Science.gov

Sample records for plume-ridge interaction progress

  1. Numerical and laboratory experiments on the dynamics of plume-ridge interaction. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, C.; Gable, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mantle plumes and passive upwelling beneath ridges are the two dominant modes of mantle transport and thermal/chemical fluxing between the Earth`s deep interior and surface. While plumes and ridges independently contribute to crustal accretion, they also interact and the dispersion of plumes within the upper mantle is strongly modulated by mid-ocean ridges. The simplest mode of interaction, with the plume centered on the ridge, has been well documented and modeled. The remaining question is how plumes and ridges interact when the plume is located off-axis; it has been suggested that a pipeline-like flow from the off-axis plume to the ridge axis at the base of the rigid lithosphere may develop. Mid-ocean ridges migrating away from hot mantle plumes can be affected by plume discharges over long times and ridge migration distances. Salient feature of this model is that off-axis plumes communicate with the ridge through a channel resulting from the refraction and dispersion of an axi-symmetric plume conduit along the base of the sloping lithosphere. To test the dynamics of this model, a series of numerical and laboratory dynamic experiments on the problem of a fixed ridge and an off-axis buoyant upwelling were conducted. Results are discussed.

  2. Evidence for melt channelization in Galapagos plume-ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, T.; Richards, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many present-day hot spots are located within ~ 1000 km of a mid-ocean ridge, either currently or in the geologic past, leading to frequent interaction between these two magmatic regimes. The consequent plume-ridge interactions provide a unique opportunity to test models for asthenosphere-lithosphere dynamics, with the plume acting as a tracer fluid in the problem, and excess magmatism reflecting otherwise unsampled sub-surface phenomena. Galapagos is an off-ridge hotspot with the mantle plume located ~150-250 km south of the plate boundary. Plume-ridge interaction in Galapagos is expressed by the formation of volcanic lineaments of islands and seamounts - e.g., the Wolf-Darwin lineament (WDL) - providing a direct probe of the plume-ridge interaction process, especially in regards to geochemical data. Although several models have been proposed to explain plume-ridge interaction in Galapagos, none adequately explain the observed characteristics, especially the WDL. In particular, predicted lithospheric fault orientations and melt density considerations appear at odds with observations, suggesting that lithospheric extension is not the primary process for formation of these islands. Other off-ridge hotspots interacting with nearby spreading ridges, such as Reunion and Louisville, also exhibit volcanic lineaments linking the plume and the ridge. Thus these lineament-type features are a common outcome of plume-ridge interaction that are indicative of the underlying physics. We propose that the lineaments are surface expressions of narrow sub-lithospheric melt channels focused towards the spreading ridge. These channels should form naturally due to the reactive infiltration instability in a two-phase flow of magma and solid mantle as demonstrated in two-phase flow simulations (e.g., Katz & Weatherley 2012). For Galapagos, we show that melt channels can persist thermodynamically over sufficient length-scales to link the plume and nearby ridge segments. We also show that

  3. Plume- Ridge Lithospheric Interactions: Cases of Afar (Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, J. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Sicilia, D.; Sebai, A.; Beucler, E.; Silveira, G.; Cara, M.; Debayle, E.; Leveque, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    Detection of mantle plumes in geophysical and geochemical data is controversial and trigger vigorous debates. It remains unclear how plumes are formed, their origin at depth, and whether they act independently from plate tectonics. We may learn about the role of plumes in mantle dynamics by studying their interactions with lithosphere and crust below ridges and the way in which they perturb the flow pattern in the uppermost mantle. Several regional tomographic studies of seismic velocity and anisotropy around several hotspots were obtained during the last 2 years. Their lateral resolution is smaller than 1000km and they enable to make qualitative intercomparison between Afar (Horn of Africa Program), Azores (COSEA project) in the Atlantic, La Reunion in the Indian Ocean and Pacific provinces hotspots. These models demonstrate that there is not only one family of plumes but several ones. Some plumes are confined in the uppermost 200km but a few can originate in the transition zone and even at the Core-mantle Boundary for superplumes. Seismic anisotropy which is a good marker of deformation processes and mantle flow pattern, shows that the interaction between a plume and a ridge below the lithosphere can occur over distances larger than 1000km, via sublithospheric channels. The existence of LACs (Low Anisotropy Channels) below the Pacific plate seems to be intimately related to the active hotspots in Central Pacific and indicate a future reorganization of plate boundaries. Another important consequence of the interaction between plume and ridge is the triggering of secondary convection in the asthenosphere, which will be discussed during the presentation.

  4. An integrated observational, experimental and computational study of plume-ridge interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, C.; Kincaid, C.

    1995-06-01

    The existence of sub-horizontal channels connecting hotspot plumes and spreading ridges has been suggested by recent observationally based studies. These features have important consequences for understanding mantle dynamics and the manner in which the mantle interacts both thermally and chemically with Earth`s surface. A striking result has been the importance of a sloping rheological boundary layer, resulting from the combination of variable fluid viscosity and plate spreading, in modulating channel development and evolution. Comparison of results in 2D and 3D experiments clearly indicate the limitations of 2D representations of flows which include both small scale plumes within a larger scale shear flow. 2D experiments investigate higher order physical effects such as thermochemical plumes and relative motion between plume source and ridge axis. These effects are best studied first in the more simplified 2D geometry. Experiments completed to date have significantly increased our understanding of the process of communication between plumes and ridges. This initial stage of funded research has also lead to increased interaction between observation and theory. As an example of this, Kincaid was invited to participate in a data collection cruise to Easter Island-EPR system designed to study plume-ridge interaction.

  5. Recent off-axis volcanism in the eastern Gulf of Aden: Implications for plume-ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Tiberi, Christel; Basuyau, Clémence; Autin, Julia; Lucazeau, Francis; Sloan, Heather

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of anomalous volcanism is readily observed in the Gulf of Aden, although, much of this oceanic basin remains as yet unmapped. In this paper, we investigate the possible connection of the Afar hotspot with a major off-axis volcanic structure and its interpretation as a consequence of a the anomalous presence of melt by integrating several data sets, both published and unpublished, from the Encens-Sheba cruise, the Aden New Century (ANC) cruise and several other onshore and marine surveys. These include bathymetric, gravity, magnetic, magneto-telluric data, and rock samples. Based upon these observations, interpretations were made of seafloor morphology, gravity and magnetic models, seafloor age, geochemical analyses and tectonic setting. We discuss the possible existence of a regional melting anomaly in the Gulf of Aden area and of the probability of its connection to the Afar plume. Several models that might explain the anomalous volcanism are taken into account, such as a local melting anomaly unrelated to the Afar plume, an anomalously large volume of melt associated with seafloor spreading, and interaction of the ridge with the Afar plume. A local melting anomaly and atypical seafloor spreading prove inconsistent with our observations. Two previously proposed models of plume-ridge interactions are examined: the diffuse plume dispersion called pancaked flow and channelized along-axis flow. We conclude that the configuration and structure of this young ocean basin may have the effect of channeling material away from the Afar plume along the Aden and Sheba Ridges to produce the off-axis volcanism observed on the ridge flanks. This interpretation implies that the influence of the Afar hotspot may extend much farther eastwards into the Gulf of Aden than previously believed. The segmentation of the Gulf of Aden and the configuration of the Aden-Sheba system may provide a potential opportunity to study channeled flow of solid plume mantle from the plume along

  6. Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot

    PubMed

    Keller; Fisk; White

    2000-06-01

    When a mantle plume interacts with a mid-ocean ridge, both are noticeably affected. The mid-ocean ridge can display anomalously shallow bathymetry, excess volcanism, thickened crust, asymmetric sea-floor spreading and a plume component in the composition of the ridge basalts. The hotspot-related volcanism can be drawn closer to the ridge, and its geochemical composition can also be affected. Here we present Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses of samples from the next-to-oldest seamount in the Hawaiian hotspot track, the Detroit seamount at 51 degrees N, which show that, 81 Myr ago, the Hawaiian hotspot produced volcanism with an isotopic signature indistinguishable from mid-ocean ridge basalt. This composition is unprecedented in the known volcanism from the Hawaiian hotspot, but is consistent with the interpretation from plate reconstructions that the hotspot was located close to a mid-ocean ridge about 80 Myr ago. As the rising mantle plume encountered the hot, low-viscosity asthenosphere and hot, thin lithosphere near the spreading centre, it appears to have entrained enough of the isotopically depleted upper mantle to overwhelm the chemical characteristics of the plume itself. The Hawaiian hotspot thus joins the growing list of hotspots that have interacted with a rift early in their history. PMID:10864321

  7. Models and Observations of Plume-Ridge Interaction in the South Atlantic and their Implications for Crustal Thickness Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmoeller, R.; Dannberg, J.; Steinberger, B. M.; Bredow, E.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle plumes are thought to originate at thermal or thermo-chemical boundary layers, and since their origin is relatively fixed compared to plate motion they produce hotspot tracks at the position of their impingement. When plumes reach the surface close to mid-ocean ridges, they generate thicker oceanic crust due to their increased temperature and hence higher degree of melting. Observations of these thickness variations allow estimates about the buoyancy flux and excess temperature of the plume. One example is the interaction of the Tristan plume with the South Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge, however, conclusions about the plume properties are complicated by the fact that the Tristan plume track has both on- and off-ridge segments. In these cases, where a plume is overridden by a ridge, it is assumed that the plume flux has a lateral component towards the ridge (the plume is "captured" by the ridge). Additionally, sea floor spreading north of the Florianopolis Fracture Zone did not start until 112 Ma -- at least 15 Ma after the plume head arrival -- while the Atlantic had already opened south of it. Therefore, the plume is influenced by the jump in lithosphere thickness across the Florianopolis Fracture zone.We present crustal thickness and plume tracks of a three-dimensional regional convection model of the upper mantle for the Tristan-South Atlantic ridge interaction. The model is created with the convection code ASPECT, which allows for adaptive finite-element meshes to resolve the fine-scale structures within a rising plume head in the presence of large viscosity variations. The boundary conditions of the model are prescribed from a coarser global mantle convection model and the results are compared against recently published models of crustal thickness in the South Atlantic and hotspot tracks in global moving hotspot reference frames. In particular, we investigate the influence of the overriding ridge on the plume head.Thus, our comparison between models of plume-ridge

  8. Models and observations of plume-ridge interaction in the South Atlantic and their implications for crustal thickness variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmöller, Rene; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dannberg, Juliane; Bredow, Eva; Torsvik, Trond

    2015-04-01

    plume-ridge interaction and observations of crustal thickness in the South Atlantic can improve the estimate about the buoyancy flux and excess temperature of the Tristan plume over time. Moreover, it provides an estimate about the quality of the employed global plate reconstructions and hotspot track models.

  9. Major influence of plume-ridge interaction, lithosphere thickness variations, and global mantle flow on hotspot volcanism—The example of Tristan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmöller, Rene; Dannberg, Juliane; Bredow, Eva; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2016-04-01

    Hotspot tracks are thought to originate when mantle plumes impinge moving plates. However, many observed cases close to mid-ocean ridges do not form a single age-progressive line, but vary in width, are separated into several volcanic chains, or are distributed over different plates. Here we study plume-ridge interaction at the example of the Tristan plume, which features all of these complexities. Additionally, the South Atlantic formed close to where plume volcanism began, opening from the south and progressing northward with a notable decrease in magmatism across the Florianopolis Fracture Zone. We study the full evolution of the Tristan plume in a series of three-dimensional regional models created with the convection code ASPECT. We then compute crustal thickness maps and compare them to seismic profiles and the topography of the South Atlantic. We find that the separation of volcanism into the Tristan and Gough chain can be explained by the position of the plume relative to the ridge and the influence of the global flow field. Plume material below the off-ridge track can flow toward the ridge and regions of thinner lithosphere, where decompression melting leads to the development of a second volcanic chain resembling the Tristan and Gough hotspot tracks. Agreement with the observations is best for a small plume buoyancy flux of 500 kg/s or a low excess temperature of 150 K. The model explains the distribution of syn-rift magmatism by hot plume material that flows into the rift and increases melt generation.

  10. The Nature of Plume-Ridge Interaction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, A.; Laubier, M.; Escrig, S.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Classical work in the 1970s established a gradient in ridge depth and chemical composition southwards from the Azores hot spot. Proximal basalts were enriched in highly incompatible elements and 87Sr/86Sr, and this enrichment decreased southwards until depleted MORB were encountered south of the Hayes fracture zone. This was explained through mantle source mixing, with the proportion of plume mantle decreasing with distance from the plume. Detailed maps of ocean ridges, however, show that ocean ridges consist of a series of segments that are shallow in their centers and deeper at their ends, so the "regional gradient" in depth actually consists of a series of undulations at various scales. The question then arises how the regional gradient in geochemistry is influenced by this segmentation. Detailed major element, trace element (TE) and isotopic study of over 200 samples from four segments south of the Azores platform allows a better assessment of the detailed characteristics of the geochemical gradient, with implications for plume-ridge interaction. All basalts from the KP-5 ("Menez Gwen"), PO-1 ("Lucky Strike"), PO-2 and PO-3 ("FAMOUS") segments (in order from north to south) are enriched relative to depleted MORB. While this enrichment is related to the Azores plume, as confirmed by the trends in isotope diagrams, there is much complexity in detail regarding how the enriched signature is imparted to the lavas. The KP-5 and PO-1 segments contain two groups of chemically distinct basalts. Moderately enriched basalts are found throughout the segments. At the segment centers highly enriched basalts with high concentrations of incompatible elements and an enriched isotopic signature predominate. Remarkably, incompatible element ratios (e.g. Ba/La, Nb/Zr) of these basalts are higher than basalts from the center of the Azores platform, while their isotopic values are less enriched. This dichotomy between TE ratios and isotopes of the highly enriched samples can be

  11. Plume-Ridge Interaction on the Cocos Plate (ODP Leg 205, Costa Rica): Implication for Fluid Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, B.; Chavagnac, V.; Font, L.; Morris, J.; Schramm, B.; Chavagnac, V.; Font, L.; Schramm, B.; Dreyer, B.; Morris, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    At subduction zone, the permeability and hydrology of the down-going igneous section play a key role on the behaviour of the seismogenic zone, which produces earthquake and tsunamis. We present, here, evidence of fluid circulation pathways in the igneous section being subducted at the Central American convergent margin (Site 1253 ODP Leg 205, Costa Rica). The geological evolution of the Cocos plate over the last 25 Ma is complicated as a result of plate boundaries re-arrangement (Silver et al., 1998). The Cocos-Nazca spreading centre (CNS) interacted with the Galapagos hotspot, which simultaneously deposited volcanic material on both side of the CNS, on the Cocos and Nazca plates. The oceanic crust of the Cocos and Nazca plates was formed along four spreading centres (Meschede et al., 1998) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR). The EPR oceanic crust has the featureless morphology and low-amplitude magnetic anomalies common to fast spreading ridge (Wilson & Hey, 1995) while the CNS oceanic crust presents a rough topography and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies (Wilson & Hey, 1995). We wish to focus on the ODP 1253 Site drilled in the Cocos plate because it samples the igneous input (rock, heat and fluid) to the Central American subduction zone. Coring at Site 1253 penetrated two separate igneous Units of which the upper one is a sill (Unit 4A) separated from the lower Unit (Unit 4B) by sediment. Both Unit 4A and 4B present similar texture, structure and mineralogy apart from the thin basaltic interval at 513 mbsf, below which Unit 4B becomes more glass-rich and altered. Unit 4B is either a sill complex with multiple intrusions related to the Galapagos volcanic activity or a series of thick slowly cooled lava flows formed at the EPR. Some of these characteristics of Unit 4B are similar to those seen in horizons recovered at Site 1256, which intersected thick-ponded lava flows. Analyses of marine magnetic anomalies indicate that the crust at Site 1253 was formed at EPR 25

  12. A 1.5 Ma record of plume-ridge interaction at the Western Galápagos Spreading Center (91°40‧-92°00‧W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrich, Antje; Hauff, Folkmar; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; White, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Shallow (elevated) portions of mid-ocean ridges with enriched geochemical compositions near hotspots document the interaction of hot, geochemically-enriched plume mantle with shallow depleted upper mantle. Whereas the spatial variations in geochemical composition of ocean crust along the ridge axis in areas where plume-ridge interaction is taking place have been studied globally, only restricted information exists concerning temporal variations in geochemistry of ocean crust formed through plume-ridge interaction. Here we present a detailed geochemical study of 0-1.5 Ma ocean crust sampled from the Western Galápagos Spreading Center (WGSC) axis to 50 km north of the axis, an area that is presently experiencing a high influx of mantle material from the Galápagos hotspot. The tholeiitic to basaltic andesitic fresh glass and few bulk rock samples have incompatible element abundances and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions intermediate between depleted normal mid-ocean-ridge basalt (N-MORB) from >95.5°W along the WGSC and enriched lavas from the Galápagos Archipelago, displaying enriched (E-)MORB type compositions. Only limited and no systematic geochemical variations are observed with distance from the ridge axis for <1.0 Ma old WGSC crust, whereas 1.0-1.5 Ma old crust trends to more enriched isotopic compositions in 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb isotope ratios. On isotope correlation diagrams, the data set displays correlations between depleted MORB and two enriched components. Neither the geographically referenced geochemical domains of the Galápagos Archipelago nor the end members used for principal component analysis can successfully describe the observed mixing relations. Notably an off-axis volcanic cone at site DR63 has the appropriate composition to serve as the enriched component for the younger WGSC and could represent a portion of the northern part of the Galápagos plume not sampled south of the WGSC. Similar compositions to samples

  13. Progress in measuring neutrino quasielastic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gran, Richard

    2007-12-21

    This is an exciting time for folks who are looking at neutrino cross sections, and the especially important quasielastic interaction. We are able to inspect several recent results from K2K and MiniBooNE and are looking forward to a couple more high statistics measurements of neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions. There is additional interest because of the need for this cross section information for current and upcoming neutrino oscillation experiments. This paper is a brief review of our current understanding and some puzzles when we compare the recent results with past measurements. I articulate some of the short term challenges facing experimentalists, neutrino event generators, and theoretical work on the quasielastic interaction.

  14. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  15. Progress in computational studies of host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hufeng; Jin, Jingjing; Wong, Limsoon

    2013-04-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are important for understanding infection mechanism and developing better treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Many computational studies on host-pathogen interactions have been published. Here, we review recent progress and results in this field and provide a systematic summary, comparison and discussion of computational studies on host-pathogen interactions, including prediction and analysis of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions; basic principles revealed from host-pathogen interactions; and database and software tools for host-pathogen interaction data collection, integration and analysis. PMID:23600809

  16. Discussing Progress in Understanding Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herraiz Borreguero, Laura; Mottram, Ruth; Cvijanovic, Ivana

    2010-11-01

    Advanced Climate Dynamics Course 2010: Ice Sheet-Ocean Interactions; Lyngen, Norway, 8-19 June 2010; Sea level rise is one of many expected consequences of climate change, with accompanying complex social and economic challenges. Major uncertainties in sea level rise projections relate to the response of ice sheets to sea level rise and the key role that interactions with the ocean may play. Recognizing that probably no comprehensive curriculum currently exists at any single university that covers this novel and interdisciplinary subject, the Advanced Climate Dynamics Courses (ACDC) team brought together a group of 40 international students, postdocs, and lecturers from diverse backgrounds to provide an overview and discussion of state-of-the-art research into ocean-ice sheet interactions and to propose research priorities for the next decade. Among the key issues addressed were small-scale processes near the Antarctic ice shelves and Greenland outlet glaciers. These are fast changing components in the climate system, often related to large-scale forcings (atmospheric teleconnections and oceanic circulation). Progress in understanding and modeling is hampered by the range of scales involved, the lack of observations, and the difficulties in constraining, initializing, and providing adequate boundary conditions for ice sheet and ocean models.

  17. Modeling Stromal-Epithelial Interactions in Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Douglas W.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    The role of tumor stroma in progression to malignancy has become the subject of intense experimental and clinical interest. The stromal compartment of organs is composed of all the non-epithelial cell types and maintains the proper architecture and nutrient levels required for epithelial and, ultimately, organ function. The composition of the reactive stroma surrounding tumors is vastly different from normal stromal tissue. Stromal phenotype can be correlated with, and predictive of, disease recurrence. In addition, the stroma is now seen as a legitimate target for therapeutic intervention. Although much has been learned about the role of the stromal compartment in development and disease in recent years, a number of key questions remain. Here we review how some of these questions are beginning to be addressed using new models of stromal-epithelial interaction. PMID:20587339

  18. Interactions between biomaterials and the sclera: Implications on myopia progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, James

    Myopia prevalence has steadily climbed worldwide in recent decades with the most dramatic impact in East Asian countries. Treatments such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser surgery for the refractive error are widely available, but none cures the underlying cause. In progressive high myopia, invasive surgical procedures using a scleral buckle for mechanical support are performed since the patient is at risk of becoming blind. The treatment outcome is highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the patient's myopia progression rate, with limited choices in buckling materials. This dissertation, in four main studies, represents efforts made to control high myopia progression through the exploration and development of biomaterials that influence scleral growth. First, mRNA expression levels of the chick scleral matrix metalloproteinases, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, and transforming growth factor-beta 2 were assessed for temporal and defocus power effects. The first study elucidated the roles that these factors play in scleral growth regulation and suggested potential motifs that can be incorporated in future biomaterials design. Second, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) as injectable gels and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as solid strips were implanted in chicks to demonstrate the concept of posterior pole scleral reinforcements. This second study found that placing appropriate biomaterials at the posterior pole of the eye could directly influence scleral remodeling by interacting with the host cells. Both studies advanced the idea that scleral tissue remodeling could be potentially controlled by well-designed biomaterials. These findings led to the exploration of biomimetic hydrogels comprising enzymatically-degradable semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (edsIPNs) to determine their biocompatibility and effects on the chick posterior eye wall. This third study demonstrated the feasibility of stimulating scleral growth by applying biomimetic

  19. Studying protein-protein interactions: progress, pitfalls and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sheri; Malacrida, Beatrice; Kiely, Maeve; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-08-15

    Signalling proteins are intrinsic to all biological processes and interact with each other in tightly regulated and orchestrated signalling complexes and pathways. Characterization of protein binding can help to elucidate protein function within signalling pathways. This information is vital for researchers to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of cellular networks which can then be used to develop new therapeutic strategies for disease. However, studying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can be challenging as the interactions can be extremely transient downstream of specific environmental cues. There are many powerful techniques currently available to identify and confirm PPIs. Choosing the most appropriate range of techniques merits serious consideration. The aim of this review is to provide a starting point for researchers embarking on a PPI study. We provide an overview and point of reference for some of the many methods available to identify interactions from in silico analysis and large scale screening tools through to the methods used to validate potential PPIs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and we also provide a workflow chart to highlight the main experimental questions to consider when planning cell lysis to maximize experimental success. PMID:27528744

  20. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  1. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M

    2003-11-11

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3{omega}) with a total intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO{sub 2} producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n{sub e} = 6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T{sub e} = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last {approx}1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length ({approx}2 mm). increasing to 12% for {approx}7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: PROGRESS REPORT 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measures needed for the protection of the Earth's ozone layer are decided regularly by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. A section of this progress report focuses on the interactive effects of climate change and ozone depletion on biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Recent Progress in Studies of Arterivirus- and Coronavirus-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yanxin; Tan, Yong Wah; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Animal coronaviruses, such as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and arteriviruses, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are able to manifest highly contagious infections in their specific native hosts, thereby arising in critical economic damage to animal industries. This review discusses recent progress in studies of virus-host interactions during animal and human coronavirus and arterivirus infections, with emphasis on IBV-host cell interactions. These interactions may be directly involved in viral replication or lead to the alteration of certain signaling pathways, such as cell stress response and innate immunity, to facilitate viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:22816036

  4. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014 Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientific findings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. PMID:26822392

  5. Interaction of the Oncofetal Thomsen–Friedenreich Antigen with Galectins in Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sindrewicz, Paulina; Lian, Lu-Yun; Yu, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of cell membrane proteins is a universal feature of cancer cells. One of the most common glycosylation changes in epithelial cancer is the increased occurrence of the oncofetal Thomsen–Friedenreich disaccharide Galβ1–3GalNAc (T or TF antigen), which appears in about 90% of cancers but is rarely seen in normal epithelium. Over the past few years, increasing evidence has revealed that the increased appearance of TF antigen on cancer cell surface plays an active role in promoting cancer progression and metastasis by interaction with the β-galactoside-binding proteins, galectins, which themselves are also frequently overexpressed in cancer and pre-cancerous conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanism of the increased TF occurrence in cancer, the structural nature, and biological impact of TF interaction with galectins, in particular galectin-1 and -3, on cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:27066458

  6. Progress regarding magnetic confinement experiments, plasma-materials interactions and plasma performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the results presented at the 25th IAEA Energy Conference in the sessions on confinement, plasma-material interactions and plasma performance. An important highlight of the conference is the on-going progress in combining the empirical approach to achieve fusion relevant conditions with physics understanding to predict burning plasma behaviour, where fast particle dynamics would have an important impact.

