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Sample records for plutellae kurdjumov hymenoptera

  1. The biology of Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a pupal parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and its interactions with Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Wang, X; Shi, Z; Gebremeskel, Z H

    2001-12-01

    The ichneumonid Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) has been recorded in many parts of the world as an important parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), a serious pest of brassica vegetable crops worldwide. Some aspects of its biology and its interactions with Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), another major parasitoid of the same pest, were studied in the laboratory. At 25 degrees C, female wasps did not have mature eggs in their ovaries until about 12 h after emergence. Both males and females mated successfully 24-48 h after emergence, and females started to oviposit one to two days after emergence. Unmated females produced male progeny only; mated females produced progeny of both sexes. The development rate of the parasitoid increased linearly with temperature from 15 to 30 degrees C, with an estimated low temperature threshold of 7.4 degrees C and a thermal constant of 225.1 day-degrees for development from egg to adulthood. Rates of survival from larva to adulthood were about 90% between 20 and 28 degrees C and decreased as temperature decreased or increased. No immatures survived to adulthood at 35 degrees C. When provided with honey solution, the females lived on average 8.3, 11.5 and 7.0 days, and parasitized 26, 44 and 46 host pupae at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Female wasps could be stored at 15 degrees C for up to four weeks without detrimental effects on reproduction. Females of D. collaris attacked host pupae already parasitized by O. sokolowskii, inserting their ovipositor into the hosts at a similar frequency as into unparasitized host pupae, but they did not lay eggs inside the hosts. PMID:11818041

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Isolates of Plutella xylostella Granulovirus.

    PubMed

    Spence, Robert J; Noune, Christopher; Hauxwell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Granuloviruses are widespread pathogens of Plutella xylostella L. (diamondback moth) and potential biopesticides for control of this global insect pest. We report the complete genomes of four Plutella xylostella granulovirus isolates from China, Malaysia, and Taiwan exhibiting pairs of noncoding, homologous repeat regions with significant sequence variation but equivalent length. PMID:27365355

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Isolates of Plutella xylostella Granulovirus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Granuloviruses are widespread pathogens of Plutella xylostella L. (diamondback moth) and potential biopesticides for control of this global insect pest. We report the complete genomes of four Plutella xylostella granulovirus isolates from China, Malaysia, and Taiwan exhibiting pairs of noncoding, homologous repeat regions with significant sequence variation but equivalent length. PMID:27365355

  4. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella. PMID:26711914

  5. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)

    PubMed Central

    Ngenya, Watson; Malinga, Joyce; Tabu, Isaiah; Masinde, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide. PMID:27049398

  6. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov).

    PubMed

    Ngenya, Watson; Malinga, Joyce; Tabu, Isaiah; Masinde, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide. PMID:27049398

  7. Cotesia vestalis parasitization suppresses expression of a Plutella xylostella thioredoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a family of small, highly conserved and ubiquitous proteins involved in protecting organisms against toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, a typical thioredoxin gene, PxTrx, was isolated from Plutella xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence is composed of 959 ...

  8. Genomic sequence analysis of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CL3 plaque isolate of Plutella xylostella multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (PlxyMNPV-CL3) is a variant of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) but exhibits a much higher degree of virulence against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. To identify genetic differences ...

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis resistance in Plutella - too many trees?

    PubMed

    Crickmore, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Plutella xylostella was the first insect for which resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis was reported in the field, yet despite many studies on the nature of this resistance phenotype its genetic and molecular basis remains elusive. Many different factors have been proposed as contributing to resistance, although in many cases it has not been possible to establish a causal link. Indeed, there are so many studies published that it has become very difficult to 'see the wood for the trees'. This article will attempt to clarify our current understanding of Bt resistance in P. xylostella and consider the criteria that are used when validating a particular model. PMID:27436736

  10. Baculoviral p94 homologs encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppress both immunity and development of the diamondback moth, Plutellae xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonggyun; Hepat, Rahul

    2016-04-01

    Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are a group of insect DNA viruses, which exhibit a mutual symbiotic relationship with their specific host wasps. Moreover, most encapsidated genes identified so far in PDVs share homologies with insect-originated genes, but not with virus-originated genes. In the meantime, PDVs associated with 2 wasp genera Cotesia and Glytapanteles encode some genes presumably originated from other viruses. Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes 4 genes homologous to baculoviral p94: CpBV-E94k1, CpBV-E94k2, CpBV-E94k3, and CpBV-E94k4. This study was conducted to predict the origin of CpBV-E94ks by comparing their sequences with those of baculoviral orthologs and to determine the physiological functions by their transient expressions in nonparasitized larvae and subsequent specific RNA interference. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpBV-E94ks were clustered with other E94ks originated from different PDVs and shared high similarity with betabaculoviral p94s. These 4 CpBV genes were expressed during most developmental stages of the larvae of Plutella xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae. Expression of these 4 E94ks was mainly detected in hemocytes and fat body. Subsequent functional analysis by in vivo transient expression showed that all 4 viral genes significantly inhibited both host immune and developmental processes. These results suggest that CpBV-E94ks share an origin with betabaculoviral p94s and play parasitic roles in suppressing host immune and developmental processes. PMID:25973570

  11. Plutella australiana (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), an overlooked diamondback moth revealed by DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul DN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion that populations of this migratory species are connected by substantial gene flow. However, the present study reveals the presence of two genetically divergent lineages of this taxonin Australia. One shows close genetic and morphological similarity with the nearly cosmopolitan Plutella xylostella. The second lineage possesses a similar external morphology, but marked sequence divergence in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene, coupled with clear differences in genitalia. As a consequence, members of this lineage are described as a new species, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, which is broadly distributed in the eastern half of Australia. PMID:24167421

  12. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  13. Sublethal Effects of Fenoxycarb on the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fenoxycarb, a Juvenile hormone analogue, at sublethal concentrations were tested on some biological parameters of Plutella xylostella (L.) in two consecutive generations. The calculated LC10, LC25, and LC50 values of the insecticide were 21.58, 43.25, and 93.62 mg/liter on third-instar larvae, respectively. Fenoxycarb significantly reduced pupal weight and oviposition period in parent generation. In addition, the fecundity of treated groups (LC10 = 71.06, LC25 = 40.60 eggs per female) in parents was significantly lower than control (169.40 eggs per female). Although fenoxycarb could not affect gross reproductive rate and death rate, it decreased net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and birth rate in offspring generation. Also, mean generation time and doubling time of treated insects was significantly longer than control at LC10 level. Therefore, the data from this study suggested that fenoxycarb could adversely cause population decline in the subsequent generation. PMID:26136495

  14. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  15. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  16. Gas-chromatography and electroantennogram analysis of saturated hydrocarbons of cruciferous host plants and host larval body extracts of Plutella xylostella for behavioural manipulation of Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Paul, A V Navarajan

    2011-05-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SHC) of five cruciferous host plants viz., cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, knol khol and Brussels sprout and the larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella reared on these host plants were identified through gas-chromatography. The hydrocarbon profile of host plants and larval body extract of DBM reared on respective host plants revealed a wide variation in quantity as well as quality. Long chain hydrocarbons C26-C30 were detected in all the extracts. In electroantennogram (EAG) studies, SHCs at 10(-3) g dose elicited differential EAG response in the antennal receptors of gravid Cotesia plutellae females. Tricosane (C23) and hexacosane (C26) elicited 10-fold increased EAG response compared to control stimulus. Long chain hydrocarbons C27, C28 and C29 elicited, 6-7 fold increased responses. The sensitivity of antenna was 4-5 folds for C25, C14, C24, C15 and C30, while the short chain hydrocarbons elicited 2-3 fold increased EAG responses. Dual choice flight orientation experiments in a wind tunnel revealed that the gravid C. plutellae females preferred the odour of C16, C26, C29, C15, C21, C23, C30, C27, C24 and C22 as 60-70% females oriented and landed on SHC treated substrate compared to control odour, while the odour of eicosane (C20), pentacosane (C25) and octacosane (C28) were not preferred by the females. PMID:21615063

  17. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

  18. Screening Bacillus thuringiensis strains for toxicity against Manduca sexta and Plutella xylostella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates or strains for toxicity has traditionally been performed with one bacterial isolate at time versus a specific insect. By testing of Bt strains in groups, we identified 28 of 147 Bt isolates as toxic to either diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.),...

  19. Genomic sequence analysis of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CL3 plaque isolate of Plutella xylostella multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (PlxyMNPV-CL3) exhibits a high degree of genetic similarity with the Autographa californica MNPV but is significantly more virulent against the diamondback moth, P. xylostella, than AcMNPV. To identify genetic differences b...

  20. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  1. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  2. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction. PMID:23072461

  3. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  4. Revision of the European species of Omphale Haliday (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Christer; Shevtsova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The European species of Omphale Haliday (Eulophidae: Entedoninae) are revised. The revision includes 37 species, of which eleven are newly described and the remaining 26 species are redescribed. The species are classified into six species groups, with six unplaced species. All species are fully diagnosed and thoroughly illustrated. Identification keys are provided for females and males. Two new morphological features to aid classification and identification are introduced: male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs). The former has been used successfully in the classification of New World Omphale and the latter is used for the first time in a taxonomic revision. Male genitalia in Omphale have considerable interspecific variation, an unusual trait among chalcidoid Hymenoptera, and are demonstrated to be useful for classification of species and species-groups, and they also possess the only autapomorphy for Omphale. WIPs are useful to help separate some species, but cannot be used to define either the genus or species groups. Distributional data are compiled for each species and suggest a pan-european distribution for most species. Gall-midges are the known hosts for 14 species, and the absence of host overlap between species suggests that host specialization is a driving force for speciation. Several Omphale species are known only from females, or have a strong female biased sex ratio, suggesting thelytokous development. Apart from the 37 species included in this revision, the status for nine additional species (names) in species group aetius remain unsolved. For nomenclatorial stability, a neotype is designated for Eulophus lugens Nees (= Omphale lugens (Nees)). Elachestus obscurus Förster and Derostenus sulciscuta Thomson are transferred from Holcopelte to Omphale comb. n. Derostenus radialis Thomson and Achrysocharella americana Girault are synonymized with Omphale theana (Walker), and Omphale teresis Askew is synonymized with Omphale phruron

  5. [Repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2004-03-01

    Based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(DBM) Plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. When the ethanol extracts(Etho Exts) of Bauhinia variegata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Euphorbia hirta, Duranta repens, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Magnolia grandiflora, and Nicotiana tabacum were applied respectively, the oviposition repellent rates were all over 80.00%; while after forty-eight hours treatment with the Etho Exts of Euphorbia pulcherrima, Broussonetia papyrifera, Artemisia argyi, Camellia oleifera, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia hirta, Bauhinia variegata, and Setaria viridisa, the antifeedant rates of DBM larvae were all more than 80.00%. PMID:15228000

  6. Site-specific cassette exchange systems in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and the Plutella xylostella moth.

