201

Effects on CO2 Reduction Potential of the Accelerated Introduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider that there are two economical social behaviors when new technologies are introduced. One is on the short-term economic basis, the other one is on the long-tem economic basis. If we consider a learning curve on the technology, it is more economical than short-term behavior to accelerate the introduction of the technology much wider in the

Yukio Shinoda; Kuniaki Yabe; Hideo Tanaka; Atsushi Akisawa; Takao Kashiwagi

2009-01-01

202

Electric and hybrid vehicles. Commercialization Phase III planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1976, the Congress enacted Public Law 94-413, the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976, to establish a program to stimulate the commercialization of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs) as a partial solution to the oil consumption problem. This law was later amended by Public Law 95-238. This legislation is intended to stimulate the

Clusen

1978-01-01

203

Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation. [Using HEAVY computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

Pasma

1982-01-01

204

Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complex nature of hybrid electric vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to achieve satisfactory overall system efficiency. This paper presents a procedure for improving the energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck on the basis of dynamic optimization over a given drive cycle. Dynamic programming techniques are utilized to determine the optimal

Chan-Chiao Lin; Jun-Mo Kang; J. W. Grizzle; Huei Peng

2001-01-01

205

Research on parameters matching of parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of lower fuel consumption and emissions, especially unlimited drive mileage, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has long term potential for future main stream vehicle. Based on conventional vehicle CHERY A5, this paper analyzes the framework of powertrain and control strategy of the parallel hybrid electric vehicle. A method of powertrain parameters matching is presented. On the basis of engineering analysis

Han Zhao; Bingzhan Zhang; Bingli Zhang

2008-01-01

206

Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing oil prices, there is fast growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) globally. Thus, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop emerging energy-efficient devices for various kinds of HEVs, including the micro hybrids, mild hybrids, and full hybrids. In this paper, three key emerging energy-efficient technologies are identified and discussed: 1) the thermoelectric waste-heat recovery and

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan

2007-01-01

207

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative attractiveness of electric and hybrid (electric\\/heat engine) subcompact passenger cars was studied by comparing the total vehicle weight, selling price, ownership cost, and total energy use of computer-synthesized designs having the same power-to-weight ratio and using batteries based on the same technology. It was found that in all respects the hybrid designs were more attractive than the all-electric

1982-01-01

208

Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and

Yuan-Yong Hsu; Shao-Yuan Lu

2010-01-01

209

Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge

Eckhard Karden; Serv ´ e Ploumen; Birger Fricke; Ted Miller; Kent Snyder

2007-01-01

210

Optimal energy management in series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the optimization of the instantaneous electrical generation\\/electrical storage power split in series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEV). Optimal energy management is related to the optimization of the instantaneous generation\\/storage power split in SHEV. Previously, a power split type solution of the series hybrid energy management problem has been attempted using a rule-based approach. Our approach performs a

A. Brahma; Y. Guezennec; G. Rizzoni

2000-01-01

211

FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The...

C. C. Crafts D. H. Doughty

2006-01-01

212

Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics is addressed. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

Burke, A. F.

1992-07-01

213

Development of test procedures for hybrid/electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is concerned with the development of procedures for testing of hybrid/electric vehicles to determine their energy consumption and emissions characteristics. Special emphasis is given to hybrid vehicles, which can be operated above some minimum battery state-of-charge in an all-electric mode for all types of driving (city and highway). When the all-electric range of these vehicles is exceeded, the vehicles are operated in the hybrid mode, in which an engine/generator is turned on to generate electricity on-board the vehicle. Key issues in testing hybrid vehicles are identified and discussed. These issues include the test cycles to be used, the instrumentation required, the effect of battery state-of-charge and control strategy in the hybrid mode on the need for repeated test cycles, and the data to be collected and how that data from repeated cycles is interpreted to determine the vehicle energy consumption and emissions characteristics.

Burke, A. F.

1992-07-01

214

The second century of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the second century of electric and hybrid vehicles, these may again become a large percentage of the automobile population, due to the projected depletion of fossil petroleum. Other proposed energy sources for propulsion are yet to be proven economical or adequate. Electricity is cheap and abundant. Three electrical technologies represent challenges to make an EV acceptable; better batteries, lower

Victor Wouk

1984-01-01

215

Comparison of technical features between a More Electric Aircraft and a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the more and more stringent energy crises and greenhouse effect, ldquomore electricrdquo transports are considered to be one of the solutions. The more electric aircraft and hybrid electric vehicle are the representation of ldquomore electricldquo transports. Some aspect of these two means of transport as installed capacity, role of electricity, electric sources, energy storage techniques and main electrical loads

H. Zhang; C. Saudemont; B. Robyns; M. Petit

2008-01-01

216

ETT 4150 - Fundamentals of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains presentations from a three credit course offered at Wayne State University focused on the following hybrid electric and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) technologies: concepts and design, energy analysis, unified model approach, hybridization, hybrid powertrain architectures, internal combustion engines for HEVs, transmissions used in HEVs, and on-board energy storage. At WSU, ET 3450 (Applied Calculus and Differential Equations) and PHY 2140 (General Physics) are prerequisites to this course. The presentation titles are: 1. Introduction of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV/PHEV), 2. Overview of Vehicle Road Load, 3. Hybrid Powertrain Configurations, 4. Vehicle Electrification, 5. Hybrid Powertrain Components, 6. Overview of Electrically Variable Transmissions (EVT), 7. Electric Machines, 8. Power Electronics Pt. 1, 9. Power Electronics Pt. 2, 10. On-Board Energy Storage, Battery Cell Management, State Estimation, Cell Balancing, and Charging Schemes, 11. Battery Management Systems (BMS), 12. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking, 13. Modeling and Simulation Software for Vehicle System and Driveline Analysis, and 14. HEV/PHEV/EV Future Trends.

217

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Quarterly report, 1 April--30 June 1998  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a quarterly report on various aspects of research and testing being conducted concerning electric and hybrid electric vehicles technologies under cooperative agreement MDA972-93-1-0027.

NONE

1998-06-30

218

Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of...

D. W. Dees

1999-01-01

219

Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component cost performance estimating relationships (CPER) developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Cost and Eco...

2003-01-01

220

Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

Gonder, J. D.

2008-01-01

221

Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the ma...

A. F. Burke G. H. Cole

1990-01-01

222

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology Assessment: Methodology, Analytical Issues, and Interim Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the interim results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology Assessment (HEVTA). Hybrid electric vehicles, or HEVs, are vehicles with drivetrains that combine an electric drive (including electric mo...

S. Plotkin D. Santini A. Vyas J. Anderson M. Wang J. He D. Bharathan

2001-01-01

223

Integrated electro-mechanical transmission systems in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are emerging as a practical solution for meeting increasingly more stringent governmental standards for fuel economy and emissions. In order to improve performance, increase efficiency, and reduce costs, there is a trend toward more integrated electro-mechanical transmission systems for advanced hybrid powertrains. This paper primarily focuses on the state-of-the-art electro-mechanical integration of hybrid transmission systems and presents

Yinye Yang; Ali Emadi

2011-01-01

224

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

Burke, A. F.

1993-09-01

225

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide ``primary energy`` ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W{center_dot}h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

Burke, A.F.

1993-09-01

226

Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV researchers benefited from the GATE funding and produced journal articles and intellectual property as a result. The remainder of this document outlines the productivity resulting from GATE funds. The topics include the following: GATE Hybrid Vehicle Systems Related Courses; Students Supported; Publications; and Patents. A discussion regarding the HEVC accomplishments with respect to the GATE funding goals is provided in the conclusion.

Andrew Frank

2006-05-31

227

A self manufacturing Hybrid Electric Vehicle using magnetic clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing exhaustion of natural oil resources, along with a heightened concern about the oil price, has LED to research alternative energy source for automotive vehicles. One of these alternatives is Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). An HEV is a hybrid vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move; generally an internal combustion engine and one or more

Hack Sun Kim; Chan Se Jeong; Chang Don Lee; Soon Yong Yang

2009-01-01

228

Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work in this paper presents techniques for design, development, and control of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Toward these ends, four issues are explored. First, the development of HEV is presented. This synopsis includes a novel definition of degree of hybridization for automotive vehicles. Second, a load-leveling vehicle operation strategy is developed. In order to accomplish the strategy, a fuzzy

Bernd M. Baumann; Gregory Washington; Bradley C. Glenn; Giorgio Rizzoni

2000-01-01

229

System Level Modeling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,,,This paper presents a broad survey of the literature regarding the design of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains using system level modeling,techniques. I t begins with a discussion,of the major subsystems,comprising the HEV drivetrain and the primary architectural configurations that are employed. A n exploration of system,level modeling,methodologies,and techniques and their application to the design of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains

Pukha Lenee-Bluhm

2008-01-01

230

Determining PHEV Performance Potential – User and Environmental Influences on A123 Systems’ Hymotion™ Plug-In Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity and recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-50km of charge depleting range. This paper will cover efforts by A123 Systems and the Idaho National Laboratory in studying the on-road performance of this PHEV fleet. The performance potentials of various fleets will be compared in order to determine the major influences on overall performance.

John G. Smart; Huang Iu

2009-05-01

231

Three scenarios for electric and hybrid vehicle commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) market-penetration scenarios are developed for 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. The first scenario is intended to maximize the substitution of electricity for gasoline in the 101 metropolitan areas of the US that are nonattainment areas for ozone; by 2010, 12 million EHVs are projected to be operating in those areas. The second scenario focuses

M. J. Bernard; M. K. Singh; K. Heitner

1990-01-01

232

Power electronics applications in electric\\/hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power electronics is an enabling technology for the development of cleaner, fuel efficient, and 42 V architecture based vehicles. In electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles, the challenges are to have a high efficient, rugged, small size and low cost inverter and the associated electronics for controlling a three phase electric machine. In addition to the power electronics, the technology

K. Rajashekara

2003-01-01

233

Advanced control strategy of parallel hybrid low emission electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system that consists of a mechanical engine, electrical motor and batteries has gained increasing interest because of the inherent drawbacks of the diesel engine (such as black smoke, nitrogen oxide gas, noise, etc.). In an HEV system, without any external and additional recharging of batteries, an efficient driving characteristic can be easily obtained through

Jung-Ik Ha; Euh-Suh Koo; Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Joohn-Sheok Kim; Seung-Ki Sul

1996-01-01

234

Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Architectures and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of more stringent regulations related to emissions, fuel economy, and global warming, as well as energy resource constraints, electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles have attracted increasing attention from vehicle constructors, governments, and consumers. Research and development efforts have focused on developing advanced powertrains and efficient energy systems. This paper reviews the state of the art for electric,

C. C. Chan; Alain Bouscayrol; Keyu Chen

2010-01-01

235

The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where environment protection and energy conservation are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has taken on an accelerated pace. The dream of having commercially viable EVs and HEVs is becoming a reality. EVs and HEVs are gradually available in the market. This paper will provide an overview of the present

C. C. Chan

2002-01-01

236

Hybrid permanent magnet generators for electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In transportation systems, the energy consumed by vehicles is considered a primary source of energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Some of the pollution problems have been resolved by the development of electric vehicles (EVs). There are some drawbacks related to EVs due mainly to limited driving range, excessive volume capacity of batteries, and long time battery charge. Therefore, hybrid electric

A. S. Al-Adsani; N. Schofield

2009-01-01

237

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop

Surber

1979-01-01

238

An optimal solar-thermoelectric hybrid energy system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), more and more researches are concentrated on the renewable energy sources. Due to the limitation of the previous maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT), these renewable energy systems are controlled separately. In this paper, an optimal solar-thermoelectric hybrid energy system for HEVs is proposed with MPPT. This method can track the global

Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau; Chuang Yu; C. C. Chan

2008-01-01

239

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

Wipke, K.B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-01-01

240

Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the 'ground-up' hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a 1 km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

Wipke, K. B.; Hill, N.; Larsen, R. P.

1994-01-01

241

Electric and hybrid vehicle systems assessment seminar: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimization considerations, (6) alkaline battery technology, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) nickel-iron batteries, (9) zinc-chloride batteries, (10) zinc-bromine batteries, (11) sodium-sulfur batteries, (12) system/battery design interaction for a lithium-method sulfide van battery, (13) iorn-air batteries, (14) aluminium-air cells, (15) fuel cell overview, (16) variable-reluctance motor drives, (17) electric vehicle design, (18) advanced electric vehicle powertrain program, (19) Eaton ac drivetrains, and (20) JET Propulsion Laboratory ac power system. (MOW)

Not Available

1984-03-15

242

Hybrid-Electric Transit Buses: NYCT (New York City Transit) Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses: Final Results (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Final results of the New York City Transit Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Study. Hybrid buses had lower emissions, higher fuel economy, and higher operating costs compared with diesel buses. New York City Transit (NYCT), part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York, began operating the first of 10 heavy-duty diesel hybrid-electric transit bus prototypes (Model VI) from Orion Bus Industries in 1998. All 10 buses were in revenue service by mid-2000. The hybrid buses are intended to provide NYCT with increased fuel economy and lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions, compared with NYCT's diesel transit buses. Between 1999 and 2001 (over various predefined fuel and maintenance evaluation periods), these first 10 hybrid buses were part of a data collection and analysis project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The operating costs, efficiency, emissions, and overall performance of these low-floor hybrid buses were compared against those of 14 conventional high-floor diesel transit buses (7 each from NovaBUS Corporation and Orion) operated by NYCT in similar service. Results indicate that the hybrid buses operate with greater fuel efficiency and much lower emissions, compared with the diesel buses. Maintenance costs for the prototype hybrid buses were significantly higher than those of the diesel buses during this evaluation. However, these costs are expected to decline for the next-generation Orion VII buses, currently being procured by NYCT, as repair technicians become more familiar with the advanced hybrid propulsion systems.