  7. HERC2 Interacts with Claspin and regulates DNA origin firing and replication fork progression.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Naoki; Wu, Wenwen; Sato, Ko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akihiro; Boku, Narikazu; Itoh, Fumio; Ohta, Tomohiko

    2011-09-01

    DNA replication, recombination, and repair are highly interconnected processes the disruption of which must be coordinated in cancer. HERC2, a large HECT protein required for homologous recombination repair, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets breast cancer suppressor BRCA1 for degradation. Here, we show that HERC2 is a component of the DNA replication fork complex that plays a critical role in DNA elongation and origin firing. In the presence of BRCA1, endogenous HERC2 interacts with Claspin, a protein essential for G(2)-M checkpoint activation and replication fork stability. Claspin depletion slowed S-phase progression and additional HERC2 depletion reduced the effect of Claspin depletion. In addition, HERC2 interacts with replication fork complex proteins. Depletion of HERC2 alleviated the slow replication fork progression in Claspin-deficient cells, suppressed enhanced origin firing, and led to a decrease in MCM2 phosphorylation. In a HERC2-dependent manner, treatment of cells with replication inhibitor aphidicolin enhanced MCM2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that HERC2 regulates DNA replication progression and origin firing by facilitating MCM2 phosphorylation. These findings establish HERC2 as a critical function in DNA repair, checkpoint activation, and DNA replication. PMID:21775519

  8. Recent progress in the fundamental understanding of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    With the exponential growth in the application of the HILIC technique, there has been a significant progress in understanding the fundamental aspects of hydrophilic interaction chromatography. The experimental studies tend to be more extensive in terms of the number of stationary phases investigated and the number of probe compounds employed in comparison with the earlier studies; and more theoretical studies in quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR) and molecular dynamics simulations have also been published and provide molecular-level insights into the retention mechanism. This review focuses on the recent progress in understanding the retention mechanism, retention models, selectivity, and the kinetic performance of HILIC. A better understanding of these fundamental aspects will undoubtedly facilitate more applications of this chromatographic technique in a wider range of fields. PMID:26221630

  9. Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis: population based study.

    PubMed Central

    Everson, S. A.; Lynch, J. W.; Chesney, M. A.; Kaplan, G. A.; Goldberg, D. E.; Shade, S. B.; Cohen, R. D.; Salonen, R.; Salonen, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the combined influence of workplace demands and changes in blood pressure induced by stress on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. DESIGN: Population based follow up study of unestablished as well as traditional risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, and other outcomes. SETTING: Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS: 591 men aged 42-60 who were fully employed at baseline and had complete data on the measures of carotid atherosclerosis, job demands, blood pressure reactivity, and covariates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in ultrasonographically assessed intima-media thickness of the right and left common carotid arteries from baseline to 4 year follow up. RESULTS: Significant interactions between workplace demands and stress induced reactivity were observed for all measures of progression (P < 0.04). Men with large changes in systolic blood pressure (20 mm Hg or greater) in anticipation of a maximal exercise test and with high job demands had 10-40% greater progression of mean (0.138 v 0.123 mm) and maximum (0.320 v 0.261 mm) intima-media thickness and plaque height (0.347 v 0.264) than men who were less reactive and had fewer job demands. Similar results were obtained after excluding men with prevalent ischaemic heart disease at baseline. Findings were strongest among men with at least 20% stenosis or non-stenotic plaque at baseline. In this subgroup reactive men with high job demands had more than 46% greater atherosclerotic progression than the others. Adjustment for atherosclerotic risk factors did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS: Men who showed stress induced blood pressure reactivity and who reported high job demands experienced the greatest atherosclerotic progression, showing the association between dispositional risk characteristics and contextual determinants of disease and suggesting that behaviourally evoked cardiovascular reactivity may have a role in atherogenesis. PMID:9055713

  10. Mechanisms of interaction of radiation with matter. Progress report, July 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.; Pope, M.

    1992-08-31

    This project is concerned with studies of biological activity-structure relationships in which the mechanisms of interaction of ionizing radiation and benzopyrene (PB) compounds with DNA are being investigated and compared. Emphasis is focused on effects of DNA conformation on its mechanisms of interaction with ionizing radiation, on the influence of structure and stereochemistry of BP metabolites on mechanisms of DNA damage, and on influence of DNA conformation on interactions between BP metabolites and DNA molecules, and the structures of the complexes and adducts which are formed. One basic theme of this project is the use of photoexcited states of BP and nucleic acids as probes of these interactions. In part I of this report, recent progress on elucidating the structures of selected BP-oligonucleotide model adducts by high resolution NMR and gel electrophoresis techniques is summarized. It is shown that the stereochemical properties of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts play a crucial role in determining their interactions with certain exonucleases. These results provide useful models for deriving a better understanding of differences biological activities of BP compounds and the relationships between mutagenicities and the structure properties of BP-DNA adducts. In Part II of this report, a new time-resolved method based on picosecond laser pulse techniques for elucidating the electronic levels involved in electron photoemission and electron transfer in BP and nucleic acid solids is described.

  11. X-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-09-01

    Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction.

  12. HSPB7 interacts with dimerized FLNC and its absence results in progressive myopathy in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Juo, Liang-Yi; Liao, Wern-Chir; Shih, Yen-Ling; Yang, Bih-Ying; Liu, An-Bang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HSPB7 belongs to the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) family, and its expression is restricted to cardiac and skeletal muscles from embryonic stages to adulthood. Here, we found that skeletal-muscle-specific ablation of the HspB7 does not affect myogenesis during embryonic stages to postnatal day 1 (P1), but causes subsequent postnatal death owing to a respiration defect, with progressive myopathy phenotypes in the diaphragm. Deficiency of HSPB7 in the diaphragm muscle resulted in muscle fibrosis, sarcomere disarray and sarcolemma integrity loss. We identified dimerized filamin C (FLNC) as an interacting partner of HSPB7. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the aggregation and mislocalization of FLNC occurred in the muscle of HspB7 mutant adult mice. Furthermore, the components of dystrophin glycoprotein complex, γ- and δ-sarcoglycan, but not dystrophin, were abnormally upregulated and mislocalized in HSPB7 mutant muscle. Collectively, our findings suggest that HSPB7 is essential for maintaining muscle integrity, which is achieved through its interaction with FLNC, in order to prevent the occurrence and progression of myopathy. PMID:26929074

  13. Progress in sub-grid scale modeling of shock-turbulence interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Grun, J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report on progress in the development of sub grid scale (SGS) closure relationships for the unresolved motion scales in compressible large eddy simulations (LES). At present they are refining the SGS model and overall LES procedure to include: a linearized viscoelastic model for finite thickness shock distortions and shocked turbulence field response; multiple scale asymptotic considerations to improve predictions of average near-wall surface behavior; and a spectral statistical model simulating the effects of high wave number stochastic feed-back from the unresolved SGS nonlinear motion influences on the explicitly resolved grid scale motions. Predicted amplification levels, modal energy partition, shock translational to turbulence kinetic energy transfer, and viscoelastic spatio-temporal response of turbulence to shock interaction are examined in comparison with available experimental evidence. Supplemental hypersonic compressible turbulence experimental information is developed from sub nanosecond interval pulsed shadowgraph evidence of laser impulse generated hypervelocity shocks interacting with intense, previously developed and carefully characterized initial turbulence. Accurate description of the influence of shock-turbulence interactions is vital for predicting their influence on: Supersonic/hypersonic flow field analysis, aerodynamic design, and aerostructural materials selection. Practical applications also include interior supersonic combustion analysis and combustion chamber design. It is also the essential foundation for accurately predicting the development and evolution of flow-field generated thermal and electromagnetic radiation important to hypersonic flight vehicle survivability, detection and communication.

  14. Progress in sub-grid scale modeling of shock-turbulence interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, A. C.; Grun, J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report on progress in the development of sub-grid scale (SGS) closure relationships for the unresolved motion scales in compressible large eddy simulations (LES). At present they are refining the SGS model and overall LES procedure to include: a linearized viscoelastic model for finite thickness shock distortions and shocked turbulence field response; multiple scale asymptotic considerations to improve predictions of average near-wall surface behavior; and a spectral statistical model simulating the effects of high wave number stochastic feed-back from the unresolved SGS nonlinear motion influences on the explicitly resolved grid scale motions. Predicted amplification levels, modal energy partition, shock translational to turbulence kinetic energy transfer, and viscoelastic spatio-temporal response of turbulence to shock interaction are examined in comparison with available experimental evidence. Supplemental hypersonic compressible turbulence experimental information is developed from sub nanosecond interval pulsed shadowgraph evidence of laser impulse generated hypervelocity shocks interacting with intense, previously developed and carefully characterized initial turbulence. Accurate description of the influence of shock-turbulence interactions is vital for predicting their influence on: Supersonic/hypersonic flow field analysis, aerodynamic design, and aerostructural materials selection. Practical applications also include interior supersonic combustion analysis and combustion chamber design. It is also the essential foundation for accurately predicting the development and evolution of flow-field generated thermal and electromagnetic radiation important to hypersonic flight vehicle survivability, detection and communication.

  15. Analyzing Systolic-Diastolic Interval Interaction Characteristics in Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Progression

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mohammad Hasan; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), one of the major complications in diabetes, if detected at the subclinical stage allows for effective treatment and avoiding further complication including cardiovascular pathology. Surface ECG (Electrocardiogram)-based diagnosis of CAN is useful to overcome the limitation of existing cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests traditionally used for CAN identification in clinical settings. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the mechanical function of the ventricles in terms of systolic-diastolic interval interaction (SDI) from a surface ECG to assess the severity of CAN progression [no CAN, early CAN (ECAN) or subclinical CAN, and definite CAN (DCAN) or clinical CAN]. ECG signals recorded in supine resting condition from 72 diabetic subjects without CAN (CAN-) and 70 diabetic subjects with CAN were analyzed in this paper. The severity of CAN was determined by Ewing’s Cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests. Fifty-five subjects of the CAN group had ECAN and 15 subjects had DCAN. In this paper, we propose an improved version of the SDI parameter (i.e., TQ/RR interval ratio) measured from the electrical diastolic interval (i.e., TQ interval) and the heart rate interval (i.e., RR interval). The performance of the proposed SDI measure was compared with the performance of the existing SDI measure (i.e., QT/TQ interval ratio). The proposed SDI parameter showed significant differences among three groups (no CAN, ECAN, and DCAN). In addition, the proposed SDI parameter was found to be more sensitive in detecting CAN progression than other ECG interval-based features traditionally used for CAN diagnosis. The modified SDI parameter might be used as an alternative measure for the Ewing autonomic reflex tests to identify CAN progression for those subjects who are unable to perform the traditional tests. These findings could also complement the echocardiographic findings of the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by providing

  16. Methods and progress in studying inelastic interactions between positrons and atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, R. D.

    2016-06-01

    Progress and methods used in positron based studies of inelastic atomic interactions are traced from the original discovery of the positron to the present. Following a historic overview and introduction, this review will show how new experimental techniques were critical in advancing experimental studies from total or integral cross section measurements to highly differential investigations that are now being performed. The primary emphasis is on ionization of atoms and simple molecules by low-energy (tens to hundreds of eV) positrons and in showing similarities and differences between positron, electron and proton impact data. Selected examples of Ps based studies are also included. Experimental techniques associated with the generation, moderation, and transport of low-energy positron beams plus an extensive reference list and tables summarizing existing experimental studies are provided. Comments with respect to future studies and directions, plus how they might be achieved, are presented.

  17. Small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions: progressing towards the reality

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, Michelle R.; Tang, Yinyan; Wells, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The past twenty years have seen many advances in our understanding of protein-protein interactions (PPI) and how to target them with small-molecule therapeutics. In 2004, we reviewed some early successes; since then, potent inhibitors have been developed for diverse protein complexes, and compounds are now in clinical trials for six targets. Surprisingly, many of these PPI clinical candidates have efficiency metrics typical of ‘lead-like’ or ‘drug-like’ molecules and are orally available. Successful discovery efforts have integrated multiple disciplines and make use of all the modern tools of target-based discovery - structure, computation, screening, and biomarkers. PPI become progressively more challenging as the interfaces become more complex, i.e., as binding epitopes are displayed on primary, secondary, or tertiary structures. Here, we review the last ten years of progress, focusing on the properties of PPI inhibitors that have advanced to clinical trials and prospects for the future of PPI drug discovery. PMID:25237857

  18. Modeling fluid-rock interaction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; A progress report, April 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.

    1992-08-01

    Volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada aie being assessed for their suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Recent progress in modeling fluid-rock interactions, in particular the mineralogical and chemical changes that may accompany waste disposal at Yucca Mountain, will be reviewed in this publication. In Part 1 of this publication, ``Geochemical Modeling of Clinoptilolite-Water Interactions,`` solid-solution and cation-exchange models for the zeolite clinoptilolite are developed and compared to experimental and field observations. At Yucca Mountain, clinoptilolite which is found lining fractures and as a major component of zeolitized tuffs, is expected to play an important role in sequestering radionuclides that may escape from a potential nuclear waste repository. The solid-solution and ion-exchange models were evaluated by comparing predicted stabilities and exchangeable cation distributions of clinoptilolites with: (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff, and (4) high temperature experimental data. Good agreement was found between predictions and expertmental data, especially for binary exchange and Cs and Sr sorption on clinoptilolite. Part 2 of this publication, ``Geochemical Simulation of Fluid-Rock Interactions at Yucca Mountain,`` describes preliminary numerical simulations of fluid-rock interactions at Yucca Mountain. The solid-solution model developed in the first part of the paper is used to evaluate the stability and composition of clinciptilolite and other minerals in the host rock under ambient conditions and after waste emplacement.

  19. [Research Progress on the Interaction Effects and Its Neural Mechanisms between Physical Fatigue and Mental Fatigue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Chuncui; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is an exhaustion state caused by prolonged physical work and mental work, which can reduce working efficiency and even cause industrial accidents. Fatigue is a complex concept involving both physiological and psychological factors. Fatigue can cause a decline of concentration and work performance and induce chronic diseases. Prolonged fatigue may endanger life safety. In most of the scenarios, physical and mental workloads co-lead operator into fatigue state. Thus, it is very important to study the interaction influence and its neural mechanisms between physical and mental fatigues. This paper introduces recent progresses on the interaction effects and discusses some research challenges and future development directions. It is believed that mutual influence between physical fatigue and mental fatigue may occur in the central nervous system. Revealing the basal ganglia function and dopamine release may be important to explore the neural mechanisms between physical fatigue and mental fatigue. Future effort is to optimize fatigue models, to evaluate parameters and to explore the neural mechanisms so as to provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for complex task designs and fatigue monitoring. PMID:26964325

  20. Progressive enrichment of island arc mantle by melt-peridotite interaction inferred from Kamchatka xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepezhinskas, Pavel; Defant, Marc J.; Drummond, Mark S.

    1996-04-01

    The Pliocene (7 Ma) Nb-enriched arc basalts of the Valovayam Volcanic Field (VVF) in the northern segment of Kamchatka arc (Russia) host abundant xenoliths of spinel peridotites and pyroxenites. Textural and microstructural evidence for the high-temperature, multistage creep-related deformations in spinel peridotites supports a sub-arc mantle derivation. Pyroxenites show re-equilibrated mosaic textures, indicating recrystallization during cooling under the ambient thermal conditions. Three textural groups of clinopyroxenes exhibit progressive enrichment in Na, Al, Sr, La, and Ce accompanied by increase in Sr/Y, La/Yb, and Zr/Sm. Trace elements in various mineral phases and from felsic veins obtained through ion microprobe analysis suggest that the xenoliths have interacted with a siliceous (dacitic) melt completely unlike the host basalt. The suite of xenoliths grade from examples that display little evidence of metasomatic reaction to those containing an assemblage of minerals that have been reproduced experimentally from the reaction of a felsic melt with ultramafic rock, e.g., pargasitic amphibole, albite-rich plagioclase, Al-rich augite, and garnet. The dacitic veins within spinel lherzolite display a strong enrichment in Sr and depletion in Y and the heavy rare earth elements (e.g., Yb). The dacites are comparable to adakites (melts derived from subducted metabasalt), and not typical arc melts. We believe that these potential slab melts were introduced into the mantle beneath this portion of Kamchatka subsequent to partial melting of a relatively young (and hot) subducted crust. Island arc metasomatism by peridotite-slab melt interaction is an important mantle hybridization process responsible for arc-related alkaline magma generation from a veined sub-arc mantle.

  1. Revisiting a Progressive Pedagogy. The Developmental-Interaction Approach. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education: Inquiries and Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nager, Nancy, Ed.; Shapiro, Edna K., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of the developmental-interactive approach, a formulation rooted in developmental psychology and educational practice, progressively informing educational thinking since the early 20th century. The book describes and analyzes key assumptions and assesses the compatibility of new theoretical approaches, focuses on…

  2. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: PROGRESS REPORT 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measures needed for the protection of the Earth's ozone layer are decided regularly by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. This progress report is the 2004 update by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel.

  4. Dynamic changes in protein interaction between AKAP95 and Cx43 during cell cycle progression of A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoxuan; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhuang, Wenxin; Teng, Bogang; Yu, Xiuyi; Hua, Suhang; Wang, Su; Liang, Fengchao; Ma, Dan; Zhang, Suhui; Zou, Xuan; Dai, Yue; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Yongxing

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that A-kinase anchoring protein 95 (AKAP95) and connexin 43 (Cx43) dynamically interact during cell cycle progression of lung cancer A549 cells. Interaction between AKAP95 and Cx43 at different cell cycle phases was examined by tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS), confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blot, and co-immunoprecipitation(Co-IP). Over the course of a complete cell cycle, interaction between AKAP95 and Cx43 occurred in two stages: binding stage from late G1 to metaphase, and separating stage from anaphase to late G1. The binding stage was further subdivided into complex binding to DNA in interphase and complex separating from DNA in metaphase. In late G1, Cx43 translocated to the nucleus via AKAP95; in anaphase, Cx43 separated from AKAP95 and aggregated between two daughter nuclei. In telophase, Cx43 aggregated at the membrane of the cleavage furrow. After mitosis, Cx43 was absent from the furrow membrane and was located in the cytoplasm. Binding between AKAP95 and Cx43 was reduced by N-(2-[P-Bromocinnamylamino]-ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonmide (H89) treatment and enhanced by Forskolin. dynamic interaction between AKAP95 and Cx43 varies with cell cycle progression to regulate multiple biological processes. PMID:26880274

  5. Reinforcing Efficacy of Interactions with Preferred and Nonpreferred Staff under Progressive-Ratio Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Jared; Sturmey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has not systematically assessed and validated preferences for staff in adults with developmental disabilities. Three adults with developmental disabilities (aged 32 to 43 years) identified preferred and nonpreferred staff using verbal and pictorial preference assessments. During break-point analyses with progressive-ratio schedules, all 3…

  6. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans May Promote or Inhibit Cancer Progression by Interacting with Integrins and Affecting Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana A.; Teixeira, Felipe C. O. B.; Fontes, Miguel; Arêas, Ana Lúcia; Leal, Marcelo G.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.; Stelling, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    The metastatic disease is one of the main consequences of tumor progression, being responsible for most cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review intends to present and discuss data on the relationship between integrins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in health and cancer progression. Integrins are a family of cell surface transmembrane receptors, responsible for cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. Integrins' main functions include cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are cell surface molecules that play important roles as cell receptors, cofactors, and overall direct or indirect contributors to cell organization. Both molecules can act in conjunction to modulate cell behavior and affect malignancy. In this review, we will discuss the different contexts in which various integrins, such as α5, αV, β1, and β3, interact with HSPGs species, such as syndecans and perlecans, affecting tissue homeostasis. PMID:26558271

  7. Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Siopsis, G.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1995-10-01

    This year has been a busy and demanding one with completion of a long SLD run, much progress on light quark states from E-687 resulting in strong evidence for two new states, observation in E-144 of non-linear Compton scattering (multiphoton absorption by electrons) up to N-4 and initial evidence for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pair production in Compton process. The authors have also made considerable progress toward preparation for a n-{bar n} oscillation experiment and have carried out experimental studies of quartz fiber calorimetry for SLD polarimeter and forward calorimeter for CMS and LHC including a thorough set of gamma ray and neutron radiation damage studies on quartz fiber. Two graduate students received their Ph.D.s this year, Kathy Danyo Blackett on data from Fermilab E-687 and Sharon White on SLD radiative Bhabha scattering.

  8. Mechanical interactions of rough surfaces. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, J.I.

    1986-09-01

    Objectives are to study lubricated contacts of rough surfaces under combined rolling, sliding, and spinning, and to develop techniques for analyzing digitized rough surface profiles. A summary is presented of annual progress and of the papers presented at conferences and those published. An example is given of the use of the computer tool MICROCOND. Rq (surface roughness), q, and microfracture data are discussed for silicon nitride coupons. (DLC)

  9. MMP3-Mediated tumor progression is controlled transcriptionally by a novel IRF8-MMP3 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Debarati; Netherby, Colleen S.; Bogner, Paul N.; Abrams, Scott I.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8), originally identified as a leukemic tumor suppressor, can also exert anti-neoplastic activities in solid tumors. We previously showed that IRF8-loss enhanced tumor growth, which was accompanied by reduced tumor-cell susceptibility to apoptosis. However, the impact of IRF8 expression on tumor growth could not be explained solely by its effects on regulating apoptotic response. Exploratory gene expression profiling further revealed an inverse relationship between IRF8 and MMP3 expression, implying additional intrinsic mechanisms by which IRF8 modulated neoplastic behavior. Although MMP3 expression was originally linked to tumor initiation, the role of MMP3 beyond this stage has remained unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that MMP3 governed later stages of disease, including progression to metastasis, and did so through a novel IRF8-MMP3 axis. Altogether, we showed an inverse mechanistic relationship between IRF8 and MMP3 expression in tumor progression. Importantly, the growth advantage due to IRF8-loss was significantly compromised after silencing MMP3 expression. Moreover, MMP3-loss reduced spontaneous lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of mammary carcinoma. MMP3 acted, in part, in a cell-intrinsic manner and served as a direct transcriptional target of IRF8. Thus, we identified a novel role of an IRF8-MMP3 axis in tumor progression, which unveils new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26008967

  10. Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.