    PubMed

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  7. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  8. Trade-off between thermal tolerance and insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin Jie; Wu, Zhao Li; Wang, Kuan Fu; Liu, Qun; Zhuang, Hua Mei; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to insecticides have been well documented, usually at normal temperature conditions, in many insect species. In this study, using chlorpyrifos-resistant homozygote (RR) and chlorpyrifos-susceptible homozygote (SS) of resistance ace1 allele of Plutella xylostella (DBM), we confirmed firstly that high temperature experience in pupal stage influenced phenotype of wing venation in insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Plutella xylostella, and SS DBM showed significantly higher thermal tolerance and lower damages of wing veins under heat stress than RR DBM. As compared to SS DBM, RR DBM displayed significantly lower AChE sensitivity to chlorpyrifos, higher basal GSTs activity and P450 production at 25°C, but higher inhibitions on the enzyme activities and P450 production as well as reduced resistance to chlorpyrifos under heat stress. Furthermore, RR DBM displayed significantly higher basal expressions of hsp69s, hsp72s, hsp20,hsp90,Apaf-1, and caspase-7 at 25°C, but lower induced expressions of hsps and higher induced expressions of Apaf-1,caspase-9, and caspase-7 under heat stress. These results suggest that fitness costs of chlorpyrifos resistance in DBM may partly attribute to excess consumption of energy caused by over production of detoxification enzymes and hsps when the proteins are less demanded at conducive environments but reduced expressions when they are highly demanded by the insects to combat environmental stresses, or to excess expressions of apoptotic genes under heat stress, which results in higher apoptosis. The evolutionary and ecological implications of these findings at global warming are discussed. PMID:25691976

  9. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Genotypes Exhibiting Resistance or Susceptibility to the Insect Herbivore, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Richard M.; Afzal, Muhammed; Ward, Deborah A.; Prescott, Mark C.; Sait, Steven M.; Rees, Huw H.; Tomsett, A. Brian

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic study was conducted to investigate physiological factors affecting feeding behaviour by larvae of the insect, Plutella xylostella, on herbivore-susceptible and herbivore-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana. The leaves of 162 recombinant inbred lines (Rils) were screened to detect genotypes upon which Plutella larvae fed least (P. xylostella-resistant) or most (P. xylostella-susceptible). 2D-PAGE revealed significant differences in the proteomes between the identified resistant and susceptible Rils. The proteomic results, together with detection of increased production of hydrogen peroxide in resistant Rils, suggest a correlation between P. xylostella resistance and the production of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular H2O2, and that this was expressed prior to herbivory. Many of the proteins that were more abundant in the Plutella-resistant Rils are known in other biological systems to be involved in limiting ROS damage. Such proteins included carbonic anhydrases, malate dehydrogenases, glutathione S-transferases, isocitrate dehydrogenase-like protein (R1), and lipoamide dehydrogenase. In addition, patterns of germin-like protein 3 isoforms could also be indicative of higher levels of reactive oxygen species in the resistant Rils. Consistent with the occurrence of greater oxidative stress in the resistant Rils is the observation of greater abundance in susceptible Rils of polypeptides of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex, which are known to be damaged under oxidative stress. The combined results suggest that enhanced production of ROS may be a major pre-existing mechanism of Plutella resistance in Arabidopsis, but definitive corroboration of this requires much further work. PMID:20386709

  10. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  11. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress. PMID:23885442

  12. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: effects on catabolism and electrophysiology in Plutella xylostella

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Streinz, L.

    1988-03-01

    A series of mono, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Z11-16:Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16:Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other haloacetates were essentially inactive. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:Ac to (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F/sub 2/Ac > F/sub 3/Ac > FAc > AC > Cl/sub 2/Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br/sub 2/Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl/sub 3/Ac > Br/sub 3/Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins in P. xylostella males.

  13. Characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from three lepidopteran insects: Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Lü, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases, regulates a variety of biological processes. We obtained full-length PP5 cDNAs from three lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella, encoding predicted proteins of 490 (55.98 kDa), 490 (55.82 kDa) and 491 (56.07 kDa) amino acids, respectively. These sequences shared a high identity with other insect PP5s and contained the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains at N-terminal regions and highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domains. Tissue- and stage-specific expression pattern analyses revealed these three PP5 genes were constitutively expressed in all stages and in tested tissues with predominant transcription occurring at the egg and adult stages. Activities of Escherichia coli-produced recombinant PP5 proteins could be enhanced by almost 2-fold by a known PP5 activator: arachidonic acid. Kinetic parameters of three recombinant proteins against substrate pNPP were similar both in the absence or presence of arachidonic acid. Protein phosphatases inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, and endothall strongly impeded the activities of the three recombinant PP5 proteins, as well as exerted an inhibitory effect on crude protein phosphatases extractions from these three insects. In summary, lepidopteran PP5s share similar characteristics and are all sensitive to the protein phosphatases inhibitors. Our results also imply protein phosphatase inhibitors might be used in the management of lepidopteran pests. PMID:24823652

  14. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Qiu, S; Huang, T; Huang, Z; Xu, L; Wu, C; Gelbic, I; Guan, X

    2013-06-01

    To examine the effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against Plutella xylostella (L.), inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, and organic acids were selected and tested. The chosen materials are low in cost and environmentally safe. Results show that many inorganic salts can increase the activity of B. thuringiensis in a range of 1.31- to 3.08-fold. These include calcium acetate, calcium chloride, calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium acetate, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds, including peptone, sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate, can enhance the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62-, 1.32-, and 1.37-fold, respectively. Among the protein solubilizing agents, EDTA, urea, mercaptoethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate increased the activity of B. thuringiensis 1.62- to 2.34-fold. Among the organic acids, maleic and citric acids boosted the activity 1.45- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium benzoate and resorcinol led to 1.74- and 1.44-fold activity gains, respectively. Use of appropriate additives could provide great benefit not only in reducing the costs for field applications of biological insecticides but also by boosting the efficacy of B. thuringiensis. PMID:23865169

  15. Genetics of spinosad resistance in a multi-resistant field-selected population of Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Wright, Denis J

    2004-08-01

    Resistance to the bacteria-derived insecticides spinosad (Conserve), abamectin (Vertimec), Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) (Dipel), B thuringiensis var aizawai (Bta) (Xentari), B thuringiensis crystal endotoxins Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca, and to the synthetic insecticide fipronil was estimated in a freshly-collected field population (CH1 strain) of Plutella xylostella (L) from the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Laboratory bioassays at G1 indicated significant levels of resistance to spinosad, abamectin, Cry1Ac, Btk, Cry1Ca, fipronil and Bta when compared with a laboratory insecticide-susceptible population. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses indicated that resistance to spinosad in the CH1 population was inherited as a co-dominant trait. At the highest dose of spinosad tested, resistance was close to completely recessive, while at the lowest dose it was incompletely dominant. A direct test of monogenic inheritance based on a back-cross of F1 progeny with CH1 suggested that resistance to spinosad was controlled by a single locus. PMID:15307676

  16. Microsatellites reveal a lack of structure in Australian populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Endersby, N M; McKechnie, S W; Ridland, P M; Weeks, A R

    2006-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is renowned for developing resistance to insecticides and causing significant economic damage to Brassica vegetable crops throughout the world. Yet despite its economic importance, little is known about the population structure and movement patterns of this pest both at local and regional scales. In Australia, the movement patterns and insecticide resistance status of P. xylostella infesting canola, vegetables, forage brassicas and weeds have fundamental implications for the management of this pest. Here we use six polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate population structure and gene flow in Australian populations of P. xylostella. Samples of P. xylostella from New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Kenya were also scored at these loci. We found no evidence of population structure within Australia, with most populations having low inbreeding coefficients and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In addition, a sample from the North Island of New Zealand was indistinguishable from the Australian samples. However, large genetic differences were found between the Australia/New Zealand samples and samples from Kenya, Malaysia and Indonesia. There was no relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance among Australian and New Zealand samples. Two of the loci were found to have null alleles, the frequency of which was increased in the populations outside the Australia/New Zealand region. We discuss these results with reference to insecticide resistance management strategies for P. xylostella in Australia. PMID:16367834

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Chauhan, Urvashi; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is the most serious pest of cruciferous crops grown in the world causing economic yield loss. Several synthetic insecticides have been used against P. xylostella but satisfactory control was not achieved due to development of resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to screen different fractions of Zanthoxylum armatum for their insecticidal activities against second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Results indicate, all the fractions showed activity to P. xylostella. However, n-hexane fraction of Z. armatum showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum LC50 value of 2988.6 ppm followed by ethanol (LC50 = 12779.7 ppm) and methanol fraction (LC50 = 12908.8 ppm) whereas chloroform fraction was least toxic (LC50 = 16750.6 ppm). The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of leaf extract showed maximum larvicidal activity, which may be due to two major compounds i.e. 2-undecanone (19.75%) and 2-tridecanone (11.76%). PMID:25920469

  18. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. PMID:26470185

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%). PMID:26264423

  20. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  1. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  2. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    PubMed Central

    Henniges-Janssen, K; Reineke, A; Heckel, D G; Groot, A T

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Larval survivorship on the novel host plant pea and a typical crucifer host (kale) was measured in reciprocal F1, F2 and backcrosses between the P-strain and a strain reared only on crucifers (C-strain). Reciprocal F1 hybrids differed: offspring from P-strain mothers survived better on pea, indicating a maternal effect. However, no evidence for sex-linkage was found. Backcrosses to the P-strain produced higher survivorship on pea than C-strain backcrosses, suggesting recessive inheritance. In a linkage analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers using P-strain backcrosses, two, four and five linkage groups contributing to survival on pea were identified in three different families respectively, indicating oligogenic inheritance. Thus, the newly evolved ability to survive on pea has a complex genetic basis, and the P-strain is still genetically heterogeneous and not yet fixed for all the alleles enabling it to survive on pea. Survivorship on kale was variable, but not related to survivorship on pea. This pattern may characterize the genetic inheritance of early host plant adaptation in oligophagous insect species. PMID:21673741

  3. Resistance Selection and Characterization of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Hong-Yan; Ning, Yu-Bo; Qiao, Kang; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2015-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered one of the most damaging lepidopteran pests, and it has developed resistance to all conventional insecticide classes in the field. Chlorantraniliprole is the first commercial insecticide that belongs to the new chemical class of diamide insecticides. But, P. xylostella have already shown resistance to chlorantraniliprole in China. After 52 generations of selection with chlorantraniliprole, ∼48.17-fold resistance was observed. The resistant strain showed cross-resistance to flubendiamide (7.29-fold), abamectin (6.11-fold), and cyantraniliprole (3.31-fold). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of the ryanodine receptor gene was higher in the resistant strain than that in the susceptible strain. Enzyme assays indicated that cytochrome P450 activity in the resistant strain was 4.26 times higher compared with the susceptible strain, whereas no difference was seen for glutathione-S-transferase and esterase. Moreover, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in the resistant strain could be synergized by piperonyl butoxide, but not by diethyl maleate, and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorothioate. These results can serve as an important base for guiding the use of insecticide in field and delaying the development of pests that are resistant to the insecticides. PMID:26470343

  4. Host selection behavior and the fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on multiple host plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella. Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition. PMID:25527573

  5. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages. PMID:26470229

  6. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato ashmead (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, new species, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts...

  7. Modulation of Juvenile Hormone Esterase Gene Expression Against Development of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a widespread and destructive pest of cruciferous crops. Owing to its increasing resistance to conventional pesticides, new strategies need to be developed for diamondback moth control. Here, we investigated factors that modulate juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity and jhe (Px004817) transcription, and determined the effects of these factors on subsequent growth and development in diamondback moth. Starvation inhibited JHE activity and jhe transcription, increased mortality, and decreased the rate of molting from the third- to the fourth-instar stages. Larvae kept at 32°C molted earlier and showed increased JHE activity and jhe transcription after 24-h treatment. Exposure to 1,325 mg/liter OTFP (3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-propanone) delayed molting and pupation, increased pupal weight, and decreased JHE activity and jhe transcription at both 24 and 48 h. Treatment with 500 mg/liter pyriproxyfen delayed molting, completely suppressed pupation, and significantly increased JHE activity at 48 h and jhe transcription at 24 and 48 h. A combination of OTFP (1,325 mg/liter) and pyriproxyfen (500 mg/liter) induced the highest mortality, delayed molting, completely suppressed pupation, and significantly increased JHE activity at 48 h and jhe transcription at 24 and 48 h. These effects on JHE activity and jhe transcription were similar to those in insects treated only with pyriproxyfen. The results demonstrated that JHE and jhe (Px004817) were involved in the responses of diamondback moth to external modulators and caused changes in growth and development. The combination of OTFP and pyriproxyfen increased the effectiveness of action against diamondback moth. PMID:26880398

  8. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. PMID:27001069

  9. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  10. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. PMID:26902207

  11. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  12. Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Fipronil in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Shuwen; Gao, Weiyue; Wu, Yidong

    2016-02-01

    A field-collected strain (HF) of Plutella xylostella (L.) showed 420-fold resistance to fipronil compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (Roth). The HF-R strain, derived from the HF strain by 25 generations of successive selection with fipronil in the laboratory, developed 2,200-fold resistance to fipronil relative to the Roth strain. The F(1) progeny of the reciprocal crosses between HF-R and Roth showed 640-fold (R♀ × S♂) and 1,380-fold (R♂ × S♀) resistance to fipronil, indicating resistance is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Analysis of progeny from a backcross (F1♂ × S♀) suggests that resistance is controlled by one major locus. The LC(50) of the R♂ × S♀ cross F(1) progeny is slightly but significantly higher than that of the R♀ × S♂ cross F(1) progeny, suggesting a minor resistance gene on the Z chromosome. Sequence analysis of PxGABARα1 (an Rdl-homologous GABA receptor gene of P. xylostella) from the HF-R strain identified two mutations A282S and A282G (corresponding to the A302S mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene), which have been previously implicated in fipronil resistance in several insect species including P. xylostella. PxGABARα1 was previously mapped to the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. In conclusion, fipronil resistance in the HF-R strain of P. xylostella was incompletely dominant, and controlled by a major autosomal locus and a sex-linked minor gene (PxGABARα1) on the Z chromosome. PMID:26511983