Not Available

2002-07-01

243

Impact of electric vehicles on power distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for battery powered and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is currently limited, but this is expected to grow rapidly with the increased concern about the environment and advances in technology. Due to their high energy capacity, mass deployment of electrical vehicles will have significant impact on power networks. This impact will dictate the design of the electric vehicle interface

G. A. Putrus; P. Suwanapingkarl; D. Johnston; E. C. Bentley; M. Narayana

2009-01-01

244

Assessment of active implantable medical device interaction in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies tend to heighten public concerns regarding EMF, especially in RF and high power industries. Vehicles with electrical propulsion and assist, such as hybrid electric vehicles, have increased electrical power output compared to non-hybrid electric vehicles. An investigation of nine current production hybrid electric vehicles has been conducted and found no inappropriate interaction between worst-case vehicle operating conditions and

Jody J. Nelson; Wes Clement; Brian Martel; Richard Kautz; Katarina H. Nelson

2008-01-01

245

Unified modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridizing automotive drivetrains, or using more than one type of energy converter, is considered an important step toward very low pollutant emission and high fuel economy. The automotive industry and governments in the United States, Europe, and Japan have formed strategic initiatives with the aim of cooperating in the development of new vehicle technologies. Efforts to meet fuel economy and

Giorgio Rizzoni; Lino Guzzella; Bernd M. Baumann

1999-01-01

246

State-of-the-Art Assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and availa...

1978-01-01

247

State-of-the-art Assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and availa...

1978-01-01

248

Parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs for conventional and electric light-duty vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric analysis is used to examine the supply demand interactions between the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through 2050. The analysis emphasizes competition between conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, including hybrids, and electric vehicles (EVs), represented by both plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. We find that EV market penetration

Garrett E. Barter; David Reichmuth; Jessica Westbrook; Leonard A. Malczynski; Todd H. West; Dawn K. Manley; Katherine D. Guzman; Donna M. Edwards

2012-01-01

249

Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle  

DOEpatents

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

2007-09-18

250

Electric\\/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine\\/battery hybrid vehicle is described. The program permits least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for

W. W. Marr; W. J. Walsh

1986-01-01

251

INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS\\/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure.

Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

2004-01-01

252

Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model-based strategy for the real-time load control of parallel hybrid vehicles is presented. The aim is to develop a fuel-optimal control which is not relying on the a priori knowledge of the future driving conditions (global optimal control), but only upon the current system operation. The methodology developed is valid for those problem that are characterized

Antonio Sciarretta; Michael Back; Lino Guzzella

2004-01-01

253

Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

2012-11-01

254

Quantification of technical impacts and environmental benefits of electric vehicles integration on electricity grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a typical electricity distribution network for a residential area in Portugal is used in order to assess the impact of integrating different levels of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles in the grid and in pollutants emissions. First, the amount of vehicles that can be safely accommodated in the grid will be determined. Second, changes in

J. A. Peças Lopes; F. J. Soares; P. M. Rocha Almeida; P. C. Baptista; C. M. Silva; T. L. Farias

2009-01-01

255

Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

Dees, D. W.

1999-02-12

256

On charging equipment and batteries in plug-in vehicles: Present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005 Kempton and Tomic laid out a vision for V2G which presumed that use of V2G technology could provide a high revenue stream to early plug-in electric vehicles, enabling market penetration of relatively high cost early-to-market electric drive vehicles. In their vision the high benefits of V2G would help get plug-in electric vehicles started, allowing cost reductions that would

E. Rask; T. Bohn; K. Gallagher

2012-01-01

257

Power train trade-offs for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design trade-off studies for electric and hybrid vehicles are performed, including a computer-aided synthesis of vehicle designs and second-by-second simulations of vehicle operation. Both dc and ac electric drive systems are considered along with various types of batteries, such as nickel-zinc and lithium-sulfur. All the driveline components are characterized in terms of size, weight, cost, and operating characteristics. Detailed comparisons

A. F. Burke; C. B. Somuah

1980-01-01

258

A retail and lifecycle cost analysis of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the manufacturing costs, retail prices, and lifecycle costs of five hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle types in high-volume production. Updating and major modifications are made to a detailed motor vehicle retail and lifecycle cost spreadsheet model that had previously been used to analyze the costs of conventional vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and other alternative-fuel vehicles. This cost model is combined

Timothy E. Lipman; Mark A. Delucchi

2006-01-01

259

Modifications to a hydrogen\\/electric hybrid bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to modify a hydrogen hybrid electric bus is described. This is an electric bus that uses a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine to charge on-board batteries. The primary goal of the reported work is to extend the range of the bus in a cost-effective manner. Among the modifications being made are the development of a new engine, upgrading the

Y. Baghzouz; J. Fiene; J. Van Dam; L. Shi; E. Wilkinson; R. Boehm

2000-01-01

260

Design and Implementation of a New Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Hybrid Energy System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to newly develop the multiple-input single-ended primary inductor converter to simultaneously regulate the thermoelectric and photovoltaic generators in such a way that the total output power can be maximized. Both design and implementation of the proposed system are discussed. Experimental results are

Xiaodong Zhang; K. T. Chau

2011-01-01

261

FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.  

SciTech Connect

This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

2006-08-01

262

Reliability Prediction for Inverters in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing importance of power electronic components in automobiles, it becomes necessary to consider their reliability. This applies especially to hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV) where a malfunction of the power electronics may prevent the vehicle to operate. Of paramount importance for the reliability of power electronics is the component operating temperature and temperature cycling. This paper deals with

Dirk Hirschmann; Dietmar Tissen; Stefan Schroder; Rik W. De Doncker

2007-01-01

263

Reliability Prediction for Inverters in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing importance of electronic components in automobiles, it becomes necessary to consider their reliability. This applies especially to Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) where a malfunction of the power electronics may force the vehicle to stop immediately. Of paramount importance for the reliability of power electronics is the component temperature and its variation. This paper deals with the

D. Hirschmann; D. Tissen; S. Schroder; R. W. de Doncker

2006-01-01

264

Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and\\/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100

A. F. Burke

1993-01-01

265

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately.

Heitner

1980-01-01

266

Recommended performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles were developed. The standards cover passenger cars and commercial vehicles, with the latter having possible agricultural uses. The primary results cover performance parameters such as payload, acceleration time, top speed, range (both constant speed and on an SAE J227a schedule C cycle), maximum energy consumption, gradability, battery life, battery recharge time, safety

B. Underhill; P. Gott; D. Hurter

1977-01-01

267

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Environmental Control Subsystem Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the n...

K. L. Heitner

1980-01-01

268

Infantry mobility hybrid electric vehicle performance analysis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal energy flux analysis and design of a power plant for infantry mobility hybrid diesel-electric vehicle is dealt with in this paper. Control strategy management and propulsion system sizing is done on the basis of minimizing total fuel consumption. A quasi-static system model has allowed analyzing the most restrictive operations; moreover the simulation has been used in expected real driving

Francisco José Jimenez-Espadafor; Juan José Ruiz Marín; José A. Becerra Villanueva; Miguel Torres García; Elisa Carvajal Trujillo; Francisco José Florencio Ojeda

2011-01-01

269

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, FY-1985 Program Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program plan serves as the primary management document for the INEL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Program. Programmatic objectives are set forth, the scope of the work is defined, and the management methodologies used to perform and control the w...

G. L. Hunt

1985-01-01

270

Modeling and simulation of a hybrid-electric vehicle drivetrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drivetrain of a hybrid-electric vehicle is modeled and simulated from a system level approach. The need for accurate dynamic models for developing control algorithms is motivated. Detailed models capable of describing both transient and steady-state operation of each of the key drivetrain components are constructed. Bond graphs are the tool of choice for modeling because they focus on mechanisms

Gregory A. Hubbard; Kamal Youcef-Toumi

1997-01-01

271

2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,0...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

272

2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,0...

C. Motloch J. Francfort T. Gray

2010-01-01

273

Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE\\/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the

Robert F Nelson

2000-01-01

274

Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the available energy sources, the electric vehicle (EV) cannot compete with the conventional vehicle in terms of driving range and initial cost. In the near future, the hybrid EV (HEV) is not only an interim solution for implementation of zero emission vehicles but a practical solution for commercialization of super-ultra-low-emission vehicles. This paper firstly presents an overview of

K. T. Chau; Y. S. Wong

2002-01-01

275

Parallel hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model and powertrain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell

1997-01-01

276

A Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a dynamic model possessing the key system components of a Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The model is suitable for dynamic analysis, control law synthesis, and prototype simulation. The paper contains abbreviated descriptions of a small internal combustion engine, variable field alternator, and a dynamic lead-acid battery model that comprise the primary elements of a highly nonlinear

B. K. Powell; T. E. Pilutti

1994-01-01

277

Electricity generation of hybrid PV\\/wind systems in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources gained more attention in the last two decades due to persisting energy demand coupled with decrease in fossil fuel resources and its environmental effect to the earth. In Iraq, the electric power generated is not enough to meet the power demand of domestic and industrial sectors. In this article, a hybrid system was proposed as a renewable resource

Salwan S. Dihrab; K. Sopian

2010-01-01

278

Permanent magnet brushless machine for a hybrid electric scooter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the design and analyze of a permanent magnet brushless machine for a hybrid electric scooter. Different combinations of slots number, magnetic poles, and concentrated windings are tested based on the speed-cycle and power-cycle of the scooter. A machine prototype has been build. The experimental data are used to validate the simulation model. A method of increasing the

Paul Minciunescu; Relu Balaban; Corina Minciunescu; Mihaela Chefneux

2011-01-01

279

Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have image, or symbolic benefits, in addition to their functionality. This study examines the images that ten HEV–owning households saw in their vehicles, and the impact symbolic benefits had on these consumers’ decisions to purchase HEVs. In general, all of the HEV owners perceived some image in their vehicles, although these images varied in their strength

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S Kurani; Tom Turrentine

2005-01-01

280

A Hybrid Fuzzy AGC in a Competitive Electricity Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new Hybrid Fuzzy (HF) PID type controller based on Genetic Algorithms (GA's) for solution of the Automatic generation Control (AGC) problem in a deregulated electricity environment. In order for a fuzzy rule based control system to perform well, the fuzzy sets must be carefully designed. A major problem plaguing the effective use of this method is

H. Shayeghi; A. Jalili

2008-01-01

281

Toyota Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Technical System Overview and Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains two short courses created by Toyota Motors for training technicians on the operation and diagnosis of their HEVs. Of the two included courses, one is focused on the overview of HEV systems and the second is on HEV diagnosis. Each course is composed of individual modules that can also be taught separately with each containing lab activities and additional supplemental materials that can be used for presentations or student handouts. The first course is titled âHEV Overviewâ and includes the following modules: (1) Hybrid System Overview, (2) Hybrid System Operation, (3) High-Voltage Battery, (4) Engine, (5) Chassis, and (6) Body Electrical. The course is titled âHEV Diagnosisâ and includes the following modules: (1) Principals of Operations, (2)Engine Control System, (3) Fuel and EVAP System, (4) Hybrid Vehicle Control System, (5) High-Voltage Battery Control System, (6) Brake System, (7) Electric Power System, and (8) Other Systems.

Autoshop 101

282

Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle\\/hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be “scaled-up safely”, i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes

Said Al-Hallaj; J. R Selman

2002-01-01

283

Techniques to control the electricity generation in a series hybrid electrical vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV), an electric generator feeds a DC busbar (containing an electrochemical accumulator), which, in turns, feeds the vehicle traction system. A very important part of the vehicle is its control system, which has to maximize the vehicle efficiency while keeping the emissions within predetermined limits. To attain this goal, it can act in two

Stefano Barsali; Massimo Ceraolo; Andrea Possenti

2002-01-01

284

Hybrid component specification optimisation for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modelling and simulation approach for determining the optimal degree-of-hybridisation for the drive train (engine, electric machine size) and the energy storage system (battery, ultra capacitor) for a medium-duty truck. The results show that the degree-of-hybridisation of known medium-duty hybrid electric trucks is close to the optimal degree-of-hybridisation using the methods as described in this paper. Furthermore,

Theo Hofman; M. Steinbuch; R. M. Van Druten; A. F. A. Serrarens

2008-01-01

285

On improving design aspects of hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aON IMPROVING DESIGN ASPECTS OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES\\u000aBy\\u000aGAUTHAM THYAGARAJAN\\u000aAdvisor : Dr. Harpreet Singh\\u000aMajor : Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree: Master Of Science\\u000aAugust 2011\\u000aHybrid vehicles are becoming very popular in the market. With increase in demand for performance and efficiency in the market, new technologies are evolving. Use of electronics in automobile control systems, have become very

Gautham Thyagarajan

2011-01-01

286

Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 10. Electric and hybrid vehicle cost handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this interim cost handbood is to provide a consistent single-point source of data and procedures for estimating the costs of electric and hybrid vehicles. These costs include manufacturing, acquisition (purchase price), operating, and life cycle. Each suggested Cost Estimating Relation (CER) presented herein is a result of the compilation of currently existing cost estimates and cost relationships.