  11. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  12. Pharmacologic inhibition of the menin-MLL interaction blocks progression of MLL leukemia in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Borkin, Dmitry; He, Shihan; Miao, Hongzhi; Kempinska, Katarzyna; Pollock, Jonathan; Chase, Jennifer; Purohit, Trupta; Malik, Bhavna; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Jingya; Wen, Bo; Zong, Hongliang; Jones, Morgan; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn; Guzman, Monica L.; Talpaz, Moshe; Bixby, Dale L.; Sun, Duxin; Hess, Jay L.; Muntean, Andrew G.; Maillard, Ivan; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Grembecka, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chromosomal translocations affecting Mixed Lineage Leukemia gene (MLL) result in acute leukemias resistant to therapy. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is dependent on their interaction with menin, providing basis for therapeutic intervention. Here we report development of highly potent and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL interaction, MI-463 and MI-503, show their profound effects in MLL leukemia cells and substantial survival benefit in mouse models of MLL leukemia. Finally, we demonstrate efficacy of these compounds in primary samples derived from MLL leukemia patients. Overall, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of the menin-MLL interaction represents an effective treatment for MLL leukemias in vivo and provide advanced molecular scaffold for clinical lead identification. PMID:25817203

  13. Further Progress on a Design for a Super-B Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M; Bertsche, K.; Seeman, J.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; Paoloni, E.; Bettoni, S.; /CERN

    2009-05-20

    We present an improved design for a SuperB interaction region. The new design minimizes local bending of the two colliding beams by separating all beam magnetic elements near the Interaction Point (IP). The total crossing angle at the IP is increased from 48 mrad to 60 mrad. The first magnetic element is a six slice Permanent Magnet (PM) quadrupole with an elliptical aperture allowing us to increase the vertical space for the beam. This magnet starts 36 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). This magnet is only seen by the Low-Energy Beam (LEB), the High-Energy Beam (HEB) has a drift space at this location. This allows the preliminary focusing of the LEB which has a smaller beta y* at the IP than the HEB. The rest of the final focusing for both beams is achieved by two super-conducting side-by-side quadrupoles (QD0 and QF1). These sets of magnets are enclosed in a warm bore cryostat located behind the PM quadrupole for the LEB. We describe this design for the interaction region.

  14. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Presently dozens of ri...

  15. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  16. [The mechanism of progression without androgen receptor interaction in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Recently, new generation androgen receptor (AK) targeted agents enzautamide or abiraterone etc.) has been clinically utilized in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, metastatic CRPC has also AR-independent survival pathway which leads to lethal phenotype by either adaptation or clonal selection resistant mechanism after AR targeted therapy. There are many studies regarding the progression mechanisms without AR signal transduction, such as growth factor, anti-apoptotic factor, and PTEN/mTOR pathway and so on. Also, cancer microenvironment and cancer stem cell is a hot research area for CRPC. It is very important to repress both AR-dependent and -independent signaling pathway to improve the clinical outcome in CRPC patients. Application of the new technology, such as next generation sequencing, would be developing for the prostate cancer research, providing pre-clinical proof-of-principle as a promising approach in CRPC. PMID:26793881

  17. Progress in the development and application of small molecule inhibitors of bromodomain-acetyl-lysine interactions.

    PubMed

    Hewings, David S; Rooney, Timothy P C; Jennings, Laura E; Hay, Duncan A; Schofield, Christopher J; Brennan, Paul E; Knapp, Stefan; Conway, Stuart J

    2012-11-26

    Bromodomains, protein modules that recognize and bind to acetylated lysine, are emerging as important components of cellular machinery. These acetyl-lysine (KAc) "reader" domains are part of the write-read-erase concept that has been linked with the transfer of epigenetic information. By reading KAc marks on histones, bromodomains mediate protein-protein interactions between a diverse array of partners. There has been intense activity in developing potent and selective small molecule probes that disrupt the interaction between a given bromodomain and KAc. Rapid success has been achieved with the BET family of bromodomains, and a number of potent and selective probes have been reported. These compounds have enabled linking of the BET bromodomains with diseases, including cancer and inflammation, suggesting that bromodomains are druggable targets. Herein, we review the biology of the bromodomains and discuss the SAR for the existing small molecule probes. The biology that has been enabled by these compounds is summarized. PMID:22924434

  18. PROGRESS ON THE INTERACTION REGION DESIGN AND DETECTOR INTEGRATION AT JLAB'S MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Brindza, Paul; Camsonne, Alexandre; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Ent, Rolf; Gaskell, David; Lin, Fanglei; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Ungaro, Maurizio; Zhang, Yuhong; Hyde, Charles; Park, Kijun; Sullivan, Michael; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2014-07-01

    One of the unique features of JLab's Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) is a full-acceptance detector with a dedicated, small-angle, high-resolution detection system, capable of covering a wide range of momenta (and charge-to-mass ratios) with respect to the original ion beam to enable access to new physics. We present an interaction region design developed with close integration of the detection and beam dynamical aspects. The dynamical aspect of the design rests on a symmetry-based concept for compensation of non-linear effects. The optics and geometry have been optimized to accommodate the detection requirements and to ensure the interaction region's modularity for ease of integration into the collider ring lattices. As a result, the design offers an excellent detector performance combined with the necessary provisions for non-linear dynamical optimization.

  19. [The interaction of ferredoxin:NADP{sup +} oxidoreductase and ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase with substrates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    We seek to map the ferredoxin-binding sites on three soluble enzymes located in spinach chloroplasts which utilize ferredoxin as an electron donor:Ferredoxin:NADP{sup +}oxidoreductase (FNR); ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and glutamate synthase. As the availability of amino acid sequences for the enzymes are important in such studies, that the amino acid sequence of glutamate synthase needs be determined, the amino acid sequences of FNR, FTR and ferredoxin are already known. Related to an aim elucidate the binding sites for ferredoxin to determine whether there is a common binding site on all of these ferredoxin-dependent chloroplast enzymes and, if so, to map it. Additionally thioredoxin binding by FTR needs be determine to resolve whether the same site on FTR is involved in binding both ferredoxin and thioredoxin. Considerable progress is reported on the prosthetic groups of glutamate synthase, in establishing the role of arginine and lysine residues in ferredoxin binding by, ferredoxin:nitrite oxidoreductase nitrite reductase, labelling carboxyl groups on ferredoxin with taurine and labelling lysine residues biotinylation, and low potential heme proteins have been isolated and characterized from a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. Although the monoclonal antibodies raised against FNR turned out not to be useful for mapping the FNR/ferredoxin or FNR/NADPinteraction domains, good progress has been made on mapping the FNR/ferredoxin interaction domains by an alternative technique. The techniques developed for differential chemical modification of these two proteins - taurine modification of aspartate and glutamate residues and biotin modification of lysine residues - should be useful for mapping the interaction domains of many proteins that associate through electrostatic interactions.

  20. Progressive acclimation alters interaction between salinity and temperature in experimental Daphnia populations.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Cuco, Ana P; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Joana I; Pedrosa, M Arminda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Castro, Bruno B

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stressors rarely act in isolation, giving rise to interacting environmental change scenarios. However, the impacts of such interactions on natural populations must consider the ability of organisms to adapt to environmental changes. The phenotypic adaptability of a Daphnia galeata clone to temperature rise and salinisation was investigated in this study, by evaluating its halotolerance at two different temperatures, along a short multigenerational acclimation scenario. Daphniids were acclimated to different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and salinities (0gL(-1) and 1gL(-1), using NaCl as a proxy) in a fully crossed design. The objective was to understand whether acclimation to environmental stress (combinations of temperature and salinity) influenced the response to the latter exposure to these stressors. We hypothesize that acclimation to different temperature×salinity regimes should elicit an acclimation response of daphniids to saline stress or its interaction with temperature. Acute (survival time) and chronic (juvenile growth) halotolerance measures were obtained at discrete timings along the acclimation period (generations F1, F3 and F9). Overall, exposure temperature was the main determinant of the acute and chronic toxicity of NaCl: daphniid sensitivity (measured as the decrease of survival time or juvenile growth) was consistently higher at the highest temperature, irrespective of background conditions. However, this temperature-dependent effect was nullified after nine generations, but only when animals had been acclimated to both stressors (high salinity and high temperature). Such complex interaction scenarios should be taken in consideration in risk assessment practices. PMID:26079923

  1. Recent Progress on Nonlinear Schrödinger Systems with Quadratic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Hayashi, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear Schrödinger systems with quadratic interactions has attracted much attention in the recent years. In this paper, we summarize time decay estimates of small solutions to the systems under the mass resonance condition in 2-dimensional space. We show the existence of wave operators and modified wave operators of the systems under some mass conditions in n-dimensional space, where n ≥ 2. The existence of scattering operators and finite time blow-up of the solutions for the systems in higher space dimensions is also shown. PMID:25143965

  2. The DIII-D Boundary/Plasma Materials Interaction Center (BPMIC): Progress and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D.

    2015-11-01

    The boundary of a putative fusion reactor remains a key unresolved issue in the development of useful fusion energy. The BPMIC was established to develop validated boundary/PMI solutions for burning plasma devices by leveraging the existing DIII-D resources in well controlled, variable geometry edge plasmas and extensive boundary diagnostic set. During the first part of the 2015 campaign we have made significant progress in experiments designed to isolate specific known boundary and PMI physics issues and provide data for challenging existing analytical modeling tools such as the SOLPS suite and UEDGE. Topics include characterizing the relation between upstream and divertor parameters, the separate effects of closure and local magnetic geometry on detachment performance, leading edge tungsten erosion studies, and scaling relationships for the divertor heat flux width. This poster summarizes results from these experiments and will describe our high-level goals for the remainder of the 2015 campaign as well as for the 2016 campaign where we plan a campaign to study high-Z material migration and integration. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  3. Pharmacogenomic interaction between the Haptoglobin genotype and vitamin E on atherosclerotic plaque progression and stability

    PubMed Central

    Veiner, Hilla-Lee; Gorbatov, Rostic; Vardi, Moshe; Doros, Gheorghe; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Zohar, Yaniv; Sabo, Edmond; Asleh, Rabea; Levy, Nina S.; Goldfarb, Levi J.; Berk, Thomas A.; Haas, Tali; Shalom, Hadar; Suss-Toby, Edith; Kam, Adi; Kaplan, Marielle; Tamir, Ronit; Ziskind, Anna; Levy, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective Homozygosity for a 1.7kb intragenic duplication of the Haptoglobin (Hp) gene (Hp 2-2 genotype), present in 36% of the population, has been associated with a 2–3 fold increased incidence of atherothrombosis in individuals with Diabetes (DM) in 10 longitudinal studies compared to DM individuals not homozygous for this duplication (Hp 1-1/2-1). The increased CVD risk associated with the Hp 2-2 genotype has been shown to be prevented with vitamin E supplementation in man. We sought to determine if there was an interaction between the Hp genotype and vitamin E on atherosclerotic plaque growth and stability in a transgenic model of the Hp polymorphism. Methods and Results Brachiocephalic artery atherosclerotic plaque volume was serially assessed by high resolution ultrasound in 28 Hp 1-1 and 26 Hp 2-2 mice in a C57Bl/6 ApoE−/− background. Hp 2-2 mice had more rapid plaque growth and an increased incidence of plaque hemorrhage and rupture. Vitamin E significantly reduced plaque growth in Hp 2-2 but not in Hp 1-1 mice with a significant pharmacogenomic interaction between the Hp genotype and vitamin E on plaque growth. Conclusions These results may help explain why vitamin E supplementation in man can prevent CVD in Hp 2-2 DM but not in non Hp 2-2 DM individuals. PMID:25618031

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon: protein interactions. Progress report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, E.

    1980-11-01

    Interacting with bovine serum albumin (BSA), both the very weak carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(e)pyrene (Bep) and the powerful carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) form pyrene-type compounds, indicating chemical modification at the bay region of the molecules. In constrast to the BaP-BSA reaction apparently similar to the metabolic activation to the bay region oxidation product, the BeP-BSA reaction differs from the known metabolic change of BeP which occurs at the K-region. While the BaP-BSA reaction also produces a BaP radical as well as other uv-fluorescent species, no BeP radical is formed in interaction with BSA and two sharp uv fluorescences at about 330 and 350 nm probably come from the higher excited states of BeP. Furthermore, from fluorescence and excitation spectral studies particularly at low temperature, it is suggested that the uv fluorescences at 320 to 380 nm of the BaP-BSA complex originate from a few distinct species. A new uv fluorescence at 330 nm (preferentially excited at 295 nm), as well as a new excitation peak at 325 nm for the longer wavelength uv fluorescences at 357 and 378 nm, has been found. The extract from the aqueous BaP-BSA solution also emits phosphorescence at 400-440 nm (excited at 310 nm) in EPA solution.

  5. Quarterly Technical Progress Report - Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Murty A. Akundi

    1998-11-10

    This report presents the work done on " Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts" during the last quarter. The major activity during this period is on FTIR absorption studies of Co/Cr catalysts using CO as a probe molecule. Transition metals cobalt and copper play significant roles in the conversion of syngas (CO + H2 ) to liquid fuels. With a view to examine the nature of interaction between CO and metal, the FTIR spectra of CO adsorbed on Co-Cr2 O3 composites were investigated. The results indicate that as cobalt loading increases, the intensity of the CO adsorption bands increase and several vibrational modes seem to be promoted. Heat treatment of the sample revealed two distinct processes of adsorption. Bands due to physisorption disappeared while bands due to chemisorption not only increased in intensity but persisted even after desorption. It seems that the physisorption process is more active when the catalyst is fresh and is hindered when carbidic/carbonyl formations occur on the metal surfaces.

  6. Progress in Spacecraft Environment Interactions: International Space Station (ISS) Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve; Suggs, Robb; Schneider, Todd; Minow, Joe; Alred, John; Cooke, Bill; Mikatarian, Ron; Kramer, Leonard; Boeder, paul; Soares, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The set of spacecraft interactions with the space flight environment that have produced the largest impacts on the design, verification, and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) Program during the May 2000 to May 2007 time frame are the focus of this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are reported as are the analysis and simulation efforts that have led to new knowledge and capabilities supporting current and future space explorations programs. The specific spacecraft-environment interactions that have had the greatest impact on ISS Program activities during the first several years of flight are: 1) spacecraft charging, 2) micrometeoroids and orbital debris effects, 3) ionizing radiation (both total dose to materials and single event effects [SEE] on avionics), 4) hypergolic rocket engine plume impingement effects, 5) venting/dumping of liquids, 6) spacecraft contamination effects, 7) neutral atmosphere and atomic oxygen effects, 8) satellite drag effects, and 9) solar ultraviolet effects. Orbital inclination (51.6deg) and altitude (nominally between 350 km and 460 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the performance and reliability of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting

  7. Interaction Between Plasma and Magnetic Fields in the Earth’s Inner Magnetosphere: Progress and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, S. G.; Jordanova, V.; Welling, D. T.; Reeves, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding and modeling the coupling between the inner magnetospheric plasma and the magnetic field. This coupling is especially important during geomagnetic storms, when the large ring current pressure significantly distorts the field; in turn, the distorted field strongly alters the transport and evolution of the particle populations (both low-energy plasma and radiation belts). To describe this complex plasma/field interaction we have developed a self-consistent inner magnetosphere numerical model, RAM-SCB. The RAM-SCB code couples a kinetic ring current model (RAM) with a 3-D plasma equilibrium code. A unique strength of RAM-SCB is that the magnetic field is computed in force balance with fully anisotropic pressures. The anisotropy-dependent plasma wave excitation is an important factor in storm-time inner magnetosphere dynamics. RAM-SCB takes boundary conditions from either empirical models or large-scale space weather models such as the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Through describing results from simulations of actual geomagnetic storms we outline the major findings from our work with RAM-SCB. These include the effect of the coupling on the ring current and Dst, the role of anisotropy, and the importance of the induced electric fields. We also describe recent progress advancing the predictive capabilities of RAM-SCB and its role as an inner magnetosphere module in a global space weather model: this progress includes the expansion of the outer boundary from geosynchronous orbit to 10 RE from Earth and the addition of the geodipole tilt. Finally, we outline several outstanding challenges in inner magnetosphere modeling research, as well as their possible resolutions.

  8. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, and at Indiana University (IUCF), as a collaborative effort among several laboratories and universities. The experimental activity at LAMPF involved measurements of new data on pion double-charge-exchange scattering, some initial work on a new Neutral Meson Spectrometer system, a search for deeply-bound pionic atoms, measurements of elastic scattering, and studies of the (n,p) reaction on various nuclei. At PSI measurements of pion quasielastic scattering were carried out, with detection of the recoil proton. Work on the analysis of data from a previous experiment at PSI on pion absorption in nuclei was continued. This experiment involved using a detector system that covered nearly the full solid angle.

  9. Proteomic approaches to uncovering virus–host protein interactions during the progression of viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Krystal K; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-01-01

    The integration of proteomic methods to virology has facilitated a significant breadth of biological insight into mechanisms of virus replication, antiviral host responses and viral subversion of host defenses. Throughout the course of infection, these cellular mechanisms rely heavily on the formation of temporally and spatially regulated virus–host protein–protein interactions. Reviewed here are proteomic-based approaches that have been used to characterize this dynamic virus–host interplay. Specifically discussed are the contribution of integrative mass spectrometry, antibody-based affinity purification of protein complexes, cross-linking and protein array techniques for elucidating complex networks of virus–host protein associations during infection with a diverse range of RNA and DNA viruses. The benefits and limitations of applying proteomic methods to virology are explored, and the contribution of these approaches to important biological discoveries and to inspiring new tractable avenues for the design of antiviral therapeutics is highlighted. PMID:26817613

  10. Gravity Wave Interactions and Effects in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere: Recent Progress and Outstanding Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    Gravity waves are now recognized to have significant influences on the large-scale structure and variability throughout the atmosphere. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), these effects can be dramatic and include 1) vigorous wave breaking, turbulence generation, and local boding forcing, 2) strong forcing of the mean circulation and thermal structure, and 3) significant filtering by and interactions with tidal and planetary waves. Gravity wave influences also extend to significantly higher altitudes, though these are less quantified at this time. Potential influences at these higher altitudes include seeding of plasma instabilities, local body forces and heating, and mapping of MLT influences to higher altitudes, all of which are also anticipated to exhibit significant solar cycle variations.

  11. Progress in the epidemiological understanding of gene-environment interactions in major diseases: cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Cancer epidemiology has undergone marked development since the nineteen-fifties. One of the most spectacular and specific contributions was the demonstration of the massive effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung, larynx and bladder cancer. Major chemical, physical and biological carcinogenic agents have been identified in the working environment and in the overall environment. The chain of events from environmental exposures to cancer requires hundreds of polymorphic genes coding for proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of xenobiotics, or in repair, or in an immune or inflammatory response. The multifactorial and multistage characteristics of cancer create the theoretical conditions for statistical interactions which have been exceptionnally detected. Over the last two decades, a considerable mass of data has been generated, mostly addressing the interactions between smoking and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in smoking-related cancers. They are sometimes considered disappointing but they actually brought a lot of information and raised many methodological issues. In parallel, the number of polymorphisms which can be considered candidate per function increased so much that multiple testing has become a major issue, and genome wide screening approaches have more and more gained in interest. Facing the resulting complexity, some instruments are being set up: our studies are now equipped with carefully sampled biological collections, high-throughput genotyping systems are becoming available, work on statistical methodologies is ongoing, bioinformatics databases are growing larger and access to them is becoming simpler; international consortiums are being organized. The roles of environmental and genetic factors are being jointly elucidated. The basic rules of epidemiology, which are demanding with respect to sampling, with respect to the histological and molecular criteria for cancer classification, with respect to the evaluation of environmental

  12. Negative regulation of beta4 integrin transcription by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 and p53 impairs tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bon, Giulia; Di Carlo, Selene E; Folgiero, Valentina; Avetrani, Paolo; Lazzari, Chiara; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Brizzi, Maria Felice; Sacchi, Ada; Soddu, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Mottolese, Marcella; Falcioni, Rita

    2009-07-15

    Increased expression of alpha(6)beta(4) integrin in several epithelial cancers promotes tumor progression; however, the mechanism underlying its transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we show that depletion of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) activates beta(4) transcription that results in a strong increase of beta(4)-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt phosphorylation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion. In contrast, stabilization of HIPK2 represses beta(4) expression in wild-type p53 (wtp53)-expressing cells but not in p53-null cells or cells expressing mutant p53, indicating that HIPK2 requires a wtp53 to inhibit beta(4) transcription. Consistent with our in vitro findings, a strong correlation between beta(4) overexpression and HIPK2 inactivation by cytoplasmic relocalization was observed in wtp53-expressing human breast carcinomas. Under loss of function of HIPK2 or p53, the p53 family members TAp63 and TAp73 strongly activate beta(4) transcription. These data, by revealing that beta(4) expression is transcriptionally repressed in tumors by HIPK2 and p53 to impair beta(4)-dependent tumor progression, suggest that loss of p53 function favors the formation of coactivator complex with the TA members of the p53 family to allow beta(4) transcription. PMID:19567674

  13. Recent Progress in Treating Protein–Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We review the first successes and failures of a “new wave” of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of “enhanced”, dispersion (D), and/or hydrogen-bond (H) corrected density functional theory (DFT) or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory) and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical) perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects. PMID:27196893

  14. Natural gas storage and end user interaction: A progress report, September 30, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, L.R. Jr.; Reich, S.; Godec, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    In late 1994, ICF Resources began a contract with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to conduct a study of natural gas storage and end user interaction. This study is being conducted in three phases: the first phase is an assessment of the market requirements for natural gas storage and in particular to identify those end user requirements for storage that could benefit from METC-sponsored research and development (R&D) in storage technology; the second phase will address the particular technical and economic feasibility for expanding conventional storage; and the third phase will address alternative, unconventional technologies. ICF is approaching the conclusion of the first phase of the study and the second phase has begun. This paper summarizes the scope of the study and reports some of the preliminary findings of the first phase. We begin by providing an overview of the goals of the effort and of natural gas storage. We will address the evolving market requirements for storage and the regulatory and institutional changes that are having a major impact on the use of natural gas storage. We address the demand for storage and the alternatives for meeting this demand, with specific reference to regional and end use issues.