  13. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  14. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance Development in the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhendi; Chen, Huanyu; Yin, Fei; Li, Zhenyu; Dong, Xiaolin; Zhang, Deyong; Ren, Shunxiang; Feng, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella has developed a high level of resistance to the latest insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A better understanding of P. xylostella’s resistance mechanism to chlorantraniliprole is needed to develop effective approaches for insecticide resistance management. Principal Findings To provide a comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanisms of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole, transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system were performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The transcriptome analysis of the susceptible strain (SS) provided 45,231 unigenes (with the size ranging from 200 bp to 13,799 bp), which would be efficient for analyzing the differences in different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella stains. DGE analysis indicated that a total of 1215 genes (189 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated) were gradient differentially expressed among the susceptible strain (SS) and different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains, including low-level resistance (GXA), moderate resistance (LZA) and high resistance strains (HZA). A detailed analysis of gradient differentially expressed genes elucidated the existence of a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment at the molecular level. The genes related to insecticide resistance, such as P450, GST, the ryanodine receptor, and connectin, had different expression profiles in the different chlorantraniliprole-resistant DGE libraries, suggesting that the genes related to insecticide resistance are involved in P. xylostella resistance development against chlorantraniliprole. To confirm the results from the DGE, the expressional profiles of 4 genes related to insecticide resistance were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions The obtained transcriptome information provides large gene resources available for further studying the resistance development of P. xylostella to pesticides. The DGE data provide

  16. Genetic, biochemical, and physiological characterization of spinosad resistance in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Noor-Ul-Ane, M; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-10-01

    Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated MN) of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Multan, Pakistan, indicated resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, deltamethrin, abamectin, and acetamiprid. At G2 the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations, one was selected (G2 to G11) with spinosad (Spino-SEL), whereas the second was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G12, indicating that the observed resistance to each insecticide was unstable. For Spino-SEL, bioassays at G12 found that selection with spinosad gave a resistance ratio of 283 compared with MN at G2. The resistance to indoxacarb and acetamiprid in the Spino-SEL population increased to 13- and 67-fold, respectively, compared with MN at G2. The toxicity of deltamethrin to Spino-SEL was similar to its toxicity to the MN population at G2. This suggests that spinosad selection maintained the otherwise unstable resistance to the compound. In contrast, resistance to abamectin decreased significantly from G2 to G12 in Spino-SEL. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between Spino-SEL and the susceptible Lab-UK indicated that resistance to spinosad was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. The spinosad resistance allele significantly delays the developmental time, reduced pupal weight, number of eggs laid, and number of eggs hatched compared with Lab-UK. Further analysis suggests Spino-SEL exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) to all other populations tested. PMID:18950049

  17. Genetic characterization of resistance to deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Venkatasamy; Sayyed, Ali H; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is considered as one of the most difficult pests to control. It has developed resistance not only to synthetic insecticides but also to Bacillus thuringiensis-based pesticides. We tested the hypothesis that selection in a P. xylostella population, from Hosur, India, with deltamethrin would give a broad spectrum of resistance to several insecticides. We also were interested in genetically classifying resistance to deltamethrin in the selected population and in evaluating whether resistance can be suppressed using synergists. Bioassays (at generation 1, G1) using deltamethrin indicated a resistance ratio of 161-fold compared with a laboratory-susceptible population of P. xylostella (Lab-UK). At G2, the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations; one population was selected (G1 to G8) with deltamethrin (Delta-SEL), and the second population was left unselected (UNSEL). Bioassays at G9 indicated that selection with deltamethrin gave a resistance ratio of 15-fold compared with UNSEL and 1,647-fold compared with Lab-UK. The resistance to deltamethrin in the UNSEL population was stable. The Delta-SEL population maintained resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, but there was no cross-resistance to indoxacarb, DDT, or Cry1Ac. Crossing experiments indicated that resistance to deltamethrin in Delta-SEL was multigenic and inherited in an incompletely dominant fashion. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S.S.S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate with potent inhibitory activity against esterases and/or monooxygenases significantly increased the toxicity of deltamethrin against both UNSEL and Delta-SEL, but they showed no such synergism with Lab-UK. Thus, it can be predicted that development of resistance to deltamethrin would be delayed under appropriate control strategies that favor the dilution of resistance alleles by enhanced flow of susceptible alleles. Further analysis suggested that mixing PBO

  18. Suppression of Plutella xylostella and Trichoplusia ni in cole crops with attracticide formulations.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Elly M; Fadamiro, Henry Y; McLaughlin, John R

    2006-08-01

    The three key lepidopteran pests of cole, Brassica oleracea L., crops in North America are diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae); cabbage looper; Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Two species-specific pheromone-based experimental attracticide formulations were evaluated against these pests: LastCall DBM for P. xylostella and LastCall CL for T. ni. No LastCall formulation was available against P. rapae. Laboratory toxicity experiments confirmed the effectiveness of each LastCall formulations in killing conspecific males that made contact. In replicated small plots of cabbage and collards in central Alabama, over four growing seasons (fall 2003, spring 2004, fall 2004, and spring 2005), an attracticide treatment receiving the two LastCall formulations, each applied multiple times at the rate of 1,600 droplets per acre, was compared against Bacillus thuringiensis. subspecies kursatki (Bt) spray at action threshold and a negative untreated control. Efficacy was measured by comparing among the three treatments male capture in pheromone-baited traps, larval counts in plots, and crop damage rating at harvest. LastCall provided significant reductions in crop damage comparable to Bt in three of the four seasons. Efficacy of LastCall was dependent upon lepidopteran population densities, which fluctuated from season to season. In general, reduction in crop damage was achieved with LastCall at low-to-moderate population densities of the three species, such as typically occurs in the fall in central Alabama, but not in the spring when high P. rapae population pressure typically occurs in central Alabama. Significant reductions in pheromone trap captures did not occur in LastCall plots, suggesting that elimination of males by the toxicant (permethrin), rather than interruption of sexual communication, was the main mechanism of effect. PMID:16937690

  19. Preference—Performance Linkage in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, and Implications for Its Management

    PubMed Central

    Marchioro, Cesar Augusto; Foerster, Luís Amilton

    2014-01-01

    Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference—performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference-performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella. Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella. Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella, favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

  20. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:25183343

  1. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity. PMID:16005110

  2. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Profiling of Plutella Xylostella Third Instar Larval Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10-5. Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis indentified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense. As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  3. MEDIATION OF HOST SELECTION AND OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR IN THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA AND ITS PREDATOR CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA BY CHEMICAL CUES FROM COLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant mediated orientational and ovipositional behavior of diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) (DBM) and its predator Chrysoperla carnea were studied in response to four different brassica host plants: cabbage, (Brassica oleracea L. subs. capitata), cauliflower (B. oleracea L. sub. ...

  4. Hymenoptera allergens: from venom to "venome".

    PubMed

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire "venome" as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function, and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of immunoglobulin E reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in HVA and may serve for monitoring, re-evaluation, and improvement of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24616722

  5. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  6. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  7. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  9. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to facilitate the development of insecticides with a novel mode of action for more effective and environmentally less harmful insecticide rotation. To contribute to this goal, we developed KONAGAbase, a genomic and transcriptomic database for DBM (KONAGA is the Japanese word for DBM). Description KONAGAbase provides (1) transcriptomic sequences of 37,340 ESTs/mRNAs and 147,370 RNA-seq contigs which were clustered and assembled into 84,570 unigenes (30,695 contigs, 50,548 pseudo singletons, and 3,327 singletons); and (2) genomic sequences of 88,530 WGS contigs with 246,244 degenerate contigs and 106,455 singletons from which 6,310 de novo identified repeat sequences and 34,890 predicted gene-coding sequences were extracted. The unigenes and predicted gene-coding sequences were clustered and 32,800 representative sequences were extracted as a comprehensive putative gene set. These sequences were annotated with BLAST descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Pfam descriptions, respectively. KONAGAbase contains rich graphical user interface (GUI)-based web interfaces for easy and efficient searching, browsing, and downloading sequences and annotation data. Five useful search interfaces consisting of BLAST search, keyword search, BLAST result-based search, GO tree-based search, and genome browser are provided. KONAGAbase is publicly available from our website (http://dbm.dna.affrc.go.jp/px/) through standard web browsers. Conclusions KONAGAbase provides DBM comprehensive transcriptomic

  10. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  11. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  12. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  13. Combivena gen.n (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Sun, Shu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Combivena Sheng & Sun, gen.n. and Combivena sulcata Sheng & Sun, sp.n. belonging to Acaenitinae of family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), collected from Qinghai Province, China, are described and illustrated. PMID:25347843

  14. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) species new to the fauna of Norway.

    PubMed

    Humala, Andrei E; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The present paper contains new distributional records for 61 species of ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) previously unknown for Norway, six of them are reported from Scandinavia for the first time. PMID:24855440

  15. Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Lacks Toxicity to Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) and Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan K.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested Cyt1Aa, a cytolytic endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, against susceptible and Cry1A-resistant larvae of two lepidopteran pests, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Unlike previous results obtained with mosquito and beetle larvae, Cyt1Aa alone or in combination with Cry toxins was not highly toxic to the lepidopteran larvae that we examined. PMID:11133481

  16. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare. PMID:25259698

  17. Checklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four
    and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Thomas; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr; Japoshvili, George; Hatt, Séverin; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries. PMID:27394473

  18. miRNAs regulated overexpression of ryanodine receptor is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuxia; Guo, Lei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid mutations in ryanodine receptor (RyR) and elevated activity of detoxification enzymes have been associated with the diamide insecticide resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The up-regulation of P. xylostella RyR mRNA (PxRyR) expression has also been reported in field populations of different graphical origin. However, whether the up-regulation of PxRyR is involved in diamide resistance remains unknown. In this paper, 2.28- to 4.14-fold higher expression of PxRyR was detected in five field collected resistant populations, compared to that in a susceptible population. The expression of PxRyR was up-regulated 5.0- and 7.2-fold, respectively, after P. xylostella was treated with LC50 and LC75 of chlorantraniliprole for 12 h. Suppression of PxRyR using RNA interference restored the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the fourth instar larvae from the resistant population. More importantly, the expression of PxRyR is regulated by two miRNAs, miR-7a and miR-8519. These findings provide an empirical evidence of the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of insecticide resistance, and shed light on the novel targets for the sustainable management of this devastating insect pest. PMID:26370154

  19. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of immune genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Xue, Minqian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M.; Baxter, Simon W.; Lin, Hailan; Lin, Junhan; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Immune responses are important for interactions between insects and pathogens and information on these underpins the development of strategies for biocontrol-based pest management. Little, however, is known about immune genes and their regulation patterns in P. xylostella. A total of 149 immune-related genes in 20 gene families were identified through comparison of P. xylostella genome with the genomes of other insects. Complete and conserved Toll, IMD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways were found in P. xylostella. Genes involved in pathogen recognition were expanded and more diversified than genes associated with intracellular signal transduction. Gene expression profiles showed that the IMD pathway may regulate expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in the midgut, and be related to an observed down-regulation of AMPs in experimental lines of insecticide-resistant P. xylostella. A bacterial feeding study demonstrated that P. xylostella could activate different AMPs in response to bacterial infection. This study has established a framework of comprehensive expression profiles that highlight cues for immune regulation in a major pest. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on the functions of P. xylostella immune genes and mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:25943446

  20. Identification and expression of caspase-1 gene under heat stress in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hua Mei; Wang, Kuan Fu; Miyata, Tadashi; Wu, Zu Jian; Wu, Gang; Xie, Lian Hui

    2011-04-01

    A caspase gene in Plutella xylostella (DBM) was identified firstly and named Px-caspase-1. It had a full-length of 1172 bp and contained 900 bp open reading frame that encoded 300 amino acids with 33.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid of Px-caspase-1 had two domain profile including caspase_p20 (position 61-184) and caspase_p10 (position 203-298) (i.e. the big and small catalytic domains), and the highly conserved pentapeptide QACQG in caspase_p20 domain (the recognized catalytic site of caspases). Being highly homologous to effector caspase genes in other insect and mammalian species, Px-caspase-1 was thought to be an effector caspase gene. Heat stress could result in significant mortality increase on adult DBM. Px-caspase-1 mRNA expression and caspase-3 enzyme activity (a effector caspase) were elevated with age and heat treatment. And, heat stress facilitated the procession of Px-caspase-1 expression. Significantly higher mRNA transcription levels were found in a chlorpyrifos-resistant DBM strain, as compared to those in insecticide-susceptible DBM. The results indicated that high temperature could significantly promote apoptosis process resulting in an the increased DBM mortality rate, and that insecticide-susceptible DBM had a significantly higher physiological fitness at high temperatures than insecticide-resistant DBM. PMID:21086181