R. C. Heft; S. C. Heller

1979-01-01

287

Design and Analysis of an Electrical Variable Transmission for a Series–Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation results of a novel electrical variable transmission (EVT) for a series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle (SPHEV). The proposed EVT uses a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) planetary gearset with four clutches to combine an engine and two electric machines with the vehicle. The topology of the planetary gearset is the same as that of conventional

Li Chen; Futang Zhu; Minmin Zhang; Yi Huo; Chengliang Yin; Huei Peng

2011-01-01

288

Overview of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Drives for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ever-increasing concerns on our environment, there is a fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid EVs (HEVs) from automakers, governments, and customers. As electric drives are the core of both EVs and HEVs, it is a pressing need for researchers to develop advanced electric-drive systems. In this paper, an overview of permanent-magnet (PM) brushless (BL) drives for

K. T. Chau; C. C. Chan; Chunhua Liu

2008-01-01

289

Symbolism in California’s Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the symbolic meanings being created, appropriated, and communicated by the owners of hybrid electric vehicles. As symbolic meanings are shown to be important to hybrid electric vehicle purchase and use, understanding the meanings, as well as their construction and communication, is essential for policy makers and others hoping to promote these new types of vehicles. Hybrid electric

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S Kurani; Tom Turrentine

2008-01-01

290

Symbolism in California’s early market for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the symbolic meanings being created, appropriated, and communicated by the owners of hybrid electric vehicles. As symbolic meanings are shown to be important to hybrid electric vehicle purchase and use, understanding the meanings, as well as their construction and communication, is essential for policy makers and others hoping to promote these new types of vehicles. Hybrid electric

Reid R. Heffner; Kenneth S. Kurani; Thomas S. Turrentine

2007-01-01

291

Report on the Field Performance of A123Systems’s HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius  

SciTech Connect

A123Systems’s HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

Huang Iu; John Smart

2009-04-01

292

Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study  

SciTech Connect

To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

1997-12-01

293

Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

Haque, Aeraj Ul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2012-01-01

294

Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

1999-03-01

295

Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the need for modeling and simulation of electric and hybrid vehicles. Different modeling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modeling examples. The modeling and simulation capabilities of existing tools such as Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), PSIM, and Virtual Test

David Wenzhong Gao; Chris Mi; Ali Emadi

2007-01-01

296

NYCT Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Program Status Update  

SciTech Connect

Program status update focuses on the experiences gathered during New York City Transit's deployment of hybrid electric buses in its fleet. This report is part of an ongoing Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies program to study heavy-duty alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting the Transit Bus Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel or advanced technology and diesel fuel buses. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel or advanced technology buses currently being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel buses serving as controls within the same fleet. This report highlights the New York City Transit (NYCT) alternative fuel and advanced technology programs including its diesel hybrid-electric buses. As part of the NREL Transit Bus Evaluation Project, data collection and evaluation of the Orion VI diesel hybrid-electric buses at NYCT are nearly complete. Final reports from the evaluation are being prepared by NREL and Battelle (NREL's support contractor for the project) and will be available in early 2002. If you want to know more about this transit bus program, its components, advanced technology vehicles, or incentive programs, contact any of the following personnel or visit the Web sites listed.

Not Available

2002-03-01

297

Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO 2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence

Robert Alvarez; Peter Schlienger; Martin Weilenmann

2010-01-01

298

Energy conversion and optimal energy management in diesel–electric drivetrains of hybrid-electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops nonlinear models for diesel–electric powertrains used in medium- and heavy-duty hybrid-electric vehicles and describes a new method for designing optimal controllers for highly coupled drivetrains. Current applications of heavily loaded, heavy-duty drives call for the use of comprehensive, innovative ways of handling a large variety of nonlinear phenomena in order to optimize performance and energy conversion, to

Sergey Edward Lyshevski

2000-01-01

299

Wind hybrid electrical supply system: behaviour simulation and sizing optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a global approach, a wind hybrid system operation is simulated and the evolution of several parameters is analysed, such as the wasted energy, the fuel consumption and the role of the wind turbine subsystem in the global production. This analysis shows that all the energies which take part in the system operation are more dependent on the wind turbine size than on the battery storage capacity. A storage of 2 or 3 days is sufficient, because an increase in storage beyond these values does not have a notable impact on the performance of the wind hybrid system. Finally, a cost study is performed to determine the optimal configuration of the system conducive to the lowest cost of electricity production.

Notton, G.; Cristofari, C.; Poggi, P.; Muselli, M.

2001-04-01

300

Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.  

SciTech Connect

The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

2011-02-16

301

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

1994-08-01

302

Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W. [Vehicle Research Institute, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225 (United States)

1999-03-01

303

Photosynthetic electrochemical cell charging infrastructure versus photovoltaic cell charging infrastructure for future electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive industry is migrating towards all- electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Nevertheless conventional energy, in the form of thermal power and nuclear power, are used to power these vehicles which are not green and clean. The photosynthetic electrochemical cell (PEC) is one of the alternative energy resources for EVs and PHEVs. It could prove to be the ideal

Arvind Vyas Ramanan; Muthukumaran Pakirisamy; Sheldon S. Williamson

2011-01-01

304

Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-06-01

305

Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans  

SciTech Connect

Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

Lammert, M.

2009-12-01

306

Plug-In Architecture for Mobile Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note describes plug-in architecture for mobile devices (PAMD)-an architectural specification that extends the function of applications in mobile devices. Users gain major benefits when the functionality of applications that run on these dev...

M. Keshavamurthy J. S. Kim M. Li V. Sagetong

2002-01-01

307

Constant SOC control of a series Hybrid Electric Vehicle with long driving range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency improvement of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is strongly dependent on the system-level control of the power flow in both the mechanical and the electrical paths of the vehicle. This is realized by the HEV control strategy. In this paper, a control strategy is proposed for a medium sized Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV) designed for campus and gymnasium.

Xudong Liu; Qingwu Fan; Kun Zheng; Jianmin Duan; Yu Wang

2010-01-01

308

Electric/hybrid vehicle model for establishing optimal battery requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microcomputer program (HELEN) for establishing battery requirements for a heat engine/battery hybrid vehicle is described. The program permits least-cost analyses to identify the optimum combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. It can also be used for cost comparisons between heat-engine vehicles, all-electric (battery) vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is employed for the battery. The heat engine performance model is based on engineering data for a production engine. A series/parallel configuration for the hybrid vehicle system is presently simulated. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle depends on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable battery depth of discharge, type and size of the heat engine, and the energy management strategy used. The program is written in PL/I language and can be run interactively on an IBM PC, COMPAQ, or other compatible microcomputer.

Marr, W. W.; Walsh, W. J.

1986-04-01

309

Optical interconnection module integrated on a flexible optical\\/electrical hybrid printed circuit board  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical interconnection module directly integrated on a flexible optical\\/electrical hybrid printed circuit board (O\\/E hybrid PCB) is presented. A newly proposed polymeric optical waveguide plays roles in the optical path and in a platform as an O\\/E hybrid PCB integrated with various optical\\/electrical components. The fabricated flexible O\\/E hybrid PCB had sufficient optical characteristics such as a low bending

Woo-Jin Lee; Sung Hwan Hwang; Jung Woon Lim; Che Hyun Cho; Gye Won Kim; Byung Sup Rho

2009-01-01

310

A compact electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser is realized on a hybrid silicon platform. A simplified, selfaligned, deep-etch process is developed to result in low-loss resonator with a high quality factor Q>15,000. Small footprint (resonator diameter=50 ?m), electrical and optical losses all contribute to lasing threshold as low as 5.4 mA and up to 65 °C operation temperature in continuous-wave (cw) mode. Outcoupling- and bus waveguide width-dependent studies are conducted for optimizing device structure. A simple qualitative study in current-voltage (IV) characteristic shows that dry etching through active region leads to <3× more leakage current at the same reverse bias than wet etch counterpart. It indicates a relatively good interface with tolerable surface recombination from deep dry etch. The spectrum is single mode with large extinction ratio (>40 dB) and small linewidth (<0.04 nm) observed. The unique bistability operation in ring resonator structure is also demonstrated.

Liang, Di; Okumura, Tadashi; Chang, Hsu-Hao; Spencer, Daryl; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Fang, Alexander W.; Dai, Daoxin; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.; Bowers, John E.

2009-11-01

311

A multiphase dual-inverter supplied drive structure for electric and hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-end winding variable speed drives with dual-inverter supply have been extensively investigated for various applications, including series hybrid powertrains and propulsion motors. The existing body of work is restricted to the three-phase electric machinery. This paper looks at the possibility of using machines with higher phase numbers in an open-end winding configuration with dual multiphase inverter supply for these applications.

Emil Levi; Martin Jones; Wahyu Satiawan

2010-01-01

312

Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter without Inductors for Electric\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications\\u000a implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc–dc boost converter\\u000a to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design\\u000a for EV and HEV applications implemented without

S. Dhayanandh; A. P. Ramya Sri; S. Rajkumar; N. Lavanya

313

A Matlab-based modeling and simulation package for electric and hybrid electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a simulation and modeling package developed at Texas A&M University, V-Elph 2.01. V-Elph facilitates in-depth studies of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) configurations or energy management strategies through visual programming by creating components as hierarchical subsystems that can be used interchangeably as embedded systems. V-Elph is composed of detailed models of four major types of

Karen L. Butler; Mehrdad Ehsani; Preyas Kamath

1999-01-01

314

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01

315

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01

316

Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV's). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO(x) and CO2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NOx and CO2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small--less than 1% of total utility emissions even with the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles.

1993-04-01

317

Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

Heitner, K. L.

1980-12-04

318

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikaël Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-01-01

319

Modelling and control of a medium-duty hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main contributions of this paper are the development of a forward-looking hybrid vehicle simulation tool, and its application to the design of a power management control algorithm. The hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) was developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the potential fuel economy and emission benefits of the parallel hybrid

C.-C. Lin; Z. Filipi; L. Louca; H. Peng; D. Assanis; J. Stein

2004-01-01

320

BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

None

2010-07-01

321

General supervisory control policy for the energy optimization of charge-sustaining hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formulation of the instantaneous power split strategy between an IC engine and an electric machine in a charge-sustaining hybrid-electric vehicle is given. It is based on the instantaneous optimization of an equivalent fuel consumption. This approach involves a heuristic formulation to convert the electrical power flow into equivalent fuel cost based on the average “cost” of electricity through

Gino Paganelli; Gabriele Ercole; Avra Brahma; Yann Guezennec; Giorgio Rizzoni

2001-01-01

322

Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

2006-01-01

323

High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat

Murty

2000-01-01

324

Engine power smoothing energy management strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles exploit energy production and energy storage systems to achieve improved fuel economy with respect to conventional powertrains. In order to maximize such improvements, advanced control strategies are needed for deciding the amount of energy to be produced and stored. In this paper we propose an approach for energy management of a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). This

S. Di Cairano; W. Liang; I. V. Kolmanovsky; M. L. Kuang; A. M. Phillips

2011-01-01

325

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

Barnitt, R.