  15. Sleeping Beauty transposase modulates cell-cycle progression through interaction with Miz-1

    PubMed Central

    Walisko, Oliver; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Kornélia; Kaufman, Christopher D.; Herold, Steffi; Ivics, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    We used the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element as a tool to probe transposon–host cell interactions in vertebrates. The Miz-1 transcription factor was identified as an interactor of the SB transposase in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Through its association with Miz-1, the SB transposase down-regulates cyclin D1 expression in human cells, as evidenced by differential gene expression analysis using microarray hybridization. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 results in a prolonged G1 phase of the cell cycle and retarded growth of transposase-expressing cells. G1 slowdown is associated with a decrease of cyclin D1/cdk4-specific phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. Both cyclin D1 down-regulation and the G1 slowdown induced by the transposase require Miz-1. A temporary G1 arrest enhances transposition, suggesting that SB transposition is favored in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, where the nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is preferentially active. Because nonhomologous end-joining is required for efficient SB transposition, the transposase-induced G1 slowdown is probably a selfish act on the transposon’s part to maximize the chance for a successful transposition event. PMID:16537485

  16. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    This year the Montreal Protocol celebrates its 20th Anniversary. In September 1987, 24 countries signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Today 191 countries have signed and have met strict commitments on phasing out of ozone depleting substances with the result that a 95% reduction of these substances has been achieved. The Montreal Protocol has also contributed to slowing the rate of global climate change, since most of the ozone depleting substances are also effective greenhouse gases. Even though much has been achieved, the future of the stratospheric ozone layer relies on full compliance of the Montreal Protocol by all countries for the remaining substances, including methyl bromide, as well as strict monitoring of potential risks from the production of substitute chemicals. Also the ozone depleting substances existing in banks and equipment need special attention to prevent their release to the stratosphere. Since many of the ozone depleting substances already in the atmosphere are long-lived, recovery cannot be immediate and present projections estimate a return to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075. It has also been predicted that the interactions of the effects of the ozone layer and that of other climate change factors will become increasingly important. PMID:18274006

  17. Recent Progress in Treating Protein-Ligand Interactions with Quantum-Mechanical Methods.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We review the first successes and failures of a "new wave" of quantum chemistry-based approaches to the treatment of protein/ligand interactions. These approaches share the use of "enhanced", dispersion (D), and/or hydrogen-bond (H) corrected density functional theory (DFT) or semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods, in combination with ensemble weighting techniques of some form to capture entropic effects. Benchmark and model system calculations in comparison to high-level theoretical as well as experimental references have shown that both DFT-D (dispersion-corrected density functional theory) and SQM-DH (dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected semi-empirical quantum mechanical) perform much more accurately than older DFT and SQM approaches and also standard docking methods. In addition, DFT-D might soon become and SQM-DH already is fast enough to compute a large number of binding modes of comparably large protein/ligand complexes, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of entropic effects. PMID:27196893

  18. Interaction of carbon and sulfur on metal catalysts: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.G.; Vajo, J.

    1989-02-17

    At high coverage, sulfur generally deactivates metal catalysts, but at low coverage, chemisorbed sulfur can have a more subtle effect on catalyst activity and selectivity. The general goal of the current project is to examine fundamental aspects of selective poisoning by fractional monolayers of chemisorbed sulfur on a variety of metal catalysts used for commercially important reactions such as hydrocarbon re-forming, light alkane steam re-forming, and hydrocarbon synthesis. Specific objectives of the research program are to experimentally measure as a function of coverage the influence of chemisorbed sulfur on the thermodynamics, reactivity, and structure of surface and bulk carbon occupying both dispersed and well-characterized metal catalyst surfaces. Special methods, such as reversible sulfur chemisorption on supported metals and temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) characterization of catalyst carbon, have been developed that are well suited to examining the interaction of sulfur and carbon on metal surfaces. New analytical instruments with greatly improved sensitivity have been recently developed and applied: a helium discharge ionization detector (DID) is being used with a gas recirculation thermodynamic system, and the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) technique is used with surface carbon segregation systems.

  19. Mantle plume capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle plumes are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of plume-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed plume material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis plume and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos plume stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the plume stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the region between the plume stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of plume material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward plume flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of plume flow. Subsequent anchoring of the plume stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of plume material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the plume head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of plume-ridge

  20. Studies of particle interactions in bubble chamber, spark chambers and counter experiments. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A. Jr.; Simmons, R.O.

    1983-07-01

    During the past six years we have carried out and planned experiments which predominantly studied the production and decay of particles containing charmed quarks. A series of photoproduction and neutron production experiments started with the very early observation of the production of J/psi by neutrons and by photons at Fermilab. From subsequent experiments using these neutral beams and the basic detecting system, we have reported results on the photoproduction of the ..lambda../sub c/ charmed baryon and the D and D* charmed mesons. More recent runs are studying the high energy photoproduction of vector mesons including the psi'. The present experiment in this sequence is using neutrons to produce a large number of D mesons. Another series of experiments at Fermilab set out to study the hadronic production of charmed mesons. The Chicago Cyclotron facility was modified with a detector sensitive to various possible production mechanisms. The experiments were a success; clean signals of D mesons were observed to be produced by pions, and also the production of chi/sub c/ with the subsequent decay via a ..gamma..-ray to psi was observed. The charmonium experiments run this year have better photon resolution for measuring the decays of chi/sub c/ to psi. We are part of a collaboration which is working on the Collider Detector Facility for Fermilab. The CDF at Fermilab is a possible source of (weak) intermediate vector bosons from the collisions of protons and anti-protons. Our responsibilities in the CDF include both the construction of the muon detector and the designing, planning, and testing of the FASTBUS electronics. The second part of our weak interaction program is the Neutrino Oscillation experiment which is now under construction at Brookhaven.

  1. Inhibiting DX2-p14/ARF Interaction Exerts Antitumor Effects in Lung Cancer and Delays Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ah-Young; Jung, Youn Sang; Kim, Jiseon; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Cho, Jung-Hyun; Chun, Ho-Young; Park, Soyoung; Park, Hyunchul; Lim, Sikeun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Park, Jong Sook; Park, Choon-Sik; Song, Gyu-Yong; Park, Bum-Joon

    2016-08-15

    The aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) splice variant designated DX2 is induced by cigarette smoke carcinogens and is often detected in human lung cancer specimens. However, the function of DX2 in lung carcinogenesis is obscure. In this study, we found that DX2 expression was induced by oncogenes in human lung cancer tissues and cells. DX2 prevented oncogene-induced apoptosis and senescence and promoted drug resistance by directly binding to and inhibiting p14/ARF. Through chemical screening, we identified SLCB050, a novel compound that blocks the interaction between DX2 and p14/ARF in vitro and in vivo SLCB050 reduced the viability of human lung cancer cells, especially small cell lung cancer cells, in a p14/ARF-dependent manner. Moreover, in a mouse model of K-Ras-driven lung tumorigenesis, ectopic expression of DX2 induced small cell and non-small cell lung cancers, both of which could be suppressed by SLCB050 treatment. Taken together, our findings show how DX2 promotes lung cancer progression and how its activity may be thwarted as a strategy to treat patients with lung cancers exhibiting elevated DX2 levels. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4791-804. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27302160

  2. AKAP95 promotes cell cycle progression via interactions with cyclin E and low molecular weight cyclin E

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Deng-Cheng; Zhuang, Wen-Xin; Hua, Su-Hang; Dai, Yue; Yuan, Yang-Yang; Feng, Li-Li; Huang, Qian; Teng, Bo-Gang; Yu, Xiu-Yi; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    AKAP95 in lung cancer tissues showed higher expression than in paracancerous tissues. AKAP95 can bind with cyclin D and cyclin E during G1/S cell cycle transition, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To identify the mechanism of AKAP95 in cell cycle progression, we performed AKAP95 transfection and silencing in A549 cells, examined AKAP95, cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 expression, and the interactions of AKAP95 with cyclins E1 and E2. Results showed that over-expression of AKAP95 promoted cell growth and AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and E2, low molecular weight cyclin E1 (LWM-E1) and LWM-E2. Additionally AKAP95 bound cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 in the nucleus during G1/S transition, bound LMW-E1 during G1, S and G2/M, and bound cyclin E2 mainly on the nuclear membrane during interphase. Cyclin E2 and LMW-E2 were also detected. AKAP95 over-expression increased cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 expression but decreased cyclin E2 levels. Unlike cyclin E1 and LMW-E2 that were nuclear located during the G1, S and G1/S phases, cyclin E2 and LMW-E1 were expressed in all cell cycle phases, with cyclin E2 present in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane, with traces in the nucleus. LMW-E1 was present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The 20 kDa form of LMW-E1 showed only cytoplasmic expression, while the 40 kDa form was nuclear expressed. The expression of AKAP95, cyclin E1, LMW-E1 and -E2, might be regulated by cAMP. We conclude that AKAP95 might promote cell cycle progression by interacting with cyclin E1 and LMW-E2. LMW-E2, but not cyclin E2, might be involved in G1/S transition. The binding of AKAP95 and LMW-E1 was found throughout cell cycle. PMID:27158371

  3. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia disease progression is accelerated by APRIL-TACI interaction in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, Valeria; Guadagnoli, Marco; Schot, Jan G.; Luijks, Dieuwertje M.; Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Cameron, Katherine; Hahne, Michael; Pals, Steven; Slinger, Erik; Kipps, Thomas J.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Eldering, Eric; Medema, Jan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Although in vitro studies pointed to the tumor necrosis factor family member APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) in mediating survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, clear evidence for a role in leukemogenesis and progression in CLL is lacking. APRIL significantly prolonged in vitro survival of CD5+B220dull leukemic cells derived from the murine Eμ-TCL1-Tg (TCL1-Tg [transgenic]) model for CLL. APRIL-TCL1 double-Tg mice showed a significantly earlier onset of leukemia and disruption of splenic architecture, and survival was significantly reduced. Interestingly, clonal evolution of CD5+B220dull cells (judged by BCR clonality) did not seem to be accelerated by APRIL; both mouse strains were oligoclonal at 4 months. Although APRIL binds different receptors, APRIL-mediated leukemic cell survival depended on tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TACI) ligation. These findings indicate that APRIL has an important role in CLL and that the APRIL-TACI interaction might be a selective novel therapeutic target for human CLL. PMID:24100449

  5. Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Karin R; Guise, Amanda J; Pourbozorgi-Langroudi, Parham; Cristea, Ileana M; Zakian, Virginia A; Capra, John A; Sabouri, Nasim

    2016-09-01

    Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5'-to-3' DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy) and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A). The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard-to-replicate sites. These data

  6. Liquid Lithium Divertor and Scrape-Off-Layer Interactions on the National Spherical Torus Experiment: 2010 ? 2013 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-27

    The implementation of the liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX presented a unique opportunity in plasma-material interactions studies. A high density Langmuir Probe (HDLP) array utilizing a dense pack of triple Langmuir probes was built at PPPL and the electronics designed and built by UIUC. It was shown that the HDLP array could be used to characterize the modification of the EEDF during lithium experiments on NSTX as well as characterize the transient particle loads during lithium experiments as a means to study ELMs. With NSTX being upgraded and a new divertor being installed, the HDLP array will not be used in NSTX-U. However UIUC is currently helping to develop two new systems for depositing lithium into NSTX-U, a Liquid Lithium Pellet Dripper (LLPD) for use with the granular injector for ELM mitigation and control studies as well as an Upward-Facing Lithium Evaporator (U-LITER) based on a flash evaporation system using an electron beam. Currently UIUC has Daniel Andruczyk Stationed at PPPL and is developing these systems as well as being involved in preparing the Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) for use in LTX and NSTX-U. To date the MAPP preparations have been completed. New sample holders were designed by UIUC?s Research Engineer at PPPL and manufactured at PPPL and installed. MAPP is currently being used on LTX to do calibration and initial studies. The LLPD has demonstrated that it can produce pellets. There is still some adjustments needed to control the frequency and particle size. Equipment for the U-LITER has arrived and initial test are being made of the electron beam and design of the U-LITER in progress. It is expected to have these ready for the first run campaign of NSTX-U.

  7. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  8. An investigation of catalytic active phase-support interactions by IR, NMR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies. Progress report, January 15, 1992--September 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support on which the active phase is dispersed can affect the percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Our objective is to characterize the physical chemistry of the active phase-oxide support interaction by spectroscopic methods and to correlate this structure with catalytic function. Two catalytic systems and their associated techniques (x-ray absorption and NMR) are discussed in this progress report. Firstly, the interaction of Pt-Ni supported on silica and L-zeolite are characterized and compared by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Secondly, we present both experimental and calculational developments of NMR for the investigation of amorphous silica-alumina catalysts and/or supports.

  9. Investigations of the dynamics and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, June 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report summarizes the work of The George Washington University (GW) nuclear theory group during the period 1 July 1994 - 30 September 1995 under DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-95-ER40907 mainly dealing with photonuclear reactions and few-body problems of nuclei. This report contains: papers published or in press, submitted for publication, and in preparation; invited talks at conferences and meetings; invited talks at universities and laboratories; contributed papers or abstracts at conferences; visitors to the group; and research progress by topic.

  10. Interaction of a mantle plume and a segmented mid-ocean ridge: Results from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgen, Jennifer E.

    2014-04-01

    Previous investigations have proposed that changes in lithospheric thickness across a transform fault, due to the juxtaposition of seafloor of different ages, can impede lateral dispersion of an on-ridge mantle plume. The application of this “transform damming” mechanism has been considered for several plume-ridge systems, including the Reunion hotspot and the Central Indian Ridge, the Amsterdam-St. Paul hotspot and the Southeast Indian Ridge, the Cobb hotspot and the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Iceland hotspot and the Kolbeinsey Ridge, the Afar plume and the ridges of the Gulf of Aden, and the Marion/Crozet hotspot and the Southwest Indian Ridge. This study explores the geodynamics of the transform damming mechanism using a three-dimensional finite element numerical model. The model solves the coupled steady-state equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, including thermal buoyancy and viscosity that is dependent on pressure and temperature. The plume is introduced as a circular thermal anomaly on the bottom boundary of the numerical domain. The center of the plume conduit is located directly beneath a spreading segment, at a distance of 200 km (measured in the along-axis direction) from a transform offset with length 100 km. Half-spreading rate is 0.5 cm/yr. In a series of numerical experiments, the buoyancy flux of the modeled plume is progressively increased to investigate the effects on the temperature and velocity structure of the upper mantle in the vicinity of the transform. Unlike earlier studies, which suggest that a transform always acts to decrease the along-axis extent of plume signature, these models imply that the effect of a transform on plume dispersion may be complex. Under certain ranges of plume flux modeled in this study, the region of the upper mantle undergoing along-axis flow directed away from the plume could be enhanced by the three-dimensional velocity and temperature structure associated with ridge

  11. Interactive radiopharmaceutical facility between Yale Medical Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Progress report, June 1981-July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, A

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: (1) evaluation of /sup 14/C-labelled carboxyethyl ester 2-cardoxy methyl ester of arachidonic acid; (2) the effects of drug intervention on cardiac inflammatory response following experimental myocardial infarction using indium-111 labeled autologous leukoyctes; (3) the evaluation of /sup 97/Ru-oxine to label human platelets in autologous plasma; and (4) the specific in vitro radiolabeling of human neutrophils. (ACR)

  12. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, February 16, 1993--April 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1994-04-27

    Experimental study of low energy, highly charged ions with other atomic species requires an advanced ion source such as an electron beam ion source, EBIS or an electron cyclotron ion source, ECRIS. Five years ago we finished the design and construction of the Cornell superconducting solenoid, cryogenic EBIS (CEBIS). Since then, this source has been in continuous operation in a program whose main purpose is the experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. This progress report for the period February 16, 1993 to April 15, 1994 describes the work accomplished during this time in the form of short abstracts.

  13. The identification of Pcl1-interacting proteins that genetically interact with Cla4 may indicate a link between G1 progression and mitotic exit.

    PubMed Central

    Keniry, Megan E; Kemp, Hilary A; Rivers, David M; Sprague, George F

    2004-01-01

    In budding yeast, Cla4 and Ste20, two p21-activated kinases, contribute to numerous morphogenetic processes. Loss of Ste20 or Cla4 individually confers distinct phenotypes, implying that they regulate different processes. However, loss of both proteins is lethal, suggesting some functional overlap. To explore the role(s) of Cla4, we and others have sought mutations that are lethal in a cla4 Delta strain. These mutations define >60 genes. Recently, both Ste20 and Cla4 have been implicated in mitotic exit. Here, we identify a genetic interaction between PHO85, which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, and CLA4. We further show that the Pho85-coupled G(1) cyclins Pcl1 and Pcl2 contribute to this Pho85 role. We performed a two-hybrid screen with Pcl1. Three Pcl1-interacting proteins were identified: Ncp1, Hms1, and a novel ATPase dubbed Epa1. Each of these proteins interacts with Pcl1 in GST pull-down experiments and is specifically phosphorylated by Pcl1.Pho85 complexes. NCP1, HMS1, and EPA1 also genetically interact with CLA4. Like Cla4, the proteins Hms1, Ncp1, and Pho85 appear to affect mitotic exit, a conclusion that follows from the mislocalization of Cdc14, a key mitotic regulator, in strains lacking these proteins. We propose a model in which the G(1) Pcl1.Pho85 complex regulates mitotic exit machinery. PMID:15082539

  14. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy physics. Interim progress report, November 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1992-12-01

    Progress in the study of electroweak structure of baryon resonances and in the analysis of data for pion and eta photoproduction. Four graduate students are currently associated with the program. One has obtained his Ph.D. degree in the year under review. Six research articles have been completed in this year, and five conference contributions have been made. Collaborations with scientists from Illinois, Los Alamos, Westinghouse, William and Mary, Yale, Mainz (Germany), Saskatchewan (Canada) and TRIUMF (Canada) continue, along with participation in collaborations at CEBAF.

  15. Radiation/turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Second year technical progress report, September 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavsagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Wang, D.; Ghosal, S.; Swabb, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our goal in this project is to investigate the interaction of radiation and turbulence in coalfired laboratory scale flames and attempt to determine the boundaries of the ``uncertainty domain`` in Figure 3 more rigorously. We have three distinct objectives: (1) To determine from experiments the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the devolatilization/pyrolysis of coal particles and soot yield, and to measure the change in the ``effective`` radiative properties of particulates due to turbulence interactions; (2) To perform local small-scale simulations to investigate the radiation-turbulence interactions in coal-fired flames starting from first principles; and (3) To develop a thorough and rigorous, but computationally practical, turbulence model for coal flames, starting from the experimental observations and small scale simulations.

  16. Interaction of intense lasers and relativistic electron beams with solids, gases and plasmas. Progress report, January-30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, E.; Liu, C.S.; Grantstein, V.L.

    1993-06-01

    The focus of the Maryland Program is to establish strong experimental and theoretical support for ongoing programs at NRL. Areas of research which are of mutual interest are pursued by members of the University of Maryland faculty in collaboration with their counterparts at NRL. The proposal encompasses basically three broad areas of research activities. The first area deals with excimer laser technology and the interaction of high power lasers with matter (gases, solids and plasma). The second area of mutual interest involves diagnostics of intense relativistic electron beams and study of their propagation and interaction with a background gas. The nonlinear temporal dynamics in neural networks is the third area for collaboration.

  17. Classroom Interactions in Four Follow Through Sites. Volume III, Progress Report, Cognitively Oriented Curriculum, Project Follow Through.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary E.; Love, John M.

    Volume III presents the results of High/Scope Foundation's Analysis of Classroom Interaction, a classroom observation instrument field tested at four projects. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of implementation of the Cognitively Oriented Curriculum in the four widely separated communities in which the High/Scope Foundation…

  18. Chemical interactions between protein molecules and polymer membrane materials. Annual progress report, August 1, 1992--July 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Belfort, G.; Koehler, J.; Wood, J.

    1993-07-15

    The Surface Force Apparatus is now operable; data collection is automatic. Hen egg lysozyme was chosen as model protein. Protein-protein, protein-mica, protein-polymer, and protein-surfactant interactions were studied. Circular dichroism was used to study changes in protein structure during adsorption.

  19. Progress and perspectives in the low-energy kaon-nucleon/nuclei interaction studies at the DAΦNE collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, M.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fabietti, L.; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Ponta, T.; Quaglia, R.; Romero Vidal, A.; Levi Sandri, P.; Sbardella, E.; Schembari, F.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Wünschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Siddharta; Siddharta-2; Amadeus Collaborations

    2014-11-01

    Low-energy QCD is still lacking experimental results, fundamental for reaching a good understanding of the strangeness sector. The information provided by the low energy kaon- nucleon/nuclei interaction is accessible through the study of kaonic atoms and kaonic nuclear processes. The lightest atomic systems, namely the kaonic hydrogen and the kaonic deuterium, provide the isospin dependent kaon-nucleon scattering lengths by measuring the X-rays emitted during their de-excitation to the 1s level. The most precise kaonic hydrogen measurement to date, together with an exploratory measurement of kaonic deuterium and of upper-level transitions in kaonic helium 3 and kaonic helium 4 were carried out at the DAΦNE collider by the SIDDHARTA collaboration. Presently, a significantly upgraded setup developped by the SIDDHARTA-2 collaboration is ready to perform a precise measurement of kaonic deuterium and, afterwards, of heavier exotic atoms. In parallel, the kaon-nuclei interaction at momenta below 130 MeV/c is studied by the AMADEUS collaboration, using the KLOE detector and a dedicated setup inserted in the central region, near the interaction point. Preliminary results of the study of charged antikaons interacting with nuclei are shown, including an analysis of the controversial Λ(1405).

  20. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Akundi, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work on the metal precursors of copper, cobalt and chromium using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are presented.

  1. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the George Washington University (GWU) theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions axe the issue, numerically accurate calculations axe always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework, i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art fewbody calculations that wig serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, in the problems considered, there has been no evidence of the necessity to go beyond the traditional approach, though we always keep in mind that possibility. As our work is involved with questions in the intermediate-energy realm, moving from a nonrelativistic framework to a relativistic one is always a consideration. Currently, for the problems that have been pursued in this domain of energy, the issues concern far more the mechanisms of the reactions and structural questions than the need to move to relativistic dynamics.

  2. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.; Bennhold, C.; Ito, Hiroshi; Pratt, R.K.; Najmeddine, M.; Rakei, A.

    1994-07-01

    In order to make it easy for the reader to see the specific research carried out and the progress made, the following report of progress is done by topic. Each item has a format layout of Topic, Investigators, Objective, Significance, and Description of Progress, followed at the end by the relevant references. As is clear from the topics listed, the emphasis of the GW nuclear theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered, including coherent photoproduction of {pi} mesons. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim has been to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, numerically accurate calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. Implicit in our work is the question of how far one can go within the traditional nuclear physics framework i.e., nucleons and mesons in a nonrelativistic setting. Our central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires introduction of relativity and/or quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question. So far, the problems considered were mostly concerned with low- to medium-energy regimes where little evidence was found that requires going beyond the traditional approach.