  1. Plutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delory, Benjamin M; Brostaux, Yves; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Delaplace, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric; Lognay, Georges

    2014-01-01

    The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to 3 temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27°C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over 2 time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27°C after the 2 time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22°C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. PMID:25482777

  2. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SERINE PROTEASES AND THEIR POTENTIAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROPHENOLOXIDASE ACTIVATION IN Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gang; Xu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Jing; Li, Lin-Miao; Ju, Wen-Yan; Jin, Feng-Liang; Freed, Shoaib

    2016-09-01

    The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a humoral defense mechanism in insects and crustaceans. Phenoloxidase (PO) is produced as an inactive precursor namely, proPO and is activated via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO-activating proteinase. The current research reports two novel serine proteinase genes (PxSP1-768 bp and PxSP2-816 bp) from Plutella xylostella, encoding 255 and 271 amino acid residues, respectively. Tissue distribution analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the resultant genes to be primarily expressed in the hemocytes, while quantitative-RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that transcription level of PxSP1 and PxSP2 increased significantly after injection of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana. Purified recombinant fusion proteins of PxSP2 and PxSP1 were injected to New Zealand white rabbits and polyclonal antibodies were generated with the titers of 1:12,800. After silencing the expression of PxSP2 by RNAi, the PO activity decreased significantly. The results show that PxSP2 is involved in prophenoloxidase activation in P. xylostella. PMID:27306978

  5. Dynamics of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during Plutella xylostella interaction to a novel host Lepidium latifolium L.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Khajuria, Manu; Vyas, Ruchika; Kumari, Anika; Nadda, Gireesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-09-01

    Plutella xylostella L. is a notorious pest of cruciferous crops causing worldwide losses of $4-5 billion per year. Developing classical biological control to this pest include an introduction of host plants that act as natural enemies showing deviation from the preference-performance regimen in the evolutionary ecology of plant-insect interactions. The present study was designed to understand the role of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during P. xylostella interactions with a novel host. Adult moth preference and larval performance study were conducted on a novel host Lepidium latifolium L. (LL) that has high sinigrin content and was compared with its laboratory host Arabidopsis thaliana (AT). The glucosinolate-myrosinase system was studied in a time course experiment during larval feeding in choice and no-choice experiments. Adult moths visit and prefers LL over AT for oviposition. Conversely, LL leaves were not preferred and proved detrimental for P. xylostella larvae. Aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates were found to decrease significantly (p≤0.05) in AT during initial 12h of P. xylostella challenge, whereas, they were not affected in LL. Also, MYB transcription factor expression and myrosinase activity in LL do not suggest a typical host response to a specialist insect. This preference-performance mismatch of P. xylostella on LL mediated by glucosinolate pattern suggests that this novel plant could be utilized in P. xylostella management. PMID:27457978

  6. The comparative analysis of complete genome sequences from two South African betabaculoviruses: Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus and Plutella xylostella granulovirus.

    PubMed

    Jukes, M D; Motsoeneng, B M; Knox, C M; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2016-10-01

    The complete genomes of two novel South African betabaculovirus isolates, namely Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV-SA) and Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV-SA), were sequenced and compared to the respective reference isolates PhopGV-1346 and PlxyGV-K1. For both isolates, the genome size and guanine-cytosine (GC) content were similar to those of the respective reference genomes. However, numerous-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and several insertions/deletions were observed, revealing the novelty of the isolates. Focus was placed on analysing the observed insertion/deletion events by conducting amino acid sequence alignments for all ORFs of each isolate against all respective ORFs in the corresponding reference isolate. Certain ORFs in each granulovirus genome contained significant insertion/deletion events. In addition, the PlxyGV-SA genome had single-nucleotide insertions/deletions in ORFs 38 and 49 that resulted in the extension and complete overlap of these two ORFs with the neighbouring ORFs 39 and 48, respectively. These novel isolates have significant potential for development and application as biopesticides in South Africa, and the genetic variations observed may have important implications for the biological activity and management of host resistance in the field. PMID:27456426

  7. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

  8. cDNA cloning and characterization of the antibacterial peptide cecropin 1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengliang; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Li, Linmiao; Gao, Gang; Xu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Ren, Shunxiang

    2012-10-01

    Cecropins are linear cationic antibacterial peptides that have potent activities against microorganisms. In the present study, a 480bp full-length cDNA encoding diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) cecropin 1 (designated as Px-cec1) was obtained using RT-PCR. A Northern blot analysis showed that the Px-cec1 transcript was predominantly expressed in fat bodies, hemocytes, midgut and epidermis with the highest expression level in fat bodies. The expression of Px-cec1 mRNA in fat bodies was significantly increased 24h after microbial challenge, with the highest induced expression by Staphylococcus aureus. A circular dichroism (CD) analysis revealed that the recombinant Px-cec1 mainly contained α-helixes. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that recombinant Px-cec1 exhibited a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but it did not exhibit hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Furthermore, Px-cec1 caused significant morphological alterations of S. aureus, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that Px-cec1 exerts its antibacterial activity by acting on the cell membrane to disrupt bacterial cell structures. PMID:22921836

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a P-glycoprotein from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  10. Bottom-up effect of different host plants on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): a life-table study on canola.

    PubMed

    Soufbaf, Mahmoud; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Karimzadeh, Javad; Zalucki, Myron P

    2010-12-01

    The effects of 10 commercial canola, Brassica napus L., cultivars widely grown in Iran--'SLM(046),' 'Opera,' 'Okapi,' 'RGS(003),' 'Modena,' 'Sarigol,' 'Zarfam,' 'Licord,' 'Hayula(420),' and 'Talaye'--on the demographic parameters of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera-Plutellidae), were determined. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 2% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. The comparison of intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (R0), and the survival rate of adult stage of P. xylostella on 10 canola cultivars suggested that this pest performed best on SLM(046). The r(m) value of P. xylostella ranged between 0.241 on RGS(003) and 0.304 on SLM(046). The R0, finite rate of increase (lambda), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) values of P. xylostella on SLM(046) were 52, 1.35, 13.4, and 2.35 and on RGS(003) were 31, 1.27, 14.4, and 2.94, respectively. The Weibull model adequately described the shape of the survivorship curve of adult P. xylostella from life-table data. A significant fit was obtained with the Weibull model for P. xylostella in all experimental canola cultivars. As a result, SLM(046), Opera, and Hayula(420) were the most suitable hosts and had least negative impact on life-history statistics of the pest. PMID:21309221

  11. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions. PMID:26714690

  12. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  13. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution. PMID:25579204

  14. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  15. The Wing Apparatus and Flapping Behavior of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Tsuyuki, Koji; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Tani, Junji

    The wing apparatus of Hymenoptera was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the structure and function of insect wings were studied. The measurements of displacement of extrinsic skeleton vibration produced by wing flapping of a wasp were made by an optical displacement detector system. The free flight of the wasp was analyzed by a three dimensional motion analysis system. The results of a series of measurements revealed the flight characteristics of Hymenoptera, such as the wing tip velocity, wing path, wave form of extrinsic skeleton vibration, and so forth.

  16. Host translational control of a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus, by sequestering host eIF4A to prevent formation of a translation initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Surakasi, V P; Nalini, M; Kim, Yonggyun

    2011-10-01

    Host translational control is a viral strategy to exploit host cellular resources. Parasitization by some endoparasitoids containing polydnaviruses inhibits the synthesis of specific host proteins at post-transcriptional level. Two host translation inhibitory factors (HTIFs) have been proposed in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). Parasitization by C. plutellae inhibited storage protein 1 (SP1) synthesis of Plutella xylostella at post-transcriptional level. One HTIF, CpBV15β, inhibited the translation of SP1 mRNA in an in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysate, but did not inhibit its own mRNA. To further analyse the discrimination of target and nontarget mRNAs of the inhibitory effect of HTIF, 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of SP1 and CpBV15β mRNA were reciprocally exchanged. In the presence of HTIFs, the chimeric CpBV15β mRNA that contained SP1 5' UTR was not translated, whereas the chimeric SP1 mRNA that contained CpBV15β 5' UTR was translated. There was a difference in the 5' UTR secondary structures between target (SP1) and nontarget (CpBV15α and CpBV15β) mRNAs in terms of thermal stability. Different mutant 5' UTRs of SP1 mRNA were prepared by point mutations to modify their secondary structures. The constructs containing 5' UTRs of high thermal stability in their secondary structures were inhibited by HTIF, but those of low thermal stability were not. Immunoprecipitation with CpBV15β antibody coprecipitated eIF4A, which would be required for unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UTR. These results indicate that the viral HTIF discriminates between host mRNAs according to their dependency on eIF4A to form a functional initiation complex for translation. PMID:21699595

  17. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes. PMID:22437404

  18. Effects of Insecticides on the Fluidity of Mitochondrial Membranes of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, Resistant and Susceptible to Avermectin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Liang, P.; Shi, X.; Gao, X.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various insecticides on the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and cross-resistance were investigated in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using strains that were both resistant and susceptible to avermectin. The resistant strain of P. xylostella, AV-R, developed 1078-fold resistance to avermetins with a high level of cross-resistance to the analogs of avermectins, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. It had more than 1000 times greater resistance when compared with the avermectin-susceptible strain, XH-S. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity was measured by detecting fluorescence polarization using DPH (1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene) as the fluorescence probe. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate decreased the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in the XH-S strain at 25°C. However, fipronil and acephate did not change the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane when the concentration of these insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L. Membrane fluidity increased as the temperature increased. The thermotropic effect on the polarization value of DPH increased as the insecticide concentration was increased. There was a significant difference of mitochondrial membrane fluidity between both XH-S and AV-R when temperature was less than 25°C and no difference was observed when the temperature was more than 25°C. The low-dose abamectin (0.11 mg/L) in vivo treatment caused a significant change of membrane fluidity in the XH-S strain and no change in the AV-R strain. However, a high-dose abamectin (11.86 mg/L) resulted in 100% mortality of the XH-S strain. In vivo treatment may cause a significant change of membrane fluidity in the AV-R strain PMID:20345311

  19. Characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from larval guts of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Indiragandhi, P; Anandham, R; Madhaiyan, M; Sa, T M

    2008-04-01

    Eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and effects on early plant growth. All of the strains tested positive for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase production. In addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant levels of tricalcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilization; six isolates were able to oxidize sulfur in growth media; and four isolates tested positive for chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Based on their IAA production, six strains including four that were 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase positive and two that were ACC deaminase negative were tested for PGP activity on the early growth of canola and tomato seeds under gnotobiotic conditions. Acinetobacter sp. PSGB04 significantly increased root length (41%), seedling vigor, and dry biomass (30%) of the canola test plants, whereas Pseudomonas sp. PRGB06 inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, C. gleospoiroides, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotia sclerotiorum under in vitro conditions. A significant increase, greater than that of the control, was also noted for growth parameters of the tomato test plants when the seeds were treated with PRGB06. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that bacteria associated with insect larval guts possess PGP traits and positively influence plant growth. Therefore, insect gut bacteria as effective PGP agents represent an unexplored niche and may broaden the spectrum of beneficial bacteria available for crop production. PMID:18172718

  20. Ontogeny and reproductive biology of Diadegma semiclausum (Hym.: Ichneumonidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Pourian, Hamid-Reza; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Ashouri, Ahmad; Lotfalizadeh, Hossein-Ali; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the ontogeny and reproductive biology of Diadegma semiclausum (Hym.: Ichneumonidae), an important parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) are described in detail. We did dissect parasitized P. xylostella larvae in phosphate-buffered saline and determine the external morphology of its parasitoid at all developmental stages. The developmental duration of its immature stages, adult longevity, total oviposition period and fecundity of the parasitoid are determined at 24 ± 1 °C, 65  ±  5% R.H., and a photoperiod of 16:8 h L:D. The mean duration of egg and larval stages is 9.56 days and the prepupa and pupa stages last for 8.27 days. In average, female longevity is 1.31 times longer than that of males, and females lay 300 eggs in total. The peak of D. semiclausum oviposition is on the eighth day after mating. The egg loading pattern of D. semiclausum was investigated to determine the parasitoid 'ovigeny index' throughout the female's parasitoid lifetime. Initial egg load in immature females (<2 h age) is 1.45 per female and the mean lifetime potential fecundity (total immature and mature oocytes), at four interval ages, is 34. With an ovigeny index value of 0.038, D. semiclausum is considered moderately to strongly synovigenic. In the absence of the host, after 3 days, the number of eggs is decreased in D. semiclausum. Our results demonstrated that there is a negative relation between the ovigeny index and egg resorption in this parasitoid. PMID:25463756