2008-03-01

326

The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the more stringent regulations on emissions and fuel economy, global warming, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on developing novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable hybrid electric powertrain. This paper reviews the state of the

C. C. Chan

2007-01-01

327

A Development of an Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Supercapacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy storage system for improving performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is presented. The hybrid power system consists of batteries and supercapacitors. The supercapacitor contributes to the rapid energy recovery associated with regenerative braking and to the rapid energy consumption associated with acceleration in electric vehicles. This power system allows the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle with minimal

Jin-uk Jeong; Hyeoun-dong Lee; Chul-soo Kim; Hang-Seok Choi; Bo-Hyung Cho

328

Control strategy of hybrid power system for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle based on neural network optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell electric vehicle has very good application foreground for it has some advantages, such as high efficiency and little emission, etc. In order to characterize the structure of hybrid power system for fuel cell electric vehicle, the project of parallel hybrid power system was brought forward, which consisted of fuel cell, NIH battery and DC\\/DC converter. The power flow

Chang-jun Xie; Shu-hai Quan; Qi-hong Chen

2008-01-01

329

Optimal reliability allocation under uncertain conditions, with application to hybrid electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the main aspects of optimal reliability allocation with respect to the design of hybrid electric vehicles. In particular, with reference to the hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system, the problem of data uncertainty, due to a scarce knowledge of the components' reliabilities, is taken into account. This problem is crucial

Flavio Allella; Elio Chiodo; Davide Lauria

2005-01-01

330

Design for hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at characteristic of regenerative brake of hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle, hybrid electric drive system of armored vehicle with two energy storage devices (battery and flywheel) in series is designed for steal running and electro-thermal chemical gun in future combat field. Battery and flywheel are coordinated to store maximum feedback energy. Heavy current within short time is

Li Hua; Zhang Jian; Xu Da; Ma Xiaojun

2009-01-01

331

Predictive energy management of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) strategy is developed for the first time to solve the optimal energy management problem of power-split hybrid electric vehicles. A power-split hybrid combines the advantages of series and parallel hybrids by utilizing two electric machines and a combustion engine. Because of its many modes of operation, modeling a power-split configuration is complex

H. A. Borhan; A. Vahidi; A. M. Phillips; M. L. Kuang; I. V. Kolmanovsky

2009-01-01

332

Topological overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system architectures and configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the operational characteristics of the topologies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and more electric vehicles (MEV). A brief description of series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and fuel cell-based propulsion systems are presented. The paper also presents fuel cell propulsion applications, more specific to light-duty passenger cars as well as heavy-duty buses. Finally, some of

Ali Emadi; Kaushik Rajashekara; Sheldon S. Williamson; Srdjan M. Lukic

2005-01-01

333

Efficiency Analysis of Drive Train Topologies Applied to Electric\\/Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important research topics in drive train topologies applied to electric\\/hybrid vehicles is the efficiency analysis of the power train components, including the global drive efficiency. In this paper, two basic traction electric drive systems of electric\\/hybrid vehicles are presented and evaluated, with a special focus on the efficiency analysis. The first topology comprises a traditional pulsewidth-modulation

Jorge O. Estima; Antonio J. Marques Cardoso

2012-01-01

334

Development of a 55 kw diesel powered auxiliary power unit for hybrid electric vehicles. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three auxillary power units (APU) were developed for military hybrid vehicle applications with funding from DARPA. One APU was for the electric M113 troop carrier originally converted to electric power in the 1960`s. The other two APU`s developed during this project were for hybrid electric High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) projects. For this APU design a Volkswagen 1.5-1 diesel

W. E. Likos; D. J. Podnar; J. A. Smith; J. Steiber

1998-01-01

335

Bound states in a hybrid magnetic-electric quantum dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a hybrid magnetic-electric quantum dot defined by a missing magnetic flux and an electrostatic dot potential in a same circular region, which can be realized through an electrode-controlled (Vg) superconducting disk deposited atop a two-dimensional electron gas in a homogeneous perpendicular magnetic field (Ba). We find that when Vg/Ba=e?/4m*, all ground states with m the (angular momentum) <=0 recover the degeneracy Landau levels (LLs), although for general cases m-dependent energy deviations from the LLs happen. We also find that the magnetic-field-dependent energy spectrum exhibits quite different features for dot potentials with different signs, e.g., angular momentum transitions occurring in the positive case and coexistence of quantum-dot-kind and LL-kind levels for a small Ba in the negative one. Moreover, as the dot potential varies in a middle range, the energy spectrum shows step-type profiles, which are related to the nonmonotonous change in the probability for the electron to stay in the dot region. At the zero magnetic-field limit, the electron eigenenergy can jump between two adjacent LLs with a little change in the dot potential around special |m|-dependent values.

Song, Yu; Guo, Yong

2010-09-01

336

Mass-reduction effort of the electric and hybrid vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Weight reduction, cost competitiveness, and elimination of the intrusion beam resulted from the redesign and fabrication using composite materials of the door outer panel and intrusion beam from a 1977 Chevrolet Impala. The basis of the redesign involved replacing these two steel parts with a single compression molding using the unique approach of simultaneously curing a sheet molding compound outside panel with a continuous glass-fiber intrusion strap. A weight reduction of nearly 11 pounds per door was achieved. Additional weight savings are possible by taking advantage of the elimination of the intrusion beam to design thinner door structures. The parts-consolidation approach allows the composite structures to be cost-competitive with the original steel design for both the lower-production car models and for the near- to mid-term production contemplated for electric and hybrid vehicles using current state-of-the-art composite production techniques. In addition to the design, prototype fabrication, and costing phases, two appendices containing materials description, properties, and compression-molding production requirements are included.

Freeman, R.B.; Jahnle, H.A.

1980-03-01

337

An Overview of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a lab, PowerPoint presentation, and modified syllabus which all relate to Toyota's continuously variable HEV transmission. All materials were developed under a seed grant from the CAAT. The PowerPoint discusses the following: the use of a dry dampener in place of a torque converter,the various roles and controls of each motor in the transmission, structure and efficiency of motor magnets by angle orientation, speed sensor operation through magnets and coils, and power flow through the internal combustion engine, electric motors, batteries, transmission, and invertor under various driving conditions.The lab is intended to familiarize technicians with common service point locations and procedures on a Prius Hybrid (2003-2011) such as coolant bleed and fill (engine and inverter), transmission fluid drain and fill, high voltage wiring, auxiliary battery and precautions, and activating Inspection Mode. For educators looking to modify current courses, the syllabus has highlighted fields where the HEV transmission was incorporated into an automotive transmissions and transaxles course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

338

Optimal management of battery charging of electric vehicles: A new microgrid feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deployment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will put new challenges regarding the power systems operation. The MicroGrid (MG) concept can be exploited to support the progressive integration of PHEVs into the Low Voltage (LV) networks by developing smart charging strategies to manage the PHEVs batteries charging procedures in order to avoid reinforcements in the grid infrastructures. Assuming that

Ahmad Karnama; F. O. Resende; J. A. Pecas Lopes

2011-01-01

339

A probabilistic method to model PHEV for participation in electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong attentions into low carbon transportation systems cause the growth rate of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) increases around the world. PHEVs have the capability of grid connection. Therefore, if the effects of these vehicles such as overloading in distribution network are ignored, many problems would happen. Many assessments have been conducted over understanding the effects of PHEVs, but any

Mojtaba Abolfazli; Mohammad Hasan Bahmani; Saeid Afsharnia; Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh

2011-01-01

340

Dual-function wheel drives using rotary-linear actuators in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric and hybrid vehicles represent the future of ground transportation. In such vehicles, electric motor\\/s provide the propulsion thrust - eventually aiding the engine in case of parallel and mixed power trains. On the other hand, x-by-wire technologies are spreading, typically using electric drives to also perform actions such as steering, braking, active suspension etc. Any active wheel may then

P. Bolognesi; O. Bruno; L. Taponecco

2009-01-01

341

A control strategy to minimize fuel consumption of series hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the problem of controlling the electricity generation of series hybrid electric vehicles (SHEVs) and proposes an algorithm with the goal to minimize fuel consumption. Starting from the knowledge of the vehicle electric generator consumption maps, as well as information on the vehicle battery behavior, and on some overall parameters characterizing the expected trip, the

Stefano Barsali; Carmine Miulli; Andrea Possenti

2004-01-01

342

A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy. The parallel HEV control problem involves the determination of the time profiles of the power flows from the engine and the electric motor. This is also referred to as the power split between the conventional and the electric sources. The objective of HEV

Pierluigi Pisu; Giorgio Rizzoni

2007-01-01

343

A Hybrid Optimization Method to Analyze Metamaterial-Based Electrically Small Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of an idealized radiating system composed of an electrically small electric dipole antenna enclosed in an electrically small multilayered metamaterial shell system is developed analytically. The far-field radiation characteristics of this system are optimized using a GA-MATLAB based hybrid optimization model. The optimized-analytical model is specifically applied to a spherical glass shell filled with a \\

Aycan Erentok; Richard W. Ziolkowski

2007-01-01

344

Multioperational Modes and Control Strategies of Dual-Mechanical-Port Machine for Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous variable transmission based on a planetary gear set is used in a full hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) to integrate the IC engine and two electric machines into the drive train so that the engine can always be at the highest efficiency speed while the vehicle is allowed to run at any desired speeds. However, the two electric machines

Longya Xu; Yuan Zhang; Xuhui Wen

2009-01-01

345

Analytical method to evaluate fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative analytically based method to calculate corrected fuel consumption of parallel and series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices is proposed and validated in the paper. The proposed analytical method is generally applicable and features highly accurate corrected fuel consumption results. It enables calculation of the corrected fuel consumption out of a single

Tomaž Katrašnik

2010-01-01

346

Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu

2012-06-01

347

Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack has been analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, have been evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ahlheim, M.C. [Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-08-01

348

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two ...

R. Barnitt

2011-01-01

349

Integration, Testing, and Validation of a Small Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parallel hybrid-electric technology offers a wide variety of new mission capabilities including low-observable loiter operations and increased fuel efficiency for small remotely-piloted aircraft. This research focused on the integration, validation, and t...

J. K. Ausserer

2012-01-01

350

Reducing Stiffness and Electrical Losses of High Channel Hybrid Nerve Cuff Electrodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For restoration of grasp in disabled people by means of functional electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, 18 polar Hybrid Cuff Electrodes were developed. These electrodes consisted of a micromachined polyimide-based thin-film structure with integrat...

M. Schuettler T. Stieglitz M. Gross D. Altpeter A. Staiger

2001-01-01

351

A Survey of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Simulation Programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted...

J. Bevan D. A. Heimburger M. A. Metcalfe

1978-01-01

352

Hybrid electric vehicle technology assessment : methodology, analytical issues, and interim results.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first phase of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) examination of the costs and energy impacts of light-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We call this research an HEV Technology Assessment, or HEVTA. HEVs are vehicles with drivetrains that combine electric drive components (electric motor, electricity storage) with a refuelable power plant (e.g., an internal combustion engine). The use of hybrid drivetrains is widely considered a key technology strategy in improving automotive fuel efficiency. Two hybrid vehicles--Toyota's Prius and Honda's Insight--have been introduced into the U.S. market, and all three auto industry participants in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) have selected hybrid drivetrains for their prototype vehicles.

Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.; Anderson, J.; Wang, M.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.

2002-03-13

353

Hydrogen peroxide and ozone formation in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone in the gas phase and hydrogen peroxide in the liquid phase were simultaneously formed in hybrid electrical discharge reactors, known as the hybrid-series and hybrid-parallel reactors, which utilize both gas phase nonthermal plasma formed above the water surface and direct liquid phase corona-like discharge in the water. In the series configuration the high voltage needle-point electrode is submerged and

Petr Lukes; Austin T. Appleton; Bruce R. Locke

2004-01-01

354

Framework for rendering plug-ins in remote access services  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A framework for and hosting rendering plug-ins in remote access services is disclosed. The framework provides an interface between the core components of the remote access system and the rendering plug-ins. The framework utilizes public APIs to provide the interface between the core components and the rendering plug-ins. Using the APIs, the framework can allow various existing and new rendering plug-ins to interact with the core components of the remote access system, thereby making an extensible system that can support a variety of rendering plug-ins.

2011-05-03

355

Novel Concepts for Integrating the Electric Drive and Auxiliary DC–DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost, volume, and weight are three major driving forces in the automotive area. This is also true for hybrid electric vehicles, which are attracting more and more attention due to increasing fuel costs and air pollution. In hybrid vehicles, the energy distribution system causes a significant share of the volume and the costs. One part of this system is the

Hanna Plesko; Jorma Luomi; Johann W. Kolar

2008-01-01

356

A software simulation program for a hybrid fuel cell - battery power supply for an electric forklift  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a software simulation program for an electric forklift powered by a hybrid fuel cell - battery power supply. The power supply is based on a range extender active hybrid configuration, where a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to continuously charge a flooded lead-acid battery on-board the forklift. The program involved modelling

Edward Chan; Francis Dawson; Henk Bekker; Eugene Livshits; EDWARD S. ROGERS SR

2007-01-01

357

Role of Terrain Preview in Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-management strategy plays a critical role in high fuel economy that modern hybrid electric vehicles can achieve, yet a lack of information about future driving conditions is one of the limitations of fulfilling the maximum fuel economy potential of hybrid vehicles. Today, with wider deployment of vehicle telematic technologies, prediction of future driving conditions, e.g., road grade, is becoming more

Chen Zhang; Ardalan Vahidi; Pierluigi Pisu; Xiaopeng Li; Keith Tennant

2010-01-01

358

Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration

Vanessa Paladini; Teresa Donateo; Arturo de Risi; Domenico Laforgia

2007-01-01

359

Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Façade for Heating, Cooling and Electricity Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a scientific and technical cooperation between CRF and Politecnico di Milano, the hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) facade of the FIAT Research Center (CRF) was realized near Turin in Italy. In the present work, a detailed analysis of monitored data on the thermal and electrical performances of hybrid solar facade is presented. Using the simulation model, an estimated data for annual

F. Butera; R. S. Adhikari; N. Aste; R. Bracco

2007-01-01

360

Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) Hybrid Electric Combat Vehicle Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was originally titled the Hybrid Electric Combat Vehicle (HECV); hence the title on the cover. It was subsequently named the Combat Hybrid Power System (CHPS) project and is so-called hereafter. This paper presents two different analyses of t...