  3. Patient-Specific Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using 3D Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Models with Fluid-Structure Interactions Based on Serial In Vivo MRI Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression

  4. Investigation of the essential role of platelet-tumor cell interactions in metastasis progression using an agent-based model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metastatic tumors are a major source of morbidity and mortality for most cancers. Interaction of circulating tumor cells with endothelium, platelets and neutrophils play an important role in the early stages of metastasis formation. These complex dynamics have proven difficult to study in experimental models. Prior computational models of metastases have focused on tumor cell growth in a host environment, or prediction of metastasis formation from clinical data. We used agent-based modeling (ABM) to dynamically represent hypotheses of essential steps involved in circulating tumor cell adhesion and interaction with other circulating cells, examine their functional constraints, and predict effects of inhibiting specific mechanisms. Methods We developed an ABM of Early Metastasis (ABMEM), a descriptive semi-mechanistic model that replicates experimentally observed behaviors of populations of circulating tumor cells, neutrophils, platelets and endothelial cells while incorporating representations of known surface receptor, autocrine and paracrine interactions. Essential downstream cellular processes were incorporated to simulate activation in response to stimuli, and calibrated with experimental data. The ABMEM was used to identify potential points of interdiction through examination of dynamic outcomes such as rate of tumor cell binding after inhibition of specific platelet or tumor receptors. Results The ABMEM reproduced experimental data concerning neutrophil rolling over endothelial cells, inflammation-induced binding between neutrophils and platelets, and tumor cell interactions with these cells. Simulated platelet inhibition with anti-platelet drugs produced unstable aggregates with frequent detachment and re-binding. The ABMEM replicates findings from experimental models of circulating tumor cell adhesion, and suggests platelets play a critical role in this pre-requisite for metastasis formation. Similar effects were observed with inhibition of tumor

  5. Modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the proximal promoter of a cell-growth-regulated histone gene during onset and progression of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, T A; Holthuis, J; Markose, E; van Wijnen, A J; Wolfe, S A; Grimes, S R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S

    1990-01-01

    A temporal sequence of interrelated cellular, biochemical, and molecular events which occurs during the progressive expression of the differentiated osteoblast phenotype in primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells results in the development of a bone-tissue-like organization. This ordered developmental sequence encompasses three periods: proliferation, matrix maturation, and mineralization. Initially, the cells actively proliferate and synthesize type I collagen. This is followed by a period of matrix organization and maturation and then by a period of extracellular matrix mineralization. At the completion of proliferation, when expression of osteoblast phenotype markers such as alkaline phosphatase is observed, the cell-cycle-related histone genes are down-regulated transcriptionally, suggesting that a key signaling mechanism at this transition point involves modifications of protein-DNA interactions in the regulatory elements of these growth-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate that there is a selective loss of interaction of the promoter binding factor HiNF-D with the site II region of an H4 histone gene proximal promoter that regulates the specificity and level of transcription only when the down-regulation of proliferation is accompanied by modifications in the extracellular matrix that contribute to progression of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, this specific loss of protein-DNA interaction serves as a marker for a key transition point in the osteoblast developmental sequence, where the down-regulation of proliferation is functionally coupled to the appearance of osteoblast phenotypic properties associated with the organization and maturation of an extracellular matrix that becomes competent to mineralize. Images PMID:2367528

  6. Recent progress in particle acceleration from the interaction between thin-foil targets and J-KAREN laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Sakaki, Hironao; Ogura, Koichi; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Yogo, Akifumi; Hori, Toshihiko; Sagisaka, Akito; Fukuda, Yuji; Kanasaki, Masato; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Shimomura, Takuya; Tanoue, Manabu; Nakai, Yoshiki; Sasao, Hajime; Sasao, Fumitaka; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Kondo, Shuji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; and others

    2012-07-11

    From the interaction between the high-contrast ({approx}more than 10{sup 10}) 130 TW Ti:sapphire laser pulse and Stainless Steel-2.5 um-thick tape target, proton beam with energies up to 23 MeV with the conversion efficiency of {approx}1% is obtained. After plasma mirror installation for contrast improvement, from the interaction between the 30 TW laser pulse and thin-foil target installed on the target holder with the hole whose shape is associated with the design of the well-known Wehnelt electrode of electron-gun, a 7 MeV intense proton beam is controlled dynamically and energy selected by the self-induced quasi-static electric field on the target holder. From the highly divergent beam having continuous spectrum, which are the typical features of the laser-driven proton beams from the interactions between the short-pulse laser and solid target, the spatial distribution of 7 MeV proton bunch is well manipulated to be focused to an small spots with an angular distribution of {approx}10 mrad. The number of protons included in the bunch is >10{sup 6}.

  7. Scoping assessments of ATF impact on late-stage accident progression including molten core-concrete interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, M. T.; Leibowitz, L.; Terrani, K. A.; Robb, K. R.

    2014-05-01

    Simple scoping models that can be used to evaluate ATF performance under severe accident conditions have been developed. The methodology provides a fundamental technical basis (a.k.a. metric) based on the thermodynamic boundary for evaluating performance relative to that of traditional Zr-based claddings. The initial focus in this study was on UO2 fuel with the advanced claddings 310 SS, D9, FeCrAl, and SiC. The evaluation considered only energy release with concurrent combustible gas production from fuel-cladding-coolant interactions and, separately, molten core-concrete interactions at high temperatures. Other important phenomenological effects that can influence the rate and extent of cladding decomposition (e.g., eutectic interactions, degradation of other core constituents) were not addressed. For the cladding types addressed, potential combustible gas production under both in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions was similar to that for Zr. However, exothermic energy release from cladding oxidation was substantially less for iron-based alloys (by at least a factor of 4), and modestly less (by ∼20%) for SiC. Data on SiC-clad UO2 fuel performance under severe accident conditions are sparse in the literature; thus, assumptions on the nature of the cladding decomposition process were made in order to perform this initial screening evaluation. Experimental data for this system under severe accident conditions is needed for a proper evaluation and comparison to iron-based claddings.

  8. Base sequence effects on interactions of aromatic mutagens with DNA: Progress report for period March 1, 1988--November 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of base sequence on the structure of DNA, and the relationships between these effects and gene expression and regulation, are currently receiving wide attention. This project is focused on the effects of base composition and sequence, as well as on the thermodynamics of the interactions and binding of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mutagens with DNA. Such interactions between PHA molecules and cellular DNA are believed to be of critical importance in the expression of the mutagenic and tumorigenic potentials of these compounds. We have studied the interactions, especially noncovalent complex formation between the tetraols derived by the hydrolysis of the bay region diol epoxides of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), benz(a)anthracene (BA), 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) with single nucleotides, dinucleotides, oligonucleotides, synthetic polynucleotides, and native DNA. The formation of physical complexes depends on the base composition and the base sequence. The differences in the physical binding of these three different tetraol derivatives to native DNA are due to entropic rather than to enthalpic effects. In contrast to the BP and BA tetraols, the 3-MC tetraols do not form intercalation complexes with DNA; this effect is attributed to the steric bulk of the methyl and methylene bridge group which prevents the sandwiching of the 3-MC tetraol between the DNA base pairs. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Are the SSB-Interacting Proteins RecO, RecG, PriA and the DnaB-Interacting Protein Rep Bound to Progressing Replication Forks in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Bentchikou, Esma; Chagneau, Carine; Long, Emilie; Matelot, Mélody; Allemand, Jean-François; Michel, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion. PMID:26244508

  10. [Experiment studies of electron-positron interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]. Progress report, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzbach, S.S.; Kofler, R.R.

    1993-12-31

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of Massachusetts has continued its` program of experimental studies of electron-positron interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The group activities have included: analysis of data taken between 1982 and 1990 with the TPC detector at the PEP facility, continuing data collection and data analysis using the SLC/SLD facility, planning for the newly approved B-factory at SLAC, and participation in design studies for future high energy linear colliders. This report will briefly summarize these activities.

  11. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS)-recent methodical progress and applications to fundamental studies in particle/surface interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechsner, Hans

    1995-05-01

    Recent instrumental developments of the conventional secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) technique based on electron gas post-ionization are described with regard to its application to non-conducting samples and its implementation in a novel secondary neutral microprobe. The use of molecular SNMS signals for quantitative surface analysis, and a standard free technique for absolute depth calibration from the mass spectrometric signals are discussed and elucidated by appropriate examples. Finally, some applications of electron gas SNMS to fundamental studies on low energy particle/surface interaction are presented.

  12. Selectivity, activity, and metal-support interactions of Rh bimetallic catalysts. Progress report, 15 November 1981-15 August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G L

    1982-08-01

    We report on a detailed investigation of the effect of TiO/sub 2/ support on Rh-Ag interaction as exhibited in catalytic activity. The temporal evolution of activity over Rh-Ag/TiO/sub 2/ for ethane hydrogenolysis and hydrogen chemisorption as a function of temperature, Ag to Rh ratio, the Rh particle size, Rh loading, and ambient gas were studied. Preliminary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of Rh/TiO/sub 2/ catalysts indicate that 100% exposed (dispersed) catalyst prepared by ion exchange may be atomically dispersed after low temperature reduction. 7 figures, 1 table.

  13. The phospholipid code: a key component of dying cell recognition, tumor progression and host-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Baxter, A A; Hulett, M D; Poon, I K H

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort is made by the cell to maintain certain phospholipids at specific sites. It is well described that proteins involved in intracellular signaling can be targeted to the plasma membrane and organelles through phospholipid-binding domains. Thus, the accumulation of a specific combination of phospholipids, denoted here as the 'phospholipid code', is key in initiating cellular processes. Interestingly, a variety of extracellular proteins and pathogen-derived proteins can also recognize or modify phospholipids to facilitate the recognition of dying cells, tumorigenesis and host-microbe interactions. In this article, we discuss the importance of the phospholipid code in a range of physiological and pathological processes. PMID:26450453

  14. The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbo; Mao, Dagan; Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; Chen, Xingcheng; Angeletti, Peter C; Dong, Jixin; Remmenga, Steven W; Rodabaugh, Kerry J; Zhou, Jin; Lambert, Paul F; Yang, Peixin; Davis, John S; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP). Here, we show that YAP plays a central role in controlling the progression of cervical cancer. Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer. TGF-α and amphiregulin (AREG), via EGFR, inhibit the Hippo signaling pathway and activate YAP to induce cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration. Activated YAP allows for up-regulation of TGF-α, AREG, and EGFR, forming a positive signaling loop to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. HPV E6 protein, a major etiological molecule of cervical cancer, maintains high YAP protein levels in cervical cancer cells by preventing proteasome-dependent YAP degradation to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. Results from human cervical cancer genomic databases and an accepted transgenic mouse model strongly support the clinical relevance of the discovered feed-forward signaling loop. Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26417066

  15. Study of the interactions between friction, wear and system rigidity. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Aronov, V.; D'Souza, A.F.; Kalpakjian, S.; Shareef, I.

    1980-03-01

    Progress in friction and wear studies is reported. After an extensive study of various possible systems for friction, wear and vibration measurements, a pin and disk sliding system has been designed to be used on a rigid lathe bed. This versatile design has the capability of controlling the applied load, rigidity and damping of the total frictional system. The design and construction of the pin holding assembly has been completed with certain features to render it suitable for acquisition of appropriate data such as forces and displacements. Special instrumentation has been obtained the major components of which are a tri-axial quartz piezoelectric force transducer, a tri-axial ceramic piezoelectric accelerometer for measurements of vibrations of the slider, charge preamplifiers with dc power supply, and monitoring equipment such as a spectral analyzer and an oscillograph. Preliminary experiments indicate that the system, as designed and constructed, is appropriate for the type of study undertaken in this project. Some preliminary experimental results are included here. The method of describing functions and harmonic balance is being employed for the study of friction induced self-excited vibrations. Some new developments of this method have been obtained to take into account the coupling between the degrees of freedom in the normal and frictional directions.

  16. EGFRvIII/integrin β3 interaction in hypoxic and vitronectinenriching microenvironment promote GBM progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhao, Manli; Xie, Hui; Ju, Huanyu; Wang, He; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Qifan; Wang, Qixue; Su, Jun; Fang, Chuan; Fu, Songbin; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Jiaren; Li, Xia; Kang, Chunsheng; Ren, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal brain tumors with a short survival time. EGFR amplification and mutation is the most significant genetic signature in GBM. About half of the GBMs with EGFR amplification express a constitutively autophosphorylated variant of EGFR, known as EGFRvIII. Our in vitro data demonstrated further enhanced EGFRvIII activity and tumor cell invasion in the tumor microenvironment of hypoxia plus extracellular matrix (ECM) vitronectin, in which EGFRvIII and integrin β3 tended to form complexes. The treatment with ITGB3 siRNA or the integrin antagonist cilengetide preferentially interrupted the EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complex, effectively reduced tumor cell invasion and activation of downstream signaling effectors. Cilengitide is recently failed in Phase III CENTRIC trial in unselected patients with GBM. However, we found that cilengitide demonstrated efficacious tumor regression via inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in EGFRvIII orthotopic xenografts. Bioinformatics analysis emphasized key roles of integrin β3, hypoxia and vitronectin and their strong correlations with EGFRvIII expression in malignant glioma patient samples in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complexes promote GBM progression and metastasis in the environment of hypoxia and vitronectin-enrichment, and cilengitide may serve as a promising therapeutics for EGFRvIII-positive GBMs. PMID:26717039

  17. Recent Progresses in Studying Helix-Helix Interactions in Proteins by Incorporating the Wenxiang Diagram into the NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Ping; Chen, Dong; Liao, Siming; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2016-01-01

    All residues in an alpha helix can be characterized and dispositioned on a 2D the wenxiang diagram, which possesses the following features: (1) the relative locations of the amino acids in the α-helix can be clearly displayed regardless how long it is; (2) direction of an alphahelix can be indicated; and (3) more information regarding each of the constituent amino acid residues in an alpha helix. Owing to its intuitionism and easy visibility, wenxiang diagrams have had an immense influence on our understanding of protein structure, protein-protein interactions, and the effect of helical structural stability on protein conformational transitions. In this review, we summarize two recent applications of wenxiang diagrams incorporating NMR spectroscopy in the researches of the coiled-coil protein interactions related to the regulation of contraction or relaxation states of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the effects of α-helical stability on the protein misfolding in prion disease, in hopes that the gained valuable information through these studies can stimulate more and more widely applications of wenxiang diagrams in structural biology. PMID:26286215

  18. Membrane-membrane interactions in a lipid-containing bacteriophage system. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Snipes, W

    1981-05-01

    Virus-cell interactions and the mechanism of viral entry have been the major focal points of this research. A method of analysis was perfected to investigate the entry process for herpes simplex virus. This technique makes use of a photosensitizing dye, FITC, that covalently binds to viral envelope proteins. Treated virions remain photosensitive until the envelope is shed during the process of infection. Our data strongly support an entry mechanism in which the viral envelope fuses with the cell plasma membrane. Other related projects have involved studies of the virucidal properties of retinoids, plaque development characteristics for viruses surviving treatment with membrane perturbers, and a large plaque effect that occurs when virus are plated on cells pretreated with uv light. In addition, we have characterized a new bacteriophage, investigated the interactions of divalent cations and proteins with phospholipid vesicles, extended our studies of the effects of hydrophobic photosensitizers on cell membranes, and used the spin-trapping technique to elucidate the reaction mechanism for an enzyme-like activity in soil extracts.

  19. Proteometabolomic Study of Compatible Interaction in Tomato Fruit Challenged with Sclerotinia rolfsii Illustrates Novel Protein Network during Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Sinha, Arunima; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Jawa, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2016-01-01

    Fruit is an assimilator of metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules, thus considered as potential target for pathogen attack. In response to patho-stress, such as fungal invasion, plants reorganize their proteome, and reconfigure their physiology in the infected organ. This remodeling is coordinated by a poorly understood signal transduction network, hormonal cascades, and metabolite reallocation. The aim of the study was to explore organ-based proteomic alterations in the susceptibility of heterotrophic fruit to necrotrophic fungal attack. We conducted time-series protein profiling of Sclerotinia rolfsii invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. The differential display of proteome revealed 216 patho-stress responsive proteins (PSRPs) that change their abundance by more than 2.5-fold. Mass spectrometric analyses led to the identification of 56 PSRPs presumably involved in disease progression; regulating diverse functions viz. metabolism, signaling, redox homeostasis, transport, stress-response, protein folding, modification and degradation, development. Metabolome study indicated differential regulation of organic acid, amino acids, and carbohydrates paralleling with the proteomics analysis. Further, we interrogated the proteome data using network analysis that identified two significant functional protein hubs centered around malate dehydrogenase, T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma, and ATP synthase beta. This study reports, for the first-time, kinetically controlled patho-stress responsive protein network during post-harvest storage in a sink tissue, particularly fruit and constitute the basis toward understanding the onset and context of disease signaling and metabolic pathway alterations. The network representation may facilitate the prioritization of candidate proteins for quality improvement in storage organ. PMID:27507973

  20. Proteometabolomic Study of Compatible Interaction in Tomato Fruit Challenged with Sclerotinia rolfsii Illustrates Novel Protein Network during Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Sinha, Arunima; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Jawa, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2016-01-01

    Fruit is an assimilator of metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules, thus considered as potential target for pathogen attack. In response to patho-stress, such as fungal invasion, plants reorganize their proteome, and reconfigure their physiology in the infected organ. This remodeling is coordinated by a poorly understood signal transduction network, hormonal cascades, and metabolite reallocation. The aim of the study was to explore organ-based proteomic alterations in the susceptibility of heterotrophic fruit to necrotrophic fungal attack. We conducted time-series protein profiling of Sclerotinia rolfsii invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. The differential display of proteome revealed 216 patho-stress responsive proteins (PSRPs) that change their abundance by more than 2.5-fold. Mass spectrometric analyses led to the identification of 56 PSRPs presumably involved in disease progression; regulating diverse functions viz. metabolism, signaling, redox homeostasis, transport, stress-response, protein folding, modification and degradation, development. Metabolome study indicated differential regulation of organic acid, amino acids, and carbohydrates paralleling with the proteomics analysis. Further, we interrogated the proteome data using network analysis that identified two significant functional protein hubs centered around malate dehydrogenase, T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma, and ATP synthase beta. This study reports, for the first-time, kinetically controlled patho-stress responsive protein network during post-harvest storage in a sink tissue, particularly fruit and constitute the basis toward understanding the onset and context of disease signaling and metabolic pathway alterations. The network representation may facilitate the prioritization of candidate proteins for quality improvement in storage organ. PMID:27507973

  1. Interaction between EphrinB1 and CNK1 Found to Play Role in Tumor Progression | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The family of proteins known as ephrins plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes. In a recent article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Hee Jun Cho, Ph.D., and colleagues report on the interaction between proteins CNK1 and ephrinB1 that promotes cell movement. Their findings may have an important implication in developing new therapeutics for reducing metastases in certain cancers. “Eph and ephrin signaling has become an area of intense interest due to the influence these molecules exert on the control of cell adhesion and cell movement,” Cho said. “This signaling affects the formation of tissues during development and has been shown to play an instructive role in angiogenesis, as well as tumor cell invasion.”

  2. Pegmatite/wallrock interactions, Black Hills, South Dakota: Progressive boron metasomatism adjacent to the Tip Top pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.; Laul, J.C.; Christian, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Interaction between country rock and fluids derived from the Tip Top pegmatite has resulted in a series of boron enriched assemblages. Between unaltered quartz-mica schist to the pegmatite contact is a succession of four mineral assemblages: 1. (1) Quartz-Biotite-Potassium Feldspar assemblage (Q-B-K), which consists essentially of the original metamorphic silicate assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of modal tourmaline 2. (2) Quartz-Biotite-Tourmaline assemblage (Q-B-T) 3. (3) Tourmaline-Quartz-Muscovite assemblage (T-Q-M) 4. (4) Tourmaline-Quartz assemblage (T-Q). Alkali elements (Cs, Rb, K, Li), SiO2, and Ba show a decrease from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. A12O3, Ga, B, total Fe and Zn increase moderately from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. The mineral chemistries also change considerably. The Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) ratios in biotites range from 0.54 to 0.50 in samples from the Q-B-K assemblage to 0.39 in the (Q-B-T) assemblage. The range in tourmaline end-member components from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage is as follows: Q-B-K: Dravite.63 Schorl.23 Elbaite.05 Buergerite.09 T-Q: Dravite.23 Schorl.37 Elbaite.17 Buergerite.23. Observed variations in mineral assemblage and whole rock chemistry within the alteration zone appear to a first approximation to be a function of ??B2O3 (boron metasomatism) and ??K2O (alkali leaching). The breakdown of feldspar and biotite may be approximated by reactions: 2HCl + 2(K, Na)AlSi3O8 /ai 2(K, Na)Cl + Al2SiO5 + 5SiO2 + H2O and 2 Annite + SiO2 + 5Al2SiO5 + 2NaCl + 6H3BO3 /ai 2 Tourmaline + 2KCl + 7H2O. The alteration zone may represent either a single episode (B-, Cs-, Li-, Rb-enriched fluid) or multiple episodes (B, Zn, Mn fluid and Cs, Li, Rb fluid) of pegmatite fluid-schist interactions. In both situations, B in the aqueous fluid from the pegmatite reacts with the schist breaking down sheet silicate "traps" for Cs, Rb, Li, and K and forming tourmaline-rich assemblages. ?? 1984.

  3. Selective Hyaluronan-CD44 Signaling Promotes miRNA-21 Expression and Interacts with Vitamin D Function during Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas Progression Following UV Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y W; Bikle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), the major extracellular matrix component, is often anchored to CD44, a family of structurally/functionally important cell surface receptors. Recent results indicate that UV irradiation (UVR)-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) overexpress a variety of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v), with different CD44v isoforms appear to confer malignant SCC properties. UVR also stimulates HA degradation in epidermal keratinocytes. Both large HA polymers and their UVR-induced catabolic products (small HA) selectively activate CD44-mediated cellular signaling in normal keratinocytes and SCC cells, with all of the downstream processes being mediated by RhoGTPases (e.g., Rac1 and Rho). Importantly, we found that the hormonally active form of vitamin D 1,25(OH)2D3 not only prevents the UVR-induced small HA activation of abnormal keratinocyte behavior and SCC progression, but also enhances large HA stimulation of normal keratinocyte activities and epidermal function(s). The aim of this hypothesis and theory article is to question whether matrix HA and its UVR-induced catabolic products (e.g., large and small HA) can selectively activate CD44-mediated cellular signaling such as GTPase (Rac and RhA) activation. We suggested that large HA-CD44 interaction promotes Rac-signaling and normal keratinocyte differentiation (lipid synthesis), DNA repair, and keratinocyte survival function. Conversely, small HA-CD44 interaction stimulates RhoA activation, NFκB/Stat-3 signaling, and miR-21 production, resulting in inflammation and proliferation as well as SCC progression. We also question whether vitamin D treatment displays any effect on small HA-CD44v-mediated RhoA signaling, inflammation, and SCC progression, as well as large HA-CD44-mediated differentiation, DNA repair, keratinocyte survival, and normal keratinocyte function. In addition, we discussed that the topical application of signaling perturbation agents (e.g., Y27623, a ROK inhibitor) may be used to treat

  4. Interaction between V-ATPase B2 and (Pro) renin Receptors in Promoting the progression of Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Zuo, Sujun; Li, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jinjin; Cao, Xueqin; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Qiongqiong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the levels of (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR], α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), and vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits (B2, E, and c) in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) models and rat proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) treated with prorenin to elucidate the role of V-ATPase in these processes by activating the (P) RR. UUO significantly upregulated (P) RR, V-ATPase subunits, α-SMA and FN expression in tubulointerstitium or tubular epithelial cells. A marked colocalization of (P) RR and the B2 subunit was also observed. Prorenin treatment upregulated α-SMA, FN, (P) RR, and V-ATPase subunits and activity in NRK52E cell in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 partially blocked prorenin-induced (P) RR, FN, and α-SMA expression. Co-immunoprecipitate and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the V-ATPase B2 subunit bound to the (P) RR, which was upregulated after prorenin stimulation. Either siRNA-mediated (P) RR or B2 subunit knockdown partially reduced V-ATPase activity and attenuated prorenin-induced FN and α-SMA expression. From the data we can assume that activation of (P) RR and V-ATPase may play an important role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis with possible involvement of interaction of V-ATPase B2 subunit and (P)RR. PMID:27121029

  5. Adjusting to progress: interactions between the National Library of Medicine and health sciences librarians, 1961–2001*

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Betsy L.