  1. Chlorpyrifos-induced hormesis in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Plutella xylostella under normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z Z; Zhang, F; Wu, Z L; Yu, Z Y; Wu, G

    2016-06-01

    Hormesis induced by insecticides at the dosage lower than what ostensibly directly causes death on insects was studied. This paper reports the effects of the in vivo application of varied concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on Plutella xylostella (DBM). The insecticide concentrations applied included 0.000025-2.5 mg l-1, which are far lower than LC1 (7.2 mg l-1), for the CPF-susceptable (Si) DBM, and 250 mg l-1 which is far below LC1 (1286 mg l-1), for the CPF-resistant (Rc) DBM, as well as LC10- and LC50-doses for both strains. Significant hormesis was found with the 'hermetic-CPFs', i.e., 0.0025 mg l-1 for Si DBM and 2.5 mg l-1 for Rc DBM, at the normal or high temperature either in a 24 h or under a long-term treatment. These doses of CPF significantly stimulated the development and increased the fecundity of Si and Rc DBM at 25°C with approximately 23.5-29.8% activity increase on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 30.5-91.3% increase on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) at 25 or 38°C in 4-24 h. The enzymatic activities were significantly reduced by LC50-CPF at 25°C in vivo, but the inhibition was relieved significantly, if the insects were first subjected to a hormetic-CPF pretreatment. It was remarkable that the average rates of enzymatic activity increase were 67.5-76.6% for AChE and 366-546% for GSTs. Consequently, it was concluded that the hormesis on Si and Rc DBM could be induced by CPF doses far below LC1 at normal or high temperature in short- or long-term treatment. These findings might help to improve the current insect control practices in the field. PMID:27241230

  2. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:27521911

  3. DNA Sequencing Reveals the Midgut Microbiota of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) and a Possible Relationship with Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Dandan; Zhong, Huanzi; Qin, Bingcai; Gurr, Geoff M.; Vasseur, Liette; Lin, Hailan; Bai, Jianlin; He, Weiyi; You, Minsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Insect midgut microbiota is important in host nutrition, development and immune response. Recent studies indicate possible links between insect gut microbiota and resistance to biological and chemical toxins. Studies of this phenomenon and symbionts in general have been hampered by difficulties in culture-based approach. In the present study, DNA sequencing was used to examine the midgut microbiota of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Its ability to develop resistance to many types of synthetic insecticide and even Bacillus thuringiensis toxins makes it an important species to study. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacteria of the DBM larval midgut in a susceptible and two insecticide (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) resistant lines were examined by Illumina sequencing sampled from an insect generation that was not exposed to insecticide. This revealed that more than 97% of the bacteria were from three orders: Enterobacteriales, Vibrionales and Lactobacillales. Both insecticide-resistant lines had more Lactobacillales and the much scarcer taxa Pseudomonadales and Xanthomonadales with fewer Enterobacteriales compared with the susceptible strain. Consistent with this, a second study observed an increase in the proportion of Lactobacillales in the midgut of DBM individuals from a generation treated with insecticides. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of high-throughput DNA sequencing of the entire microbiota of DBM. It reveals differences related to inter- and intra-generational exposure to insecticides. Differences in the midgut microbiota among susceptible and insecticide-resistant lines are independent of insecticide exposure in the sampled generations. While this is consistent with the hypothesis that Lactobacillales or other scarcer taxa play a role in conferring DBM insecticide resistance, further studies are necessary to rule out other possibilities. Findings

  4. A point mutation in the glutamate-gated chloride channel of Plutella xylostella is associated with resistance to abamectin.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, R; Yang, Y; Wu, S; O'Reilly, A O; Wu, Y

    2016-04-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a global pest of cruciferous vegetables. Abamectin resistance in a field population of P. xylostella was introgressed into the susceptible Roth strain. The resulting introgression strain Roth-Abm showed 11 000-fold resistance to abamectin compared with Roth. An A309V substitution at the N-terminus of the third transmembrane helix (M3) of the glutamate-gated chloride channel of P. xylostella (PxGluCl) was identified in Roth-Abm. The frequency of the V309 allele of PxGluCl was 94.7% in Roth-Abm, whereas no such allele was detected in Roth. A subpopulation of Roth-Abm was kept without abamectin selection for 20 generations to produce a revertant strain, Roth-Abm-D. Abamectin resistance in Roth-Abm-D declined to 1150-fold compared with Roth, with the V309 allele frequency decreased to 9.6%. After treatment of the Roth-Abm-D strain with 80 mg/l abamectin the V309 allele frequency in the survivors increased to 55%. This demonstrates that the A309V mutation in PxGluCl is strongly associated with a 10-fold increase in abamectin resistance in Roth-Abm relative to Roth-Abm-D. Homology modelling and automated ligand docking results suggest that the A309V substitution allosterically modifies the abamectin-binding site, as opposed to directly eliminating a key binding contact. Other resistance mechanisms to abamectin in Roth-Abm are discussed besides the A309V mutation of PxGluCl. PMID:26592158

  5. Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Jixing; Guo, Zhaojiang; Yang, Zezhong; Zhu, Xun; Kang, Shi; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostella resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostella and also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted. PMID:27521921

  6. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  7. Two novel sodium channel mutations associated with resistance to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Liang; Su, Wen; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Yang, Yi-Hua; Dong, Ke; Wu, Yi-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone belong to a relatively new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). Due to intensive use of indoxacarb, field-evolved indoxacarb resistance has been reported in several lepidopteran pests, including the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a serious pest of cruciferous crops. In particular, the BY12 population of P. xylostella, collected from Baiyun, Guangdong Province of China in 2012, was 750-fold more resistant to indoxacarb and 70-fold more resistant to metaflumizone compared with the susceptible Roth strain. Comparison of complementary DNA sequences encoding the sodium channel genes of Roth and BY12 revealed two point mutations (F1845Y and V1848I) in the sixth segment of domain IV of the PxNav protein in the BY population. Both mutations are located within a highly conserved sequence region that is predicted to be involved in the binding sites of local anesthetics and SCBIs based on mammalian sodium channels. A significant correlation was observed among 10 field-collected populations between the mutant allele (Y1845 or I1848) frequencies (1.7% to 52.5%) and resistance levels to both indoxacarb (34- to 870-fold) and metaflumizone (1- to 70-fold). The two mutations were never found to co-exist in the same allele of PxNav , suggesting that they arose independently. This is the first time that sodium channel mutations have been associated with high levels of resistance to SCBIs. F1845Y and V1848I are molecular markers for resistance monitoring in the diamondback moth and possibly other insect pest species. PMID:25850422

  8. Laboratory evaluations of a wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris as a management tool for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-hua; Liu, Shu-sheng; Shelton, A M

    2004-12-01

    The term 'dead-end trap cropping' has recently been proposed to identify a plant that is highly attractive for oviposition by an insect pest, but on which offspring of the pest cannot survive. The potential of the wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. to allure and serve as a dead-end trap crop for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, was examined in laboratory experiments. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris, and Chinese cabbage Brassica campestris (L.), in one arena, adult moths laid 2.5-6.8 times more eggs on the former than on the latter. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris and common cabbage Brassica oleracea L., adult moths laid virtually all their eggs on the former and ignored the latter. Nearly all P. xylostella eggs laid on the three species of plants hatched successfully, but nearly all individuals on plants of B. vulgaris died as neonates or early instar larvae, while 87-100% of the larvae on Chinese cabbage and common cabbage survived to pupation. Dual choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that volatiles from B. vulgaris were much more attractive to P. xylostella adults than those from common cabbage. The results demonstrate that B. vulgaris has a great potential as a dead-end trap crop for improving management of P. xylostella. Factors that may influence the feasibility of using B. vulgaris as a trap crop in the field are discussed, and ways to utilize this plant are proposed. PMID:15541190

  9. Broomcorn millet grain cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Zoophthora radicans: sporulation capacity and infectivity to Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Feng, Ming-Gung

    2005-03-01

    The shelled grains of glutinous broomcorn millet, Panicum miliaceum, were used as solid substrate to prepare granular cultures of Zoophthora radicans, an entomophthoralean biocontrol agent against numerous insect pests. Steamed millet grains were inoculated by mixing 15 g millet grains (D.W.) with mashed pieces of half a 60-mm-dish colony in 3 ml modified Sabouraud dextrose broth and incubated at 15 degrees C and L:D 12:12 for up to 24 d. 20 grains were sampled at 3 d intervals from day six onwards and individually assessed for their sporulation capacity using a self-designed device for spore collection. The millet cultures after > or = 12 d incubation produced 12.0 - 14.9 x 10(4) spores grain(-1) during a 7 d period. The maximal sporulation capacity associated with the 21 d-old culture was about half of that of Z. radicans-killed Plutella xylostella larvae (28.7 x 10(4) spores cadaver(-1)), which individually were at least three times larger than the millet grains. Based on the time-concentration-mortality responses of second-instar P. xylostella larvae to Z. radicans in three independent bioassays, the spores ejected from the cultured millet grains, from the mycelial mats from liquid culture, and from larval cadavers displayed insignificant variations in infectivity to the host species, and yielded similar LC50 and LT50 estimates. Conclusively, the millet-based technology for production of granular cultures of Z. radicans was easy, inexpensive and highly efficient, and it could be superior to previous methods used in mass production of mycelium-based preparations of Entomophthorales since this new approach requires no special additives, drying, freezing and milling. This technology may suit to mass production of culturable but nutritionally fastidious entomopathogens from the Entomophthorales. PMID:15912949

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  11. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  12. A review of Trachusoides Michener and Griswold (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Megachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are well-known for their diverse nesting habits, records of the genus nesting in live plants are rare and unknown in the North America. Here, we report the widespread Megachile (Megachile) montivaga Cresson, 1878 nesting in live thistle (Cirsium neomexi...

  13. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Filippo; Reshchikov, Alexey; Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobashibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  14. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  15. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  16. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  17. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  18. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  19. Power over reproduction in social hymenoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Madeleine; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory has been very successful in predicting and explaining much of the observed variation in the reproductive characteristics of insect societies. For example, the theory correctly predicts sex-ratio biasing by workers in relation to the queen's mating frequency. However, within an insect society there are typically multiple reproductive optima, each corresponding to the interest of different individual(s) or parties of interest. When multiple optima occur, which party's interests prevail? Presumably, the interests of the party with the greatest 'power'; the ability to do or act. This article focuses on factors that influence power over colony reproduction. In particular, we seek to identify the principles that may cause different parties of interest to have greater or lesser power. In doing this, we discuss power from two different angles. On the one hand, we discuss general factors based upon non-idiosyncratic biological features (e.g. information, access to and ability to process food) that are likely to be important to all social Hymenoptera. On the other hand, we discuss idiosyncratic factors that depend upon the biology of a taxon at any hierarchical level. We propose that a better understanding of the diversity of reproductive characteristics of insect societies will come from combining inclusive fitness theory with a wide range of other factors that affect relative power in a conflict situation. PMID:14561330

  20. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  1. Integrative Model for Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Victoria; Granero, Francisco; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Malvar, Thomas; Ferré, Juan

    1999-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in sprays and transgenic crops are extremely useful for environmentally sound pest management, but their long-term efficacy is threatened by evolution of resistance by target pests. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is the first insect to evolve resistance to B. thuringiensis in open-field populations. The only known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis in the diamondback moth is reduced binding of toxin to midgut binding sites. In the present work we analyzed competitive binding of B. thuringiensis toxins Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F to brush border membrane vesicles from larval midguts in a susceptible strain and in resistant strains from the Philippines, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania. Based on the results, we propose a model for binding of B. thuringiensis crystal proteins in susceptible larvae with two binding sites for Cry1Aa, one of which is shared with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Our results show that the common binding site is altered in each of the three resistant strains. In the strain from the Philippines, the alteration reduced binding of Cry1Ab but did not affect binding of the other crystal proteins. In the resistant strains from Hawaii and Pennsylvania, the alteration affected binding of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F. Previously reported evidence that a single mutation can confer resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F corresponds to expectations based on the binding model. However, the following two other observations do not: the mutation in the Philippines strain affected binding of only Cry1Ab, and one mutation was sufficient for resistance to Cry1Aa. The imperfect correspondence between the model and observations suggests that reduced binding is not the only mechanism of resistance in the diamondback moth and that some, but not all, patterns of resistance and cross-resistance can be predicted correctly from the results of competitive binding analyses of susceptible