1998-01-01

361

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L.

M. K. Singh; M. J. Bernard; R. F Walsh

1980-01-01

362

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department

1992-01-01

363

Aerodynamic characteristics of sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact vehicles. Complete data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents an elementary electric and hybrid vehicle aerodynamic data base and describes how it was developed. Sixteen electric, hybrid, and subcompact production vehicles were tested in the Lockheed-Georgia low-speed wind tunnel. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current

Kurtz

1979-01-01

364

Electric-field Assisted Immobilization and Hybridization of DNA Oligomers on Microcantilever Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold-coated microcantilevers were used to develop sensitive micromechanical biosensor for detecting mismatch mutations in DNA hybrids. The selective 5'-end immobilization of 25-mer single-stranded (ss) DNA probes to a gold-coated cantilever surface and the specific hybridization of ssDNA targets to the immobilized probe were performed by the direct electric field control. The controlled electric fields were used to regulate the transport

Xiaomei Yu; Haitao Zhang; Xiuham Li; Yaquan Tang; Ting Li

2006-01-01

365

HYBRID ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION WITH WIND AND DIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wind/hybrid operation data were collected using an independent hybrid test grid consisting of three diesel generator sets, AOC 15/50 and Enertech 44/40 wind turbines, two resistive load banks, pre-commercial controls, with a simulated village load. Two configurations were tested, one using a synchro...

366

Optimal Design of Hybrid Electric-Human Powered Lightweight Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to develop a lightweight and efficient hybrid bicycle design. A series approach to design of the hybrid bicycle was used to allow for more technical advances to be made. This approach required the project to be divided into th...

E. M. Odom D. Gerbus

2001-01-01

367

Electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons based on hybrid Au-GaAs QW structures.  

PubMed

In this paper, the electrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based on a hybrid metal-semiconductor quantum well (QW) structure is investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and experiments. The metal-QW hybrid structure is made of a metal grating structure deposited on a semiconductor QW with small separation between them. When electron-hole pairs are excited using current injection into the QW, SPPs are generated and coupled out by a metal grating. The spectral and imaging measurements were performed to confirm the electrical excitation of SPPs. The hybrid structure could serve as a plasmonic source for integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:23900526

Li, Jing; Wei, Hong; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhuoxian; Zhao, Zhensheng; Duan, Xuanming; Xu, Hongxing

2013-09-21

368

Electrical Insulating and Heat-Resistive Properties of PDMS-TEOS Hybrid with Different Molar Ratio of TEOS to PDMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrids prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) have been well known to be rubbery hybrid materials. In this report, the authors have investigated the electrical insulating and heat resistive properties of the hybrids by changing the molar ratio of TEOS to PDMS. The electrical insulating properties are evaluated by volume resistivity and AC breakdown strength at room temperature.

Makoto Sugiura; Fumitoshi Imasato; Atsushi Ohno; Yusuke Aoki; Shuhei Nakamura; Tetsushi Okamoto; Takuya Shindou

2007-01-01

369

Test facility for a hybrid fuel cell electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric vehicle concept is gaining momentum in competing with the internal combustion (IC) based vehicle due to rising fuel prices and demands for alternative energy vehicles. Particularly, fuel cell electric vehicles are gaining attention as a real alternative to the pure IC engine vehicle. Because of this emerging technology, considerable research into the configurations of these fuel cell electric

Michael J. Marcel; Timothy A. Haskew; Keith A. Williams

2007-01-01

370

Acoustic Characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Safety of Pedestrians Who are Blind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order to do...

A. Hastings B. Samiljan C. Scarpone J. K. Pollard L. Garay-Vega

2010-01-01

371

A hybrid thermal energy storage system for managing simultaneously solar and electric energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid thermal energy storage system (HTESS) is proposed for managing simultaneously the storage of heat from solar and electric energy. Solar energy is stored during sunny days and released later during cloudy days or at night, and to smooth power demands, electric energy is stored during off peak periods and later used during peak periods. A heat transfer model

Zouhair Ait Hammou; Marcel Lacroix

2006-01-01

372

Control of Dual Mode Power Split Transmission for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor control algorithm for a dual power split system is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The dual mode power split system consists of an electric variator, MG1 and MG2, and three planetary gear sets. In order to develop the control algorithm for the best fuel economy, the dual mode PST is analyzed by network analysis. From the network analysis

Namdoo Kim; Jeongmin Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

373

An Approach for Designing Thermal Management Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Battery Packs  

Microsoft Academic Search

If battery packs for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are to operate effectively in all climates, thermal management of the packs is essential. In this paper, we will review a systematic approach for designing and evaluating battery pack thermal management systems. A thermal management system using air as the heat transfer medium is less complicated than a

A. A. Pesaran; M. Keyser; S. Burch

1999-01-01

374

Derivation and Experimental Validation of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted a lot of attention due to environmental and efficiency reasons. Typically, an HEV combines two power trains, a conventional power source such as a gasoline engine, a diesel engine, or a fuel cell stack, and an electric drive system (involving a motor and a generator) to produce driving power with a potential of higher

Fazal U. Syed; Ming L. Kuang; John Czubay; Hao Ying

2006-01-01

375

Narrow pulsed electric field generator using forward \\/ flyback hybrid converters for liquid food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high pulsed electric field generator for microbial inhibition of liquid food in continuous treatment applications. The proposed pulsed electric field generator adopts forward\\/flyback hybrid converters to achieve a bidirectional narrow pulse voltage output. With this circuit structure, the proposed one can reduce voltage stresses of output diodes and switches in secondary winding of transformer, resulting in

Y.-D. Chang; S.-Y. Tseng; T.-F. Wu; H.-R. Yang

2008-01-01

376

Fuzzy-logic-based torque control strategy for parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), torque assisting and battery recharging control using the electric machine is the key point for efficient driving. In this paper, by adopting the decision-making property of fuzzy logic, the driving map for an HEV is made according to driving conditions. In this fuzzy logic controller, the induction machine torque command is generated from

Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul

1998-01-01

377

Starter-alternator for hybrid electric vehicle: comparison of induction and variable reluctance machines and drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results of using induction and variable reluctance machines as the starter-alternator in a hybrid electric vehicle. The frame sizes of these machines are dictated by transient engine cranking loads. Therefore, in their design, the machines are assumed to be in deep magnetic saturation and the resultant thermally constrained electric loadings are predicted from the calculated

John M. Miller; A. R. Gale; P. J. McCleer; F. Leonardi; J. H. Lang

1998-01-01

378

Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor

J. Brennand; R. Curtis; H. Fox

1977-01-01

379

Modeling and Control of a Boost Chopper Linked to AC Drive System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boost chopper can link dc battery system and ac drive system to increase the overall efficiency of electric propulsion system in hybrid electric vehicles. Its criterion for the variable voltage command is typically maximum-torque-perampere operation of the ac machine to minimize its copper loss as much as possible. The switching frequency of a boost chopper is generally much higher

Y. Jeong

2007-01-01

380

Application of Direct-Drive Wheel Motor for Fuel Cell Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a gearless wheel motor drive system specifically designed for fuel cell electric and hybrid electric vehicle propulsion application. The system includes a liquid-cooled axial flux permanent-magnet machine designed to meet the direct-drive requirements. The machine design implements techniques to increase the machine inductance in order to improve machine constant power range and high-speed efficiency. The implemented technique

Khwaja M. Rahman; Nitin R. Patel; Terence G. Ward; James M. Nagashima; Federico Caricchi; Fabio Crescimbini

2006-01-01

381

Test and evaluation report of the ERDC Hybrid-Electric Van (HEVAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HEVAN or Hybrid-Electric Van is a battery-powered electric vehicle with an on-board gasoline-fueled electric power generation unit. The HEVAN was developed from a Volkswagen transporter chassis. It is propelled by a series-wound DC traction motor rated at 20 HP (14.9 kW) which is powered by sixteen 6-volt SGL lead-acid batteries of nominally 96 volts. The motor power is controlled

Klose

1979-01-01

382

Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

2013-01-01

383

Prospects for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Second-stage results of a two-stage Delphi study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to collect information for a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994, while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper...

H. K. Ng J. L. Anderson D. J. Santini A. D. Vyas

1996-01-01

384

Plug in repetitive control for industrial robotic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of plug-in repetitive control on the direct drive axis of a prototype GMF A500 robot is considered. Plug-in repetitive control was developed and implemented using an IBM AT. A multirate sampling algorithm was designed to reduce the memory requirements of repetitive control. A microcontroller board based on the Intel 8096 was designed so that plug-in repetitive control could

C. Cosner; G. Anwar; M. Tomizuka

1990-01-01

385

Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Peng; Jessy W. Grizzle; Jun-Mo Kang

2003-01-01

386

Energy Storage Options for Hybrid Diesel Electric Shunting Locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shunting locomotives are required to produce high powers during shunting operations but may be idle for many hours each day. A key issue with a hybrid conversion is battery life. Shunting locomotives are required to develop typically 1000hp to 2000hp for periods of perhaps a few minutes and the battery is sized for its capacity to deliver instantaneous power. This

Peter Wolfs

387

Electric field directed nucleic acid hybridization on microchips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and adjustment of proper physical parameters enables rapid DNA transport, site selective concentration, and accelerated hybridization reactions to be carried out on active microelectronic arrays. These physical parameters include DC current, voltage, solution conductivity and buffer species. Generally, at any given current and voltage level, the transport or mobility of DNA is inversely proportional to electrolyte or buffer conductivity.

Carl F. Edman; Daniel E. Raymond; David J. Wu; Eugene Tu; Ronald G. Sosnowski; William F. Butler; Michael Nerenberg; Michael J. Heller

1997-01-01

388

Electric and hybrid vehicle performance and design goal determination study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations are set forth for performance standards for near-term and advanced electric and hybrid vehicles. Limited market surveys and interviews with present owners of electric vehicles indicated that the most important criterion for private vehicles is low operating cost. This criterion, combined with the low specific energy density and relatively short life of present storage batteries, was the key factor in the minimum performance specified for near-term private electric vehicles: two or more passengers, 50 km range over the SAE J227a/C driving schedule, with a maximum energy use of about 0.9 MJ/km (0.4 kWh/mi). Near-term commercial vehicles have even lower recommended minimum performance, including 50 km on the (less demanding) SAE J227a/B schedule. Heat-engine battery-electric hybrid vehicles may provide the driving range lacking in electric vehicles and use appreciably less fuel than conventional vehicles. Performance standards recommended for near-term hybrid vehicles call for essentially the same performance as for comparably sized near-term electric vehicles, except for increased range capability. Development specifications recommended for advanced hybrids call for substantially reduced petroleum fuel consumption and the same acceleration capability exhibited by present conventional subcompact cars. Performance standards for a light agricultural utility vehicle are developed.

Brennand, J.; Curtis, R.; Fox, H.; Hamilton, W.

1977-08-01

389

Study of a hybrid PV-Thermal solar system to provide electricity and heat in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) solar collectors are used to simultaneously obtain electricity and heat from the same collector. For the same energy output, the combined collectors lead to a lower total area than separate thermal and PV collectors. Numerical models were developed for two types of hybrid collectors, with a flat-plate and tube geometry: one using monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) PV cells

L. Almeida; A. C. Oliveira

2008-01-01

390

Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

Lammert, M.

2008-06-01

391

Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Evolution, Classification, Comparison, and Future Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

As hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are gaining more popularity in the market, the rule of the energy management system in the hybrid drivetrain is escalating. This paper classifies and extensively overviews the state-of-the-art control strategies for HEVs. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. From different perspectives, real-time solutions are qualitatively compared. Finally, a couple of important issues

Farzad Rajaei Salmasi

2007-01-01

392

Status Review of Power Control Strategies for Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cell-hybrid electric vehicles (FC-HEVs) have become one of the most promising alternatives for the development of low emission and fuel efficient vehicles. A fuel cell vehicle can significantly benefit from being hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS), in terms of vehicle performance, fuel economy, and vehicle cost. A power control strategy is essentially required for FC-HEVs, in order

Di Wu; S. S. Williamson

2007-01-01

393

Modeling and Control for a Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The ,main ,contributions of this paper ,are the development ,of a forward-looking hybrid vehicle simulation tool, and its application to the design of a,power management,control algorithm. The hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) was ,developed ,at the ,Automotive Research Center of the,University of Michigan to study the potential fuel economy and emission benefits of the parallel hybridpropulsion,system for a

Cc. Lin; Z. Filipi; L. Loucas; H. Peng; D. Assanis; J. Stein

2004-01-01

394

DNA hybridization detection on electrical microarrays using coulostatic pulse technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated a novel application of transient coulostatic pulse technique for the detection of label free DNA hybridization on nm-sized gold interdigitated ultramicroelectrode arrays (Au–IDA) made in silicon technology. The array consists of eight different positions with an Au–IDA pair at each position arranged on the Si-based Biochip. Immobilization of capture probes onto the Au–IDA was accomplished by self-assembling of

V. Dharuman; E. Nebling; T. Grunwald; J. Albers; L. Blohm; B. Elsholz; R. Wörl; R. Hintsche

2006-01-01

395

A stochastic control strategy for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation of vehicle sub-systems to achieve performance targets such as maximizing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions. This high-level control problem is commonly referred as the power management problem. In the past, many supervisory control strategies were developed on the basis of a few pre-defined driving cycles, using intuition and

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Pengl; J. W. Grizzle

2004-01-01

396

Modeling and control of Power-split hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Power-split hybrid automotive system is considered, including a multi-phase synchronous motor, an internal combustion engine and a planetary gear as key element to split power in this propulsion system. The dynamic model of a planetary gear with internal elasticity is presented and the model of the whole vehicle is given using the Power-Oriented Graphs approach. A

Roberto Zanasi; Federica Grossi

2010-01-01

397

A comparison of modeled and measured energy use in hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

CarSim 2.5.4, written by AeroVironment, Inc. of Monrovia, California and SIMPLEV 3.0, written by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were used to simulate two series-configured hybrid electric vehicles that competed in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge. Vehicle speed and battery energy use were measured over a 0.2-km maximum effort acceleration and a 58-km range event. The simulations` predictions are compared to each other and to measured data. A rough uncertainty analysis of the validation is presented. The programs agree with each other to within 5% and with the measured energy data within the uncertainty of the experiment.