    2002-01-01

    Most health sciences librarians would agree that the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) leadership and its services have been highly beneficial to the field, but this does not prevent specific NLM actions—or lack of action—from being perceived as annoying or infuriating. Over the past forty years, NLM's interactions with health sciences librarians have been affected by significant additions to NLM's mission and services, the expansion of NLM's direct user groups, and the growing range of possible relationships between health sciences librarians and NLM. The greatest friction between NLM and health services librarians occurs when there is a fundamental change in the way NLM carries out its mission—a change that adds to the web of relationships that link librarians and NLM and prompts corresponding changes in the way other libraries do business. Between 1961 and 2001, there were two such fundamental changes: the implementation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine and the development and promotion of services targeted toward individual health professionals. On a lesser scale, each new service that connects NLM and health sciences librarians is another potential source of irritation, ready to flare up when the service is interrupted, changed, or eliminated. Other factors—including strong personalities, mistakes, and poor communication—add to, but do not cause, the intermittent problems between NLM and its most longstanding and engaged user group. These problems are in essence the price we pay for the leadership and vision of NLM's directors and for NLM's success in developing excellent services and in enhancing them based on advice from librarians and other users. PMID:11838459

  6. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  7. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B overexpression is associated with the development and progression of glioma

    PubMed Central

    FANG, LIPING; ZHAO, JIUHAN; WANG, DAN; ZHU, LIYU; WANG, JIAN; JIANG, KUI

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) plays an important role in the genesis of some types of cancer, and it is therefore considered to be an important drug target protein. Although the expression of JARID1B has been researched in some types of cancer, little is known about JARID1B expression in glioma and its function in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of JARID1B in glioma. In addition, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed using glioma tissue samples and the results revealed that JARID1B expression increased according to the histological grade of glioma. However, in the normal brain tissue samples JARID1B expression was barely detected. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that higher JARID1B expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. The overexpression of JARID1B stimulated the proliferation and migration of glioma cells as well as sphere formation, whereas suppressing the expression of JARID1B produced opposite effects. The overexpression of JARID1B increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model of glioma. Moreover, the activation of phosphorylated (p-)Smad2 contributes to JARID1B-induced oncogenic activities. These findings suggest that JARID1B is involved in the pathogenesis of glioma, and that the downregulation of JARID1B in glioma cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with glioma. PMID:27246838

  8. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B overexpression is associated with the development and progression of glioma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Liyu; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Kui

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) plays an important role in the genesis of some types of cancer, and it is therefore considered to be an important drug target protein. Although the expression of JARID1B has been researched in some types of cancer, little is known about JARID1B expression in glioma and its function in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of JARID1B in glioma. In addition, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis were performed using glioma tissue samples and the results revealed that JARID1B expression increased according to the histological grade of glioma. However, in the normal brain tissue samples JARID1B expression was barely detected. Kaplan‑Meier analysis revealed that higher JARID1B expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. The overexpression of JARID1B stimulated the proliferation and migration of glioma cells as well as sphere formation, whereas suppressing the expression of JARID1B produced opposite effects. The overexpression of JARID1B increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model of glioma. Moreover, the activation of phosphorylated (p-)Smad2 contributes to JARID1B-induced oncogenic activities. These findings suggest that JARID1B is involved in the pathogenesis of glioma, and that the downregulation of JARID1B in glioma cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with glioma. PMID:27246838

  9. Changes in subcellular localisation of MI-ER1α, a novel oestrogen receptor-α interacting protein, is associated with breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, P L; Mercer, F C; Savicky, M W J; Carter, B A; Paterno, G D; Gillespie, L L

    2008-01-01

    The oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays a key role in breast development and tumorigenesis and inhibiting its activity remains a prime strategy in the treatment of ERα-positive breast cancers. Thus, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating ERα activity may facilitate the design of new, more effective breast cancer therapies. The MI-ER1α is a novel transcriptional repressor that contains an LXXLL motif for interaction with nuclear hormone receptors. We investigated the ability of MI-ER1α to bind to ERα in HEK293 and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, using co-immunoprecipitation assays. In both cell lines, MI-ER1α interacted with ERα in the presence and absence of oestrogen, but the interaction was stronger in the absence of ligand. Functional analysis revealed that overexpression of MI-ER1α in T47D breast carcinoma cells results in inhibition of oestrogen-stimulated anchorage-independent growth, suggesting that MI-ER1α may play a role in regulating breast carcinoma cell proliferation in vivo. To explore this further, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of normal breast tissue and breast carcinoma; a total of 110 cases were examined in whole tissue sections and 771 cases were analysed in tissue microarrays. No consistent difference in the MI-ER1α expression level between normal breast tissue and breast carcinoma was discernible. However, there was a dramatic shift in the subcellular localisation: nuclear MI-ER1α was detectable in 75% of normal breast samples and in 77% of hyperplasia, but in breast carcinoma, only 51% of DCIS, 25% of ILC and 4% of IDC contained nuclear staining. This shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic localisation of MI-ER1α during breast cancer progression suggests that loss of nuclear MI-ER1α might contribute to the development of invasive breast carcinoma. PMID:18665173

  10. Long Range Interaction Between Protein Complexes in DNA Controls Replication and Cell Cycle Progression:. the Double Helix and Microtubules Behave like Elastically Braced Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsson, L.

    2001-09-01

    A nonstationary interaction model, that controls the gross behaviour of DNA replication and cell cycle progression, is derived in terms of manydody physics in a chemically open T cell. The model predicts a long range force F(φ) = - (κ/2) φ(1 - φ /N)(2 - φ /N) between the origin recognition complexes (ORCs) bound by DNA, φ being the number of ORCs, N the threshold for initiation, and κ the compressibility modulus in the lattice of ORCs which behaves like an elastically braced string. Initiation of DNA replication is induced by a switch of sign of F, from attraction (-) and assembly in the G1 phase (0 < φ < N), to repulsion (+) and partial disassembly in the S phase (N < φ < 2N), with release of licensing factors from pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) and prevention of re-replication. Termination of replication is due to a vanishing of F at φ = 2N, when all primed replicons have been duplicated once, and F(0) = 0 corresponds to a resting cell in absence of a driving force at φ = 0. The switch of sign of F at φ = N also explains the dynamic instability in growing microtubules (MTs), as well as the switch in the interleukin-2 (IL2) interaction with its receptor in late G1, at the R-point, after which a T cell proceeds to replication without further exposure to IL2. Shape, slope and scale of the response curves derived agree well with data from dividing T cells and polymerizing MTs, the variable length of which is due to a nonlinear dependence on initial concentrations of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP) and tubulin dimers.

  11. Mdt1, a Novel Rad53 FHA1 Domain-Interacting Protein, Modulates DNA Damage Tolerance and G2/M Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Brietta L.; Yongkiettrakul, Suganya; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The Rad53 kinase plays a central role in yeast DNA damage checkpoints. Rad53 contains two FHA phosphothreonine-binding domains that are required for Rad53 activation and possibly downstream signaling. Here we show that the N-terminal Rad53 FHA1 domain interacts with the RNA recognition motif, coiled-coil, and SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein Mdt1 (YBl051C). The interaction of Rad53 and Mdt1 depends on the structural integrity of the FHA1 phosphothreonine-binding site as well as threonine-305 of Mdt1. Mdt1 is constitutively threonine phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage in vivo. DNA damage-dependent Mdt1 hyperphosphorylation depends on the Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases, and Mec1 can directly phosphorylate a recombinant Mdt1 SQ/TQ domain fragment. MDT1 overexpression is synthetically lethal with a rad53 deletion, whereas mdt1 deletion partially suppresses the DNA damage hypersensitivity of checkpoint-compromised strains and generally improves DNA damage tolerance. In the absence of DNA damage, mdt1 deletion leads to delayed anaphase completion, with an elongated cell morphology reminiscent of that of G2/M cell cycle mutants. mdt1-dependent and DNA damage-dependent cell cycle delays are not additive, suggesting that they act in the same pathway. The data indicate that Mdt1 is involved in normal G2/M cell cycle progression and is a novel target of checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest pathways. PMID:15024067

  12. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16,2000 - May 13, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyekyoon

    2003-05-14

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction.

  13. Interaction of TWEAK with Fn14 leads to the progression of fibrotic liver disease by directly modulating hepatic stellate cell proliferation‡

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Annika; Shepherd, Emma L; Amatucci, Aldo; Munir, Mamoona; Reynolds, Gary; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Resheq, Yazid; Adams, David H; Hübscher, Stefan; Burkly, Linda C; Weston, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tumour necrosis factor‐like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor‐inducible 14 (Fn14) have been associated with liver regeneration in vivo. To further investigate the role of this pathway we examined their expression in human fibrotic liver disease and the effect of pathway deficiency in a murine model of liver fibrosis. The expression of Fn14 and TWEAK in normal and diseased human and mouse liver tissue and primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were investigated by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the levels of Fn14 in HSCs following pro‐fibrogenic and pro‐inflammatory stimuli were assessed and the effects of exogenous TWEAK on HSCs proliferation and activation were studied in vitro. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute and chronic liver injury in TWEAK KO mice. Elevated expression of both Fn14 and TWEAK were detected in acute and chronic human liver injury, and co‐localized with markers of activated HSCs. Fn14 levels were low in quiescent HSCs but were significantly induced in activated HSCs, which could be further enhanced with the profibrogenic cytokine TGFβ in vitro. Stimulation with recombinant TWEAK induced proliferation but not further HSCs activation. Fn14 gene expression was also significantly up‐regulated in CCl4 models of hepatic injury whereas TWEAK KO mice showed reduced levels of liver fibrosis following chronic CCl4 injury. In conclusion, TWEAK/Fn14 interaction leads to the progression of fibrotic liver disease via direct modulation of HSCs proliferation, making it a potential therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26924336

  14. Progressive Salinization and Chemical Evolution of the Rio Grande (New Mexico) Driven by Interaction of Deep Brine Leakage with Agricultural Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, F. M.; Bastien, E.; Hogan, J. F.; Frisbee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The total dissolved solids content of the Rio Grande increases from 40 mg/L at its headwaters in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado to over 1,000 mg/L at El Paso, Texas, located 1,000 km downstream. Along this path the composition evolves from a Ca-HCO3 dominated water to a Na-(Ca-Mg) SO4-(Cl- HCO3) water. These changes are highly detrimental to use of the water for urban and agricultural purposes, but the causes have not previously been adequately understood. We show that this evolution is driven by the interaction of deep sedimentary brine leakage with geochemical reactions associated with irrigated agriculture processes. All these are modulated by the progression of lithology encountered by the river along its path. The initial water composition in the San Juan Mountains is fixed by classical aluminosilicate incongruent weathering reactions. As the river flows southward it encounters sedimentary basins where Na-Cl-(SO4) brines discharge along faults. Diversion of the water for irrigation and subsequent evapotranspiration concentrate these solutes. Upon entering the vadose zone beneath agricultural fields the waters encounter gypsum, dolomite, and very high pCO2. In this environment, increases in the Ca and HCO3 concentrations are suppressed by dedolomitization, while SO4 increases. After subsequent discharge to agricultural drains, remaining HCO3 is lost by CO2 degassing and additional carbonate minerals are precipitated. The Rio Grande effectively "spirals" through a succession of surface and subsurface pathways that extend over hundreds of kilometers and it is this "geochemical ratchet effect" associated with surface/subsurface exchange that drives the dramatic increase in the salinity of the river.

  15. Interaction of TWEAK with Fn14 leads to the progression of fibrotic liver disease by directly modulating hepatic stellate cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Annika; Shepherd, Emma L; Amatucci, Aldo; Munir, Mamoona; Reynolds, Gary; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Resheq, Yazid; Adams, David H; Hübscher, Stefan; Burkly, Linda C; Weston, Christopher J; Afford, Simon C

    2016-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) have been associated with liver regeneration in vivo. To further investigate the role of this pathway we examined their expression in human fibrotic liver disease and the effect of pathway deficiency in a murine model of liver fibrosis. The expression of Fn14 and TWEAK in normal and diseased human and mouse liver tissue and primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were investigated by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the levels of Fn14 in HSCs following pro-fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli were assessed and the effects of exogenous TWEAK on HSCs proliferation and activation were studied in vitro. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) was used to induce acute and chronic liver injury in TWEAK KO mice. Elevated expression of both Fn14 and TWEAK were detected in acute and chronic human liver injury, and co-localized with markers of activated HSCs. Fn14 levels were low in quiescent HSCs but were significantly induced in activated HSCs, which could be further enhanced with the profibrogenic cytokine TGFβ in vitro. Stimulation with recombinant TWEAK induced proliferation but not further HSCs activation. Fn14 gene expression was also significantly up-regulated in CCl4 models of hepatic injury whereas TWEAK KO mice showed reduced levels of liver fibrosis following chronic CCl4 injury. In conclusion, TWEAK/Fn14 interaction leads to the progression of fibrotic liver disease via direct modulation of HSCs proliferation, making it a potential therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26924336

  16. Interactions between Adipocytes and Breast Cancer Cells Stimulate Cytokine Production and Drive Src/Sox2/miR-302b-Mediated Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Picon-Ruiz, Manuel; Pan, Chendong; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Jang, Kibeom; Besser, Alexandra H; Zhao, Dekuang; Morata-Tarifa, Cynthia; Kim, Minsoon; Ince, Tan A; Azzam, Diana J; Wander, Seth A; Wang, Bin; Ergonul, Burcu; Datar, Ram H; Cote, Richard J; Howard, Guy A; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Torné-Poyatos, Pablo; Marchal, Juan A; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2016-01-15

    Consequences of the obesity epidemic on cancer morbidity and mortality are not fully appreciated. Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers, but the mechanisms by which it contributes to cancer development and patient outcome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of coculturing human-derived adipocytes with established and primary breast cancer cells on tumorigenic potential. We found that the interaction between adipocytes and cancer cells increased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Prolonged culture of cancer cells with adipocytes or cytokines increased the proportion of mammosphere-forming cells and of cells expressing stem-like markers in vitro. Furthermore, contact with immature adipocytes increased the abundance of cancer cells with tumor-forming and metastatic potential in vivo. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that cancer cells cultured with immature adipocytes or cytokines activated Src, thus promoting Sox2, c-Myc, and Nanog upregulation. Moreover, Sox2-dependent induction of miR-302b further stimulated cMYC and SOX2 expression and potentiated the cytokine-induced cancer stem cell-like properties. Finally, we found that Src inhibitors decreased cytokine production after coculture, indicating that Src is not only activated by adipocyte or cytokine exposures, but is also required to sustain cytokine induction. These data support a model in which cancer cell invasion into local fat would establish feed-forward loops to activate Src, maintain proinflammatory cytokine production, and increase tumor-initiating cell abundance and metastatic progression. Collectively, our findings reveal new insights underlying increased breast cancer mortality in obese individuals and provide a novel preclinical rationale to test the efficacy of Src inhibitors for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26744520

  17. Physiopathology of blood platelets: a model system for studies of cell-to-cell interaction. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the studies on basic mechanisms of cellular interactions, utilizing platelets as a model system and, when possible, concentrating on the influence that environmental factors (nutritional, metabolic, cellular, immunologic and others) have on them. The four major sections include: platelet interaction with tumor cells; a model for the study of cell-to-cell interaction; interaction of platelets with vessel walls; and platelet interactions with immune proteins.

  18. A bioinformatics approach reveals novel interactions of the OVOL transcription factors in the regulation of epithelial – mesenchymal cell reprogramming and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) plasticity is critical to cancer progression, and we recently showed that the OVOL transcription factors (TFs) are critical regulators of MET. Results of that work also posed the hypothesis that the OVOLs impact MET in a range of cancers. We now test this hypothesis by developing a model, OVOL Induced MET (OI-MET), and sub-model (OI-MET-TF), to characterize differential gene expression in MET common to prostate cancer (PC) and breast cancer (BC). Results In the OI-MET model, we identified 739 genes differentially expressed in both the PC and BC models. For this gene set, we found significant enrichment of annotation for BC, PC, cancer, and MET, as well as regulation of gene expression by AP1, STAT1, STAT3, and NFKB1. Focusing on the target genes for these four TFs plus the OVOLs, we produced the OI-MET-TF sub-model, which shows even greater enrichment for these annotations, plus significant evidence of cooperation among these five TFs. Based on known gene/drug interactions, we prioritized targets in the OI-MET-TF network for follow-on analysis, emphasizing the clinical relevance of this work. Reflecting these results back to the OI-MET model, we found that binding motifs for the TF pair AP1/MYC are more frequent than expected and that the AP1/MYC pair is significantly enriched in binding in cancer models, relative to non-cancer models, in these promoters. This effect is seen in both MET models (solid tumors) and in non-MET models (leukemia). These results are consistent with our hypothesis that the OVOLs impact cancer susceptibility by regulating MET, and extend the hypothesis to include mechanisms not specific to MET. Conclusions We find significant evidence of the OVOL, AP1, STAT1, STAT3, and NFKB1 TFs having important roles in MET, and more broadly in cancer. We prioritize known gene/drug targets for follow-up in the clinic, and we show that the AP1/MYC TF pair is a strong candidate for intervention. PMID

  19. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights. Part 1: Summary from progress report dated 31 October 1973. Part 2: Progress report for the period November 1973 to June 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexobarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two dose formulations of nitrofurantoin. The mechanism of action and an explanation of the interaction between diphenoxylate and nitrofurantoin still remains unclear. In man, the interaction does not appear to be significant, affecting only two subjects out of six and with only one dose formulation (Furadantin).

  20. Mantle plume-subduction zone interactions over the past 60 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Michael; Wyman, Derek A.

    2015-09-01

    A variety of mantle plume types have been proposed and there is a wide range of ways that these plumes might interact with subduction zone arcs. This study looks at the frequency of interaction between previously catalogued plumes and subduction zones while also assessing the potential role of slab windows to either generate false plume signals or contribute to genuine examples of mantle plume-subduction zone interactions. Of the plumes included in several widely cited catalogues, 29% have moved within 1000 km of a subduction zone and 17% have moved within 500 km of a subduction zone over the past 60 Ma, assuming that the plume life span extended over this period. Of the plumes that moved within 1000 km of a subduction zone, 56% are rated as either a deep or mid-mantle plume by an author of at least one of the catalogues. The 44% of interacting plumes that are not rated as mid-mantle or deep by at least one author are the most likely to be related to "top-down" plate tectonic processes. This study shows that they were never coincident with a slab window, although they have often interacted within distances of 1000 km. The manner of interaction between plumes and slab windows depends on the relative positions of the plume, ridge, and slab window. Of the plumes that interact over a 1000 km circular "Zone of Potential Interaction" (ZPI), 28% are no longer interacting today, but have survived that process. While most plumes interact in the form of a ZPI moving over a trench from either behind or in front of the trench, several plumes do cross the trench, demonstrating that plumes can survive even that interaction. Plume-trench interaction occurs in clusters in the northeast and southwest Pacific with limited events in the northwest and southeast Pacific. The presence of clusters in the northeast and southwest Pacific may be caused by the closer proximity of mid-mantle and deep plumes to a subduction zone in these areas. Whereas some deeper plumes may be modified by

  1. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-12-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  2. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  3. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-09-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  4. Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  5. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-07-05

    This Progress Report describes the experimental work carried out, and the work in progress, at the Cornell EBIS Laboratory during the period 7/1/1991 to 6/30/1992. During this period, a number of experiments were carried out. The absolute values of the total, one, two and three electron transfer cross sections for highly charged argon ions (8{le}q{le}16) colliding with argon at 2.3 qkev laboratory energy were measured. The distribution of recoil ions and molecular fragments formed in highly charged ion atom and molecule collisions was measured in order to help the interpretation of electron spectra in the 40--320 eV energy range emitted in Ar{sup q+}+Ar(8{le}q{le}16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV that were measured in our laboratory. The interpretation of the electron spectra is still under way. A new collision chamber was built which contains an ion decelerating lens system and a high resolution monochromator-analyzer combination. Ions extracted from the Cornell Electron Beam Ion Source were successfully decelerated from 2.3 qkeV down to 30 qeV Preliminary 0{degree} translational energy spectra for Ar{sup l2+} on Ar at a collision energy of 38.6 qeV show a 0.56 qeV resolution. Work is in progress to extend measurements of cross sections and recoil ion charge state distributions down to collision energies in the 10 eV/amu range.

  6. PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG HUMAN CHECKPOINT CONTROL PROTEINS HUS1P, RAD1P AND RAD9P, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe husl promotes radioresistance and hydroxyurea resistance, as well as S and G2 phase checkpoint control.We isolated a human cDNA homologous to husl, called HUSI. The major focus of this report is on a detailed analysis of the physical interactions of the ...

  7. Investigations of the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body systems. Progress report, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, D.R.; Haberzettl, H.; Maximon, L.C.; Parke, W.C.; Bennhold, C.; Ito, Hiroshi; Pratt, R.K.; Najmeddine, M.; Rakei, A.

    1993-07-01

    The emphasis of the nuclear theory group has been on the structure and electromagnetic interactions of few-body nuclei. Both low- and intermediate-energy electromagnetic disintegration of these nuclei is considered, including coherent photoproduction of {pi} mesons. When the excitation energy of the target nucleus is low, the aim is to handle the continuum part of the theoretical work numerically with no approximations, that is, by means of full three- or four-body dynamics. When structure questions are the issue, numerically accurate calculations are always carried through, limited only by the underlying two-body or three-body interactions used as input. A central goal is to carry through state-of-the-art few-body calculations that will serve as a means of determining at what point standard nuclear physics requires introduction of relativity and/or quark degrees of freedom in order to understand the phenomena in question.

  8. SET Careers Program: An interactive science, engineering, and technology career education exhibit. Annual progress report, September 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, P.R.

    1993-03-31

    The New York Hall of Science, in response to the national crisis in education and employment in science and engineering, is developing and pilot testing a unique, interactive, video-based, hypermedia series on energy-related and other science and engineering careers for middle and junior high school students. Working in collaboration with the Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications (COMAP) and the Educational Film Center (EFC), this pilot-demonstration phase will last 14 months, during which time the basic design, production, and testing of eight science and engineering career modules (video and software) will be completed and installed as an interactive educational exhibit at the New York Hall of Science. This career education package will then be distributed to other science technology centers nationwide.

  9. Functional Interactions between BM88/Cend1, Ran-Binding Protein M and Dyrk1B Kinase Affect Cyclin D1 Levels and Cell Cycle Progression/Exit in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsioras, Konstantinos; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Politis, Panagiotis K.; Matsas, Rebecca; Gaitanou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:24312406

  10. An interactive physics-based unmanned ground vehicle simulator leveraging open source gaming technology: progress in the development and application of the virtual autonomous navigation environment (VANE) desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Crawford, Justin; Toschlog, Matthew; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Kewlani, Guarav; Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Horner, David A.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that simulation is pivotal to vehicle development, whether manned or unmanned. There are few dedicated choices, however, for those wishing to perform realistic, end-to-end simulations of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE), under development by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides such capabilities but utilizes a High Performance Computing (HPC) Computational Testbed (CTB) and is not intended for on-line, real-time performance. A product of the VANE HPC research is a real-time desktop simulation application under development by the authors that provides a portal into the HPC environment as well as interaction with wider-scope semi-automated force simulations (e.g. OneSAF). This VANE desktop application, dubbed the Autonomous Navigation Virtual Environment Laboratory (ANVEL), enables analysis and testing of autonomous vehicle dynamics and terrain/obstacle interaction in real-time with the capability to interact within the HPC constructive geo-environmental CTB for high fidelity sensor evaluations. ANVEL leverages rigorous physics-based vehicle and vehicle-terrain interaction models in conjunction with high-quality, multimedia visualization techniques to form an intuitive, accurate engineering tool. The system provides an adaptable and customizable simulation platform that allows developers a controlled, repeatable testbed for advanced simulations. ANVEL leverages several key technologies not common to traditional engineering simulators, including techniques from the commercial video-game industry. These enable ANVEL to run on inexpensive commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, the authors describe key aspects of ANVEL and its development, as well as several initial applications of the system.