  2. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  3. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  4. Larvicidal activity and structure activity relationship of cinnamoyl amides from Zanthoxylum armatum and their synthetic analogues against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S. G. Eswara; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl amides isolated from Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) and their synthetic analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the second instar larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to determine the promising structures with insecticidal activity. Most of the test compounds showed promising activity against larvae of P. xylostella. However, the activities of different compounds varied depending on the presence of different substituents at various positions of both the aromatic rings A and B. Among the tested compounds, 8, N-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethyl)cinnamamide showed best larvicidal activity with an LC50 = 62.13 mg/L followed by 6, N-(3׳-bromophenethyl)cinnamamide (LC50=128.49 mg/L) and 2 N-(4׳-methoxyphenylethyl)cinnamamide (LC50 = 225.65 mg/L). PMID:27231477

  5. The identification and characterisation of a new deltamethrin resistance-associated gene, UBL40, in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Fengliang; Cheng, Chen; Jiao, Dongxu; Zhou, Zhou; Cheng, Luogen

    2013-11-01

    Differential expression of ubiquitin was previously reported between Plutella xylostella strains that are resistant or susceptible to the pesticide deltamethrin (DM). This finding hinted at the potential involvement of ubiquitin in deltamethrin resistance, a theory that demanded further testing. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that one of the ubiquitin genes, UBL40, was overexpressed in the deltamethrin-resistant strain during the fourth instar. To investigate the functional relationship between this gene and deltamethrin resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) and cell transfection were utilised. UBL40 knockdown was observed to significantly reduce the level of resistance in RNAi-treated larvae after 48 h. Conversely, overexpression of UBL40 in Drosophila Kc cells conferred a degree of protection against deltamethrin. These results represent the first evidence that UBL40 plays a role in the regulation of deltamethrin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:23973721

  6. Management of hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis: a preventive medicine survey.

    PubMed

    McDougle, L; Klein, G L; Hoehler, F K

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of aftercare instructions given to patients suffering from hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis was the objective of the study. Part of this evaluation included asking the physicians questions to examine the knowledge on which they based their aftercare instructions. Survey questionnaires were completed by 124 of 174 (71%) physicians who worked in an emergency department or urgent care center. Fifty-eight percent of the physicians never provided written avoidance instructions, 24% provided or prescribed anaphylaxis ID bracelets, 44% referred all of their patients to an allergist for further evaluation, and 73% reported prescribing an Epi-pen or Ana-kit to all hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis victims. Twenty-four percent of physicians did not know where to obtain anaphylaxis identification bracelets. This survey demonstrates that a substantial number of physicians practicing emergency medicine are not providing appropriate aftercare instructions to patients, and substantiates the need for educational efforts to increase the awareness of physicians concerning the implications of hymenoptera allergy and the value of proper preventive measures. PMID:7782631

  7. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  8. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate – including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort. PMID:25382409

  9. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  11. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  12. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  13. A new parasitoid of Bazariaturensis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): Campoplexbazariae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary endoparasitoid of the larva of Bazariaturensis Ragonot, 1887 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Qinghai province, China, Campoplexbazariae Sheng, sp. n., belonging to the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), is reported. Illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:25610335

  14. A floral-derived compound attractive to the tephritid fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many adult hymenopteran parasitoids, even host-feeding species, consume the nectar of flowering plants. Previous field studies had identified plants attractive (Lobularia maritima L.) and unattractive (Spermacoce verticillata L) to certain opiine braconids (Hymenoptera). Under laboratory conditions,...

  15. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  16. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  17. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  18. The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; He, Jun-hua; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from China is revised and keyed, with nine new species, namely Diolcogaster bifurcifossa sp. n., Diolcogaster brevivena sp. n., Diolcogaster grammata sp. n., Diolcogaster ineminens sp. n., Diolcogaster laetimedia sp. n., Diolcogaster pluriminitida sp. n., Diolcogaster praritas sp. n., Diolcogaster punctatiscutum sp. n. and Diolcogaster translucida sp. n. described and illustrated, and one species, Diolcogaster perniciosa (Wilkinson, 1929) recorded for the first time from China. A key to the Chinese species of this genus is provided. PMID:21998555

  19. Revision of the world species of Zambion (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae)

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Andrew M.R.; Barnes, Diana I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The world species of Zambion Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) are revised including re-descriptions of Zambion monodon Kasparyan and Zambion hirtum Delobel. Five new species are described: Zambion kasparyani sp. n., Zambion rogeri sp. n., Zambion eileenae sp. n., Zambion wahli sp. n. andZambion broadi sp. n. A key to species is provided. The genus is endemic to Africa (Angola to Kenya) and is one of only three genera of the tribe Tryphonini recorded from the Afrotropical region. PMID:22303113

  20. The mitochondrial genome of Diadromus collaris (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-04-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic wasps Diadromus collaris, the fourth sequenced mitogenome in the family Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). The sequenced segment is 14,621 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 19 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Four tRNAs are rearranged comparing to the ancestral insect mitochondrial gene arrangements, which coincides with the fact that the most rearranged genes are tRNA genes in the Ichneumonidae, and trnI-trnQ-trnM is a hot-spot of gene rearrangement. The lrRNA secondary structure was predicted, containing six domains (I-VI) and 49 helics. PMID:24047184

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ. PMID:26731510

  2. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  3. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  4. Genome wide discovery of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and their expression in insecticide resistant strains

    PubMed Central

    Etebari, Kayvan; Furlong, Michael J.; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in genomic imprinting, cancer, differentiation and regulation of gene expression. Here, we identified 3844 long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNA) in Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants that has developed field resistance to all classes of insecticides, including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins. Further, we found that some of those lincRNAs may potentially serve as precursors for the production of small ncRNAs. We found 280 and 350 lincRNAs that are differentially expressed in Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil resistant larvae. A survey on P. xylostella midgut transcriptome data from Bt-resistant populations revealed 59 altered lincRNA in two resistant strains compared with the susceptible population. We validated the transcript levels of a number of putative lincRNAs in deltamethrin-resistant larvae that were exposed to deltamethrin, which indicated that this group of lincRNAs might be involved in the response to xenobiotics in this insect. To functionally characterize DBM lincRNAs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes was extracted and showed over representation of protein, DNA and RNA binding GO terms. The data presented here will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lincRNAs in insecticide resistance or the response to xenobiotics of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26411386

  5. Genome wide discovery of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and their expression in insecticide resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Etebari, Kayvan; Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in genomic imprinting, cancer, differentiation and regulation of gene expression. Here, we identified 3844 long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNA) in Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants that has developed field resistance to all classes of insecticides, including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins. Further, we found that some of those lincRNAs may potentially serve as precursors for the production of small ncRNAs. We found 280 and 350 lincRNAs that are differentially expressed in Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil resistant larvae. A survey on P. xylostella midgut transcriptome data from Bt-resistant populations revealed 59 altered lincRNA in two resistant strains compared with the susceptible population. We validated the transcript levels of a number of putative lincRNAs in deltamethrin-resistant larvae that were exposed to deltamethrin, which indicated that this group of lincRNAs might be involved in the response to xenobiotics in this insect. To functionally characterize DBM lincRNAs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes was extracted and showed over representation of protein, DNA and RNA binding GO terms. The data presented here will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lincRNAs in insecticide resistance or the response to xenobiotics of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26411386

  6. The compatibility of a nucleopolyhedrosis virus control with resistance management for Bacillus thuringiensis: co-infection and cross-resistance studies with the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Raymond, B; Sayyed, A H; Wright, D J

    2006-10-01

    The use of genetically modified crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can lead to the reduction in application of broad-spectrum pesticides and an increased opportunity for supplementary biological control. Bt microbial sprays are also used by organic growers or as part of integrated pest management programs that rely on the use of natural enemies. In both applications the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins is a potential problem. Natural enemies (pathogens or insects) acting in combination with toxins can accelerate or decelerate the evolution of resistance to Bt. In the present study we investigated whether the use of a nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) could potentially affect the evolution of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Plutella xylostella. At low toxin doses there was evidence for antagonistic interactions between AcMNPV and Cry1Ac resistant and susceptible insects. However, this antagonism was much stronger and more widespread for susceptible larvae; interactions were generally not distinguishable from additive for resistant larvae. Selection for resistance to Cry1Ac in two populations of P. xylostella with differing resistance mechanisms did not produce any correlated changes in resistance to AcMNPV. Stronger antagonistic interactions between Bt and AcMNPV on susceptible rather than resistant larvae can decrease the relative fitness between Bt-resistant and susceptible larvae. These interactions and the lack of cross-resistance between virus and toxin suggest that the use of NPV is compatible with resistance management to Bt products. PMID:16905146

  7. Degradation of acephate by Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus cereus and Pantoea agglomerans isolated from diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L), a pest of cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Murthy, Kottilingam Srinivasa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Varghese, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Acephate-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from the larval gut of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a notorious pest of cruciferous crops worldwide that has developed resistance to insecticides. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as Bacillus cereus (PX-B.C.Or), Enterobacter asburiae (PXE), and Pantoae agglomerans (PX-Pt.ag.Jor). All isolates grew on minimal media (MM) in the presence of acephate at 100 and 200 ppm, with maximum growth at 200 ppm. LC-MS analyses of spent medium showed that E. asburiae degraded acephate to methamidophos and O, O-dimethyl phosporamidate and B. cereus O,S-dimethyl to phosphorothioate but P. agglomerans to an unnamed compound. All three isolates used acephate as a source of carbon and energy for growth; however, P. agglomerans used it also as source of sulphur. Strong evidence revealed that the bacterial communities present in the gut of diamondback moth might aid in acephate degradation and play a role in the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:27498509

  8. The midgut cadherin-like gene is not associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-03-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that have been used to control important agricultural pests. Evolution of resistance in target pests threatens the effectiveness of these toxins when used either in sprayed biopesticides or in Bt transgenic crops. Although alterations of the midgut cadherin-like receptor can lead to Bt Cry toxin resistance in many insects, whether the cadherin gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance of Plutella xylostella (L.) remains unclear. Here, we present experimental evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac or Bt var. kurstaki (Btk) in P. xylostella is not due to alterations of the cadherin gene. The bona fide P. xylostella cadherin cDNA sequence was cloned and analyzed, and comparisons of the cadherin cDNA sequence among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains confirmed that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of mutations in this gene. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that cadherin transcript levels did not significantly differ among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of cadherin gene expression did not affect larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, genetic linkage assays using four cadherin gDNA allelic biomarkers confirmed that the cadherin gene is not linked to resistance against Cry1Ac in P. xylostella. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Cry1Ac resistance of P. xylostella is independent of the cadherin gene. PMID:25595643

  9. Determining the involvement of two aminopeptidase Ns in the resistance of Plutella xylostella to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac: cloning and study of in vitro function.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Ran; Yang, Zhongxia; Chen, Defeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Mao, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-02-01

    The cloning, expression in vitro, and characterization of two aminopeptidase Ns (APN5s and APN2s) isolated from the midgut of Cry1Ac-resistant (R) and susceptible (S) strains of Plutella xylostella larvae are presented in this paper. The deduced amino acid sequences of APN5s included C-terminal GPI-modification sites, the gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GATEN, and three N-glycosylated sites; those of APN2s had no GPI-modification sites, had gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GAMEN, and had four N-glycosylated sites. O-glycosylated sites were not predicted for either APN. Because APN2R and APN2S cDNAs contained the same nucleotides, only full-length cDNAs encoding APN5R and APN5S were expressed in Trichoplusia ni cells. Far-Western blotting showed that the expressed receptor APN5 bound to the Cry1Ac toxin. An enzyme-specific activity experiment also showed that APN5 genes were expressed in T. ni cells. ELISA revealed no differences in the binding of expression proteins from the resistant and susceptible strain with Cry1Ac. PMID:22371317

  10. Genetic mapping of Bt-toxin binding proteins in a Cry1A-toxin resistant strain of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Simon W; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Shelton, Anthony M; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G

    2008-02-01

    A major mechanism of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in Lepidoptera is a reduction of toxin binding to sites in the midgut membrane. Genetic studies of three different species have shown that mutations in a candidate Bt receptor, a 12-cadherin-domain protein, confer Cry1A toxin resistance. Despite a similar resistance profile in a fourth lepidopteran species, Plutella xylostella, we have previously shown that the cadherin orthologue maps to a different linkage group (LG8) than Cry1Ac resistance (LG22). Here we tested the hypothesis that mutations in other genes encoding candidate Bt-binding targets could be responsible for Bt resistance, by mapping eight aminopeptidases, an alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an intestinal mucin, and a P252 glycoprotein with respect to the 29 AFLP marked linkage groups in a P. xylostella cross segregating for Cry1Ac resistance. A homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans Bt resistance gene bre-2 was also mapped. None of the genes analysed were on the same chromosome containing the Cry1Ac resistance locus, eliminating them as candidate resistance genes in the parental resistant strain SC1. Although this finding excludes cis-acting mutations in these genes as causing resistance in this strain, one or more of the expressed proteins may still bind Cry1Ac toxin, and post-translational modifications could affect this binding and thereby exert a trans-acting effect on resistance. PMID:18207074

  11. Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide in a field population of Plutella xylostella is due to a change in a midgut membrane receptor.