Cuddy, M.

1995-01-01

398

Plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles market penetration scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to analyze the impact of the market share increase of hydrogen based road vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO2, on today's Portuguese light-duty fleet. Actual yearly values of energy consumption and emissions were estimated using COPERT software: 167112 TJ of fossil fuel energy, 12213 kton of CO2 emission and 141 kton of CO, 20 kton

Patricia Baptista; Mário Tomás; Carla Silva

2010-01-01

399

Operation of a hybrid PM generator in a series hybrid electrical vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, road transportation accounts for approximately 30% of all energy consumed, additionally vehicles are a major source of airborne emissions. Electric vehicles are a transportation technology that has the potential to address some of the energy and pollution issues within the UK and globally. However, there are some drawbacks related to pure electric vehicles, for example, limited driving

A. S. Al-Adsani; A. M. Jarushi; N. Schofield

2009-01-01

400

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube/fiber hybrid composites  

SciTech Connect

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the fiber composite plays a dominant role in the electrical behavior due to alteration of percolating paths in the carbon nanotube network.

Thostenson, Erik T.; Gangloff, John J. Jr. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Li Chunyu [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Byun, Joon-Hyung [Composite Materials Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-010 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-17

401

High Efficiency IPM Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 21st century, global warming has become an important issue. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emissions should be reduced to preserve the correct air quality as per Kyoto protocol, implemented on February 16, 2005 by most of the countries. Modern human beings, who enjoy the fruits of electric energy technologies for climate controlled home and work place environments via air

M. A. Rahman

2007-01-01

402

Demand for electric vehicles in hybrid households: an exploratory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the potential market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) from different research streams have failed to converge on a single, robust estimate. What these previous research streams share are untested or implausible assumptions about consumer response to new transportation technology. We frame the BEV purchase decision in terms of a household's entire stock of vehicles, car purchase behavior

Kenneth S. Kurani; Tom Turrentine; Daniel Sperling

1994-01-01

403

Electrical anisotropy in multiscale nanotube\\/fiber hybrid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter reports an experimental and theoretical study on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube\\/glass fiber composites. Experimental measurements on unidirectional glass fiber composites with nanotubes dispersed in the polymer matrix show a high degree of anisotropy. The composites, manufactured with a vacuum infusion technique, do not show any significant process-induced anisotropy. Theoretical modeling reveals that the microstructure of the

Erik T. Thostenson; John J. Jr. Gangloff; Chunyu Li; Joon-Hyung Byun

2009-01-01

404

New Jersey Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (New Jersey Genesis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent of this project was the retrofit of a donated aluminum Ford Mercury Sable with an electric drive train, fuel cell power system, advanced battery pack, and a hydrogen generator to do a preliminary demonstration of the technology. Currently there...

P. J. Szary A. Maher

2001-01-01

405

Optimization of Electric Power Distribution Using Hybrid Simulated Annealing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key goal of electric power distribution companies is to provide a high quality of service with a low cost of operation. The growing customer needs requires a re-distribution of the Power over various nodes of the Distributed Generation (DG) facilitates. The re-distribution might cause over load on various parts of the networks which if not correctly optimized might increase

Walid Ahmed; Alaa F. Sheta

2008-01-01

406

An Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation and lab provide a general overview of HEVs and the technologies powering them. Both were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through seed funding from the CAAT. The included slides reflect these changes made for HEV technologies. This resource has two areas of focus: HEV theory of operation and safety and service procedures. The following subjects are discussed: Types of HEV systems (Ex: parallel, series, and series-parallel), safety when working with HEVs (Ex: isolating systems/disable high voltage circuits, high voltage gloves, and insulated tools), testing HEV components (Ex: insulation tests), differences between similar components of standard vehicles and HEV (Ex: intake, motor and transaxle integration), power steering, regenerative braking, and correct service procedures for HEV components (Ex: battery, jump start, multimeter use, and oil change). Differences between types of hybrid systems are compared for the Chevy Volt, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Toyota Prius. After viewing this presentation, a technician should have a basic understanding of HEVs and their differences from traditional vehicles when servicing.

College, Lewis A.

407

Modeling of the radon exhalation from water to air by a hybrid electrical circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model based on electric circuit theory has been introduced for modeling the radon exhalation from water to air in a\\u000a sample bottle. Comparing the differential equations for radon exhalation from water to air and a hybrid electrical circuit\\u000a shown that the volume of water or air, radon concentration, radon flux and solubility coefficient (dependent on temperature\\u000a of water)

S. M. Musavi Nasab; A. Negarestani; S. Mohammadi

2011-01-01

408

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na\\/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and

Ohi

1992-01-01

409

A gaming environment approach to analysis of energy storage for electric\\/hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplayer gaming environment, combining the multi-disciplinary engineering simulation software, Virtual Test Bed (VTB), and the gaming tool, Unity3D, is introduced to realize the analysis of energy storage for electric\\/hybrid vehicle through a vehicle driving game. The gaming engine couples the three-dimensional (3D) multibody vehicle system, especially developed in VTB at proper level of complexity for electrical engineers, with the

Tianlei Zhang; Jeremiah Shepherd; Jijun Tang; Roger A. Dougal

2011-01-01

410

Wisconsin electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project. Final report, 1981-1985  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education (WBVTAE) was selected by the US Department of Energy for participation in the National Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration Program. On September 30, 1985, the data collection phase of the project was completed. The project was to purchase ten (10) electric vehicles and assign five (5) to Northeast Wisconsin Technical Institute (NWTI) in Green Bay and five (5) vehicles to the Madison Area Technical College.

Not Available

1986-02-10

411

Helpful hints to enhance reliability of DC-DC converters in hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for reliability assessment of bi-directional dc-dc converters which are used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EV\\/HEV). The proposed technique takes into account random modes of operation dictated by the driving scenarios. In order to consider the stochastic nature of the driving, Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) driving cycle is selected as the reference. A

Amir Hossein Ranjbar; Babak Fahimi

2010-01-01

412

Electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Quarterly report, 1 October--31 December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the project is to assess the impact of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants associated with internal combustion engines. The study also quantifies the fuel economy benefits of various hybrid configurations.

NONE

1998-12-01

413

Electrical and thermal conductivity of hybrid nanocomposites with giant strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, conformable sensors, and lightweight solar cells. The optimization of electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties of conductive and extensible materials is necessary for the application of energy device. Here we demonstrate the theoretical prediction for the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites compared with experimental results. Also, we present the giant dependence of electrical conductivity on strain and the large positive thermal expansion that can be expected for the elastomer matrix. The percolation threshold (26 vol% of Ag, average interparticle distance model) and Poisson's ratio (Vt=0.33, Vw=0.2) of nanocomposites are significant factors that can determine the electrical and thermal conductivity with giant strain. The thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric film is relatively high at the zero-strain state, and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport. The observed combinational property of a very small dependence of conductivity on temperature with an exponential dependence can be suitable for for the mechanical strain sensing.

Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Aliev, Ali E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

2013-04-01

414

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Barnitt, R. A.

2008-06-01

415

In-Use Performance Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hybrid electric (equipped with BAE Systems? HybriDrive propulsion system) transit buses at New York City Transit (NYCT). CNG, Gen I and Gen II hybrid electric propulsion systems were compared on fuel economy, maintenance and operating costs per mile, and reliability.

Robb A. Barnitt

2008-01-01

416

Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400

F. C. Lee; D. Y. Chen; M. Jovanovic; D. C. Hopkins

1985-01-01

417

Electric and hybrid vehicles: Technical background report for the DOE flexible and alternative fuels study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared to provide background information on electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs) for a Department of Energy assessment of the costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. As required by the assessment, this report focuses on the potential characteristics and impacts of large-scale EHV production and use, rather than on the

1989-01-01

418

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

419

Design Consideration of a Novel Digital Bidirectional Constant Current Source Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel circuit topologies dedicating to system within storage battery as standby power supply and operating as bidirectional current source used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are proposed in this paper, and both advantages and disadvantages between the two proposed topologies are investigated. Functions of both discharging process with large current from battery to the relative lower voltage load end

Qingbo Hu; Zhengyu Lu

2006-01-01

420

A power system combining batteries and supercapacitors in a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a solar\\/hydrogen hybrid power system, which reduces the required hydrogen fuel cell power output by combining batteries and supercapacitors in an electric vehicle, is presented. It is shown that this combination can minimise vehicle costs in terms of capital outlay, weight, and fuel. The supercapacitors provide instantaneous peak power as the fuel cell responds to power demand

Michael B. Burnett; Lawrence J. Borle

2005-01-01

421

Modelling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle All Wheel Drive Driveline System Incorporating Clutch Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have been recently attracting considerable attention from both car manufacturers and customers. This innovative concept is challenged by high expectations concerning the performance and comfort issues [6], whilst at the same time is required to fulfill strict restrictions with respect to the CO2 emissions. In order to achieve these goals, advanced control is applied at all

D. Cieslar; Jens G. Linden; Keith J. Burnham; Matthew Hancock; Francis Assadian

2008-01-01

422

Performance evaluation of a hybrid electric brake system with a sliding mode controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new conceptual hybrid electric brake system (HEBS) that combines a contact conventional hydraulic brake system (CBS) and a contactless Eddy current brake (ECB) system is proposed in this paper. An ECB generates brake force from the interaction between an Eddy current and a magnetic flux. However, an ECB cannot generate sufficient torque at low vehicle speeds. Also, the system

Jeonghoon Song

2005-01-01

423

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of strategies for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are proposed in the literature. A key challenge is to achieve near-optimality while keeping the methodology simple. The Pontryagin's minimum principle (PMP) is suggested as a viable real-time strategy. In this brief, the global optimality of the principle under reasonable assumptions is de- scribed from a mathematical

Namwook Kim; Sukwon Cha; Huei Peng

2011-01-01

424

Power and energy storage devices for next generation hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel conservation and environmental pollution control are the principal motivating factors that are urging at present widespread research and development activities for electric and hybrid vehicles throughout the world. The paper describes different possible energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor, and power sources, such as gasoline engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell for next

B. K. Bose; M.-H. Kim; M. D. Kankam

1996-01-01

425

Fuel efficiency comparisons of advanced transit buses using fuel cell and engine hybrid electric drivelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attention of air quality regulators has been increasingly on the emissions from transit buses, especially particulate emissions from diesel engines. As a result, there has been considerable R&D effort on the development of diesel hybrid-electric and fuel cell powered transit buses. Fuel cell buses using both hydrogen and methanol with a reformer as the fuel are being developed. In

A. F. Burke; M. Miller

2000-01-01

426

Measurements of metal hydride hydrogen tank for hybrid electrical chair with photovoltaic and fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the temperature related hydrogen input and output characteristics of a metal hydride tank to be used for a hybrid electrical wheelchair with photovoltaic cells and fuel cells. The temperature of a metal hydride tank increases when it is filled with hydrogen and decreases as the hydrogen is ejected. A metal hydride tank is unable to eject hydrogen

Yoshihiko Takahashi; Yuuta Kaji

2011-01-01

427

Energy management in an automotive electric\\/heat engine hybrid powertrain using fuzzy decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe how vehicle emissions legislation has caused interest in the heat engine electric hybrid vehicle to be renewed. The form of such a vehicle and the associated problem of the control of its powertrain are described. A controller for managing the powertrain which uses fuzzy logic to implement decision making is developed. Details are given of simulation experiments

S. D. Farrall; R. P. Jones

1993-01-01

428

Reducing stiffness and electrical losses of high channel hybrid nerve cuff electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For restoration of grasp in disabled people by means of functional electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, 18 polar Hybrid Cuff Electrodes were developed. These electrodes consisted of a micromachined polyimide-based thin-film structure with integrated electrode contacts and interconnection lines which was glued to a silicone cuff. Interconnection lines were made of only 300 nm of sputtered gold, which led to

M. Schuettler; T. Stieglitz; M. Gross; D. Altpeter; A. Staiger; T. Doerge; F. Katzenberg

2001-01-01

429

Co-simulation with AMESim and MATLAB for differential dynamic coupling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dynamic coupling device of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was put forward based on the traditional symmetric bevel gear differential. And the co-simulation platform was constructed based on AMESim and MATLAB by analysis of the transfer mechanism for the new dynamic coupling. The control strategy was developed using MATLAB, the dynamic model of HEV was built using AMESim, and

Zhang Dong-xu; Zeng Xiao-hua; Wang Peng-yu; Wang Qing-nian

2009-01-01

430

Development of a hybrid flywheel\\/battery drive system for electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's electric vehicles are severely limited in multistop and go driving range and accelerating capability by the lead acid battery's inability to handle high power peaks while maintaining maximum energy storage capability. A hybrid flywheel\\/battery system can be used to isolate the battery from the accelerating power peaks, and should recover a substantial part of the braking energy. This paper

E. L. Lustenader; R. H. Guess; E. Richter; F. G. Turnbull

1977-01-01

431

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

Barnitt, R.