  11. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  12. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  13. An exploration of sequence specific DNA-duplex/pyrene interactions for intercalated and surface-associated pyrene species. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, T.L.

    1994-01-07

    The use of both short (5-atom) and long (12-atom) covalent linking chains to attach, respectively, a pyrenesulfonate or a pyrenebutyrate moiety to a central region of a DNA duplex allows construction of DNA-duplex/pyrene assemblies of two types. Long linking chains permit pyrene to intercalate within the DNA duplex, while the short chains constrain pyrene to remain in the outer-surface region of the major-groove of the duplex. Electrochemical data suggest that reductive electron-transfer (ET) quenching of photoexcited pyrene (pyrene*) labels will be most exothermic for guanosine than for the other three DNA nucleosides and that oxidative ET quenching of pyrene* will be most exothermic for thymidine than for the other three DNA nucleosides. The study combines two effects, (1) differential DNA/pyrene geometries in covalent assemblies with different length linking chains and (2) differential ET quenching reactivities among the DNA nucleotides to explore sequence specific and duplex/pyrene association specific effects on DNA-base ionization reactions. This report describes progress in synthesizing target pyrene-labeled nucleosides and oligonucleotides, in commissioning our fluorescence lifetime measurement system, and in the photochemical behavior of pyrene-labeled nucleosides, single strands of DNA, and duplexes of DNA.

  14. An investigation of catalytic active phase-support interactions by IR, NMR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies. Progress report, January 15, 1991--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support can affect percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Solid state {sup 29}Si NMR was used to obtain a new correlation between partial charge on the Si which comprises a part of the SiOHAl Br{o}nsted acid structure in amorphous silica-aluminas. We also describe two potential improvements in solid state NMR applied to catalysts and catalysts supports. One is experimental, dynamic angle spinning NMR, a new technique for obtaining high resolution spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, e.g., {sup 27}Al. The second approach is an alternative to the standard fast Fourier transform of the free induction decay to convert from the time to spectral domain, the maximum entropy method. Effect of different methods of preparation of Pd/L-zeolites is described. By comparison to analogous Pt systems, it is the inherent chemistry of the L-zeolite which results in better dispersion when impregnation preparation is used relative to ion exchange preparation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to compare the effect of support (SiO{sub 2} and L-zeolite) on the degree and kind of Pt-Ni interaction. When supported in L-zeolite and promoted with Ni, Pt has improved stability both with regard to self-poisoning and sulfur catalyzed agglomeration.

  15. Bulged residues promote the progression of a loop–loop interaction to a stable and inhibitory antisense–target RNA complex

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Fabrice A.; Westhof, Eric; Ehresmann, Chantal; Ehresmann, Bernard; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Romby, Pascale

    2001-01-01

    In several groups of bacterial plasmids, antisense RNAs regulate copy number through inhibition of replication initiator protein synthesis. These RNAs are characterized by a long hairpin structure interrupted by several unpaired residues or bulged loops. In plasmid R1, the inhibitory complex between the antisense RNA (CopA) and its target mRNA (CopT) is characterized by a four-way junction structure and a side-by-side helical alignment. This topology facilitates the formation of a stabilizer intermolecular helix between distal regions of both RNAs, essential for in vivo control. The bulged residues in CopA/CopT were shown to be required for high in vitro binding rate and in vivo activity. This study addresses the question of why removal of bulged nucleotides blocks stable complex formation. Structure mapping, modification interference, and molecular modeling of bulged-less mutant CopA–CopT complexes suggests that, subsequent to loop–loop contact, helix propagation is prevented. Instead, a fully base paired loop–loop interaction is formed, inducing a continuous stacking of three helices. Consequently, the stabilizer helix cannot be formed, and stable complex formation is blocked. In contrast to the four-way junction topology, the loop–loop interaction alone failed to prevent ribosome binding at its loading site and, thus, inhibition of RepA translation was alleviated. PMID:11470871

  16. Experimental studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei and of pion- and proton-nucleus interactions. Progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out by New Mexico State University from April 1, 1994, through March 31, 1996 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. During this period we began phasing out our programs of study of pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction and of nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions, which have been our major focus of the past two or three years. At the same time we continued moving in a new direction of research on studies of the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. The pion and nucleon work has been aimed at improving our understanding of the nature of pion and proton interactions in the nuclear medium and of various aspects of nuclear structure. The studies of the quark-gluon structure of nucleons are aimed at clarifying such problems as the nature of the quark sea and the relation of the nucleon spin to the spins of the quarks within the nucleon, questions which are of a very fundamental nature.

  17. Interaction with CCNH/CDK7 facilitates CtBP2 promoting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) metastasis via upregulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhu, Junya; Yang, Lei; Guan, Chengqi; Ni, Runzhou; Wang, Yuchan; Ji, Lili; Tian, Ye

    2015-09-01

    CtBP2, as a transcriptional corepressor of epithelial-specific genes, has been reported to promote tumor due to upregulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. CtBP2 was also demonstrated to contribute to the proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells through a negative transcriptional regulation of p16(INK4A). In this study, for the first time, we reported that CtBP2 expression, along with CCNH/CDK7, was higher in ESCC tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without lymph node metastases. Moreover, both CtBP2 and CCNH/CDK7 were positively correlated with E-cadherin, tumor grade, and tumor metastasis. However, the concrete mechanism of CtBP2's role in enhancing ESCC migration remains incompletely understood. We confirmed that CCNH/CDK7 could directly interact with CtBP2 in ESCC cells in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, our data demonstrate for the first time that CtBP2 enhanced the migration of ESCC cells in a CCNH/CDK7-dependent manner. Our results indicated that CCNH/CDK7-CtBP2 axis may augment ESCC cell migration, and targeting the interaction of both may provide a novel therapeutic target of ESCC. PMID:25820824

  18. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, ``limiting fragmentation`` applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  19. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Richard C.; Dautel, Martina; Di Genova, Bruno M.; Amberg, David C.; Castilho, Beatriz A.; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle. PMID:26176233

  20. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Silva, Richard C; Dautel, Martina; Di Genova, Bruno M; Amberg, David C; Castilho, Beatriz A; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle. PMID:26176233

  1. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, August 15, 1990--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1993-01-29

    This final progress report summarizes the work carried out during the 29 month period from August 15, 1990 to February 15, 1993 under grant DE-FG02-86ER13519. The following experiments were done. We measured the absolute total and one- and two- electron transfer cross sections for Ar{sup q+} (8{le} q {le} 16) on He and H{sub 2} at 2.3 qkeV, the angular distributions of the scattered projectiles in Ar{sup 8+,9+} collisions, with Ar and Kr at 2.3 qkeV, the electron emissions in low energy Ar{sup q+} on Ar collisions, the recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Ar{sup q+} -Ar collisions, the absolute total and one-and two-electron transfer cross sections for Ar{sup 8+} on Ar at 2.3 qkeV, and the absolute total and one- and two-electron transfer cross sections for Ar{sup 8+} on Ar as a function of energy. We also used energy gain spectroscopy to study Ar{sup q+} on Ar collisions at 40 and 30 qeV, and time of flight spectroscopy to investigate ionization and dissociation of CO and N{sub 2} in collisions with low energy, highly charged argon ions. In addition, we applied the Goldberger and Watson transition theory to derive transition rates and cross sections for atomic radiative and/or non radiative processes, wrote a computer code TRANSIT which can calculate energies, wave functions and radiative and non radiative rates for atoms and ions. The code is highly modular and can easily be modified to calculate higher order processes. Finally, we have done an Ab-Initio molecular orbital electronic energy level calculation for the (ArAr){sup 8+} system as a function internuclear separation.

  2. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-30

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991-94 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. Most of these studies involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, at Indiana University (IUCF), and at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, as collaborative efforts among several laboratories and universities. We have also worked on plans and preparations for new experiments involving studies of the quark structure of nucleons and nuclei, which would be carried out at Fermilab (FNAL), near Chicago, and at the HERA facility at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany. The NMSU personnel included two faculty members, five postdoctoral research associates, nine graduate students, and one undergraduate student.

  3. Extensive genetic interactions between PRP8 and PRP17/CDC40, two yeast genes involved in pre-mRNA splicing and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yehuda, S; Russell, C S; Dix, I; Beggs, J D; Kupiec, M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic experiments have shown that the PRP17 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that plays a role during the second catalytic step of the splicing reaction. It was found recently that PRP17 is identical to the cell division cycle CDC40 gene. cdc40 mutants arrest at the restrictive temperature after the completion of DNA replication. Although the PRP17/CDC40 gene product is essential only at elevated temperatures, splicing intermediates accumulate in prp17 mutants even at the permissive temperature. In this report we describe extensive genetic interactions between PRP17/CDC40 and the PRP8 gene. PRP8 encodes a highly conserved U5 snRNP protein required for spliceosome assembly and for both catalytic steps of the splicing reaction. We show that mutations in the PRP8 gene are able to suppress the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and the splicing defect conferred by the absence of the Prp17 protein. In addition, these mutations are capable of suppressing certain alterations in the conserved PyAG trinucleotide at the 3' splice junction, as detected by an ACT1-CUP1 splicing reporter system. Moreover, other PRP8 alleles exhibit synthetic lethality with the absence of Prp17p and show a reduced ability to splice an intron bearing an altered 3' splice junction. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for the mode of interaction between the Prp8 and Prp17 proteins during the second catalytic step of the splicing reaction. PMID:10628969

  4. Blocking Abeta42 accumulation delays the onset and progression of tau pathology via the C terminus of heat shock protein70-interacting protein: a mechanistic link between Abeta and tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Tseng, Bert; Cheng, David; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David H; LaFerla, Frank M

    2008-11-19

    The molecular alterations that induce tau pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) are not known, particularly whether this is an amyloid-beta (Abeta)-dependent or -independent event. We addressed this issue in the 3xTg-AD mice using both genetic and immunological approaches and show that a selective decrease in Abeta(42) markedly delays the progression of tau pathology. The mechanism underlying this effect involves alterations in the levels of C terminus of heat shock protein70-interacting protein (CHIP) as we show that Abeta accumulation decreases CHIP expression and increases tau levels. We show that the Abeta-induced effects on tau were rescued by restoring CHIP levels. Our findings have profound clinical implications as they indicate that preventing Abeta accumulation will significantly alter AD progression. These data highlight the critical role CHIP plays as a link between Abeta and tau and identify CHIP as a new potential target not only for AD but for other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by tau accumulation. PMID:19020010

  5. Progress in Development of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Diagnostic of Runaway Electron Beam-Plasma Interaction and Disruption Mitigation Study for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.

  6. Expression of RIZ1 protein (Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) in prostate cancer epithelial cells changes with cancer grade progression and is modulated in vitro by DHT and E2.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Valentina; Staibano, Stefania; Abbondanza, Ciro; Pasquali, Daniela; De Rosa, Caterina; Mascolo, Massimo; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Visconti, Daniela; De Bellis, Annamaria; Moncharmont, Bruno; De Rosa, Gaetano; Puca, Giovanni Alfredo; Bellastella, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear protein methyl-transferase Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1 (RIZ1) is considered to be a downstream effector of estrogen action in target tissues. Silencing of RIZ1 expression is common in many tumors. We analyzed RIZ1 expression in normal and malignant prostate tissue and evaluated whether estradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment modulated RIZ1 in cultured prostate epithelial cells (PEC). Moreover, we studied the possible involvement of RIZ1 in estrogen action on the EPN prostate cell line, constitutively expressing both estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and beta. RIZ1 protein, found in the nucleus of normal PECs by immunohistochemistry, was progressively lost in cancer tissues as the Gleason score increased and was only detected in the cytoplasmic compartment. RIZ1 transcript levels, as assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in primary PEC cultures, were significantly reduced in cancer cells (P < 0.05). In EPN DHT treatment significantly increased RIZ1 transcript and protein levels (P < 0.05); E2 induced a reduction of S phase without significant changes of RIZ1 expression. In E2-treated EPN cell extracts RIZ co-immunoprecipitated with ERbeta and ERalpha. Our data demonstrate that RIZ1 is expressed in normal PECs and down-regulated in cancer cells, with a switch of its sub-cellular localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon cancer grade progression. RIZ1 expression levels in the PECs were modulated by DHT or E2 treatment in vitro. Furthermore, the E2 effects on ER-expressing prostate cells involve RIZ1, which confirms a possible role for ER-mediated pathways in a non-classic E(2)-target tissue. PMID:19746436

  7. Progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to cervical cancer: interactions of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 EM and glutathione s-transferase GSTM1 null genotypes and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, A. P.; Redman, C. W.; Jones, P. W.; Fryer, A. A.; Gilford, J.; Alldersea, J.; Strange, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The factors that determine progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unknown. Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical neoplasia, suggesting that polymorphism at detoxicating enzyme loci such as cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 may determine susceptibility to these cancers. We have studied the frequencies of genotypes at these loci in women suffering low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and SCC. A non-cancer control group was provided by women with normal cervical histology suffering menorrhagia. Comparison of the frequency distributions of the CYP2D6 PM, HET and EM genotypes (G-->A transition at intron 3/exon 4 and base pair deletion in exon 5) revealed no significant differences between the menorrhagia and SCC groups. Frequency distributions in the menorrhagia group, however, were significantly different (P < 0.04) from those in the low- and high-grade CIN groups. Thus, the proportion of EM was significantly larger (P < 0.03) and of HET generally lower. We found that the frequency of GSTM1 null in the menorrhagia and case groups was not significantly different. Interactive effects of enzyme genotypes with cigarette smoking were studied by comparing the multinomial frequency distributions of CYP2D6 EM/GSTM1 null/smoking over mutually exclusive categories. These showed no significant differences between the menorrhagia group and SCC or low-grade CIN groups. The frequency distribution in high-grade CIN, however, was significantly different to that in the menorrhagia group and in both SCC and low-grade CIN groups. This study was identified, for the first time, an inherited characteristic in women with high-grade CIN who appear to be at reduced risk of SCC. Thus, women with CYP2D6 EM who smoke have increased susceptibility to high-grade CIN but are less likely to progress to SCC, possibly because they effectively detoxify an unidentified chemical involved in mediating disease

  8. Immunosuppression by Co-stimulatory Molecules: Inhibition of CD2-CD48/CD58 Interaction by Peptides from CD2 to Suppress Progression of Collagen-induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Ameya; Kanthala, Shanthi; Latendresse, John; Taneja, Veena; Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama

    2013-01-01

    Targeting co-stimulatory molecules to modulate the immune response has been shown to have useful therapeutic effects for autoimmune diseases. Among the co-stimulatory molecules, CD2 and CD58 are very important in the early stages of generation of an immune response. Our goal was to utilize CD2-derived peptides to modulate protein-protein interactions between CD2 and CD58, thereby modulating the immune response. Several peptides were designed based on the structure of the CD58 binding domain of CD2 protein. Among the CD2-derived peptides, peptide 6 from the F and C β-strand region of CD2 protein exhibited inhibition of cell-cell adhesion in the nanomolar concentration range. Peptide 6 was evaluated for its ability to bind to CD58 in Caco-2 cells and to CD48 in T cells from rodents. A molecular model was proposed for binding a peptide to CD58 and CD48 using docking studies. Furthermore, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic ability of the peptide to modulate the immune response in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. In vivo studies indicated that peptide 6 was able to suppress the progression of CIA. Evaluation of the antigenicity of peptides in CIA and transgenic animal models indicated that this peptide is not immunogenic. PMID:23530775

  9. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  10. Progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abhiraman, A.; Collard, D.; Cardelino, B.; Bhatia, S.; Desai, P.; Harruna, I.; Khan, I.; Mariam, Y.; Mensah, T.; Mitchell, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA funding allowed Clark Atlanta University (CAU) to establish a High Performance Polymers And Ceramics (HiPPAC) Research Center. The HiPPAC Center is consolidating and expanding the existing polymer and ceramic research capabilities at CAU through the development of interdepartmental and interinstitutional research in: (1) polymer synthesis; (2) polymer characterization and properties; (3) polymer processing; (4) polymer-based ceramic synthesis; and (5) ceramic characterization and properties. This Center has developed strong interactions between scientists and materials scientists of CAU and their counterparts from sister institutions in the Atlanta University Center (AUC) and the Georgia Institute of Technology. As a component of the center, we have started to develop strong collaborations with scientists from other universities and the HBCU's, national and federal agency laboratories, and the private sector during this first year. During this first year we have refined the focus of the research in the HiPPAC Center to three areas with seven working groups that will start programmatic activities on January 1, 1993, as follows: (1) nonlinear optical properties of chitosan derivatives; (2) polymeric electronic materials; (3) nondestructive characterization and prediction of polyimide performance; (4) solution processing of high-performance materials; (5) processable polyimides for composite applications; (6) sol-gel based ceramic materials processing; and (7) synthetic based processing of pre-ceramic polymers.

  11. Why neurodegenerative diseases are progressive: uncontrolled inflammation drives disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS. Substantial evidence has documented a common inflammatory mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that in the diseased CNS, interactions between damaged neurons and dysregulated, overactivated microglia create a vicious self-propagating cycle causing uncontrolled, prolonged inflammation that drives the chronic progression of neurodegenerative diseases. We further propose that dynamic modulation of this inflammatory reaction by interrupting the vicious cycle might become a disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18599350

  12. Recent progress in tidal modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vial, F.; Forbes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent contributions to tidal theory during the last five years are reviewed. Specific areas where recent progress has occurred include: the action of mean wind and dissipation on tides, interactions of other waves with tides, the use of TGCM in tidal studies. Furthermore, attention is put on the nonlinear interaction between semidiurnal and diurnal tides. Finally, more realistic thermal excitation and background wind and temperature models have been developed in the past few years. This has led to new month-to-month numerical simulations of the semidiurnal tide. Some results using these models are presented and compared with ATMAP tidal climatologies.

  13. Progressive supranuclear palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Dementia-nuchal dystonia; Richardson-Steele-Olszewski syndrome; Palsy - progressive supranuclear ... Progressive supranuclear palsy is a condition that causes symptoms similar to those of Parkinson disease . It involves damage to many cells ...

  14. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  15. Secondary Student Progress Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    The Secondary Student Progress Plan aims to provide uniform educational expectations for successful course completion and progress toward graduation beginning with grade 7 in school year 1984-85. Arranged in outline form, the plan shows the course of study for grades 7-12, guidelines for evaluating and reporting student progress, promotion…

  16. Reconstructing Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  17. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  18. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  19. Environmental and radiological-safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  20. A new X-ray-transparent flow-through reaction cell for a μ-CT-based concomitant surveillance of the reaction progress of hydrothermal mineral-fluid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Hansen, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    A new flow-through reaction cell consisting of an X-ray-transparent semicrystalline thermoplastic has been developed for percolation experiments. Core holder, tubing and all confining parts are constructed using PEEK (polyetheretherketone) to allow concomitant surveillance of the reaction progress by X-ray microtomography (μ-CT). With this cell setup, corrosive or oversaturated fluids can be forced through rock cores (up to ∅ 19 mm) or powders at pressures up to 100 bar and temperatures up to 200 °C. The reaction progress of the experiment can be monitored without dismantling the sample from the core holder. The combination of this flow-through reaction cell setup with a laboratory X-ray μ-CT system facilitates on-demand monitoring of the reaction progress of (long-term) hydrothermal experiments in the own laboratory, keeping interruption times as short as possible. To demonstrate both the suitability of the cell construction material for X-ray imaging purposes and the experimental performance of the flow-through system, we report the virtually non-existent bias of the PEEK cell setup with distinctive X-ray observations (e.g., differing states of pore fillings: air vs. fluid; detection of delicate fabric elements: filigree zeolite crystals overgrowing weathered muscovite), and the monitoring of the gypsum/anhydrite transition as a case study of a 4-D fabric evolution.

  1. Progressive Visual Analytics: User-Driven Visual Exploration of In-Progress Analytics.

    PubMed

    Stolper, Charles D; Perer, Adam; Gotz, David

    2014-12-01

    As datasets grow and analytic algorithms become more complex, the typical workflow of analysts launching an analytic, waiting for it to complete, inspecting the results, and then re-Iaunching the computation with adjusted parameters is not realistic for many real-world tasks. This paper presents an alternative workflow, progressive visual analytics, which enables an analyst to inspect partial results of an algorithm as they become available and interact with the algorithm to prioritize subspaces of interest. Progressive visual analytics depends on adapting analytical algorithms to produce meaningful partial results and enable analyst intervention without sacrificing computational speed. The paradigm also depends on adapting information visualization techniques to incorporate the constantly refining results without overwhelming analysts and provide interactions to support an analyst directing the analytic. The contributions of this paper include: a description of the progressive visual analytics paradigm; design goals for both the algorithms and visualizations in progressive visual analytics systems; an example progressive visual analytics system (Progressive Insights) for analyzing common patterns in a collection of event sequences; and an evaluation of Progressive Insights and the progressive visual analytics paradigm by clinical researchers analyzing electronic medical records. PMID:26356879

  2. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  3. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  4. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  5. On disciplinary fragmentation and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called "schools of thought". We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model's implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  6. Progression in prediagnostic Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Jason; Blekher, Tanya; Jackson, Jacqueline; Beristain, Xabier; Marshall, Jeanine; Hui, Siu; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Foroud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine rates of decline in individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD). Methods 106 individuals at risk for HD completed a battery of neurocognitive, psychomotor and oculomotor tasks at two visits, approximately 2.5 years apart. Participants were classified as: (1) without the CAG expansion (normal controls, NC; n=68) or (2) with the CAG expansion (CAG+; n=38). The CAG+ group was further subdivided into those near to (near; n=19) or far from (far; n=19) their estimated age of onset. Longitudinal performance in the CAG+ group was evaluated with a repeated measures model with two main effects (time to onset, visit) and their interaction. Analysis of covariance was employed to detect differences in longitudinal performance in the three groups (NC, near and far). Results In the CAG+, the interaction term was significant (p≤0.02) for four measures (movement time, alternate button tapping, variability of latency for a memory guided task and percentage of errors for a more complex memory guided task), suggesting the rate of decline was more rapid as subjects approached onset. Longitudinal progression in the three groups differed for several variables (p<0.05). In most, the near group had significantly faster progression than NC; however, comparisons of the NC and far groups were less consistent. Conclusions Different patterns of progression were observed during the prediagnostic period. For some measures, CAG+ subjects closer to estimated onset showed a more rapid decline while for other measures the CAG+ group had a constant rate of decline throughout the prediagnostic period that was more rapid than in NC. PMID:19726414

  7. Progression in Measuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study by British researchers that attempted to describe progression in learning in terms of a common framework for all students. Elementary school students completed periodic interviews while being taught measurement skills. Results found a wide spread of attainment in measurement in each age range but less clear progression between…

  8. THE CANCER PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cancer Progress Report 2001 is about our Nation's progress against cancer. The information was gathered through a collaborative effort with other key agencies and groups, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society. Data on this site...

  9. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  10. The Science of Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, William A.; Stasko, John T.; Chang, Remco; O'Connell, Theresa

    2009-09-23

    There is a growing recognition with the visual analytics community that interaction and inquiry are inextricable. It is through the interactive manipulation of a visual interface – the analytic discourse – that knowledge is constructed, tested, refined, and shared. This paper reflects on the interaction challenges raised in the original visual analytics research and development agenda and further explores the relationship between interaction and cognition. It identifies recent exemplars of visual analytics research that have made substantive progress toward the goals of a true science of interaction, which must include theories and testable premises about the most appropriate mechanisms for human-information interaction. Six areas for further work are highlighted as those among the highest priorities for the next five years of visual analytics research: ubiquitous, embodied interaction; capturing user intentionality; knowledge-based interfaces; principles of design and perception; collaboration; and interoperability. Ultimately, the goal of a science of interaction is to support the visual analytics community through the recognition and implementation of best practices in the representation of and interaction with visual displays.

  11. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  12. Oxygen isotope record of fluid-rock-SiO 2 interaction during Variscan progressive deformation and quartz veining in the meta-volcanosediments of Belle-Ile (Southern Brittany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Audren, Claude; Triboulet, Claude

    2002-08-01

    Belle-Ile in the South Armorican Domain is composed of Palaeozoic volcano-detrital sequences with sericite phyllites and porphyroids. Fine-banded and folded meta-tuffites, microquartzites and graphitic quartzites occur in the basal part at Plage de Bordardoué. Phengite compositions constrain that Variscan metamorphism did not exceed 430 °C/4.5 kbar. Four generations (1-4) of centimeter-thick quartz veins were precipitated during Variscan progressive deformation and recorded changing fluid compositions. Values of 26‰ δ18O SMOW in vein 1 quartz exceed high δ18O SMOW in the host rocks. Decrease of quartz δ18O SMOW from margins to centers can be observed from the syntaxial veins. Younger veins 4 have lower δ18O. Their inclusions indicate lower salinities and traces of CH 4 in the fluid when compared with veins 1. Veins 1 were overprinted by shearing and fissuring. Subgrain rotation recrystallization occurred along briquette structures and subgrain boundaries. The initial isotope values have been preserved. Larger domains with small-grained quartz can be identified by lower values of δ18O. Homogeneous isotopic compositions are found in hinges of folded veins 2 with grain boundary migration recrystallization. The small-scale oxygen isotope variations and the changing fluid compositions point to a locally hosted fluid system with a limited contribution of meteoric water during multiphase deformation and vein formation.

  13. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one. PMID:23294232

  14. Orion Progress - Spring 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and contractor teams are designing, building and testing the next generation human spacecraft Orion. Progress on Orion is highlighted by employees working on the project, along with video of t...

  15. Progress for the Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  16. CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in Progress Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter which highlights regulatory and program activities of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Regular features and news items include the existing chemicals program, new chemicals program, pollution prevention activi...

  17. Characterization of calculation of in-situ retardation factors of contaminant transport using naturally-radionuclides and rock/water interaction occurring U-Series disequilibria timescales. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roback, R.; Murrel, M.; Goldstein, S.; Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.

    1997-01-01

    'The research is directed toward a quantitative assessment of contaminant transport rates in fracture-rock systems using uranium-series radionuclides. Naturally occurring uranium-and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria will provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved characterization of preferential flow and contaminant transport at the Idaho Environmental and Engineering Lab. (INEEL) site. To a lesser extent, the study will include rocks in the unsaturated zone. The authors will produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration under unsaturated and saturated field conditions at the INEEL site, taking into account the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in rock minerals. sorbed phases on the rocks, and in fluids from both saturated and unsaturated zones at the site, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis-based model for the Geologic heterogeneity plays an important role in transporting contaminants in fractured rocks. Preferential flow paths in the fractured rocks act as a major pathway for transport of radioactive contaminants in groundwaters. The weathering/dissolution of rock by groundwater also influences contaminant mobility. Thus, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. In this regard, quantification of the rock weathering/dissolution rate and fluid residence time from the observed decay-series disequilibria will be valuable. By mapping the spatial distribution of the residence time of groundwater in fractured rocks, the subsurface preferential flow paths (with high rock permeability and short fluid residence

  18. Artemisinin blocks prostate cancer growth and cell cycle progression by disrupting Sp1 interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) promoter and inhibiting CDK4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jamin A; Sundar, Shyam N; Cheung, Mark; Tin, Antony S; Modiano, Jaime; Firestone, Gary L

    2009-01-23

    Artemisinin, a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, is a potent anti-malaria compound that has recently been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on a number of human cancer cell types, although little is know about the molecular mechanisms of this response. We have observed that artemisinin treatment triggers a stringent G1 cell cycle arrest of LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) human prostate cancer cells that is accompanied by a rapid down-regulation of CDK2 and CDK4 protein and transcript levels. Transient transfection with promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that artemisinin strongly inhibits CDK2 and CDK4 promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the CDK4 promoter revealed a 231-bp artemisinin-responsive region between -1737 and -1506. Site-specific mutations revealed that the Sp1 site at -1531 was necessary for artemisinin responsiveness in the context of the CDK4 promoter. DNA binding assays as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this Sp1-binding site in the CDK4 promoter forms a specific artemisinin-responsive DNA-protein complex that contains the Sp1 transcription factor. Artemisinin reduced phosphorylation of Sp1, and when dephosphorylation of Sp1 was inhibited by treatment of cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, the ability of artemisinin to down-regulate Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter was ablated, rendering the CDK4 promoter unresponsive to artemisinin. Finally, overexpression of Sp1 mostly reversed the artemisinin down-regulation of CDK4 promoter activity and partially reversed the cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells is the transcriptional down-regulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:19017637

  19. LIFE: Recent Developments and Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T M

    2011-04-08

    Test results from the NIF show excellent progress toward achieving ignition. Experiments designed to verify coupling of the laser energy to the fusion target have shown that the efficiency meets that needed for ignition. Several tests with the cryogenic targets needed for ignition have been performed, and world-record neutron output produced. The National Ignition Campaign is on schedule to meet its 2012 ignition milestone, with the next phase in the campaign due to start later this month. It has been a busy and very productive year. The NIF is in full 24/7 operations and has progressed markedly in the path toward ignition. The long-standing goal of the National Ignition Campaign to demonstrate ignition by the end of FY 2012 is on track. The LIFE plant design has matured considerably, and a delivery plan established based on close interactions with vendors. National-level reviews of fusion are underway, and are due to present initial findings later this year. A value proposition has been drafted for review. The LIFE project is ready to move into the delivery phase.

  20. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction. Technical status progress report, October 1, 1991--March 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  1. Progressive cone dystrophies.

    PubMed

    François, J; De Rouck, A; De Laey, J J

    1976-01-01

    Patients with progressive generalized cone dystrophy often present nystagmus (or strabism) and complain of photophobia, decrease in visual acuity or disturbances in colour perception. The most classic fundus abnormality is the bull's eye maculopathy or a pallor of the optic disc. Minimal macular changes are sometimes seen, which may progress to a bull's eye type of macular degeneration. The photopic ERG is always very affected, whereas at first the scotopic ERG seems normal. Progressive deterioration of the visual functions is accompanied by increasing fundus lesions and rod involvement, as suggested by the modifications of the dark adaptation curve and the scotopic ERG. However, the progression of typical generalized cone dysfunction is very slow. On the contrary, in some cases of so-called Stargardt's disease with peripheral participation, a very rapid progression has been observed. In such cases a normal ERG does not necessarily mean that the disease will remain localized to the macular area. No definite prognosis can be made on one single ERG. In 3 cases with sector pigmentary retinopathy the photopic ERG was more affected than the scotopic ERG. However, these cases are probably primary cone-rod dystrophies. Although there is no electrophysiological control, our clinical impression is that the evolution, if possible, is very slow. PMID:1066593

  2. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  3. Progressive supranuclear palsy: progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Weigand, Stephen D; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Hassan, Anhar; Eggers, Scott D; Höglinger, Günter U; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by postural instability and falls, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with poor levodopa response, pseudobulbar palsy, and frontal release signs. The natural history of the disease has been previously described. However, the time frame of appearance of clinical milestones and how these symptoms may relate to survival in PSP are unknown. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different stages of PSP and to estimate the time of appearance of clinical symptoms characteristic of the disease. Second, we determined the association between clinical symptoms and survival. We prospectively studied 35 PSP patients during assessments scheduled every 6 months for up to 2 years. We estimated symptoms prevalence and the association between symptoms and survival. The median age of onset was 65.9 years (IQR 60.6-70.0), and the median time from onset to first assessment was 3.0 years (IQR 2.4-3.9). The most commonly reported symptoms at baseline were: motor (100%) followed by cognitive/behavioral (89%), systemic and bulbar (80%), and sleep disturbances (60%). Slowness of movement, falls, neck stiffness and difficulty looking up/down had high prevalence from baseline, while balance and gait impairment were less common at baseline but increased in prevalence over time. The presence of sleep disturbances, and possibly hallucinations, was associated with increased death risk. Improved recognition of the clinical spectrum and milestones of PSP advances knowledge of the disease, helps earlier diagnosis, and allows prognostic predictions. PMID:26705121

  4. Powerful Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombro, Amy Laura; Jablon, Judy R.; Stetson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Interactions are the daily exchanges in words and gestures one has with others. As a teacher, the interactions he/she has with young children can make a positive difference in their lives. A teacher's powerful interactions with children play an important role in their emotional well-being and learning. Powerful interactions are not the same as…

  5. Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Collin; Manousakis, Georgios; Lee, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), marked by progressive bilateral ptosis and diffuse reduction in ocular motility, represents a finding of mitochondrial myopathy rather than a true diagnosis. PEO often occurs with other systemic features of mitochondrial dysfunction that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate and early recognition of PEO is paramount for the optimal care of these patients. We present an evidence-based review of the presenting neuro-ophthalmic features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic tools, systemic implications, and treatment options for isolated PEO and other PEO-associated mitochondrial syndromes. PMID:27072953

  6. [Progressive hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  7. Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2015-06-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) comprise a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders defined by the combination of action myoclonus, epileptic seizures, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Neurologic deterioration may include progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. The gene defects for the most common forms of PME (Unverricht-Lundborg disease, Lafora disease, several forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers [MERRF], and type 1 and 2 sialidoses) have been identified. The prognosis of a PME depends on the specific disease. Lafora disease, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, and the neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease have an invariably fatal course. In contrast, Unverricht-Lundborg disease has a much slower progression, and with adequate care many patients have a normal life span. The specific diseases that cause PME are diagnosed by recognition of their age of onset, the associated clinical symptoms, the clinical course, the pattern of inheritance, and by special investigations such as enzyme measurement, skin/muscle biopsy, or gene testing. PMID:26060909

  8. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  9. Mystery in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1989-01-01

    Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

  10. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  11. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  12. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  13. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  14. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date.

  15. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  16. Progressive compressive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a review of progress in the DOE sponsored, Sandia managed Photovoltaic Concentrator Research Project. Research status, project goals and a discussion of concentrator economics is presented. Recent research accomplishments that will be discussed include 21% efficient baseline silicon cells by Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Sandia, 26% efficient GaAs cells by Varian Associates, and near 25% mechanically stacked multijunction GaAs/Si cells by Hughes Research, Applied Solar, and Sandia. In addition, improvements in breadboard module units (i.e. single lens/cell combination) such as a 19% GaAs unit by Varian and a near 17% silicon unit by ENTECH will be reviewed. This paper concludes that the photovoltaic concentrator option is making excellent progress toward competitive cost-effectiveness and provides a strong photovoltaic alternative.

  18. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  19. Progress In Holographic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, P.; Fagot, H.; Albe, F.

    1986-06-01

    Two important progresses were achieved for the first time: 1) recording of single exposure cineholograms of living bodies on a 126-mm film, at a frequency of 25 holograms per second. Limitations of 3-D movies by holography are described. 2) recording of double-exposure cineholograms of reflecting objects, a loudspeaker membrane and the vertex cranii of a bald-headed man. These experiments show the interest of interferometric cineholography for industrial applications.

  20. ISABELLE: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  1. Progression of myopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, R H

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myopia is an important public health problem because it is common and is associated with increased risk for chorioretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and other vision-threatening abnormalities. In animals, ocular elongation and myopia progression can be lessened with atropine treatment. This study provides information about progression of myopia and atropine therapy for myopia in humans. METHODS: A total of 214 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (118 girls and 96 boys; median age, 11 years; range, 6 to 15 years) received atropine for myopia from 1967 through 1974. Control subjects were matched by age, sex, refractive error, and date of baseline examination to 194 of those receiving atropine. Duration of treatment with atropine ranged from 18 weeks to 11.5 years (median 3.5 years). RESULTS: Median follow-up from initial to last refraction in the atropine group (11.7 years) was similar to that in the control group (12.4 years). Photophobia and blurred vision were frequently reported, but no serious adverse effects were associated with atropine therapy. Mean myopia progression during atropine treatment adjusted for age and refractive error (0.05 diopters per year) was significantly less than that among control subjects (0.36 diopters per year) (P < .001). Final refractions standardized to the age of 20 years showed a greater mean level of myopia in the control group (3.78 diopters) than in the atropine group (2.79 diopters) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The data support the view that atropine therapy is associated with decreased progression of myopia and that beneficial effects remain after treatment has been discontinued. PMID:8719698

  2. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  3. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole–dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  4. SIF Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentman, Celeste

    2001-01-01

    Examines the Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF), an innovation designed to make software programs interact and share information in order to reduce data entry redundancy in school administration. Several examples of SIF's use are illustrated. (GR)

  5. Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MS? Types of MS Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this article Overview PPMS is characterized by worsening neurologic function ( ...

  6. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkov, Vl.; Jacquet, Ph.; Ochoukov, R.; Zhang, W.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Colas, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Křivská, A.; Lunt, T.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Meyer, O.; Monakhov, I.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th.; Stepanov, I.

    2015-12-01

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene - FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  7. Progress in controlling ICRF-edge interactions in ASDEX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, Vl. Ochoukov, R.; Bilato, R.; Braun, F.; Carralero, D.; Dux, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Lunt, T.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, Th.; Jacquet, Ph.; Monakhov, I.; Zhang, W.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Stepanov, I.; Colas, L.; Meyer, O.; Czarnecka, A.; and others

    2015-12-10

    RF measurements during variation of the strap voltage balance of the original 2-strap ICRF antenna in ASDEX Upgrade at constant power are consistent with electromagnetic calculations by HFSS and TOPICA, more so for the latter. RF image current compensation is observed at the antenna limiters in the experiment at a local strap voltage of about half of the value of the remote strap, albeit with a non-negligible uncertainty in phasing. The RF-specific tungsten (W) source at the broad-limiter 2-strap antenna correlates strongly with the RF voltage at the local strap at the locations not connected to opposite side of the antenna along magnetic field lines. The trends of the observed increase of the RF loading with injection of local gas are well described by a combined EMC3-Eirene – FELICE calculations, with the most efficient improvement confirmed for the outer-midplane valves, but underestimated by about 1/3. The corresponding deuterium density tailoring is also likely responsible for the decrease of local W sources observed in the experiment.

  8. Interaction of carbon and sulfur on metal catalysts. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.G.

    1988-01-21

    Goal is to study selective poisoning by fractional monolayers of chemisorbed sulfur on metal catalysts. A Pt catalyst on alumina support has been synthesized. Stabilized Fe catalysts without and with half monolayers of chemicsorbed S have been prepared. These catalysts, along with a Ni-alumina reference catalyst, will be used in experimental studies. 2 figs.

  9. Development and progression of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Upender; Shanmugam, Chandrakumar; Katkoori, Venkat R.; Bumpers, Harvey L.; Grizzle, William E.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of genetic and molecular alterations underlie the development and progression of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Most of these cancers arise sporadically due to multiple somatic mutations and genetic instability. Genetic instability includes chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI), which is observed in most hereditary non-polyposis colon cancers (HNPCCs) and accounts for a small proportion of sporadic CRN. Although many biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis and prediction of the clinical outcomes of CRNs, no single marker has established value. New markers and genes associated with the development and progression of CRNs are being discovered at an accelerated rate. CRN is a heterogeneous disease, especially with respect to the anatomic location of the tumor, race/ethnicity differences, and genetic and dietary interactions that influence its development and progression and act as confounders. Hence, efforts related to biomarker discovery should focus on identification of individual differences based on tumor stage, tumor anatomic location, and race/ethnicity; on the discovery of molecules (genes, mRNA transcripts, and proteins) relevant to these differences; and on development of therapeutic approaches to target these molecules in developing personalized medicine. Such strategies have the potential of reducing the personal and socio-economic burden of CRNs. Here, we systematically review molecular and other pathologic features as they relate to the development, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, progression, and prevention of CRNs, especially colorectal cancers (CRCs). PMID:22112479

  10. PROGRESS ON STELLA EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KIMURA,W.D.; CAMPBELL,L.P.; GOTTSCHALK,S.C.; QUIMBY,D.C.; ROBINSON,K.E.; STEINHAUER,L.C.; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; GALLARDO,J.C.; KUSCHE,K.P.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; SKARITKA,J.; VAN STEENBERGEN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.; CLINE,D.B.; HE,P.; LIU,Y.; FIORITO,R.B.; PANTELL,R.H.; RULE,D.W.; SANDWEISS,J.

    1999-03-01

    Progress is reported on the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment, which has been assembled on the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The primary goal of STELLA is to demonstrate staging of the laser acceleration process by using the BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) as a prebuncher, which generates {approx} 1-{micro}m long microbunches, and accelerating these microbunches using an inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) stage. Experimental runs are underway to recommission the IFEL and ICA systems separately, and reestablish the: microbunching process. Staging will then be examined by running both the IFEL and ICA systems together.

  11. MEIC Design Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N; Sullivan, M K

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  12. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  13. HSX progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations.

  14. Post Kalman progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, David

    1995-01-01

    In a paper here last year, an idea was put forward that much greater performance could be obtained from an observer, relative to a Kalman filter if more general performance indices were adopted, and the full power spectra of all the noises were employed. The considerable progress since then is reported here. Included are an extension of the theory to regulators, direct calculation of the theory's fundamental quantities - the noise effect integrals - for several theoretical spectra, and direct derivations of the Riccati equations of LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) and Kalman theory yielding new insights.

  15. Progress on the DPASS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Svidzinski, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel project to develop Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite (DPASS) of comprehensive computational tools to predict, model, and analyze disruption events in tokamaks has been recently started at FAR-TECH Inc. DPASS will eventually address the following aspects of the disruption problem: MHD, plasma edge dynamics, plasma-wall interaction, generation and losses of runaway electrons. DPASS uses the 3-D Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) as a core tool and will have a modular structure. DSC is a one fluid non-linear, time-dependent 3D MHD code to simulate dynamics of tokamak plasma surrounded by pure vacuum B-field in the real geometry of a conducting tokamak vessel. DSC utilizes the adaptive meshless technique with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, with accurate magnetic flux conservation and resolution of the plasma surface current. DSC has also an option to neglect the plasma inertia to eliminate fast magnetosonic scale. This option can be turned on/off as needed. During Phase I of the project, two modules will be developed: the computational module for modeling the massive gas injection and main plasma respond; and the module for nanoparticle plasma jet injection as an innovative disruption mitigation scheme. We will report on this development progress. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant # DE-SC0013727.

  16. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  17. Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tong Logan, Angela; Silverman, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    One of the most clinically significant complications related to the use of pharmacotherapy is the potential for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. The gastrointestinal system plays a large role in the pharmacokinetic profile of most medications, and many medications utilized in gastroenterology have clinically significant drug interactions. This review will discuss the impact of alterations of intestinal pH, interactions mediated by phase I hepatic metabolism enzymes and P-glycoprotein, the impact of liver disease on drug metabolism, and interactions seen with commonly utilized gastrointestinal medications. PMID:22933873

  18. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  19. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jean-Marie; Turnbull, Julie; Ramachandran, Nivetha; Minassian, Berge A

    2013-01-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) consist of a group of diseases with myoclonic seizures and progressive neurodegeneration, with onset in childhood and/or adolescence. Lafora disease is a neuronal glycogenosis in which normal glycogen is transformed into starch-like polyglucosans that accumulate in the neuronal somatodendritic compartment. It is caused by defects of two genes of yet unknown function, one encoding a glycogen phosphatase (laforin) and the other an ubiquitin E3 ligase (malin). Early cognitive deterioration, visual seizures affecting over half, and slowing down of EEG basic activity are three major diagnostic clues. Unverricht-Lundborg disease is presently thought to be due to damage to neurons by lysosomal cathepsins and reactive oxygen species due to absence of cystatin B, a small protein that inactivates cathepsins and, by ways yet unknown, quenches damaging redox compounds. Preserved cognition and background EEG activity, action myoclonus early morning and vertex spikes in REM sleep are the diagnostic clues. Sialidosis, with cherry-red spot, neuronopathic Gaucher disease, with paralysis of verticality, and ataxia-PME, with ataxia at onset in the middle of the first decade, are also lysosomal diseases. How the lysosomal defect culminates in myoclonus and epilepsy in these conditions remains unknown. PMID:23622396

  20. Cataract progression in India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, M; Rahmathullah, R.; Blair, C.; Murphy, A.; Beck, R.; Wilkins, J.; Whitcher, J.; Smolin, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—The study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using the LOCS III cataract grading scale in the field and to determine the rate of cataract progression over a 1 year period of time.
METHODS—For 150 subjects between the ages of 33 and 55 who attended the refraction clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, lens abnormalities were graded at the slit lamp using the LOCS III scale. One year later, 99 of the subjects were re-evaluated by the same methodology to assess the amount of lens change.
RESULTS—Interrater reliability was high. A change of 0.5 or more in lens colour, cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular cataract was observed in at least one eye of 54% of the subjects.
CONCLUSION—The LOCS III grading scale is a feasible method for measuring lens changes in the field with the slit lamp. Cataract progression in India is rapid enough to permit intervention studies to be performed with relatively small numbers of subjects over a short period of time (that is, 600 subjects for 2 years).

 PMID:9486033

  1. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Satishchandra, P; Sinha, S

    2010-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects. PMID:20739785

  2. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  3. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  4. Primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  5. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  6. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  7. Progressive Precision Surface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, KJ

    2002-01-11

    We introduce a novel wavelet decomposition algorithm that makes a number of powerful new surface design operations practical. Wavelets, and hierarchical representations generally, have held promise to facilitate a variety of design tasks in a unified way by approximating results very precisely, thus avoiding a proliferation of undergirding mathematical representations. However, traditional wavelet decomposition is defined from fine to coarse resolution, thus limiting its efficiency for highly precise surface manipulation when attempting to create new non-local editing methods. Our key contribution is the progressive wavelet decomposition algorithm, a general-purpose coarse-to-fine method for hierarchical fitting, based in this paper on an underlying multiresolution representation called dyadic splines. The algorithm requests input via a generic interval query mechanism, allowing a wide variety of non-local operations to be quickly implemented. The algorithm performs work proportionate to the tiny compressed output size, rather than to some arbitrarily high resolution that would otherwise be required, thus increasing performance by several orders of magnitude. We describe several design operations that are made tractable because of the progressive decomposition. Free-form pasting is a generalization of the traditional control-mesh edit, but for which the shape of the change is completely general and where the shape can be placed using a free-form deformation within the surface domain. Smoothing and roughening operations are enhanced so that an arbitrary loop in the domain specifies the area of effect. Finally, the sculpting effect of moving a tool shape along a path is simulated.

  8. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  9. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    PubMed

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment. PMID:25205397

  10. Creativity: Potential and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    This paper explores definitions of creativity, theories and models of creativity, and the classic stages of creativity. Creativity is best defined in terms of an interactive process. The creative process in adults often results in creative and useful products, and such creativity is judged in terms of their quantity and quality of patents,…