    PubMed

    Ferré, J; Real, M D; Van Rie, J; Jansens, S; Peferoen, M

    1991-06-15

    The biochemical mechanism for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins was studied in a field population of diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) with a reduced susceptibility to the bioinsecticidal spray. The toxicity and binding characteristics of three crystal proteins [CryIA(b), CryIB, and CryIC] were compared between the field population and a laboratory strain. The field population proved resistant (greater than 200-fold compared with the laboratory strain) to CryIA(b), one of the crystal proteins in the insecticidal formulation. Binding studies showed that the two strains differ in a membrane receptor that recognizes CryIA(b). This crystal protein did not bind to the brush-border membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of the field population, either because of strongly reduced binding affinity or because of the complete absence of the receptor molecule. Both strains proved fully susceptible to the CryIB and CryIC crystal proteins, which were not present in the B. thuringiensis formulation used in the field. Characteristics of CryIB and CryIC binding to brush-border membranes of midgut epithelial cells were virtually identical in the laboratory and the field population. PMID:2052591

  12. Quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liang, Pei; Song, Dunlun; Yang, Wenling; Gao, Xiwu

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for quantifying the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The GABA in sample was derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-LIF analysis. In total, 32 mmol/L borate buffer, at pH 9.2 and containing 5.3 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 10.4 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was determined to be the optimum CE background electrolyte (BGE) for GABA analysis. The detection limit of GABA was 0.016 μmol/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the migration time and peak area of GABA were 1.78 and 4.93%, respectively. The average recoveries of 0.97, 3.88, and 5.83 μmol/L of GABA, each added to the head sample of housefly, ranged from 88.9 to 110.5%. This method is simple and applicable to GABA assays of the heads of insects. With this newly developed CE-LIF method, the amounts of GABA in the heads of houseflies (M. domestica) and diamondback moths (P. xylostella (L.)) were measured. The results are relevant to the understandings of some insecticides and insecticide-resistance mechanisms in pests. PMID:22282416

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of the abdominal-A homeotic gene in the global pest, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuping; Chen, Yazhou; Zeng, Baosheng; Wang, Yajun; James, Anthony A; Gurr, Geoff M; Yang, Guang; Lin, Xijian; Huang, Yongping; You, Minsheng

    2016-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide agricultural pest that has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Genetics-based approaches show promise as alternative pest management approaches but require functional studies to identify suitable gene targets. Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target a gene, abdominal-A, which has an important role in determining the identity and functionality of abdominal segments. We report that P. xylostella abdominal-A (Pxabd-A) has two structurally-similar splice isoforms (A and B) that differ only in the length of exon II, with 15 additional nucleotides in isoform A. Pxabd-A transcripts were detected in all developmental stages, and particularly in pupae and adults. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis of Pxabd-A exon I produced 91% chimeric mutants following injection of 448 eggs. Phenotypes with abnormal prolegs and malformed segments were visible in hatched larvae and unhatched embryos, and various defects were inherited by the next generation (G1). Genotyping of mutants demonstrated several mutations at the Pxabd-A genomic locus. The results indicate that a series of insertions and deletions were induced in the Pxabd-A locus, not only in G0 survivors but also in G1 individuals, and this provides a foundation for genome editing. Our study demonstrates the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeting genes in an agricultural pest and therefore provides a foundation the development of novel pest management tools. PMID:27318252

  14. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activities of the Himalayan Cedar, Cedrus deodara Essential Oil and Its Fractions Against the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Abha; Sharma, Prabha; Nadda, Gireesh; Tewary, Dhananjay Kumar; Singh, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    Plants and plant-derived materials play an extremely important role in pest management programs. Essential oil from wood chips of Himalayan Cedar, Cedrus deodara (Roxburgh) Don (Pinales: Pinaceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation and fractionated to pentane and acetonitrile from which himachalenes and atlantones enriched fractions were isolated. A total of forty compounds were identified from these fractions using GC and GC-MS analyses. Essential oils and fractions were evaluated for insecticidal activities against second instars of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), using a leaf dip method. All samples showed promising larvicidal activity against larvae of P. xylostella. The pentane fraction was the most toxic with a LC50 value of 287 µg/ml. The himachalenes enriched fraction was more toxic (LC50 = 362 µg/ml) than the atlantones enriched fraction (LC50 = 365 µg/ml). LC50 of crude oil was 425 µg/ml and acetonitrile fraction was LC50 = 815 µg/ml. The major constituents, himachalenes and atlantones, likely accounted for the insecticidal action. Present bioassay results revealed the potential for essential oil and different constituents of C. deodara as botanical larvicides for their use in pest management. PMID:22239128

  15. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and genetic mapping of two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guorui; Gao, Weiyue; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2010-06-01

    The Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene encodes a subunit of the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Cyclodiene resistance in many insects is associated with replacement of a single amino acid (alanine at position 302) with either a serine or a glycine in the Rdl gene. Two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors (PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2) were cloned and sequenced from a susceptible strain (Roth) of Plutella xylostella. PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 showed 84% and 77% identity with the Rdl gene of Drosophila melanogaster at an amino acid level, respectively. The coding regions of PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 both comprise ten exons, with two alternative RNA-splicing forms in exon 3 of both genes. At the orthologous position of alanine-302 in D. melanogaster Rdl, PxGABARalpha1 has a conserved alanine at position 282. PxGABARalpha2 has a serine instead of an alanine at the equivalent position. With two informative DNA markers, both PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 were mapped onto the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. PMID:20513056

  16. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  17. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  18. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available. PMID:26624091

  19. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided. PMID:26249881

  20. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae) by fluorochromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K = 32 M¯+2 A¯). Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA 3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin. PMID:21637478

  1. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  2. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Chaves, Cindy Correa; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2014-02-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spreading of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages grapevine plants in southern Brazil. The effect of contact and ingestion of insecticides on the control of L. micans was evaluated in a greenhouse using grapevines (Vitis spp.) infested by L. micans. The insecticides thiamethoxam (250, 187.5, and 125 g/ha), fipronil (4, 5, and 50 ml/ha), and imidacloprid (650 g/ha) were sprayed on the ground, whereas toxic baits containing boric acid (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2%), pyriproxyfen (0.3 and 0.5%), and hydramethylnon (0.5%) were evaluated in different formulations. Hydramethylnon (toxic bait) and thiamethoxam (chemical barrier) were the most efficient active ingredients for the control of L. micans. PMID:24665704

  3. Revision of the Paridris nephtaspecies group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atroxTalamas, sp. n.(Yunnan Province, China), Paridris bununTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris ferusTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris kagemonoTalamas, sp. n.(Japan), Paridris minatorTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris mystaxTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris nephta(Kozlov) (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia), Paridris nilakaTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris reptilisTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris rugulosusTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Vietnam), Paridris solarisTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), Paridris teresTalamas, sp. n.(Vietnam), Paridris toketokiTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris verrucosusTalamas, sp. n.(Guangdong Province, China), Paridris yakTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand). PMID:22140338

  4. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control. PMID:24521569

  5. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:26238365

  6. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  7. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  8. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  9. Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools. PMID:26184431

  10. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  11. Cross-resistance and inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L) from lowland Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, A H; Wright, D J

    2001-05-01

    A field population of Plutella xylostella from Malaysia (SERD4) was divided into five sub-populations and four were selected (G2-G5) with the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal (Cry) toxins Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. Bioassay at G6 gave resistance ratios of 88, 5, 2 and 3 for Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da respectively compared with the unselected sub-population (UNSEL-SERD4). The Cry1Ac-selected population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da, (3-, 2- and 3-fold compared with UNSEL-SERD4), whereas the Cry1Ab-SEL sub-population showed marked cross-resistance to Cry1Ac (40-fold), much greater than Cry1Ab itself. In contrast, the Cry1Ca- and Cry1Da-SEL sub-population showed little if any cross-resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab. The mode of inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ac was examined in Cry1Ac-selected SERD4 by standard reciprocal crosses and back-crosses using a laboratory insecticide-susceptible population (ROTH). Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses indicated that resistance to Cry1Ac was inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. At the highest dose of Cry1Ac tested, resistance was recessive, while at the lowest dose it was almost completely dominant. The F2 progeny from a back-cross of F1 progeny with ROTH were tested with a concentration of Cry1Ac that would kill 100% of ROTH. The mortality ranged between 50 and 95% in seven families of back-cross progeny, which indicated that more than one allele on separate loci were responsible for resistance to Cry1Ac. PMID:11374157

  12. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  13. Analysis of persistent changes to γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene expression in Plutella xylostella subjected to sublethal amounts of spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yin, X-H; Wu, Q-J; Zhang, Y-J; Long, Y-H; Wu, X-M; Li, R-Y; Wang, M; Tian, X-L; Jiao, X-G

    2016-01-01

    A multi-generational approach was used to investigate the persistent effects of a sub-lethal dose of spinosad in Plutella xylostella. The susceptibility of various sub-populations of P. xylostella to spinosad and the effects of the insecticide on the gene expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) were determined. The results of a leaf dip bioassay showed that the sensitivity of P. xylostella to spinosad decreased across generations. The sub-strains had been previously selected based on a determined LC25 of spinosad. Considering that GABA-gated chloride channels are the primary targets of spinosad, the cDNA of P. xylostella was used to clone GABARα by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mature peptide cDNA was 1477-bp long and contained a 1449-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 483 amino acids. The resulting amino acid sequence was used to generate a neighbor-joining dendrogram, and homology search was conducted using NCBI BLAST. The protein had high similarity with the known GABAR sequence from P. xylostella. Subsequent semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR analyses indicated that the GABAR transcript levels in the spinosad-resistant strain (RR, 145.82-fold) and in Sub1 strain (selected with LC25 spinosad for one generation) were the highest, followed by those in the spinosad-susceptible strain, the Sub10 strain (selected for ten generations), and the Sub5 strain (selected for five generations). This multi-generational study found significant correlations between spinosad susceptibility and GABAR gene expression, providing insights into the long-term effects of sub-lethal insecticide exposure and its potential to lead to the development of insecticide-resistant insect populations. PMID:27525859

  14. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  15. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  16. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  17. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  18. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  19. The genus Mymaromella (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatidae) in North America, with a key to described extant species of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate the adults of two species of Nearctic Mymarommatidae (Hymenoptera): Mymaromella pala and M. palella. In addition, the world species of Mymaromella are keyed and strong circumstantial evidence provided in support of their hosts being Psocoptera....

  20. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes and other specialty crops. Female M. rotundata are gregarious, nest in ca...

  1. Prewinter Management Affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupal Physiology and Adult Emergence and Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. Megachile rotundata raised i...

  2. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  3. Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Katja C.; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the ‘Proofer’, as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  4. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  5. Biology of Eurytoma Sivinskii, an unusual Eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  6. Biology of Eurytoma sivinskii, an unusual eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  7. Production of Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) on Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about A. epos biology or ecology when usi...

  8. Descriptions of three new species of Dzhanokmenia (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kostjukov, Viktor V; Salle, John La; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Dzhanokmenia Kostjukov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), D. muleica Li, Wang & Hu sp. n., D. karamayica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. and D. gobica Li, Wang & Zhu sp. n. from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China are described and illustrated. A key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:27395234

  9. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  10. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  11. The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) from China, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pu; He, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arhaconotus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) is recorded for the first time from China. A new species of this genus, Arhaconotus hainanensis Tang & Chen, sp. n., is described and illustrated. A key to the species of this genus is updated to include the new species. PMID:21594016

  12. Chinese species of genus Notopygus Holmgren (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae) with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Ping; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Notopygus longiventris Sun & Sheng, sp. n., collected from Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China, and N. emarginatus Holmgren, 1857, reared from Neurotoma sibirica Gussakovskij (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae) from Haicheng, Liaoning Province, are reported. The new species is placed within existing key to species. PMID:24693216

  13. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bee cell culture system was developed. A medium, WH2, for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and the modif...