2011-01-01

432

Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. Economics play a major role as evidenced by oil prices in North America pressing upwards of $100\\/Bbl coupled with a customer preference for full size crossover and sport utility vehicles. The situation in Oceania is milder, but emerging markets such as China are experiencing automotive sector growth

John M. Miller

2006-01-01

433

Energy-management system for a hybrid electric vehicle, using ultracapacitors and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very efficient energy-management system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), using neural networks (NNs), was developed and tested. The system minimizes the energy requirement of the vehicle and can work with different primary power sources like fuel cells, microturbines, zinc-air batteries, or other power supplies with a poor ability to recover energy from a regenerative braking, or with a scarce

Jorge Moreno; Micah E. Ortúzar; Juan W. Dixon

2006-01-01

434

New DC–DC Converter for Energy Storage System Interfacing in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of energy storage devices such as batteries or supercapacitors is almost mandatory in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles, in order to guarantee load leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in transient operations. To this end, converters with bidirectional power flows are needed to connect the accumulators to the dc-link of the motor drive system. In this

Mario Marchesoni; Camillo Vacca

2007-01-01

435

High frequency AC vs. DC distribution system for next generation hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes and then demonstrates the viability of high frequency AC (HFAC) for propulsion power distribution system in the next generation advanced electric\\/hybrid vehicle. In justifying this viability, the HFAC system has been studied thoroughly and compared with the traditional DC distribution system with regard to cost, weight, performance and other capabilities after performing component sizing calculation of both

B. K. Bose; Min-Huei Kin; M. D. Kankam

1996-01-01

436

Modeling and Validation of a Hydrogen Engine Powered Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modeling and validation of a hybrid electric vehicle powered by hydrogen internal- combustion engine. The engine was converted from a regular gasoline engine. The model of this vehicle was developed in PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), which tracks engine flow and fuel usage within the vehicle powertrain and energy conversion components. The powertrain control strategy was

Xiaolai He; T. Maxwell; M. Parten

2007-01-01

437

Magnetic Shield Design Between Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Sensor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a design and analysis method of magnetic shield structure between a position sensor and an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). For a vector control algorithm and high reliability of traction system of HEV, a resolver is usually adopted as a position sensor of IPMSM instead of an encoder. However, the design

Ki-Chan Kim; Chang Sung Jin; Ju Lee

2009-01-01

438

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power management control system development and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design procedure adopted is a model-based approach, and was based on the dynamic programming technique. A vehicle model is first developed, the optimal control action that maximizes fuel economy is then solved by the dynamic programming method. A

Chan-Chiao Lin; Huei Peng; J. W. Grizzle; Jason Liu; Matt Busdiecker

2003-01-01

439

Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE)

Leon Headings; Gregory Washington; Christopher M. Jaworski

2008-01-01

440

A New Hybrid Multi-Objective Quick Service Restoration technique for Electric Power Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a New Hybrid Multi-Objective Quick Service restoration (QSR) technique for Electrical Power Distribution Systems (EPDS). The main features of this new technique includes the development New Network Connectivity Method, objective function formulation with the consideration of various constraints in addition to the Priority Based Load Constraints and the incorporation of Service Restoration Time Estimation which helps the

K. Manjunath; M. R. Mohan

2007-01-01

441

Hybrid Method to Assess Sensitive Process Interruption Costs Due to Faults in Electric Power Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a new hybrid method for risk assessment regarding interruptions in sensitive processes due to faults in electric power distribution systems. This method determines indices related to long duration interruptions and short duration voltage variations (SDVV), such as voltage sags and swells in each customer supplied by the distribution network. Frequency of such occurrences and their impact on

Juan C. Cebrian; Nelson Kagan

2010-01-01

442

A 600V driver IC with new short protection in hybrid electric vehicle IGBT inverter system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a 600V high voltage half-bridge gate driver IC used to drive large current inverters such as those used in HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles). In order to improve the robustness of short circuit operation, a new short protection circuit and a noise removal circuit were proposed. Furthermore, a reduction of the short circuit current was examined. Thus, this

Katsumi Ishikawa; Koichi Suda; Masataka Sasaki; Hideki Miyazaki

2005-01-01

443

Thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamics experiment and study were carried out for the lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that are expected as the power sources for electric and hybrid vehicles. It is confirmed that the heat coming in and going out depend on charging and discharging, respectively. And the thermal generation factors will be decomposed to three elements: reaction heat value Qr, polarization heat value Qp,

Noboru Sato

2001-01-01

444

DC–AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric\\/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have

Zhong Du; Burak Ozpineci; Leon M. Tolbert; John N. Chiasson

2009-01-01

445

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military\\/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control

Chan-Chiao Lin; Zoran Filipi; Yongsheng Wang; Loucas Louca; Huei Peng; Dennis Assanis; Jeffrey Stein

2001-01-01

446

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

2012-08-01

447

Electric field response on hybrid C/BN nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of hybrid C/BN nanotubes [1] and nanosheets [2] offer a unique route for material engineering, by combination of the exciting properties of graphene with those of insulating polar BN. First principles (DFT) calculations of the zigzag-terminated edges between C and BN nanodomains will be presented, proving that unconventional physical effects similar to those observed at insulating oxide interfaces [3], can also exist in lower dimensions, opening alternative routes for tuning electronic properties at nanointerfaces. In particular, it will be shown that the magnetic character of the edge states in zigzag shaped graphene nanoribbons, and the polar BN edge, team up to give a spin asymmetric screening that induces half-semimetallicity at the interface [4]. This property is also observed in tubular geometries, where potential magnetoelectric effects will be discussed. [4pt] [1] Suenaga et. al. Science 278 5338 (1997); Enouz et. al. Nano Lett. 7, 1856 (2007).[0pt] [2] Ci et. al. Nat. Materials 9, 430 (2010).[0pt] [3] Ohtomo & Hwang Nature 427, 423 (2004); Brinkman et. al. Nat. Mater. 6, 493 (2007); Reyren et. al. Science 317, 5842 (2007).[0pt] [4] Pruneda Phys. Rev. B 81, 161409(R) (2010).

Alonso-Pruneda, Miguel

2011-03-01

448

Electric Characteristics of Hybrid Polymer Membranes Composed of Two Lipid Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric characteristics of hybrid polymer membranes composed of two lipid species were studied, where one lipid species is positively charged in aqueous solution and the other is negatively charged. As a result, it was found that the hybrid membranes responded to taste substances in different ways according to the molar mixing ratio of these two kinds of lipids, and also showed different response characteristics from those of the single-lipid membranes. The membranes with the mixing ratio around 50% exhibited the largest responses to HCl (sourness) and monosodium glutamate (umami). Moreover, good quantitative agreements with the observed data on the response electric potential were obtained using a theory describing both the changes in surface electric potential and surface charge density with taste substances.

Oohira, Koji; Toko, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Hiroshi; Yamafuji, Kaoru

1995-09-01

449

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.

2004-11-23

450

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

451

The computer-aided analysis for the driving stability of a plug-in fuel cell vehicle using a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the driving stability of a plug-in fuel cell vehicle (PFCV), a computer-aided simulator for PFCVs has been developed. PFCVs have been introduced around the world to achieve early commercialization of an eco-friendly and highly efficient fuel cell vehicle. The plug-in option, which allows the battery to be recharged from the electricity grid, enables a reduction in

Young-Jun Sohn; Minjin Kim; Won-Yong Lee

452

Current Hybrid Electric Vehicle performance based on temporal data from the world's largest HEV fleet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) procured new data collection equipment for the 42 vehicles registered to compete in the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge, increasing the amount of information gathered from the worlds largest fleet of HEVs. Data were collected through an on-board data storage device and then analyzed to determine effects of different hybrid control strategies on energy efficiency and driving performance. In this paper, the results of parallel hybrids versus series hybrids with respect to energy usage and acceleration performance are examined, and the efficiency and performance of the power-assist types are compared to that of the range-extender types. Because on-board and off-board electrical charging performance is critical to an efficient vehicle energy usage cycle, charging performance is presented and changes and improvements from the 1993 HEV Challenge are discussed. Peak power used during acceleration is presented and then compared to the electric motor manufacturer ratings. Improvements in data acquisition methods for the 1995 HEV Challenge are recommended.

Wipke, K.

1994-09-01

453

Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV drivetrain and to ensure smooth vehicle operation during mode changes, a special control method is developed. This method is generalized to a broad class of switched systems in which the switching conditions are state dependent or are supervised. The control approach involves partitioning the state-space such that the control law is modified as the state trajectory approaches a switching set and the state is steered to a location within the partition with low transitioning cost. Away from the partitions that contain switching sets, the controller is designed to achieve any suitable control objective. In the case of the HEV control problem, this objective generally involves minimizing fuel consumption. Finally, the experimental verification of this control method is illustrated using the application that originally motivated the development of this approach: the control of a HEV driveline during the transition from electric only to hybrid mode.

Koprubasi, Kerem

454

Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-08-01

455

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

456

Cost modeling of battery electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle based on major parts cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Concerning the environment, EVs can provide emission-free transportation. Even taking into account the emissions from the power plants needed to fuel the vehicles, the use of EVs can still significantly reduce global air pollution. Recent efforts are directed toward developing an improved main component systems for the electric

Pill-Soo Kim

2003-01-01

457

Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing vehicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive electrical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10-20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive industry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and

Ali Emadi; Sheldon S. Williamson; Alireza Khaligh

2006-01-01

458

THE DESIGN AND TEST OF PLUG-IN CRYOPUMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and cryo-test system of a plug-in cryopump to be used in the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is introduced. The plug-in cryopump consists of two cryopanels, a baffle, a half-opened shield, and two refrigerators. The refrigerators have a power of 83W\\/80K at the first stage and 7.5W\\/20K at the second stage. The designed pumping speed of the cryopump is 15,000 l\\/s

Gaofeng Pan; Jiansheng Xing; Igor Sekachev; Zhenguo Li; Suping Zhang; Jiuchang Qin; Tianjue Zhang

459

Sangam: a distributed pair programming plug-in for Eclipse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pair programming, two programmers traditionally work side-by-side at one computer. However, in globally distributed organizations, long-distance collaboration is frequently necessary. Sangam is an Eclipse plug-in that allows Eclipse users in different locations to share a workspace so that they may work as if they were using the same computer. In this paper, we discuss the Sangam plug-in, and our

Chih-Wei Ho; Somik Raha; Edward F. Gehringer; Laurie Williams

2004-01-01

460

Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose an advanced brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low cost and high performance electric propulsion system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It includes reduced parts power converter topologies and an optimal PWM control strategy to produce the desired dynamic and static speed and torque characteristics. The theoretical explanation and operational

B. K. Lee; M. Ehsani

2001-01-01

461

Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Patterson, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation Technologies

1997-09-17

462

Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

2012-02-01

463

[Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

Not Available

1993-01-01

464

Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

465

Magnetic Coupling Analysis of Four-Quadrant Transducer Used for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-quadrant transducer (4QT), which is a hybrid electric vehicle power train concept, is a structural integration of two permanent-magnet synchronous machines. It comprises three parts: stator, outer rotor, and inner rotor. As the outer rotor is a structural and magnetic common part of the two radial-flux machines, the magnetic circuits of the two machines are coupled. A new method

Ping Zheng; Ranran Liu; Qian Wu; Jing Zhao; Zhiyuan Yao

2007-01-01

466

Vehicle Stability Enhancement of Four-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Rear Motor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle stability enhancement control algorithm for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed using rear motor driving, regenerative braking control, and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated

Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

2008-01-01

467

Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

2009-01-01

468

Control system and dynamic model validation for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contains a description of mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation in an iterative process including development of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) hardware, system performance measures, computer control software, and complete PHEV powertrain system synthesis. A PHEV is synthesized using a conventional spark ignited (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) power plant-alternator combination, a dry clutch, and manual transmission\\/differential with an AC-induction