  14. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  15. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  16. Cold Storage Effects on Maternal and Progeny Quality of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of cold storage on the survival and development of the mymarid wasp, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), when stored within host eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) under a daily fluct...

  17. Redescription of Chrysoctonus and description of Chrysoctonoides (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), a new genus from the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Huber, John T.; Triapitsyn, Serguei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chrysoctonoides longisetosa Huber & Triapitsyn (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), gen. n. and sp. n., is described from Australia. It is compared with the related genus Chrysoctonus, known from Africa and the New World. Myrmecomymar Yoshimoto, syn. n., is synonymized under Chrysoctonus Mathot and its type species is transferred to Chrysoctonus as Chrysoctonus masneri (Yoshimoto), comb. n. PMID:26052240

  18. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  19. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  20. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  1. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  2. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of a survey of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie, excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday, are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise and canopy traps. Topographic...

  3. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  4. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera:Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  5. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  6. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R.; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  7. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  8. Attraction to Old Nest Cues During Nest Selection by the Solitary Bee Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), is an important pollinator for the commercial production of alfalfa seed. However, poor nest establishment is an ongoing problem for bee managers. Megachile rotundata are solitary, yet gregarious bees that nest in pre...

  9. Developing Methods to Evaluate Reproduction Rates of Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black imported fire ants Solenopsis richteri Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a major economic pest that has spread throughout United State. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for augmentative biological control agents in an effort to control its spread and reduce the damage prod...

  10. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  11. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  12. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  13. Hemocytes of the Rose Sawfly Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, R; Sendi, J J; Brayner, F A; Alves, L C; Feitosa, A P S

    2016-02-01

    We characterized individual morphological types of the rose sawfly, Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), hemocytes for the first time by means of light and differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph of larvae and pupae of A. ochropus: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, and oenocytoids. Prohemocytes are the smallest type of hemocytes, rounded to ovoid cells with large nuclei. Plasmatocytes are polymorphic and variable in size. Granulocytes are oval and spherical cells variable in size, with variable number of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and microtubules in the cytoplasm. Oenocytoids contain eccentric nucleus and cytoplasm with small mitochondria and few rough endoplasmic reticula. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars while granulocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. The pattern of total hemocyte count changed during rose sawfly development and reached its peak in prepupae and then declined slowly in the pupal stage. PMID:26429582

  14. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  15. Function and evolution of microRNAs in eusocial Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Bloch, Guy; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of eusociality (“true sociality”) in several insect lineages represents one of the most successful evolutionary adaptations in the animal kingdom in terms of species richness and global biomass. In contrast to solitary insects, eusocial insects evolved a set of unique behavioral and physiological traits such as reproductive division of labor and cooperative brood care, which likely played a major role in their ecological success. The molecular mechanisms that support the social regulation of behavior in eusocial insects, and their evolution, are mostly unknown. The recent whole-genome sequencing of several eusocial insect species set the stage for deciphering the molecular and genetic bases of eusociality, and the possible evolutionary modifications that led to it. Studies of mRNA expression patterns in the brains of diverse eusocial insect species have indicated that specific social behavioral states of individual workers and queens are often associated with particular tissue-specific transcriptional profiles. Here, we discuss recent findings that highlight the role of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating traits associated with reproductive and behavioral divisions of labor in eusocial insects. We provide bioinformatic and phylogenetic data, which suggest that some Hymenoptera-specific miRNA may have contributed to the evolution of traits important for the evolution of eusociality in this group. PMID:26074950

  16. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead. PMID:23226959

  17. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised. Four previously described Afrotropical species are recognized as valid and redescribed: N. africanus Subba Rao, 1973, N. garouae (Risbec, 1956) comb. nov. (transferred from Bruchobius Ashmead), N. kitegaensis (Risbec, 1957) and N. seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) comb. nov. (from Habrocytus Thomson). In addition, the Mediterranean species N. tenuicornis Bouček, 1970 is recorded for the first time from the Afrotropical region, and 21 species are described as new: N. aequus sp. nov., N. awi sp. nov., N. brevicephalus sp. nov., N. breviclava sp. nov., N. caloramans sp. nov., N. draco sp. nov., N. erebus sp. nov., N. foritempus sp. nov., N. gibber sp. nov., N. gracilis sp. nov., N. incombo sp. nov., N. ingens sp. nov., N. longissimus sp. nov., N. maliarphae sp. nov., N. mustatai sp. nov., N. pilosus sp. nov., N. pleuralis sp. nov., N. polaszeki sp. nov., N. prinslooi sp. nov., N. rotundus sp. nov., and N. sunabron sp. nov. Three extralimital species from North Africa are included in the key: N. cerasiops (Masi, 1922), N. guyoni (Giraud, 1869), and N. obscurus (Masi, 1922). Lectotypes are designated for N. cerasiops, N. kitegaensis and N. seyrigi. The subgenus Picroscytoides Masi is placed in synonymy with Norbanus s.s. syn. nov. Host records are given for several new species, including some economically important pests of maize, sorghum or rice. PMID:26249477

  18. Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph; Son, Youngsoo; Park, Yong-Lak

    2009-12-01

    Japanese hornfaced bees Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are used for pollination of spring blooming fruit crops such as apple, pear, and blueberry. Because O. cornifrons has a short adult life span, synchronization of bee emergence with bloom is critical to maximize crop pollination. This study was conducted to determine lower temperature thresholds (LTDs), optimum temperatures, and required degree-day accumulation for emergence of O. cornifrons adults. Patterns of temperature-dependent emergence of O. cornifrons adults at seven temperatures (3.9, 12.0, 18.6, 26.6, 30.3, 35.6, and 42.5 degrees C) were modeled and simulated with linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Results of this study showed that required degree-days (DD) for emergence of male and female O. cornifrons adults were 125.2 DD, with LTD of 8.9 degrees C and 179.8 DD, with LTD of 8.6 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperatures for emergence were 36.5, 30.2, and 35.7 degrees C for male, female, and both sexes combined, respectively. This study indicated that emergence of O. cornifrons adults could be manipulated to synchronize with pollination periods of target fruit crops. PMID:20069827

  19. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  20. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  1. Aminopeptidase N isoforms from the midgut of Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella -- their classification and the factors that determine their binding specificity to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kazuko; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nagino, Yasushi; Hara, Hirotaka; Kitami, Madoka; Atsumi, Shogo; Miura, Nami; Sato, Ryoichi

    2002-05-22

    Novel aminopeptidase N (APN) isoform cDNAs, BmAPN3 and PxAPN3, from the midguts of Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella, respectively, were cloned, and a total of eight APN isoforms cloned from B. mori and P. xylostella were classified into four classes. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins were found to bind to specific APN isoforms from the midguts of B. mori and P. xylostella, and binding occurred with fragments that corresponded to the BmAPN1 Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of each APN isoform. The results suggest that APN isoforms have a common toxin-binding region, and that the apparent specificity of Cry1Aa toxin binding to each intact APN isoform seen in SDS-PAGE is determined by factors such as expression level in conjunction with differences in binding affinity. PMID:12023048

  2. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  3. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  4. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  5. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Johnston, J Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities. PMID:24260630

  6. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  7. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Else, George R.; Bolton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland. PMID:27226757

  8. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F. Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  9. Four new species of Andricus Hartig oak gallwasp from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini).

    PubMed

    Mutun, Serap; Dinç, Serdar; Bozsó, Miklós; Melika, George

    2014-01-01

    Four new species of oak gallwasps, Andricus ahmeti, A. anatolicus, A. bakrachus and A. turcicus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Turkey. All four species are known only from asexual females and induce galls on twigs and young shoots on Q. infectoria, Q. macranthera and Q. petraea. Data on the diagnosis, distribution and biology of the four new species are given. Andricus stonei and Aphelonyx kordestanica are listed for the first time for the Turkish oak gallwasp fauna. PMID:24870080

  10. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L.; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  11. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution. PMID:26272716

  12. Conservation of novel Mahya genes shows the existence of neural functions common between Hymenoptera and Deuterostome.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Mayumi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Funada, Masahiro; Aoki, Makoto; Sasagawa, Hiromi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Tadauchi, Osamu; Cameron, Sydney A; Kitagawa, Yasuo; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    Honeybees have been shown to exhibit cognitive performances that were thought to be specific to some vertebrates. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of such cognitive abilities of the bees have not been understood. We have identified a novel gene, Mahya, expressed in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and other Hymenoptera. Mahya orthologues are present in Deuterostomes but are absent or highly diverged in nematodes and, intriguingly, in two dipteran insects (fruit fly and mosquito) and Lepidoptera (silk moth). Mahya genes encode novel secretory proteins with a follistatin-like domain (Kazal-type serine/threonine protease inhibitor domain and EF-hand calcium-binding domain), two immunoglobulin domains, and a C-terminal novel domain. Honeybee Mahya is expressed in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes of the brain. Zebra fish Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, habenula, optic tectum, and cerebellum of the brain. Mouse Mahya orthologues are expressed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brain. These results suggest that Mahya may be involved in learning and memory and in processing of sensory information in Hymenoptera and vertebrates. Furthermore, the limited existence of Mahya in the genomes of Hymenoptera and Deuterostomes supports the hypothesis that the genes typically represented by Mahya were lost or highly diverged during the evolution of the central nervous system of specific Bilaterian branches under the specific selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life histories. PMID:16193321

  13. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  14. Effective population size in eusocial Hymenoptera with worker-produced males

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, T; Takahashi, J

    2012-01-01

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, a proportion of males are produced by workers. To assess the effect of male production by workers on the effective population size Ne, a general expression of Ne in Hymenoptera with worker-produced males is derived on the basis of the genetic drift in the frequency of a neutral allele. Stochastic simulation verifies that the obtained expression gives a good prediction of Ne under a wide range of conditions. Numerical computation with the expression indicates that worker reproduction generally reduces Ne. The reduction can be serious in populations with a unity or female-biased breeding sex ratio. Worker reproduction may increase Ne in populations with a male-biased breeding sex ratio, only if each laying worker produce a small number of males and the difference of male progeny number among workers is not large. Worker reproduction could be an important cause of the generally lower genetic variation found in Hymenoptera, through its effect on Ne. PMID:22948186

  15. Expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in some Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Calvello, M; Brandazza, A; Navarrini, A; Dani, F R; Turillazzi, S; Felicioli, A; Pelosi, P

    2005-04-01

    The expression of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in individuals of different castes and ages have been monitored in three species of social hymenopterans, Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), Vespa crabro (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae), using PCR with specific primers and polyclonal antibodies. In the paper wasp P. dominulus, OBP is equally expressed in antennae, wings and legs of all castes and ages, while CSP is often specifically present in antennae and in some cases also in legs. In the vespine species V. crabro CSP is antennal specific, while OBP is also expressed in legs and wings. The three CSPs and the five OBPs of A. mellifera show a complex pattern of expression, where both classes of proteins include members specifically expressed in antennae and others present in other parts of the body. These data indicate that at least in some hymenopteran species CSPs are specifically expressed in antennae and could perform roles in chemosensory perception so far assigned only to OBPs. PMID:15763466

  16. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27615886

  17. Biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balcha indica (Hymenoptera:Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity and development time were determined in the laboratory. Lifetime fecundity averaged 36 eggs...

  18. Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

  19. Cryptic species of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Asia: Binodoxys communis Gahan and Binodoxys koreanus Stary sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collections of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in Korea yielded a population that was originally identified as Binodoxys communis Gahan (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based upon current identification keys. Our laboratory studies indicated that this population is act...

  20. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest. PMID:26624663

  1. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  2. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  3. Field Control of the Invasive Ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Tropical Fruit Orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The little fire ant (LFA), Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is an invasive ant that forms supercolonies when it successfully invades new areas. LFA was first reported in Hawaii in 1999 and has since invaded a variety of agricultural sites including nurseries, tropical fruit f...

  4. Allomermis solenopsii n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitizing the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of mermithid nematode, Allomermis solenopsii, (Mermithidae: Nematoda) is described from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. This is the first record of Allomermis from South America and the first host record for members of this genus. Previo...

  5. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  6. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  7. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  8. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  9. The effect of photobleaching on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) setae color and its implications for studying aging and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of foraging ecology and plant-pollinator interactions benefit from a number of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) characteristics including morphometric measurements, natural history and age. Historically, bee age has been estimated using measurements of wing wear and integument color change. Wing w...

  10. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...