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey; R. C. Baraszu; B. K. Powell

1999-01-01

469

The Design and Development of a Through-the-Road Parallel Diesel Electric Hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mississippi State University students in their third year of Challenge X competition have transformed a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox into a diesel-electric hybrid at a 99% buy-off vehicle readiness level. The vehicle, configured in a charge sustaining, through-the-road parallel architecture, offers significant improvements over the stock vehicle with a 45% increase in fuel economy and a 3.5% increase in 0-60 mph

M. Young; G. M. Molen; D. Oglesby; K. Crawford; K. Walp; R. Lewis; C. Whitt; S. Phillips

2007-01-01

470

Simulation Research on ? Synthesis Robust Control for Driving of Hybrid-Power Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To deal with two major problems of electric vehicle (EV): the short driving range and the short life of batteries, a hybrid\\u000a power system was designed and applied to the EV. It was composed of an ultracapacitor with high-specific power and long life,\\u000a four lead-acid batteries with high-specific energy, and a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter. To improve the stability and reliability

Jianbo Cao; E. Shiju; Tianfeng Zhao; Xilin Zhu; Hongkui Jiang

471

A study on regenerative braking for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a regenerative braking algorithm is presented and performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is investigated.\\u000a The regenerative braking algorithm calculates the available regenerative braking torque by considering the motor characteristics,\\u000a the battery SOC and the CVT speed ratio. When the regenerative braking and the friction braking are applied simultaneously,\\u000a the friction braking torque corresponding to the

Sungwook Jang; Hoon Yeo; Chulsoo Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

2001-01-01

472

Hybrid material polyvinyl alcohol-copper oxide and its electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hybrid material polyvinyl alcohol-copper oxide was produced by the thermal decomposition of polyvinyl alcohol-copper hydroxide complex compound. It was analyzed by means of XRD, UV-VIS, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. It was concluded that the most part of copper oxide has an amorphous structure and consists of -(Cu-O) n - chains. The electrical properties of this material were investigated at direct and alternating current in 80-375 K temperature range.

Prosanov, I. Yu.; Bulina, N. V.; Chesalov, Yu. A.

2012-08-01

473

Morphology and electrical properties of hybrid and sulphonated oxalic acid-doped polyaniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaniline–polyethylene glycol2000 (PAni–PEG2000) hybrid and sulphonated polyaniline (SPAni) were prepared using oxalic acid as dopant and potassium permanganate as oxidant. The properties of these two conductive polymers were studied in comparison with pure polyaniline (PAni) prepared using the same conditions. The investigated polymers were characterized using FTIR, UV–vis, TGA, TEM, SEM, XRD and their electrical conductivities were also investigated. The

Mona Abdel Rehim; Ahmed Youssef; Ebtesam Hassan; Nagwa Khatab; Gamal Turky

2010-01-01

474

Multi Power Port Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Multi Phase Bidirectional FlyBack Topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hybrid electric vehicles the batteries and the drive DC-link may be at different voltages. The batteries are at low voltage to obtain higher volumetric efficiencies and the DC-link is at higher voltage to have higher efficiency on the motor side. Therefore a power interface between the batteries and the drive's DC-link is essential. This power interface should handle power

T. Bhattacharya; S. Giri V; K. Mathew; L. Umanand

2006-01-01

475

Dynamic simulation for analysis of hybrid electric vehicle system and subsystem interactions, including power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can be classified into steady-state and dynamic models, according to their purpose. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysis. The information gained is helpful for assessing long-term behavior of the vehicle. Tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the short-term behavior of sublevel components. In this paper, a dynamic

Marco Amrhein; Philip T. Krein

2005-01-01

476

Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents transformerless multilevel converters as an application for high-power hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) make an HEV more accessible\\/safer and open wiring possible for most of an HEV's power system. The cascade inverter is

Leon M. Tolbert; Fang Zheng Peng; Tim Cunnyngham; John N. Chiasson

2002-01-01

477

Comparing DC-DC converters for power management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of DC-DC converters for power electronic interfaces in power management systems for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a very challenging task. To this end, this paper presents an analysis, design, and comparison study of several bi-directional non-isolated DC-DC converter topologies that could be considered potential candidates for the power electronic interface of HEV energy\\/power sources, in particular an

R. M. Schupbach; J. C. Balda

2003-01-01

478

Development of lithium-ion battery for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We participated in a national project, to develop lithium batteries for use in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs), etc., in Japan as a battery developer. The lithium battery in an FCHEV system has to supply the system with not only power but also energy.We have developed an elliptic single cell, a 4-cell module, and an application-specific integrated circuit to

T. Kojima; T. Ishizu; T. Horiba; M. Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

479

Conceptual design of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of 1 GW class hybrid energy transfer line of hydrogen and electricity is investigated in this report. Hydrogen refrigeration station is placed on every 10 km of the unit section. The rated current is 10 kA, and operation voltage is 100 kV (+ 50 kV and -50 kV for ground). Delivery capacity of the liquid hydrogen is 100 tons

S. Yamada; Y. Hishinuma; T. Uede; K. Schippl; N. Yanagi; T. Mito; M. Sato

2010-01-01

480

Control of Fuel Cell\\/Battery Hybrid Source for Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a fuel cell\\/battery hybrid power source for electric vehicle applications. The fuel cell is connected to a DC bus by a classical boost con- verter, and the battery bank is directly connected to the DC bus. It presents a control strategy used to control power from the fuel cell, power to the motor, and state-of-charge of the

Phatiphat Thounthong

481

Distributed Communication System Design Based on Can Bus for Parallel-Serial Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed network system based on Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol has been widely applied into the vehicle industries. CAN communication protocol for the parallel-serial hybrid electrical vehicles (PSHEV) has been designed in the paper. Real-time scheduling algorithms based on optimization periodic algorithm (OPA) with non-preemptive and preemptive scheduling are also proposed with an optimization goal function to decrease the delay

Yi-He Zuo; Chang-Le Xiang; Qing-Dong Yan; Wei-Da Wang; Hui Liu; Hong-Cai Li

2010-01-01

482

Energy management strategy for single driveshaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on torque control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy management strategy, based on vehicle power units' steady-state test data of a single driveshaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle, has been presented with the purpose of real-timely distributing driver's torque request. The energy management strategy this paper presents is an energy control strategy based on regular logic threshold. Accordingly, the vehicle management system is introduced, which adopts real-timely the

Liu Qingkai; Zhao Zhiguo; Dai Haifeng

2009-01-01

483

Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to

G. Dochat; A. Artiles; J. Killough; A. Ray; H. S. Chen

1978-01-01

484

Development of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle With a Hydrogen-Fueled IC Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motivation for the use of hydrogen as fuel is that it can be renewable and can reduce emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are still likely to be more of a far-term reality because of their high manufacturing cost. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion (IC) engine has the potential of becoming a low-emission low-cost practical

Xiaolai He; Timothy Maxwell; Micheal E. Parten

2006-01-01

485

Fractional slot permanent magnet brushless machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fractional slot permanent magnet (PM) brushless machines having concentrated non-overlapping windings have been the subject of research over last few years. They have already been employed in the commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to high-torque density, high efficiency, low-torque ripple, good flux-weakening and fault-tolerance performance. The purpose of this paper is to overview recent development and research

Zi-Qiang Zhu

2011-01-01

486

Nonlinear conductivity of lower-hybrid-wave heated plasma in the presence of an electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new conductivity for lower-hybrid-wave heated plasmas is derived. This induced conductivity shows a nonlinear behavior in the presence of an electric field and can represent the plasma as an active element. The role of runaway electrons produced is important on this nonlinear conductivity. The new expression may be important for radio frequency current drive ramp-up and current drive efficiency

E. Farshi; K. N. Sato

2001-01-01

487

A Unique Approach to Power Electronics and Motor Cooling in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative system for cooling the power electronics of hybrid electric vehicles is presented. This system uses a typical automotive refrigerant R-134a (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane) as the cooling fluid in a system that can be used as either part of the existing vehicle passenger air conditioning system or separately and independently of the existing air conditioner. Because of the design characteristics,

Curtis William Ayers; J. C. Conklin; J. S. Hsu; K. T. Lowe

2007-01-01

488

The impact of electric passenger transport technology on the demand for coal-fired power with CCS under a climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall US CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2009-01-01

489

Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

Barsukov, Igor V.

2002-12-10

490

Active Damping Wheel-Torque Control System to Reduce Driveline Oscillations in a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide a great opportunity to improve fuel economy and emissions. This power-split hybrid system has inherent low damping in driveline since it uses planetary gear sets to directly connect the engine, the generator, and the motor to the driveline for improved vehicle efficiency, thus lacking a clutch or a torque converter that provides the conventional

Fazal U. Syed; Ming L. Kuang; Hao Ying

2009-01-01

491

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

492

Optimal energy management for a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicles based on Stochastic Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For electric and hybrid electric cars, commonly nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries are used as energy storage. The size of the battery depends not only on the driving range, but also on the power demands for accelerating and braking and life-time considerations. This becomes even more apparent with short driving ranges, e.g. in commuter traffic. By hybridization of the storage,

Christoph Romaus; Kai Gathmann; Joachim Böcker

2010-01-01

493

Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine  

PubMed Central

In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

Bucak, Ihsan Omur

2010-01-01

494

Design and optimization of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power sources for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel Cell powered Hybrid electric Vehicles (FCHVs) are considered to be the most promising alternatives of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles. One of the most important research aspects of FCHVs is their hybrid power sources study; however, current research is insufficient and there are many open problems to be further studied, such as hybrid power sources topology analysis, vehicle power sources design and optimization, and related dynamic models construction. Also a powerful simulation package of FCHVs is indispensable to evaluate and support the related research. Addressing these problems, this dissertation carries out a series of studies step by step which includes the following three parts. The first part is focused on modeling electrochemical components. A novel fully dynamic lithium-ion battery model is developed, which accounts for battery nonlinear equilibrium potentials, rate- and temperature-dependencies, thermal effects and response to transient power demand. A multi-stage resistor capacitor ladder supercapacitor model is constructed with unique characteristics including automatic order selection and capacity scaling. In the modeling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, each component is first modeled separately, and then these modules are coupled together into an integrative unit. The second part concentrates on the study of hybrid power source topology analysis. Firstly, the concepts of passive hybrid and active hybrid are defined. Secondly, an active hybrid is constructed and explored through both experiments and simulations. Finally, the comparison of passive and active hybrids, along with battery alone, is undertaken to study the performance extension of power sources using power converters. The study process is further extended and applied in hybrid power source design for FCHVs. In the third part, a complete simulation package for FCHVs is constructed in the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) computational environment. The modeling approach is forward looking (causal) and the system setup is modular, thus the package recognizes the dynamic interaction among different vehicle components and provides a powerful capability to simulate different topologies. After that, a novel 8-step energy component size determination and optimization method is proposed, which is based on the operation of the decreasing rearrangement distribution function of drive cycles.

Gao, Lijun

495

Optimization of Electric Power Leveling Systems by a Novel Hybrid Algorithm with Simulated Evolution and Genetic Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric power demand has an increasing tendency year by year. The fluctuation of the electric power causes further increase in the cost of the electric power facility and electricity charges. The development of the electric power-leveling systems (EPLS) using energy storage technology is desired to improve the electric power quality. The EPLS with a SMES is proposed as one of the countermeasures for the electric power quality improvement. However, the SMES is very expensive and it is difficult to decide the gains of the controller. It is essential in the practical use that the reduction of SMES capacity is realized. This paper proposes a new optimization method of the EPLS. The proposed algorithm is hybrid architecture with a combination of SimE (Simulated Evolution) and GA (Genetic Algorithms). The optimization of the EPLS can be achieved by the proposed hybrid algorithm compared to the SimE and the GA.

Itoh, Jyunpei; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

496

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

497

Plugging In: The Changing Face of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Like many businesses, public schools are not ready to move into the electronic data storage and transaction mode. Technological improvements such as keyboard alternatives (voice recognition software, electric pens, and optical scanners) will speed this paradigm shift. Increased speed, pocket-sized desktop computers, distance learning, and the…

Coutts, Douglas

1996-01-01

498

Plugging In: The Changing Face of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many businesses, public schools are not ready to move into the electronic data storage and transaction mode. Technological improvements such as keyboard alternatives (voice recognition software, electric pens, and optical scanners) will speed this paradigm shift. Increased speed, pocket-sized desktop computers, distance learning, and the…

Coutts, Douglas

1996-01-01

499

Extended fuzzy c-means and genetic algorithms to optimize power flow management in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the features of the future hybrid electric vehicles are enabled by a new energy flow management unit designed to split the instantaneous power demand between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor, ensuring both an efficient power supply and a reduced emission. Classic approaches that rely on static thresholds, optimized on a fixed drive cycle, cannot face

Lucio Ippolito; Vincenzo Loia; Pierluigi Siano

2003-01-01

500

Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybr