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1

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOEpatents

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01

2

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13

3

Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.  

PubMed

The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Brje

2004-03-14

4

Fabrication of Fuel Pellets from Plutonium Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel based on plutonium dioxide, which is sintered at high temperature and is produced at the Industrial Association Mayak, is supposed to be investigated in an upgraded IBR-2M reactor (Joint Institute of Nuclear Research). Oxalate precipitation of plutonium dioxide powder is done from a nitric-acid solution of plutonium with concentration from 7 to 24 g\\/liter. The oxalate hexahydrate Pu(C 2

A. I. Bobylev; S. N. Elsukov; S. I. Rovnyi; I. V. Manakov; A. V. Kobyakov; M. V. Pechenkina

2004-01-01

5

An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

MARUSICH, R.M.

1998-10-21

6

The chlorination of plutonium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the conversion of PuO to PuCl with a number of chlorinating agents, sources of PuO, and reaction conditions, including temperature. We examined Cl, HCl, CCl, Cl-CCl, and HCl-CCl as potential chlorinating agents. Our study showed tyhat Cl-CCl was the superior chlorinating agent. Using this agent, low-fired PuO--formed by calcining plutonium (III) oxalate at temperatures below 500\\/degree\\/C--is more reactive

C. Snyder; M. H. West; M. D. Ferran; K. W. Fife

1988-01-01

7

Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

1996-09-01

8

Electrochemical Process for Dissolving Plutonium Dioxide and Leaching Plutonium from Scrap or Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dissolution of plutonium (PU) from high-fired plutonium dioxide (PuO sub 2 ) and the leaching of Pu from scrap or wastes have often posed difficult process problems. Traditionally, dissolution has been accomplished using 12 M HNO sub 3 -0.18 M HF at boili...

L. A. Bray J. L. Ryan E. J. Wheelwright

1986-01-01

9

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

Hale, S.J.

1991-12-31

10

Electrochemical process for dissolving plutonium dioxide and leaching plutonium from scrap or wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolution of plutonium (Pu) from high-fired plutonium dioxide (PuO) and the leaching of Pu from scrap or wastes have often posed difficult process problems. Traditionally, dissolution has been accomplished using 12 M HNO-0.18 M HF at boiling temperatures. This work discusses the development of electrochemical solution of PuO in compartmented cells. Small amounts of oxidation catalysts are used to carry

L. A. Bray; J. L. Ryan; E. J. Wheelwright

1986-01-01

11

Electrochemical process for dissolving plutonium dioxide and leaching plutonium from scrap or wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolution of plutonium (PU) from high-fired plutonium dioxide (PuO) and the leaching of Pu from scrap or wastes have often posed difficult process problems. Traditionally, dissolution has been accomplished using 12 M HNO-0.18 M HF at boiling temperatures. This work discusses the development of electrochemical dissolution of PuO in compartmented cells. Small amounts of oxidation catalysts are used to carry

L. A. Bray; J. L. Ryan; E. J. Wheelwright

1986-01-01

12

Criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, and water (Part A) or plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada Yucca Mountain tuff, and water (Part B) have become of interest because of the appearance of recent papers on the subject. These papers postulate that if excess weapons plutonium is vitrified into a silicate log and buried underground, a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction may develop given sufficient time and interaction with the burial medium. Moreover, given specific geologic actions resulting in postulated configurations, the referenced papers state that nuclear explosions could occur with multi-kiloton yields or yields equivalent to hundreds of tons of TNT.

Sanchez, R.; Myers, W.; Hayes, D. [and others

1997-01-01

13

Assay of Small Samples of Low-Fired Plutonium Dioxide: Problem and a Simple Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-fired plutonium dioxide is hygroscopic and adsorbs carbon dioxide. This can cause gross changes in weight during sampling and shipment and bias the analytical result. The proposed procedure is based on accurately pre-weighing small subsamples at the t...

E. Kuhn S. Deron H. Aigner

1981-01-01

14

Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does

Sergei I. Sinkov; Gregg J. Lumetta

2006-01-01

15

Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

1999-06-18

16

Plutonium  

MedlinePLUS

... to Plutonium How does plutonium get into the environment? Plutonium was dispersed world wide from atmospheric testing ... of page How does plutonium change in the environment? All isotopes of plutonium undergo radioactive decay. As ...

17

Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultraso...

G. J. Lumetta S. I. Sinkov

2006-01-01

18

Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution of PuO2 can be achieved with 6 to 8 M nitric acid + 14 M HF or 8 M nitric acid + 4 M HF mixtures. In the latter case, quantitative dissolution of plutonium oxide was demonstrated only with sonication. Overall, the results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration to dissolve refractory plutonium oxide does not offer any substantial advantage over conventional ?heat and mix? treatment. Oxidative treatment by AgO appears to be effective only when very little or no oxidizable materials are present in the digested sample. The catalytic use of Ag(II) in the ''Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution'' technology would probably be more effective than using AgO because the Ag(II) is continually regenerated electrochemically. Reductive treatment with titanium trichloride in HCl solution proves to be less efficient than the previously observed effect based on in situ generation of Ti(III) in phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid media using a dip probe sonication setup. The previous experiments, however, were performed at higher temperature and with non-steady concentration profiles of Ti(III) ion in the process of sonochemical digestion.

Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2006-10-12

19

Dissolution of Plutonium Dioxide Using HCl-HF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-fired PuO sub 2 (950 deg to 1700 deg C) can be dissolved in boiling 6.1 M HCl when the fluoride ion concentration to plutonium mole (F sup - /Pu) ratio is >0.5. The amount of PuO sub 2 (950 deg C calcined oxide) dissolved in 1 hour increased from app...

L. A. Bray J. L. Ryan E. J. Wheelwright

1986-01-01

20

Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

21

Dissolution of plutonium dioxide using HCl-HF  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-fired PuO (950° to 1700°C) can be dissolved in boiling 6.1 M HCl when the fluoride ion concentration to plutonium mole (F⁻\\/Pu) ratio is >0.5. The amount of PuO (950°C calcined oxide) dissolved in 1 hour increased from approx.0.2% to 66%, 91%, and 100% as the F⁻\\/Pu ratio increased from 0 to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.8, respectively. The PuO dissolution

L. A. Bray; J. L. Ryan; E. J. Wheelwright

1986-01-01

22

Dissolution of plutonium dioxide using HCl-HF  

SciTech Connect

High-fired PuO/sub 2/ (950/sup 0/ to 1700/sup 0/C) can be dissolved in boiling 6.1 M HCl when the fluoride ion concentration to plutonium mole (F/sup -//Pu) ratio is >0.5. The amount of PuO/sub 2/ (950/sup 0/C calcined oxide) dissolved in 1 hour increased from approx.0.2% to 66%, 91%, and 100% as the F/sup -//Pu ratio increased from 0 to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.8, respectively. The PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates in HCl-CaF/sub 2/ solutions decrease with increasing oxide calcination temperatures and decreasing oxide surface areas. At a F/sup -//Pu ratio of 1.8, the 1700/sup 0/C calcined oxide was completely dissolved in 2.5 hours versus 1 hour for the 950/sup 0/C calcined oxide.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.; Wheelwright, E.J.

1986-10-01

23

THE PREPARATION OF HIGH-PURITY PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE AND PLUTONIUM(III) CHLORIDE SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is deseribed for the preparation of highpurity PuO. The ; purification process consists of a partial removal of impurities by electrolysis ; into a Hg cathode and a subsequent further purification by precipitation of the ; Pu as the peroxide. The peroxide precipitate is ignited to the dioxide at 900 ; C in a platinum-lined furnace under noncontaminating

J. E. Rein; A. L. Jr. Langhorst; M. C. Elliott

1953-01-01

24

First principle study of the behavior of helium in plutonium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incorporation and solution of helium in plutonium dioxide have been investigated based on density functional theory. The GGA and GGA + U approximations were used with the projector-augmented-wave method. Several defects that are likely to accommodate the incorporation of helium in PuO2, such as oxygen vacancy, plutonium vacancy, divacancy and Schotty defects were considered in this work. With GGA approach, the lowest incorporation energy corresponds to neutral trivacancy, followed by divacancy and plutonium vacancy, while the GGA + U scheme gave us that oxygen vacancy is the most favorable incorporation site for He. Both SP-GGA and SP-GGA + U methods obtained a same conclusion that the most favorable solution site for He is oxygen vacancy, interstitial site and plutonium vacancy for under-, perfect and over-stoichiometry, respectively. Additionally, the concentrations of the point defects and the solution energy of He for the different incorporation sites as a function of the stoichiometry were also obtained based on the point-defect model.

Tian, Xiaofeng; Gao, Tao; Lu, Chunhai; Shang, Jiacheng; Xiao, Hongxing

2013-04-01

25

Investigation into the dissolution and direct assay of high-fired plutonium dioxide. [Fusion-melt with potassium pyrosulfate and sodium peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-melt and dissolution assay method has been developed and tested for the quantitative analysis of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The method employs fusion of the plutonium dioxide at temperatures greater than the melting point of an eutectic mixture of potassium pyrosulfate plus sodium peroxide. The resultant melt is then titrated directly by either controlled potential coulometry or a gravimetric titration,

1976-01-01

26

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20

27

The melting behaviour of plutonium dioxide: A laser-heating study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the melting behaviour of plutonium dioxide has been studied for the first time via laser heating. With this method, the short experiment duration combined with minimal contact between sample and containment minimized undesired side effects, such as sample reduction, vaporisation or reaction with the holder. The sample temperature was measured by fast pyrometry, and inflections in the recorded thermograms revealed the liquid-to-solid transition. This latter was also detected via a method based on the reflectance study of a low-power laser beam reflected by the sample surface. Multi-channel spectro-pyrometry was used to investigate, in parallel, the normal spectral emittance of the samples in the wavelength range between 550 and 920 nm at the investigated temperature. The present experimental melting temperature of (3017 28) K is much higher than the values obtained in the past by traditional heating techniques. It is suggested that, in contrast to the present data, previous results were affected by extensive reaction of the plutonium dioxide samples with the containment and/or changes in the O/Pu ratio at high temperature.

De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Pml, P.; Eloirdi, R.; Konings, R. J. M.; Manara, D.

2011-09-01

28

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

2011-01-01

29

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations.\\u000a After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors\\u000a on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium\\u000a resulted fromthe dual-use scenario

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

30

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations.\\u000a After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors\\u000a on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium\\u000a resulted from the dual-use

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

31

THE PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM-ALUMINUM AND OTHER PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of plutonium-aluminum alloys by the direct reduction of plutonium trifluoride and plutonium dioxide is described. Plutonium trifluoride is reduced more rapidly at 800 deg C than at 1125 deg C with liquid aluminum owing to the evolution of gaseous aluminum monofluoride at the lower temperature. Plutonium dioxide is reduced readily by an excess of liquid aluminum at 1200

Runnalls; O. J. C

1958-01-01

32

Ground-state properties and high-pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Density functional theory calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure-induced structural transition of PuO2 . To properly describe the strong correlation in Pu5f electrons, the local-density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize U parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground-state fluorite structure and high-pressure cotunnite structure. Best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter U at around 4 eV within LDA+U approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground-state calculation, we further investigate the bonding nature, elastic constants, various moduli, Debye temperature, hardness, ideal tensile strength, and phonon dispersion for fluorite PuO2 . Some thermodynamic properties, e.g., Gibbs free energy, volume thermal expansion, and specific heat are also calculated. As for cotunnite phase, besides elastic constants, various moduli, and Debye temperature at 0 GPa, we have further presented our calculated electronic, structural, and magnetic properties for PuO2 under pressure up to 280 GPa. A metallic transition at around 133 GPa and an isostructural transition in pressure range of 75-133 GPa are predicted. Additionally, as an illustration on the valency trend and subsequent effect on the mechanical properties, the calculated results for other actinide metal dioxides ( ThO2 , UO2 , and NpO2 ) are also presented.

Zhang, Ping; Wang, Bao-Tian; Zhao, Xian-Geng

2010-10-01

33

Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Vapor pressures and vapor compositions have been calculated for 1500 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 4000/sup 0/K. Thermodynamic functions for the condensed phase and for each of the gaseous species were combined with an oxygen-potential model extended into the liquid region to obtain the partial pressures of O/sub 2/, O, Pu, PuO and PuO/sub 2/. The calculated oxygen pressures increase very rapidly as stoichiometry is approached. At least part of this increase is a consequence of the exclusion of Pu/sup 6 +/ from the oxygen-potential model. No reliable method was found to estimate the importance of this ion. As a result of large oxygen potentials at high temperatures, extremely high total pressures that produced unreasonably high vapor densities were calculated. The highest temperature was therefore limited to 400 K, and the range of oxygen-to-metal ratios was limited to 1.994 to 1.70. These calculations show that vapor in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide is poorly approximated as PuO/sub 2/ for most of the temperture and composition range of interest. The vapor is much more oxygen-rich than the condensed phase. Implications for the (U,Pu)O/sub 2-x/ system are discussed. (DLC)

Green, D.W.; Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

1982-01-01

34

On the melting behaviour of uranium/plutonium mixed dioxides with high-Pu content: A laser heating study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melting behaviour of mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides (MOX) has been investigated by laser heating under controlled atmosphere in the PuO2-rich composition range (with amount-of-substance fraction x(PuO2) ?75%). The observed solidus/liquidus points are in agreement with the newly measured melting point of pure plutonium dioxide (3017 K). They suggest the existence of a minimum freezing temperature at a composition x(PuO2) between 50% and 80%, in contrast with earlier research carried out with traditional furnace heating methods. The current results have been obtained under optimised experimental conditions aimed at maintaining the integrity and original composition of the samples throughout the laser heating cycles. With this goal in mind, experiments have been carried out under controlled gas pressure (pressurised air or argon) and short time duration (<0.25 s). A critical discussion of the present results highlights the fact that the formation of the gas phase has to be taken into account in the study of the high-Pu MOX behaviour at high temperature. The experimental results obtained thus correspond to slightly hypo-stoichiometric (U, Pu)O2-x compositions in equilibrium with the gas phase.

De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Konings, R. J. M.; Rini, M.; Eloirdi, R.; Guneau, C.; Dupin, N.; Manara, D.

2011-12-01

35

Kinetics of Reaction Between Plutonium Dioxide and Water at 25 C to 350 C: Formation and Properties of the PuO{sub 2+X} Phase  

SciTech Connect

Results of microbalance, pressure-volume-temperature, and mass spectrometric measurements show that a higher oxide of plutonium, PuO{sub 2+x}, and hydrogen are formed by reaction of plutonium dioxide with water at 25 C to 350 C. PuO{sub 2+x} has an intense green color consistent with the presence of Pu(VI). An oxide composition in excess of PuO{sub 2.25} is identified, but the maximum value of x is undefined. Reaction rates derived from linear mass-time and pressure-time data are described by an Arrhenius relationship that yields an activation energy of 9.4 {+-} 0.6 kcal/mol for the PuO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O reaction. X-ray diffraction data for PuO{sub 2+x} shows that the oxide has a fluorite-related structure consistent with substitution of Pu(VI) on cationic lattice sites and accommodation of additional oxygen on interstitial sites. The cubic lattice parameter has a low, but well-defined, linear dependence on the O:Pu ratio, suggesting that PuO{sub 2+x} forms as a continuous solid solution. The failure of earlier attempts to prepare higher oxides of plutonium is attributed to slow oxidation kinetics and insensitivity of diagnostic techniques. Similarities of the PuO{sub 2+x} and UO{sub 2+x} phase are examined and relevance of the results to plutonium technology and environmental issues is discussed.

Luis A. Morales; John M. Haschke; Thomas H. Allen

1999-05-01

36

Chlorination of Plutonium Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigated the conversion of PuO(sub 2) to PuCl(sub 3) with a number of chlorinating agents, sources of PuO(sub 2), and reaction conditions, including temperature. We examined Cl(sub 2), HCl, CCl(sub 4), Cl(sub 2)-CCl(sub 4), and HCl-CCl(sub 4) as po...

C. Snyder M. H. West M. D. Ferran K. W. Fife

1988-01-01

37

Ion Exchange Automatic Elution System Used in the Full-Scale Aqueous Scrap Purification of Plutonium-238 Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The Aqueous Scrap Recovery process at Los Alamos is designed to produce pure Plutonium Oxide (238PuO2) from scrap or impure sources. The incoming 238PuO2 contains a significant amount of impurities that must be removed before it can be processed any further. One of the purification steps involves the ion exchange process. This process sorbs the putative [Pu(NO3)6]2- dianion onto an anion exchange resin (Reillex{sup TM} HPQ), while impurities are washed from the Pu sorbed resin. Most impurities in the solution do not sorb to the resin and are part of the effluent stream. During the wash cycle, 7 M of nitric acid is pumped through the resin column to wash the resin of unsorbed impurities. The solution collected (with impurities) is the wash stream. In some cases, an online gamma spectrophotometer is used to monitor the wash stream for 234U and 241Am, and ensures that a large percentage of these isotopes have washed through the column, indicating efficient separation from the plutonium. In the final step of the process, the Pu is released (desorbed) from the resin by pumping eluant through the column during the elution cycle. Typically, the eluant used to desorb the plutonium is 0.45 M HNO3. The focus of this presentation discusses an automated elution process that has been incorporated into the system used at Los Alamos in the event that the operators must vacate the laboratory in the case of an emergency. The automated elution process is triggered by temperature, pressure, and liquid level signals being monitored on both Ion Exchange columns. The automated system relies on the commercially available Lookout{sup TM} software to control each pump and valve in the system and is programmed to perform an automatic elution for a preset time if any of the operational limiting conditions are met.

Matonic, John H.; Teague, Jonathan G.; Spengler, Diane J.; Dinh, Peter [238Pu Science and Engineering (NMT-9), Nuclear Materials and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

2005-02-06

38

Ir/PuO/sub 2/ compatibility: transfer of impurities from plutonium dioxide to iridium metal during high temperature aging  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium oxide fuel pellets for powering radioisotopic thermoelectric generators for NASA space vehicles are encapsulated in iridium which has been grain-boundary-stabilized with thorium and aluminum. After aging for 6 months at 1310/sup 0/C under vacuum, enhanced grain growth is observed in the near-surface grains of the iridium next to the PuO/sub 2/. Examination of the grain boundaries by AES and SIMS shows a depletion of thorium and aluminum. Iron, chromium, and nickel from the fuel were found to diffuse into the iridium along the grain boundaries. Enhanced grain growth appears to result from thorium depletion in the grain boundaries of the near-surface grains next to the fuel. However, in one instance grain growth was slowed by the formation of thorium oxide by oxygen diffusing up the grain boundaries.

Taylor, D.H.; Christie, W.H.; Pavone, D.

1984-01-01

39

Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

Wijesinghe, A.M.

1996-08-23

40

METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOEpatents

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

Davies, T.H.

1961-07-18

41

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this research is to evaluate health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-contaminated sites. These distributions incorporate variability/uncertainty.

Scott, Bobby R.; Hoover, Mark D.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Schollnberger, Helmut

2000-06-01

42

Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

1996-01-15

43

Plutonium Predominance Region Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four plutonium predominance region diagrams, a technique for estimating the solubility of hydrous plutonium(IV) oxide, and a method for comparing valence state distributions of uranium, neptunium and plutonium are described.

G. L. Silver

1975-01-01

44

Gas Analysis of Plutonium Materials Tested in a Bell Jar  

SciTech Connect

Seventy cans containing plutonium bearing materials have been tested for gas generation in bell jars at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Gas samples from five of the tests were taken and analyzed for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Gas samples from all five cans showed significant oxygen consumption. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were found in non-negligible quantities in all gas samples. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide generation rates are presented along with oxygen depletion rates. A description of the plutonium bearing materials is also provided.

Kies, J.

2003-04-15

45

Plutonium story  

SciTech Connect

The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

Seaborg, G T

1981-09-01

46

Plutonium and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium and Security discusses the cases for and against the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements to remove the plutonium from them. The relationship between the capability to produce plutonium and the proliferation of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already have them is discussed. America's policy for the civil use of plutonium and its policy to prevent the

Barnaby

1992-01-01

47

SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating

M. Crowder; R. Pierce; J. Scogin; G. Daniel; W. King

2012-01-01

48

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as 'can in canister') combines cans of immobilized p...

E. L. Hamilton

1999-01-01

49

METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-02-01

50

Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

Kriikku, E.

1999-01-26

51

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE  

DOEpatents

A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

1961-07-11

52

PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

1958-05-01

53

Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

Kriikku

2000-01-01

54

PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to ; about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance ; plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. ; Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and ; has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion

F. W. Schonfeld; J. T. Waber

1960-01-01

55

Plutonium-238 in fallout.  

PubMed

The observed variation in the activity ratio of plutonium-238 to plutonium-239 plus plutonium-240 in rainwater in Japan over the period from 1961 through 1968 seems to indicate that the influence of the plutonium-238 released by the burnup of the nuclear auxiliary power generator (SNAP-9A) became noticeable within about 6 months and that variation in the isotope ratio with time is affected by nuclear debris produced in the latest explosions as well as by the plutonium-238 released from the SNAP-9A generator. PMID:4883465

Mamuro, T; Matsunami, T

1969-01-31

56

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

2002-08-01

57

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

2002-05-23

58

DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING FUEL MATERIALS. Monthly Progress Letter for Month of May 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plutonium dioxide-uranium dioxide feed material ; characteristics on sinterability is determined. For this purpose, two continuous ; coprecipitation runs were completed. Sintering trials verify previously obtained ; results that high sintered densities cannot be achieved when the oxygen to ; uranium ratio is greater than 2.3. Studies were continued to assess mechanical ; sphere forming methods to

Puechl

1962-01-01

59

Plutonium Accident Resistant Container Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air tr...

J. A. Andersen

1978-01-01

60

Purification of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

During the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel by solvent extraction techniques a primary separation to give a uranium containing product stream and a plutonium containing product stream occurs. The plutonium in the plutonium containing stream is separated from neptunium and uranium by bringing a solution containing plutonium, neptunium and uranium in an organic solvent into contact first with an aqueous solution of a hydroxylamine and/or a hydrazine salt at 30/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/ C. To preferentially reduce the neptunium and to extract it into the aqueous phase and then bringing the organic solution containing plutonium and uranium into contact with an aqueous phase containing a hydroxylamine and a hydrazine salt at about 50/sup 0/ C. To preferentially reduce the plutonium and to extract it into the aqueous phase leaving the uranium in the organic solvent.

Chapman, E.S.; Smith, W.

1980-10-21

61

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the

1999-01-01

62

North Korean Plutonium Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non?Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated abut 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt?thermal (MWt) gas?graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby Radiochemical Laboratory. Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100

David Albright

1994-01-01

63

Redox speciation of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the oxidation state distribution of plutonium in natural waters is necessary in modeling its behavior in environmental systems. The redox speciation of plutonium is complicated by such effects as hydrolysis, complexation, disproportionation, solubility, and redox interchange reactions. The insolubility of Pu(OH)4 is often the limiting factor of the net solubility of plutonium in oxic natural waters where Pu(V)O

G. R. Choppin; A. H. Bond; P. M. Hromadka

1997-01-01

64

Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

1974-02-26

65

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

Kolodney, M.

1959-07-01

66

Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate  

SciTech Connect

Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

2009-11-20

67

Comparison of Spectroscopic Data with Cluster Calculations of Plutonium, Plutonium Dioxide and Uranium Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Using spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), the theoretical results within for UO{sub 2}{sup 6}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 6} and Pu{sup 7} clusters have been evaluated. The calculations of the electronic structure of the clusters have been performed within the framework of the Relativistic Discrete-Variational Method (RDV). The comparisons between the LLNL experimental data and the Russian calculations are quite favorable. The cluster calculations may represent a new and useful avenue to address unresolved questions within the field of actinide electron structure, particularly that of Pu. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size suggests interesting implications for bulk Pu electronic structure.

Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Ryzhkov, M V; Mirmelstein, A

2012-05-15

68

Plutonium oxide dissolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO(sub 2)) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO(sub 2) typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO(sub 2) pro...

J. H. Gray

1992-01-01

69

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM PUMP EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Plutonium Pump Experiment was a subcritical mock-up of a ; reactor core in which a plutonium-iron alloy was circulated by means of a sodium ; lift pump. Sodium for the lift pumping was circulated by an E. M. pump in an ; isothermal loop at 500 deg C. The purpose of the test was to study pump ;

J. E. Deverall; G. L. Caldwell

1962-01-01

70

Electrodeposition of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Equipment for electrolytic deposition of plutonium from molten salt solutions was designed and built and was tested with cerium as a stand-in for plutonium. The electrolysis cell is a graphite crucible that serves as the anode; the cathode is a molybdenum rod. This paper discusses results of that test.

Kelley, H.M.

2002-10-30

71

ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

Wolter, F.J.

1957-09-10

72

Plutonium and security  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium and Security discusses the cases for and against the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements to remove the plutonium from them. The relationship between the capability to produce plutonium and the proliferation of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already have them is discussed. America's policy for the civil use of plutonium and its policy to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons are described. European and Japanese plans in the 1990s for plutonium are analyzed as are current nuclear programs in Third World countries. The problems that will be faces by the 1995 conference to discuss for how long to extend the Non-Proliferation Treaty are outlined and the prospects for the conference analyzed. A global program for controlling fissile material is discussed in detail.

Barnaby, F. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

1992-01-01

73

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading  

SciTech Connect

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

Hamilton, E.L.

1999-01-26

74

THE FLUORINATION OF PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorination of plutonium tetrafluoride by elemental fluorine to ; form plutonium hexafluoride was studied in a flow system at temperatures between ; 100 and 500 deg C. Partial pressures of fluorine from 0.25 to 1.0 atmosphere were ; used. The plutonium tetrafluoride was obtained from several sources, including ; the dissolution of uranium-plutonium alloys in bromine trifluoride. Activation ;

M. J. Steindler; D. V. Steidl; R. K. Steunenberg

1958-01-01

75

PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS  

DOEpatents

Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

1963-07-16

76

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

77

Plutonium dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A two-step process is described for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M--1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M--0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45 C and 70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen. 2 figs.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1996-01-09

78

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options

Gray

1992-01-01

79

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation

Gray

1992-01-01

80

Improved Radiation Dosimetry\\/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this project is to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks to humans associated with inhaling plutonium (Pu). Two key DOE issues are being addressed: (1) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-associated health risks for DOE workers involved in decommissioning\\/decontamination (D&D) activities; and (2) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks

Bobby R. Scott; Yung-Sung Cheng; Yue Zhou; Zoya B. Tokarskaya; Galina V. Zhuntova

2001-01-01

81

Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible ²³⁸Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such

Jay Stimmel; Roger Wishau; Kevin B. Ramsey; Andrew Montoya; Jason Brock; M. Heslop; K. Wernly

1999-01-01

82

Plutonium Ceramic Target for MASHA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 degrees C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides ...

P. A. Wilk D. A. Shaughnessy K. J. Moody J. M. Kenneally

2004-01-01

83

INTERCOMPARISON OF PLUTONIUM-239 MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1977 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency distributed calibrated solutions of plutonium-239 to laboratories interested in participating in an intercomparison study of plutonium analysis. Participants were asked to perform a quantitative radioactivity analysis of the soluti...

84

Plutonium accident resistant container project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package

1978-01-01

85

Weapons plutonium: Just can it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilemma plaguing the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) in dealing with 50 years of manufacturing nuclear weapons is choosing a way to dispose of surplus warhead plutonium. The Clinton administration pledged in March 1995 to dispose of approximately 200 metric tons of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It was later disclosed that this included 38.2 tons of plutonium, of which

Lyman

1996-01-01

86

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which

1991-01-01

87

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium ; metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a ; mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in ; contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture ; consisting of calcium oxide and from

Anicetti

1959-01-01

88

Plutonium storage: Requirements and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retirement of large numbers of nuclear weapons will necessitate management of unprecedented quantities of excess plutonium. In addition, surplus material and residues from previous weapon production activities comprise a substantial quantity of concentrated plutonium that exists in a variety of chemical forms. Storage of plutonium for an indefinite period will be necessary until a decision regarding ultimate disposition is

P. T. Cunningham; J. M. Haschke; J. C. Martz

1993-01-01

89

PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

2010-02-01

90

Radiolytic effects of plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium isotopes, most of them a-emitters, cause radiolytic changes in the matrix, in whic h they are embedded. The internal irradiation of Pu metal or its alloys results in physical changes, largel y as a result of the formation of helium bubbles, well-known to material scientists and weapons specialists . In all other media where plutonium occurs, usually as Pu'+ in an ionic form, the results of irradiation ar e chemical in nature. Homogenous media containing Pu, are often aqueous or non-aqueous solutions o f plutonium compounds, mostly originating during processing of spent nuclear fuel or from Pu processing . Heterogenous matrices containing plutonium are more complex from the point of view of radiolysis; they usually contain a variety of combinations of common materials contaminated with radionuclides . This class of radioactive materials represents a challenge for the management of plutonium waste . One has to consider a range of time scales for radiolytic effects (and consequently a several orders o f magnitude range of the cumulative dose) beginning with waste generation, through packaging, transportation, to the period of final storage . Final storage could be for thousands of years in deep geologic repositories . At every ' stage of that time scale, radiolysis proceeds continuously an d cumulative effects c an complicate operating procedures and final disposition . The results presented here have been obtained from experiments that have irradiated of model materials, which are typically the objects of contamination with plutonium . They were irradiated with linearly accelerated electrons up to very high dose rates, adjusted to simulate any contamination at any point on the time scale .

Zagorski, Z. (Zbigniew); Dziewinski, J. J. (Jacek J.); Conca, James L.

2003-01-01

91

Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2002-08-01

92

SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

Duffield, R.B.

1958-08-12

93

Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)  

SciTech Connect

In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used to characterize the oxide at certain points during calcination include surface-area analyses, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, moisture-adsorption measurements, and quantitative supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction of adsorbed water. Significant decreases in the LOI and surface area occurred as the oxide was calcined at progressively increasing temperatures. Studies indicate that supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction is an effective method for removing adsorbed water from oxides. We extracted the water from powdered oxides (high-purity ZrO{sub 2}, pure PuO{sub 2}, and impure plutonium oxide) using CO{sub 2} at 3000 psi pressure and 75{degrees}C, and we quantitatively determined it by using gravimetric and dew-point procedures. The effectiveness of the extraction method is demonstrated by good agreement between the amounts of water extracted from pure zirconium and plutonium dioxides and the mass changes obtained from LOI analyses. However, the amount of moisture (0.025 mass %) extracted from the impure plutonium oxide after it had been calcined at 950{degrees}C and stored for a period of months is much less than the LOI value (0.97 mass %). These results imply that the impure plutonium oxide is free of adsorbed water after calcination at 950{degrees}C, even though the sample does not satisfy the LOI requirement of <0.50 mass % for storage.

Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C. [and others

1997-03-01

94

The politics of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first major setback to the development of FBR's occurred in 1971 whe the Scientists' Institute for Public Information brought suit against AEC for its failure to write an environmental impact statement on the FBR development program. The legal and administrative developments that have brought anti-plutonium attitudes from a minority position to widely accepted policy are outlined. Such nuclear accidents

J. Abbotts; H. Wasserman

1978-01-01

95

Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it

Pillay; K. K. S

1996-01-01

96

Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

2000-03-07

97

Plutonium metal turnings fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 27, 1954, 965 grams of plutonium alloy contained in three standard quart size ice cream cartons were being removed from the process line by two process operators using the plastic bag technique. Shortly after the plastic bag scaler had been energized a brown spot appeared on the plastic bag. The glowing turnings burned through the containers and plastic

Pierick

1954-01-01

98

Plutonium: Facts and Inferences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the knowledge that we have about plutonium from the point of view of the inferences that can be drawn from such knowledge relative to the implications for society of the creation of this element in a nuclear power industry. It represen...

C. L. Comar W. B. Seefeldt W. J. Mecham M. J. Steindler B. L. Cohen

1976-01-01

99

Dissolution of Plutonium Metal in 8-10 M Nitric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO(sub 2)) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes ...

R. Pierce T. Rudisill

2012-01-01

100

Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide in Nitric Acid at High Hydrofluoric Acid Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitirc acid (HNO sub 3 ) at high hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations has been investigated. Dissolution rate curves were obtained using 12M HNO sub 3 and HF at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 1.0 molar. The di...

A. R. Kazanjian J. R. Stevens

1984-01-01

101

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

102

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

Coops, M.S.

1992-06-02

103

Investigations of plutonium immobilization into the vitreous compositions  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of radioactive waste is a central problem and among the most important concerns of the nuclear fuel cycle.The Russian concept of nuclear fuel-cycle management is aimed at reprocessing spent fuel with the maximum, economically justified extraction of useful components for their recycling. The technology currently used in Russia for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel gives rise to liquid high- level waste (HLW) with minor concentrations of valuable components such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) [1]. The liquid radioactive wastes formed in the course of reprocessing are converted into the solid forms suitable for the transportation, storage, and burial. Of special importance is management of high-level waste (HLW). Although various technological approaches underlying the processes for the solidification or immobilization of liquid HLW are used at the research institutes of the MINATOM RF [1-5], all these approaches have in common the idea of a strong bonding of radionuclides in the resulting solid matrices. Therefore, development of solidification technologies must include the mandatory stages of investigating the behavior of HLW components during the immobilization process and in the prepared solidified compositions and characterizing their properties under conditions for subsequent transportation, storage, and burial. An important technological area of exploration is study of the behavior of long-lived alpha radionuclides during the course of the vitrification process and the ultimate long-range influence of these radionuclides on the properties of the immobilized forms. For the most part, immobilization of alpha radionuclides, particularly plutonium, in vitreous compositions involves investigations on the properties of final materials and the effect of alpha-decay radiation on the synthesized solid compositions. Another direction of investigation is study on the behavior of plutonium and transplutonium elements upon vitrification of liquid HLW, as applied to the one-stage process for immobilizing HLW by using different types of melters. Such studies were carried out to forecast the behavior of the above radionuclides during long-term operation of the ceramic melter at the vitrification facility of PU `Mayak.` The results of many investigations on the behavior of plutonium upon immobilization into phosphate and borosilicate vitreous compositions developed in Russia are generalized and summarized in the present work. In the conducted investigations of plutonium immobilization into both phosphate and borosilicate vitreous compositions used for the solidification of high-level liquid wastes upon vitrification in ceramic melters,0272 plutonium exhibited a limited solubility in the studied glass matrices. The solubility of plutonium, using plutonium dioxide powders, in phosphate and borosilicate glasses of specifically studied compositions was limited to 0.2 -0.4 wt %. The degree of incorporation (i.e., solubility) of plutonium, using plutonium in the form of nitrate solutions, in borosilicate glasses was also equal to 0.2-0.4 wt %. The degree of incorporation (i.e., solubility) of plutonium, using plutonium in the form of nitrate solutions, in phosphate glasses depended considerably on the chemical compositions of the solution to be solidified and on the specific glass matrix (i. e., on the composition of final solidified product) and was equal to 0.4-1.0 wt %. Available experimental data also allow one to assume that the use of the cold-crucible- induction melter (CCIM) method for immobilizing plutonium-containing wastes [6-8] provides a means of synthesizing the high-quality final solid-glass products with a plutonium content.

Matyunin, Y.I.; Jardine, L.J.

1998-03-02

104

Plutonium recovery from organic materials  

DOEpatents

A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

1973-12-11

105

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

Anicetti, R.J.

1959-08-11

106

Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01

107

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

108

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

109

MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

1962-02-27

110

Plutonium Air Shipments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nuclear Control Institute created a web site in response to a proposed standard for the shipment of radioactive materials. This site presents two world maps showing both sea and air routes that are planned or already in use for the shipment of plutonium. A series of papers by NCI-affiliated scientists and observers on the subject of radioactive materials shipments sets out the NCI position against such shipments.

1996-01-01

111

Welding Plutonium Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

HUDLOW, SL

2004-04-20

112

METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

1962-11-13

113

PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

1958-09-01

114

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages

E. Kriikku; C. Ward; M. Stokes; B. Randall; J. Steed; R. Jones; L. Rogers; J. Fiscus; G. Dyches

1998-01-01

115

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans,

Kriikku

2000-01-01

116

Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride  

DOEpatents

The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

Rabideau, Sherman W. (Los Alamos, NM); Campbell, George M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

117

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

1960-02-01

118

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste

K. K. S. Pillay

1995-01-01

119

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste

Pillay; K. K. S

1993-01-01

120

Aging phenomenon in metallic plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, as with weapons science issues, the monitoring of plutonium aging becomes an important issue for surveillance. The reasons for this are many-fold. First, and perhaps most important, plutonium is radioactive, primarily through the process of alpha decay. This process has many consequences. One pragmatic one is that the alpha particles ejected near the surface can be used with an

M. F. Stevens; J. C. Martz

1998-01-01

121

THERMAL EXPANSION OF PLUTONIUM CARBIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of plutonium hydride with carbon produced a mixture of ; plutonium monocarbide and plutcnium sesquicarbide. A wrapped container enabled ; the thin-walled quartz capillary containing the specimen to be handled in a ; gloved box and to be removed without stray alpha-contamination. Welding of the ; specimen rotating msgnet in the powder camera and limitation of the temperature

Pallmer

1962-01-01

122

Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

2002-07-01

123

Probing Phonons in Plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

Wong, Joe

2004-03-01

124

The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

125

CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS  

DOEpatents

A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

1960-08-23

126

PROBABLE VOLATILIZATION OF PLUTONIUM DURING A FIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire hazards involving plutonium are discussed. The available ; experimental information was evaluated and compared with theoretical ; volatilization rates in order to make an estimate of the amount of plutonium ; released to the atmosphere in a fire. It was determined that the probable ; maximum release of plutonium is 0.08%. The most likely mechanism for releasing ; plutonium

1961-01-01

127

Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative

L. L. Martella; M. T. Saba; G. K. Campbell

1984-01-01

128

Cost-benefit analysis of unfired PuO/sub 2/ pellets as an alternative plutonium shipping form  

SciTech Connect

A limited cost-benefit evaluation was performed concerning use of unfired plutonium dioxide pellets as a shipping form. Two specific processing operations are required for this use, one to form the pellet (pelletizing) and a second to reconstitute an acceptable powder upon receipt (reconstitution). The direct costs for the pelletizing operation are approximately $208,000 for equipment and its installation and $122 per kg of plutonium processed (based upon a 20-kg plutonium/day facility). The direct costs for reconstitution are approximately $90,000 for equipment and its installation and $81 per kg of plutonium processed. The indirect cost considered was personnel exposure from these operations. Whole body exposures ranged from 0.04 man-rem per 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 0.9 man-rem per 100 kg of average-exposure plutonium pelletized. Hand exposures were much higher - 17 man-rem power 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 67 man-rem per 100 kg of average plutonium pelletized. The principal benefit is a potential twentyfold reduction of airborne release in the event of an accident. An experimental plan is outlined to fill the data gaps uncovered during this study in the areas of pelletizing and reconstitution process parameters and pellet response behavior to accident-generated stresses. A study to enhance the containment potential of the inner packaging used during shipment is also outlined.

Mishima, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Libby, R.A.; Soldat, K.L.; White, G.D.

1983-10-01

129

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

Gray, J.H.

1992-09-30

130

Plutonium238 dioxide\\/T-111 compatibility studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tantalum-base alloy, T-111, is an ideal radioisotope encapsulant ;\\u000a from the aspect of mechanical properties, but unfortunately undergoes severe ;\\u000a oxygen embrittlement during long-term, high-temperature exposure to PuO. ;\\u000a A study was undertaken in an effort to improve T-111\\/PuO compatibility by ;\\u000a testing the hypothesis that reduction of fuel stoichiometry to the range PuO$sub ;\\u000a 1$. to PuO. would

G. J. Jones; J. E. Selle; P. E. Teaney

1975-01-01

131

The MD simulation of thermal properties of plutonium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic properties of PuO2 have been investigated between 300 and 3000 K by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with empirical interaction potential. The properties include melting point, lattice parameter variation, enthalpy and heat capacity. The melting point of two-phase simulation (TPS) is in agreement with the experimental value, and it gives a much lower value than one-phase simulation (OPS). The lattice parameter and heat capacity at high temperatures are expressed as a(T)=5.38178+4.3810-5T+6.552510-9T+0.936210-12T and CP(KJ?mol-1?K-1)=18648.8e/(T(-1)2)+9.33710-6T, respectively. True linear thermal expansion coefficient (TLTEC) ? is about 8.8910-6 K-1 at 300 K. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical data.

Mingjie, Wan; Li, Zhang; Jiguang, Du; Duohui, Huang; Lili, Wang; Gang, Jiang

2012-12-01

132

FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} is also likely to be present in deposits and scales that have formed on the steel surfaces of the tank. Over the operational period and after closure of Tank 18, Ostwald ripening has and will continue to transform PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} to a more crystalline form of plutonium dioxide, PuO{sub 2(c)}. After bulk waste removal and heel retrieval operations, the free hydroxide concentration decreased and the carbonate concentration in the free liquid and solids increased. Consequently, a portion of the PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} has likely been converted to a hydroxy-carbonate complex such as Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)}. or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}. Like PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)}, Ostwald ripening of Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)} or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} would be expected to occur to produce a more crystalline form of the plutonium carbonate complex. Due to the high alkalinity and low carbonate concentration in the grout formulation, it is expected that upon interaction with the grout, the plutonium carbonate complexes will transform back into plutonium hydroxide. Although crystalline plutonium dioxide is the more stable thermodynamic state of Pu(IV), the low temperature and high water content of the waste during the operating and heel removal periods in Tank 18 have limited the transformation of the plutonium into crystalline plutonium dioxide. During the tank closure period of thousands of years, transformation of the plutonium into a more crystalline plutonium dioxide form would be expected. However, the continuing presence of water, reaction with water radiolysis products, and low temperatures will limit the transformation, and will likely maintain an amorphous Pu(OH){sub 4} or PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} form on the surface of any crystalline plutonium dioxide produced after tank closure. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) measurements of Tank 18 residues are recommended to confirm coordination environments of the plutonium. If the presence of PuO(CO{sub 3}){sub (am,hyd)} is confirmed by XAS, it is recommended that e

Hobbs, D.

2012-02-24

133

Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains

Brian J Ade; Ian C Gauld

2011-01-01

134

Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code  

SciTech Connect

A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

1981-04-01

135

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic materi...

M. L. Meyer

1991-01-01

136

METHOD OF DISSOLVING MASSIVE PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Massive plutonium can be dissolved in a hot mixture of concentrated nitric acid and a small quantity of hydrofluoric acid. A preliminary oxidation with water under superatmospheric pressure at 140 to 150 deg C is advantageous

Facer, J.F.; Lyon, W.L.

1960-06-28

137

Plutonium Diffusivity in Compacted Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement on plutonium diffusivity in water-saturated compacted bentonite was carried out. Representative specimens of sodium bentonite were taken from Tsukinuno and Kuroishi mines situated in northeast Japan. Tsukinuno bentonite was divided into three ...

K. Idemitsu K. Ishiguro Y. Yusa N. Sasaki N. Tsunoda

1989-01-01

138

TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

Waber, J.T.

1960-02-23

139

Rapid Nondestructive Plutonium Isotopic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for plutonium isotopic measurements have been evaluated for nuclear safeguards inventory verification. A mobile, real-time, nondestructive assay, gamma-ray spectrometric measurement system has been assembled, moved and operated at several nuclear ...

J. E. Fager F. P. Brauer

1978-01-01

140

METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOEpatents

C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

1959-11-17

141

New reagent for uranium - plutonium partitioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have investigated the feasibility of achieving uranium-plutonium partition of the Purex Process by using a new reagent: Uranous nitrate - hydroxylamine nitrate. Laboratory test tube studies and uranium-plutonium partitioning runs have shown that pluton...

M. Germain B. Gillet J. Y. Pasquiou

1990-01-01

142

Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates.

Tusler, L.A.

1995-05-31

143

Method of Dissolving Plutonium with Sulfamic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissolution of plutonium metal is required in various nuclear fuel processes, for example, as a preliminary step to solvent extraction. Plutonium metal is contacted with aqueous sulfamic acid in a stainless steel container until dissolution. The conta...

W. J. Jenkins

1965-01-01

144

Plutonium focus area  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-08-01

145

Supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO) cleaning of nuclear weapon components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO) has been evaluated as a cleaning solvent for the cleaning of plutonium (Pu) metal parts. The results of the evaluation show that SCCO is an effective alternative to halogenated solvents that are conventionally used for removing organic and inorganic contaminants from the surface of these parts. The cleaning process was demonstrated at the laboratory scale

C. M. V. Taylor; L. D. Sivils; J. B. Rubin

1998-01-01

146

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01

147

PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-09-01

148

Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)

2001-02-07

149

Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

Kriikku

2000-01-01

150

Production and destination of British civil plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of plutonium produced by the Magnox reactors belonging to the CEGB and SSEB is estimated using three different methods which give similar results for total plutonium production. The difference between this total and the UK civil plutonium inventory is 6.3 +\\/- 0.8 tonne. This balance was apparently sent to the United States in exchange for fissile material for

K. W. J. Barnham; D. Hart; J. Nelson; R. A. Stevens

1985-01-01

151

The biological hazards of plutonium.  

PubMed

The health hazards associated with exposure to low levels of plutonium are reviewed since, though the world may escape a nuclear war, there may be virtually permanent contamination of the biosphere by plutonium from a number of sources. It would seem that it is possible to offer workers in the nuclear industry an acceptable level of protection but that low levels of pollution around such sites may build up until there is a hazard for people in the vicinity. The cases of childhood leukaemia found in the vicinity of the Sellafield facility may or may not be related to contamination in the area; however, plutonium is a potent carcinogen, and the foetus seems to be particularly vulnerable to it. The disposal of nuclear waste must be monitored more closely, and it is suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency should take on this added responsibility. PMID:8047050

Freeman, S E; Ormiston-Smith, H M

152

Plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

NONE

1996-05-01

153

Dehydration of plutonium trichloride hydrate  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

1991-12-31

154

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

155

Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

Erickson, S.

2000-07-19

156

PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

1958-01-01

157

PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES  

DOEpatents

A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

Wahl, A.C.

1957-11-12

158

Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions  

SciTech Connect

Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig.

Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

1991-12-31

159

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

SciTech Connect

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO{sub 2} fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle.

Newman, D.F.

1993-06-01

160

Screen for Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)|

Foster, John; And Others

1986-01-01

161

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01

162

Plutonium immobilization form evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

Gray, L. W., LLNL

1998-02-13

163

Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)|

Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

1974-01-01

164

Americium extraction from plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single stage process using MgCl2 in CaCl2 has been demonstrated to remove 90% of the americium from plutonium with no transfer of impurities to the product metal except magnesium, which is readily removed in a vacuum casting operation. .

Watson, R. F.

2000-07-01

165

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution

1983-01-01

166

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than

Korinko

2009-01-01

167

Japanese utilities` plutonium utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan`s 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance

Matsuo; Yuichiro

1996-01-01

168

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

Meyer, M.L.

1991-01-01

169

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

Meyer, M.L.

1991-12-31

170

Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

1974-01-01

171

Laboratory-Scale Evaluations of Alternative Plutonium Precipitation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compare...

L. L. Martella M. T. Saba G. K. Campbell

1984-01-01

172

Spectroscopic investigations of neptunium`s and plutonium`s oxidation states in sol-gel glasses as a function of initial valance and thermal history  

SciTech Connect

Several oxidation states of neptunium and plutonium, Pu(III),Pu (IV), PU(VI), Np(IV), Np(V) and Np (VI), were studied in glasses prepared by a sol-gel technology. The oxidation state of these actinides was determined primarily by absorption spectrometry and followed as a function of the solidification process, subsequent aging and thermal treatments. It was determined that the initial oxidation state of the actinides in the starting solutions was essentially maintained through the solidification process to form the glasses. However, during densification and removal of residual solvents at elevated temperatures, both actinides in the different sol-gel products converted completely to their tetravalent states. These results are discussed in terms of our findings in comparable studies that only the tetravalent states of plutonium and neptunium are formed in glasses prepared by dissolving their dioxides in different molten- glass formulations.

Stump, N.A. [Winston-Salem State Univ., NC (United States). Dept. of Physical Sciences; Haire, R.G.; Dai, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-01

173

Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the de...

R. D. Scheele T. D. Cooper S. A. Jones J. R. Ewalt J. A. Compton D. S. Trent M. K. Edwards A. E. Kozelisky P. A. Scott M. J. Minette

2005-01-01

174

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01

175

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01

176

Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.  

PubMed

The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries. PMID:21341700

Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

2011-02-22

177

PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

Thompson, S.G.

1960-04-26

178

10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

2013-01-01

179

Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

1997-10-01

180

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE  

DOEpatents

An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

Watt, G.W.

1958-08-19

181

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

1998-05-01

182

Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

1999-04-01

183

WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE  

DOEpatents

S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

1958-11-11

184

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

Potratz, H.A.

1958-12-16

185

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT1) packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

Paul T. Mann; Michael L. Caviness; Richard Hiroyuki Yoshimura

2010-01-01

186

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

Michael L Caviness; Paul T Mann; Richard H Yoshimura

2010-01-01

187

Electrochemical investigation into the mechanism of plutonium reduction in electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently impure plutonium metal is purified at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a molten salt electrorefining process. Electrorefining is an effective method for producing high-purity plutonium metal (> 99.95%). In general this process involves the oxidation of impure plutonium metal from a molten plutonium anode or a solvent metal\\/plutonium anode, transport of plutonium ions through a molten salt electrolyte, and

L. E. McCurry; G. M. M. Moy

1987-01-01

188

Plutonium Isotopic Measurements by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nondestructive assay of plutonium is important as a safeguard tool in accounting for stategic nuclear material. Several nondestructive assay techniques, e.g., calorimetry and spontaneous fission assay detectors, require a knowledge of plutonium and americium isotopic ratios to convert their raw data to total grams of plutonium. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241

Francis X. Haas; John F. Lemming

1976-01-01

189

Plutonium transmutation in thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The HELIOS spectral code was used to study the application of the thorium fuel cycle with plutonium as a supporting fissile material in a once-through scenario of the light water reactors PWR and VVER-440 (Russian design). Our analysis was focused on the plutonium transmutation potential and the plutonium radiotoxicity course of hypothetical thorium-based cycles for current nuclear power reactors. The paper shows a possibility to transmute about 50% of plutonium in analysed reactors. Positive influence on radiotoxicity after 300 years and later was pointed out. (authors)

Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Breza, Juraj [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)]|[VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Darilek, Petr [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

190

METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

1959-10-01

191

Assay of low-level plutonium effluents  

SciTech Connect

In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L.

Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

1981-01-01

192

OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

1958-06-10

193

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

194

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

195

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks to humans associated with inhaling plutonium (Pu). Two key DOE issues are being addressed: (1) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-associated health risks for DOE workers involved in decommissioning/decontamination (D&D) activities; and (2) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks for public exposures arising from residual PuO2 in soil at remediated (cleaned-up) DOE sites. The scientific goal of this project is to improve capabilities for assessing health risk distributions for DOE workers and the public associated with inhaling Pu. The focus of our work has been on DOE worker and public exposure scenarios related to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, commonly called Rocky Flats.

Scott, Bobby R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.

2001-06-01

196

Radiochemical studies on the isotope plutonium-241  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of plutonium isotopes have been prepared and studied during the course of the Manhattan project and subsequent operations. Plutonium isotopes from mass 232 to 243 have been characterized and their radiations measured. Of these isotopes, the group of mass 238 to 242 are of particular importance due to their production in appreciable quantities by neutron irradiation of

Chetham-Brode

1953-01-01

197

The Electrochromatography of Seawater Containing Dissolved Plutonium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochromatographic techniques were used to determine the chemical form of plutonium in seawater. If either Pu (III), Pu (IV) or PuO2(++) was added to a 0.7M NaCl-0.0023 M Na2CO3 solution, it was found that in each case about 30% of the plutonium would...

W. E. Lingren

1966-01-01

198

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since

2000-01-01

199

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

Goeckermann, R.H.

1961-04-01

200

Corrosion of delta Plutonium by Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion of delta-stabilized (1 wt % Ga) WR plutonium was studied in water, synthetic sea water, tap water, and distilled water. The product is a dark blue-green residue, suggesting a mixture of hydrated trivalent and tetravalent plutonium hydroxides. Th...

A. E. Hodges J. M. Haschke

1979-01-01

201

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding

1993-01-01

202

Plutonium Immobilization Program: Can-in-Canister  

SciTech Connect

'The end of the cold war brought about a potential new danger, the existence of surplus weapons grade plutonium in the U.S. and Russia. Bilateral disposition programs provide the preferred long-term solution. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. approach to plutonium immobilization using the Can-in-Canister technology.'

Rankin, D.T.

1999-07-14

203

Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

In December 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Storage and Disposition PEIS)'' (DOE 1996a). That PEIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternative strategies for the long-term storage of weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) and the disposition of weapons-usable plutonium that has been or may be declared surplus to national security needs. The Record of Decision (ROD) for the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', issued on January 14, 1997 (DOE 1997a), outlines DOE's decision to pursue an approach to plutonium disposition that would make surplus weapons-usable plutonium inaccessible and unattractive for weapons use. DOE's disposition strategy, consistent with the Preferred Alternative analyzed in the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', allows for both the immobilization of some (and potentially all) of the surplus plutonium and use of some of the surplus plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of both the immobilized plutonium and the MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a potential geologic repository.

N /A

1999-11-19

204

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid ; zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding ; fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg\\/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of ; hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

Goeckermann

1961-01-01

205

49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aboard the aircraft on the main deck or the lower cargo compartment in the aft-most location that is possible for cargo of its size and weight, and no other cargo may be stowed aft of packages containing plutonium. (c) A package of plutonium...

2012-10-01

206

49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aboard the aircraft on the main deck or the lower cargo compartment in the aft-most location that is possible for cargo of its size and weight, and no other cargo may be stowed aft of packages containing plutonium. (c) A package of plutonium...

2011-10-01

207

The hydrofluorination of uranium and plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of uranium and plutonium deposits by vacuum deposition of their fluorides has a number of advantages over other methods, but requires anhydrous fluorides, which are preferably prepared using the dry hydrofluorination process. However this process depends on the way the starting materials have been prepared. Both for uranium and plutonium oxides preparation via the oxalate way is recommended.

Eykens, R.; Pauwels, J.; van Audenhove, J.

1985-06-01

208

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten ; plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by ; circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative ; temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for ; criticality control. (AEC)

R. M. Kiehn; L. D. P. King; R. E. Peterson; E. O. Jr. Swickard

1962-01-01

209

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

Hamilton, L.

2000-04-28

210

Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest

1996-01-01

211

Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other  

SciTech Connect

This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

Condit, R.H.

1994-05-01

212

Production of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

House, The S.

2013-05-15

213

Carbon Dioxide and Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

Brewer, Peter G.

1978-01-01

214

Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatically operated carbon dioxide reduction system was developed, fabricated and tested. The system was designed to reduce the carbon dioxide equivalent to that produced by one man, and to produce carbon and oxygen. A system such as this is require...

H. Chandler

1964-01-01

215

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

216

New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-27

217

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

Ritter, D.M.

1959-01-13

218

Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

1984-06-01

219

ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

1960-06-28

220

Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to

A. J. Frankel; N. L. Shapiro

1976-01-01

221

PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating ; and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium ; peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains ; appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process ; this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of ; the

J. G. Barrick; B. A. Fries

1960-01-01

222

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOEpatents

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14

223

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOEpatents

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14

224

Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

2002-02-27

225

Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric uranium dioxide at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with a hypostoichiometric uranium-plutonium dioxide condensed phase (U\\/sub 1-y\\/Pu\\/sub y\\/)O\\/sub 2-x\\/, as functions of T, x, and y, have been calculated for 0.0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.1, 0.0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 0.3, and for the temperature range

D. W. Green; J. K. Fink; L. Leibowitz

1982-01-01

226

Process for producing manganese dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the manufacture of manganese dioxide by a chemical process. The resulting manganese dioxide product takes the form of particles characterized by filament-like protrusions jutting out from its surface. The manganese dioxide particles having such surface features can be manufactured by reacting manganese sulfate with sodium peroxodisulfate in an aqueous solution. The process can be controlled to yield high density manganese dioxide. The manganese dioxide formed in the process can be deposited directly onto the surface of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD). The manganese dioxide product the is particularly suitable for use as a cathode active material in electrochemical cells. 16 figs.

Wang, E.I.; Lin, L.; Bowden, W.L.

1994-01-11

227

NON-CORROSIVE PLUTONIUM FUEL SYSTEMS  

DOEpatents

An improved plutonium reactor liquid fuel is described for utilization in a nuclear reactor having a tantalum fuel containment vessel. The fuel consists of plutonium and a diluent such as iron, cobalt, nickel, cerium, cerium-- iron, cerium--cobalt, cerium--nickel, and cerium--copper, and an additive of carbon and silicon. The carbon and silicon react with the tantalum container surface to form a coating that is self-healing and prevents the corrosive action of liquid plutonium on the said tantalum container. (AEC)

Coffinberry, A.S.; Waber, J.T.

1962-10-23

228

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

Reber, E.J.

1959-09-01

229

HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration  

SciTech Connect

The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996.

Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

1997-10-01

230

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOEpatents

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13

231

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

Kriikku, E.

1999-05-13

232

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

1993-06-01

233

Carbon dioxide (reduction).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the develo...

A. Fujita

2000-01-01

234

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of luminescent microorganisms are maintained under cultivation to provide suitable biosensors for the testing program for carbon dioxide. The basic bioluminescent agar medium is currently being used for growth of the cultures. Tests of lumi...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

235

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

236

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. L. Kalvinskas

1974-01-01

237

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Manifold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The device is for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere without the attendant release or production of noxious chemicals. It is for use in a submerged submarine. The device includes a housing, inlets, canisters containing lithium hydroxide, a blower...

W. E. McConnaughey

1965-01-01

238

What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

Forsberg, C.W.

1995-06-29

239

PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOEpatents

A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1961-05-01

240

Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant  

SciTech Connect

This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process and immobilize 17 tonnes of plutonium in ten years. The project schedule for either case is shown in a table.

DiSabatino, A A

2000-05-01

241

Opportunities in Plutonium Metallurgical Research  

SciTech Connect

This is an exciting time to be involved in plutonium metallurgical research. Over the past few years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental materials science of this unusual metal, particularly in the areas of self-irradiation induced aging of Pu, the equilibrium phase diagram, the homogenization of {delta}-phase alloys, the crystallography and morphology of the {alpha}'-phase resulting from the isothermal martensitic phase transformation, and the phonon dispersion curves, among many others. In addition, tremendous progress has been made, both experimentally and theoretically, in our understanding of the condensed matter physics and chemistry of the actinides, particularly in the area of electronic structure. Although these communities have made substantial progress, many challenges still remain. This brief overview will address a number of important challenges that we face in fully comprehending the metallurgy of Pu with a specific focus on aging and phase transformations. (author)

Schwartz, Adam J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2007-07-01

242

Plutonium focus area: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-03-01

243

Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Different size cuts of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-..mu..m pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 ..mu..m was 3 ng/m/sup 2//s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-..mu..m filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Kosiewicz, S.T.; Heaton, R.C.

1985-08-01

244

Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

245

International shipment of plutonium by air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the United States (US) Government's decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a...

J. E. Mercado J. P. McGrogan

1995-01-01

246

IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

Faris, B.F.

1959-06-30

247

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOEpatents

Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

1958-12-16

248

Biomedical Aspects of Plutonium: A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains 1200 references on the biomedical aspects of plutonium. It is derived from annual and technical reports from various laboratories, scientific journals, papers, and abstracts from various symposia and conferences on studies of hu...

F. R. Mraz G. R. Eisele H. E. Walburg

1984-01-01

249

Pyrochemical Processing of Plutonium. Technology Review Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either r...

M. S. Coops J. B. Knighton L. J. Mullins

1982-01-01

250

Delta-plutonium dissolving: A HAN process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes preliminary studies in the development of a nitrate-based method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium. The dissolving solution, a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and fluoride offers substantial advantages over ...

D. G. Karraker

1990-01-01

251

Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-05-24

252

The thermal expansion behavior of unalloyed plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Information and data concerning the thermal expansion characteristics of the solid and liquid phases of unalloyed plutonium have been collected from published and unpublished sources and evaluated, and are presented to provide increased availability in compact form.

Schonfeld, F.W.; Tate, R.E.

1996-09-01

253

Characteristics of a Mixed Thorium - Uranium Dioxide High-Burnup Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Future nuclear fuel must satisfy three sets of requirements: longer times between refueling; concerns for weapons proliferation; and development of a spent fuel form more suitable for direct geologic disposal. This project has investigated a fuel consisting of mixed thorium and uranium dioxide to satisfy these requirements. Results using the SCALE 4.3 code system indicated that the mixed Th-U fuel could be burned to 72 MWD/kg or 100 MWD/kg using 25% and 35% UO2 respectively. The uranium remained below 20 % total fissile fraction throughout the cycle, making it unusable for weapons. Total plutonium production per MWD was a factor of 4.5 less in the Th-U fuel than in the conventional fuel; Pu-239 production per MWD was a factor of 6.5 less; and the plutonium produced was high in Pu-238, leading to a decay heat 5 times greater than that from plutonium derived from conventional fuel and 40 times greater than weapons grade plutonium. High decay heat would require active cooling of any crude weapon, lest the components surrounding the plutonium be melted. Spontaneous neutron production for plutonium from Th-U fuel was 2.3 times greater than that from conventional fuel and 15 times greater than that from weapons grade plutonium. High spontaneous neutron production drastically limits the probable yield of a crude weapon. Because ThO2 is the highest oxide of thorium, while UO2 can be oxidized further to U3O8, ThO2- UO2 fuel may be a superior wasteform if the spent fuel is ever to be exposed to oxygenated water. Even if the cost of fabricating the mixed Th-U fuel is $100/kg greater, the cost of the Th-U fuel is 13% to 25% less than that of the fuels using uranium only.

Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

1999-06-01

254

Characteristics of a Mixed Thorium-Uranium Dioxide High-Burnup Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Future nuclear fuels must satisfy three sets of requirements: longer times between refueling; concerns for weapons proliferation; and development of a spent fuel form more suitable for direct geologic disposal. This project has investigated a fuel consisting of mixed thorium and uranium dioxide to satisfy these requirements. Results using the SCALE 4.3 code system indicated that the mixed Th-U fuel could be burned to 72 MWD/kg or 100 MWD/kg using 25% of 35% UO2 respectively. The uranium remained below 20% total fissile fraction throughout the cycle, making it unusable for weapons. Total plutonium production per MWD was a factor of 4.5 less in the Th-U fuel than in the conventional fuel; Pu-239 production per MWD was a factor of 6.5 less; and the plutonium produced was high in Pu-238, leading to a decay heat 5 times greater than that from plutonium derived from conventional fuel and 40 times greater than weapons grade plutonium. High decay heat would require active cooling of any crude weapon, lest the components surrounding the plutonium be melted. Spontaneous neutron production for plutonium from Th-U fuel was 2.3 times greater than that from conventional fuel and 15 times greater than that from weapons grade plutonium. High spontaneous neutron production drastically limits the probable yield of a crude weapon. Because ThO2 is the highest oxide of thorium, while UO2 can be oxidized further to U3O8, ThO2-UO2 fuel may be a superior wasteform if the spent fuel is ever to be exposed to oxygenated water. Even if the cost of fabricating the mixed Th-U fuel is $100/kg greater, the cost of the Th-U fuel is 13% to 15% less than that of the fuels using uranium only.

J. S. Herring; P. E. MacDonald

1999-06-01

255

Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications  

SciTech Connect

In September, 1997, nine of the world`s plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes.

Bryson, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

256

CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and

Jeffrey S. Allender; Edwin N. Moore; Scott H. Davies

2008-01-01

257

Explosive Properties of Various Types of Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The theft of nuclear weapons or of weapon-grade plutonium is likely to be the preferred approach to weapons acquisition by\\u000a a nation or terrorist group, but the acquisition of reactor grade plutonium from spent power reactor fuel is also a feasible\\u000a route to nuclear explosives. The analysis interprets and agrees with the 1993 paper by Carson Mark which emphasizes the

Richard L. Garwin

258

Phase transformations in uranium, plutonium, and neptunium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actinide metals uranium and neptunium are characterized by three allotropes, and plutonium has six solid phases with two\\u000a of the allotropes having complex, low symmetry, crystal structures. Further, many phase changes in these metals are accompanied\\u000a by a large specific volume change and a large enthalpy change. Phase transformations in uranium and plutonium have been studied\\u000a extensively but very

J. J. Rechtien; R. D. Nelson

1973-01-01

259

PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT  

DOEpatents

A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

Thompson, S.G.

1958-07-01

260

Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

Burney, G.A.

1983-01-01

261

Atmospheric burnup of a plutonium-238 generator.  

PubMed

The stratospheric inventory of the plutonium-238 resulting from the disintegration of a nuclear auxiliary power generator (SNAP-9A) in early 1966 accounts for essentially all the plutonium present in the original generator that reentered the atmosphere. Consequently, the pyrophoric (238)Pu must have completely burned up during reentry and ablated into small particles. The arithmetic mean of the distribution of the (238)Pu particle size was estimated to be 10 millimicrons, which confirms this conclusion. PMID:17732624

Krey, P W

1967-11-10

262

Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 9298% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of

V. K. Rao; I. C. Pius; M. Subbarao; A. Chinnusamy; P. R. Natarajan

1986-01-01

263

Explosive properties of reactor?grade plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following discussion focuses on the question of whether a terrorist organization or a threshold state could make use of plutonium recovered from light?water?reactor fuel to construct a nuclear explosive device having a significantly damaging yield. Questions persist in some nonproliferation policy circles as to whether a bomb could be made from reactor?grade plutonium of high burn?up, and if so,

J. Carson Marka

1993-01-01

264

Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994  

SciTech Connect

The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

NONE

1996-02-01

265

Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year.

H. Alsaed; P. Gottlieb

2000-09-12

266

A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

1998-12-31

267

Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE  

SciTech Connect

In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

2011-10-01

268

Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

2003-01-01

269

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOEpatents

A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

1958-10-01

270

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This

D. A. Brownson; D. J. Hanson; H. S. Blackman

1993-01-01

271

What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what

1995-01-01

272

Carbon dioxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J

2005-01-01

273

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

DOEpatents

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08

274

Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation. Item: Impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (PUUOXBC05)  

SciTech Connect

In this report Los Alamos researchers characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (impure mixed oxide (MOX) that is composed of 43.8 mass % plutonium and 17.8 mass % uranium) in accordance with the department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This is the first sample of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide to be evaluated by the materials identification and surveillance project. Methods used to characterize the mixture include mass loss-on-calcination measurements, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, plutonium and uranium isotopic analysis, particle analyses measurements, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS), and surface-area analyses. LOI measurements show a steady decrease in magnitude as the calcining temperature is increased. In contrast, calcining at progressively increasing temperatures does not appear to significantly change the specific surface area of the impure MOX. The LOI value for the powder after final 950 C calcination is 0.4 mass %. Water and carbon dioxide are the major gaseous products formed at all temperatures.

Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C. [and others

1997-06-01

275

Carbon dioxide as a feedstock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources,...

Creutz Fujita

2000-01-01

276

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis.

J. Duffey; R. Livingston; J. Berg; D. Veirs

2012-01-01

277

Aqueous Recovery of Plutonium from Pyrochemical Processing Residues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Sav...

L. W. Gray J. H. Gray

1984-01-01

278

Method of Flocculation Precipitation of Plutonium Waste Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of flocculation precipitation of waste plutonium solutions is claimed that is characterized in that a soluble iron salt is added to nitric acid solution containing plutonium. A neutralization agent is added to precipitate iron as iron hydroxide. ...

Y. Wadachi

1972-01-01

279

69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

280

71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

281

HPAT: A nondestructive analysis technique for plutonium and uranium solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental approaches for the nondestructive characterization of mixed solutions of plutonium and uranium, developed at ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources) Research Centre of Casaccia, with the goal of measuring low plutonium co...

B. Mattia F. V. Frazzoli M. Aparo P. Zeppa V. Pagliai

1989-01-01

282

Plutonium storage thermal analysis (U)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal modeling of plutonium metal ingots stored in food pack cans provides information useful for performing stored material safety evaluations. Four storage can geometries were modeled, and several conclusions can be made from the 14 cases analyzed. The ingot temperature increased from 7 degrees F to 12 degrees F (depending on can configuration) per additional watt of power. Including internal convection lowers computed ingot temperatures by 70 degrees F. Accounting for the heat flow through the bottom of the cans to the storage rack lowered computed ingot temperatures by an additional 70 degrees F to 80 degrees F. In the rimmed can systems storing ingots with a power of 10.35 watts, the ingot temperature varies from 190 degrees F to 213 degrees F. Including a plastic bag between the inner and outer can increases the ingot temperature by 15 degrees F. Adding a label to the outer can side reduces the outer can side temperature by 13 degrees F. Changes in ambient temperature affect the outer can temperatures more than the ingot temperature by a factor of 3. Similarly, a 5 degrees F drop in outer can temperature due to increased convection lowered the ingot temperature by only 2 degrees F

Hensel, S.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Schaade, J.B.

1997-06-01

283

PERSONAL MONITOR FOR NITROGEN DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

An attempt was made to develop a personal monitor to measure nitrogen dioxide. Sampling of nitrogen dioxide is accomplished by permeation through a silicone membrane into a alkaline thymol blue solution. The nitrogen dioxide is converted to nitrite and is then quantitated by colo...

284

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas, having at least methane, ethane and heavier hydrocarbon, comprising: separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream, having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane, and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and

Apffel

1987-01-01

285

Process for producing manganese dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to the manufacture of manganese dioxide by a chemical process. The resulting manganese dioxide product takes the form of particles characterized by filament-like protrusions jutting out from its surface. The manganese dioxide particles having such surface features can be manufactured by reacting manganese sulfate with sodium peroxodisulfate in an aqueous solution. The process can be controlled to

E. I. Wang; L. Lin; W. L. Bowden

1994-01-01

286

Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes  

SciTech Connect

The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

2009-10-01

287

Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts  

SciTech Connect

An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guenther, C.D. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

288

Plutonium and uranium adsorption on monosodium titanate  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of Pu and U onto monosodium titanate (MST) in alkaline salt solution was measured. Changes in MST particle size distribution do not significantly affect the loadings of actinides. Max loading of plutonium-239 is 0.68 wt% at 0.79 mg/L Pu, below the infinitely safe value of 0.80 wt%. Max loading of uranium-235 onto MST is 1.4 wt% at a concentration of 20.3 [plus minus] 2.0 mg/L U, slightly higher than the calculated infinitely safe limit of 1.2 wt%. Experimental data indicated there is competition between plutonium and uranium for sites on the MST, and that the loading will favor the higher concentration species. Since the solubility of uranium is 10--100 times higher than of plutonium, uranium will be loaded to its maximum limit, but plutonium will be below its maximum limit. To ensure that the concentration of fissile materials cannot exceed nuclear safety limits, it is recommended that plutonium and uranium solubility tests be conducted with solutions which bound the compositions of waste which will be treated in ITP process.

Hobbs, D.T.; Walker, D.D.

1992-08-13

289

Plutonium and uranium adsorption on monosodium titanate  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of Pu and U onto monosodium titanate (MST) in alkaline salt solution was measured. Changes in MST particle size distribution do not significantly affect the loadings of actinides. Max loading of plutonium-239 is 0.68 wt% at 0.79 mg/L Pu, below the infinitely safe value of 0.80 wt%. Max loading of uranium-235 onto MST is 1.4 wt% at a concentration of 20.3 {plus_minus} 2.0 mg/L U, slightly higher than the calculated infinitely safe limit of 1.2 wt%. Experimental data indicated there is competition between plutonium and uranium for sites on the MST, and that the loading will favor the higher concentration species. Since the solubility of uranium is 10--100 times higher than of plutonium, uranium will be loaded to its maximum limit, but plutonium will be below its maximum limit. To ensure that the concentration of fissile materials cannot exceed nuclear safety limits, it is recommended that plutonium and uranium solubility tests be conducted with solutions which bound the compositions of waste which will be treated in ITP process.

Hobbs, D.T.; Walker, D.D.

1992-08-13

290

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

291

PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOEpatents

A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

1960-09-27

292

Key safety analyses for the plutonium consumption modular helium reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the modular helium reactor (MHR) directly coupled to a Brayton cycle helium gas turbine can meet the nation`s plutonium disposition needs by using weapons-grade plutonium as the driver fuel. The plutonium consumption MHR (PC-MHR) provides the capability to consume up to 95% of the charged ²³⁹Pu and 72% of the charged total plutonium in a

D. Alberstein; T. D. Dunn; V. Tangirala

1994-01-01

293

Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFPs

Susan A. Jones; Calvin H. Delegard

2011-01-01

294

Studies on purification of plutonium from silver ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation and solvent extraction methods have been investigated for the purification of plutonium from silver from the\\u000a solution generated during oxidative dissolution of plutonium oxide using Ag(II) ions. Initial experiments have been carried\\u000a out using thorium as representative of plutonium. Selecting the optimum conditions, the experiments were repeated with plutonium.\\u000a The results revealed that Pu can be purified from silver

A. R. Joshi; Abhay V. Patil; U. M. Kasar

2010-01-01

295

The MHTGR-maximum plutonium destruction without recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) can address the nation's plutonium disposition needs by using weapons-grade plutonium as the driver fuel. As a result of the physics characteristics of the core and the demonstrated high-burnup capability of coated particle MHTGR fuel (burnup >700,000 MWd\\/tonne has been demonstrated for both uranium and plutonium particles), a plutonium-fueled

D. Alberstein; A. M. Baxter; C. J. Hamilton

1993-01-01

296

Carbon dioxide foam flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of conducting an enhanced oil recovery process in a subterranean reservoir is described. There is injected into the reservoir as a sweep fluid a foam containing carbon dioxide, water, and a foaming agent having the formula ROCOCHSOOM, where R is a straight chain alkyl radical having from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, and M is an alkali metal

P. W. Fischer; L. W. Holm; D. S. Pye

1978-01-01

297

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

298

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)|

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

299

Carbon dioxide fixation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO(sub 2) conv...

E. Fujita

2000-01-01

300

Aqueous carbon dioxide monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for measuring low levels of carbon dioxide in water sample. It comprises: means for exchanging cations for hydrogen connected to a sample stream; a first membrane separator connected to the cation exchanging means, the first membrane separator having a first and second compartment with the first and second compartments being separated by a membrane, the

1991-01-01

301

Plutonium detection with a new fission neutron survey meter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for illicit trafficking or hidden plutonium sources has become a pressing issue, especially since the breakdown of the former Soviet Union. Plutonium is extremely dangerous and hard to detect over large distances. The ?-particles and X-rays which are emitted by plutonium isotopes can easily be shielded by the material itself or by surroundings. Besides a few ?'s, the

Alfred Klett

1999-01-01

302

VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

303

Analysis of Plutonium Pathways in a Terrestial Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A linear balance model for the plutonium pathways in the nature is developed, the kinetic model constants of which are taken from measurements of fallout plutonium. Such a consistent model for the fallout plutonium may be used, e.g., for the analysis of t...

R. Avenhaus S. Fenyi A. T. Jakubick J. Ludewig

1980-01-01

304

The plutonium problem: The royal society sits on the fence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent Royal Society report, Management of Separated Plutonium, considers the production and disposal of plutonium from the spent fuel from civil and nuclear power reactors. It accepts the need for dealing with plutonium stocks because of the toxicity of the element and as it can be used to fabricate nuclear weapons, and expresses concern that it might be illicitly

Frank Barnaby

1998-01-01

305

The plutonium business and the spread of the bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterson examines the four decades since plutonium was first found to possess properties that made it a potential substitute for the once-scarce uranium. The development of fast breeder reactor technology once promised an era of boundless electricity and limitless supply of self-generating plutonium. Yet, that promise remains unfulfilled today, and attempts at its realization remain very costly. Worse still, plutonium's

1985-01-01

306

Plutonium Wastes from the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of plutonium discarded as wastes from the U.S. nuclear weapons complex appears to be significantly greater than the U.S. Department of Energy's 1996 declaration of its plutonium holdings. This is due to in part to improved radioactive waste characterization and the disposal of plutonium residues originally intended for use in weapons. The Hanford site in Washington State has

ROBERT ALVAREZ; D. C. July

2011-01-01

307

Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g

Haschke

1992-01-01

308

US and Russia face urgent decisions on weapons plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surplus plutonium poses a clear and present danger to national and international security,'' warns a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study released in January, titled The Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium.'' Over the past few years, many different methods of disposing of plutonium have been proposed. They range from shooting it into the Sun with missiles, to deep-seabed

Hileman

1994-01-01

309

OVERVIEW OF CALORIMETRIC ASSAY OF PLUTONIUM IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect

Calorimetry is a primary measurement technique for assay of quantities of plutonium in the United States. It is the most accurate NDA technique for many forms of plutonium-bearing materials. This paper provides an overview of the use of calorimetry in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy for accurate plutonium mass determinations.

Rudy, C. R. (Clifford R.)

2001-01-01

310

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

311

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the global stockpile of nuclear explosive devices, {approximately}50 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium have been declared surplus to national security needs by the US. This surplus, located at six sites within the US Department of Energy complex (the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Pantex Plant, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and the Savannah River Site) must now be rendered unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. The goal is that this drive will be concurrent with similar activities in Russia. One method currently under investigation is the conversion of the plutonium metal into mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. Approximately 35 tonnes of the surplus plutonium is in a form suitable for fabrication into MOX fuel. This fuel would be used in currently operating reactors for power production. Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of the 35 tonnes of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. Because it is envisioned that plutonium disposition will occur concurrently in the United States and Russia, the timely disposition of the plutonium is deemed important to national security. However, the need for quick disposition must be tempered by cost considerations and constraints on the reactors that will ultimately use the fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both the pit conversion and MOX fabrication facilities, whereby the 35 tonnes of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power Proper sizing of the facilities will help avoid unnecessary delays and excessive costs and thus is important in the success of the disposition mission. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3 to 7%, a burnup of 20,000 to 40,000 MWd/tonnes HM, a core fraction from 2 to 6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal plutonium concentration was found to be 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg/yr of plutonium. The data showed minimal costs (based solely on facility size and required manpower) resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3840, 2779, and 3497 kg/yr of plutonium, which resulted in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 yr, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L.; Beard, C.A.

2000-02-01

312

PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES  

DOEpatents

A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1962-07-10

313

CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

2008-07-15

314

Plutonium transport in the environment.  

PubMed

The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs. PMID:23458827

Kersting, Annie B

2013-03-04

315

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12

316

Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems  

SciTech Connect

Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

2004-07-02

317

Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

2009-08-10

318

Gas-Phase Energetics of Actinide Oxides: An Assessment of Neutral and Cationic Monoxides and Dioxides from Thorium to Curium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

Maralo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

2009-09-01

319

Gas-phase energetics of actinide oxides: an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium.  

PubMed

An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry. PMID:19725530

Maralo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K

2009-11-12

320

a Plutonium Ceramic Target for Masha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

Wilk, P. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Landingham, R. L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

2005-09-01

321

Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

Cannell, G.R.

2002-02-28

322

Waste measurements at a plutonium facility  

SciTech Connect

Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator`s perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

Wachter, J.R.

1992-06-01

323

Waste measurements at a plutonium facility  

SciTech Connect

Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

Wachter, J.R.

1992-01-01

324

Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay  

SciTech Connect

Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1986-01-01

325

Procede Continu de Precipitation des Sels de Plutonium (Continuous Precipitation Process of Plutonium Salts).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plu...

P. Richard

1967-01-01

326

Additional Short-Term Plutonium Urinary Excretion Data from the 1945-1947 Plutonium Injection Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical d...

W. D. Moss M. A. Gautier

1986-01-01

327

Plutonium Levels in the Sediment of Area Impoundments Environs of the Rocky Flats Plutonium Plant - Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium concentrations in the bed sediment of reservoirs (Great Western Reservoir, Standley Lake, Cherry Creek Reservoir, Marston Lake, and Ralston Reservoir) in the environs of the Atomic Energy Commission Rocky Flats Plant were determined by dredge an...

M. W. Lammering

1975-01-01

328

Plutonium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption in plutonium uranium mixed oxide fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear light water reactors. The chemical composition of the matrix before and after irradiation is commonly analyzed by electron probe micro analysis for example. In this work the structure and next-neighbor atomic environment of Pu in the plutonium uranium mixed oxide matrix within irradiated (60MWdkg?1) MOX samples were studied employing

C. Cozzo; C. Degueldre; C. Borca

329

Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died

George L. Voelz; James N. P. Lawrence; Emily R. Johnson

1997-01-01

330

Production of uranium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 550°C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UOF, UO

J. E. Hart; D. L. Shuck; W. L. Lyon

1977-01-01

331

Balancing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasingworldwide concern, and pressure towards an internationallaw of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rainforests, and Caribbean coral reefs suggest that the biological,effects,of climate,change,may,be more,severe,than,climate,models,predict. Efforts to limit

J. Goreau

332

Titanium dioxide photocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific studies on photocatalysis started about two and a half decades ago. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is one of the most basic materials in our daily life, has emerged as an excellent photocatalyst material for environmental purification. In this review, current progress in the area of TiO2 photocatalysis, mainly photocatalytic air purification, sterilization and cancer therapy are discussed together with

Akira Fujishima; Tata N. Rao; Donald A. Tryk

2000-01-01

333

Adsorption of plutonium oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Adsorption of monodisperse cubic plutonium oxide nanoparticles ("Pu-NP", [Pu(38)O(56)Cl(x)(H(2)O)(y)]((40-x)+), with a fluorite-related lattice, approximately 1 nm in edge size) to the muscovite (001) basal plane from aqueous solutions was observed in situ (in 100 mM NaCl background electrolyte at pH 2.6). Uptake capacity of the surface quantified by ?-spectrometry was 0.92 ?g Pu/cm(2), corresponding to 10.8 Pu per unit cell area (A(UC)). This amount is significantly larger than that of Pu(4+) needed for satisfying the negative surface charge (0.25 Pu(4+) for 1 e(-)/A(UC)). The adsorbed Pu-NPs cover 17% of the surface area, determined by X-ray reflectivity (XR). This correlates to one Pu-NP for every 14 unit cells of muscovite, suggesting that each particle compensates the charge of the unit cells onto which it adsorbs as well as those in its direct proximity. Structural investigation by resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity distinguished two different sorption states of Pu-NPs on the surface at two different regimes of distance from the surface. A fraction of Pu is distributed within 11 from the surface. The distribution width matches the Pu-NP size, indicating that this species represents Pu-NPs adsorbed directly on the surface. Beyond the first layer, an additional fraction of sorbed Pu was observed to extend more broadly up to more than 100 from the surface. This distribution is interpreted as resulting from "stacking" or aggregation of the nanoparticles driven by sorption and accumulation of Pu-NPs at the interface although these Pu-NPs do not aggregate in the solution. These results are the first in situ observation of the interaction of nanoparticles with a charged mineral-water interface yielding information important to understanding the environmental transport of Pu and other nanophase inorganic species. PMID:22216888

Schmidt, Moritz; Wilson, Richard E; Lee, Sang Soo; Soderholm, L; Fenter, P

2012-01-25

334

Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant  

SciTech Connect

This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant may share the disposition of the 50 tonnes of plutonium with the mixed oxide fuel/reactor disposition alternative. For this case, immobilization will process 18.2 tonnes of plutonium in 10 years.

DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

1999-01-01

335

Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed difference in behavior between cerium and plutonium was that plutonium partitioned more completely into the major host phases than cerium. Where cerium was sometimes observed at up to a few atom percent in crystalline or glassy phases, plutonium could not be detected in these phases. The crystalline plutonium host phases identified in this work included zirconolite, cubic zirconia, sphene, and an anorthite-like calcium aluminosilicate. Zirconia has been suggested as a possible material for immobilizing actinides (3), but this appears to be the first synthesis of such a material. Plutonium appears to stabilize the cubic (fluorite) structure through abroad solid solution range. Samarium can also be incorporated into this material, but is not necessary to stabilize the cubic structure. Plutonium leach rates, as measured by the Product Consistency Test (4), were on the order of 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}6} g/m{sup 2}/day.

O'Holleran, T. P.

1998-04-24

336

THE ANALYSIS FOR PLUTONIUM BY COUNTING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LaF method for determining plutonium was investigated and ; found to give results below 95% of true value. The self-absorption of alphas in ; Pu sources containing U was measured as a function of U concentration. The ; absorption reaches 5% when the source contains 500 mu g of U. Hence for ; solutions of Pu and U better

A. M. Aikin; T. Bruce

1953-01-01

337

Applications of Molten Salts in Plutonium Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 deg C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reac...

D. F. Bowersox D. C. Christensen J. D. Williams

1987-01-01

338

In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months

Siegfried Hecker

2010-01-01

339

Development of the plutonium oxide vitrification system  

SciTech Connect

Repository disposal of plutonium in a suitable, immobilized form is being considered as one option for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. Accelerated development efforts were completed in 1997 on two potential immobilization forms to facilitate downselection to one form for continued development. The two forms studied were a crystalline ceramic based on Synroc technology and a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. As part of the glass development program, melter design activities and component testing were completed to demonstrate the feasibility of using glass as an immobilization medium. A prototypical melter was designed and built in 1997. The melter vessel and drain tube were constructed of a Pt/Rh alloy. Separate induction systems were used to heat the vessel and drain tube. A Pt/Rh stirrer was incorporated into the design to facilitate homogenization of the melt. Integrated powder feeding and off-gas systems completed the overall design. Concurrent with the design efforts, testing was conducted using a plutonium surrogate LaBS composition in an existing (near-scale) melter to demonstrate the feasibility of processing the LaBS glass on a production scale. Additionally, the drain tube configuration was successfully tested using a plutonium surrogate LaBS glass.

Marshall, K.M.; Marra, J.C.; Coughlin, J.T.; Calloway, T.B.; Schumacher, R.F.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Pareizs, J.M.

1998-01-01

340

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

Goeckermann, R.H.

1961-04-01

341

Physical Property Changes in Aging Plutonium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to asses the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 wt% of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into weapons-grade plutonium to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on enriched and reference alloys measured from immersion density, dilatometry, and mechanical tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys at 35 deg. C have decreased in density by {approx}0.19% and now exhibit a near linear density decrease, without void swelling. Both tensile and compression measurements show that the aging process continues to increase the strength of plutonium alloys. (authors)

Chung, Brandon W.; Thompson, Stephen R.; Hiromoto, David S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551 (United States)

2008-07-01

342

Moisture Uptake by Plutonium Oxide Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the scope of installation safety and criticality studies, an assessment was made of moisture uptake by plutonium oxide powder used for oxide fuels. The effects of exposure time, atmospheric relative humidity (9 to 98%), calcination temperature (400-1 1...

A. Benhamou J. P. Beraud

1980-01-01

343

Global plutonium management: A security option  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has

Sylvester; K. W. B

1998-01-01

344

Plutonium Management in the Medium Term  

SciTech Connect

For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review.

Hesketh, Kevin [BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services (United Kingdom); Schlosser, Gerhard; Porsch, Dieter F. [Framatome ANP (France); Wolf, Timm [Framatome ANP (France); Koeberl, Oliver [CEA Cadarache (France); Lance, Benoit [Belgonucleaire (Belgium); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Ellis, Ron [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Uchikawa, Sadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Mineo, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamamoto, Toru [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (Japan); Sagayama, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Sartori, Enrico [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (France)

2004-12-15

345

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

Kriikku, E.

1998-11-25

346

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTONIUM SEPARATION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic separation processes for plutonium, precipitation methods, ; solvent extraction, and dry techniques, are discussed. (C.J.G.) Electrolyses of ; a monazite mixture, an yttrium-earth mixture and a terbium--dysprosium mixture at ; a lithium-- amalgam cathode were studied. The separations obtained show that ; individual lanthanons are electrolyzed at different rates at a lithium-- amalgam ; cathode. The relative ease

Paulsen

1959-01-01

347

Bayesian methods for interpreting plutonium urinalysis data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss an internal dosimetry problem, where measurements of plutonium in urine are used to calculate radiation doses. The authors have developed an algorithm using the MAXENT method. The method gives reasonable results, however the role of the entropy prior distribution is to effectively fit the urine data using intakes occurring close in time to each measured urine result,

G. Miller; W. C. Inkret

1995-01-01

348

PLUTONIUM POWER REACTOR WITH OXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased capital costs of a reactor power system make it desirable to ; seek reduced fuel charges below the 2 to 4 mils per kilowatt-hour of coal or oil-; fired systems. An inexpensive procedure for recovering plutonium from the core ; and blanket of a breeder and refabricating it into fuel structures offers an ; attractive possibility for reducing; fuel

Luebke

1954-01-01

349

Plutonium fractionation in southern Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different chemical plutonium fractions (dissolved in water, connected to carbonates, connected to oxides, complexed with organic matter, mineral acids soluble and the rest) in sediments from the Vistula River estuary, the Gda?sk Basin and the Bornholm Deep were determined. The distribution of Pu in analysed sediments samples was not uniform but dependent on its chemical form, depth

Dagmara I. Strumi?ska-Parulska; Bogdan Skwarzec; Magdalena Pawlukowska

2012-01-01

350

NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

Miller Julianne J.,Mizell Steve A.,Nikolich George, Campbell Scott

2012-02-01

351

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

1998-05-01

352

233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Broz, R.E.

1994-12-19

353

Plutonium alteration phases from lanthanide borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

A prototype lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass containing 10 mass % plutonium was reacted with water vapor at 200 C for periods of 14 to 56 days. These tests, while not designed to replicate specific conditions that may be found in a potential geologic repository (e.g., Yucca Mountain), have been shown to accelerate alteration phase formation. The surfaces of the glass samples, along with alteration phases, were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tests of 14 days produced macroscopic ({approximately} 20 {micro}m) crystallites of a plutonium-lanthanide silicate. An extensive alteration layer was found on the glass surface containing amorphous aluminosilicate layered with bands of a cryptocrystalline plutonium silicate. After 56 days of testing, additional alteration phases were formed, including a strontium lanthanide oxide phase. One of the options for disposal of surplus plutonium, particularly for impure residues that may be unfit for production of MOX fuel, is vitrification followed by geologic disposal. Since geologic disposal requires a passive system to isolate the radiotoxic elements from the biosphere, it is important to understand the possible corrosion mechanisms of the waste form.

Fortner, J.A.; Mertz, C.J.; Chamberlain, D.C.; Bates, J.K.

1997-10-01

354

In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months earlier. This visit began a 17-year, 41 journey relationship with the Russian nuclear complex dedicated to working with them in partnership to protect and safeguard their weapons and fissile materials, while addressing the plight of their scientists and engineers. In the process, we solved a forty-year disagreement about the plutonium-gallium phase diagram and began a series of fundamental plutonium science workshops that are now in their tenth year. At the Yonbyon reprocessing facility in January 2004, my North Korean hosts had hoped to convince me that they have a nuclear deterrent. When I expressed skepticism, they asked if I wanted to see their ``product.'' I asked if they meant the plutonium; they replied, ``Well, yes.'' Thus, I wound up holding 200 grams of North Korean plutonium (in a sealed glass jar) to make sure it was heavy and warm. So began the first of my six journeys to North Korea to provide technical input to the continuing North Korean nuclear puzzle. In Trombay and Kalpakkam a few years later I visited the Indian nuclear research centers to try to understand how India's ambitious plans for nuclear power expansion can be accomplished safely and securely. I will describe these and other attempts to deal with the nonproliferation legacy of the cold war and the new challenges ahead. )

Hecker, Siegfried

2010-02-01

355

PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion.

Ervin, P. F.; Conradson, S. D.

2002-02-25

356

A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-15

357

Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long-term accumulation of radiation damage as a function of the thermal period of a geologic repository. As an example, with a 10 wt.% loading of 239Pu, Gd2Ti2O7 will become amorphous in less than 1,000 years, while Gd2Zr2O7 will persist as a disordered defect fluorite structure. Thus, the radiation stability of different pyrochlores is closely related to the structural distortions that occur for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. This understanding provides the basis for designing materials for the safe, long-term immobilization and sequestration of actinides.

Ewing, R. C.

2006-05-01

358

Toward a Deeper Understanding of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a very complex element lying near the middle of the actinide series. On the lower atomic number side of Pu is the element neptunium; its 5f electrons are highly delocalized or itinerant, participating in metallic-like bonding. The electrons in americium, the element to the right of Pu, are localized and do not participant significantly in the bonding. Plutonium is located directly on this rather abrupt transition. In the low-temperature {alpha} phase ground state, the five 5f electrons are mostly delocalized leading to a highly dense monoclinic crystal structure. Increases in temperature take the unalloyed plutonium through a series of five solid-state allotropic phase transformations before melting. One of the high temperature phases, the close-packed face centered cubic {delta} phase, is the least dense of all the phases, including the liquid. Alloying the Pu with Group IIIA elements such as aluminum or gallium retains the {delta} phase in a metastable state at ambient conditions. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to {alpha} + Pu{sub 3}Ga. These low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are also metastable with respect to low temperature excursions or increases in pressure and will transform to a monoclinic crystal structure at low temperatures via an isothermal martensitic phase transformation or at slightly elevated pressure. The delocalized to localized 5f electron bonding transition that occurs in the light actinides surrounding Pu gives rise to a plethora of unique and anomalous properties but also severely complicates the modeling and simulation. The development of theories and models that are sufficiently sensitive to capture the details of this transition and capable of elucidating the fundamental properties of plutonium and plutonium alloys is currently a grand challenge in actinide science. Recent advances in electronic structure theory, semi-empirical interatomic potentials, and raw computing power have enabled remarkable progress in our abilities to model many of the anomalous properties of Pu. This special issue of the Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design highlights a number of these advances in the area of the aging of plutonium. This aging is a long-term process due to the slow radioactive decay with a long half-life of 24400 years for the major isotope of plutonium. The challenge then is to predict the changes in properties of plutonium and its alloys from experimental results of plutonium aged only for a few decades and from theory and computational models that are build on a thorough, first-principle understanding of all the complex phenomena displayed by this material. We hope that progress and success of this enterprise will guide other endeavors in Computer-Aided Materials Design and prediction of materials performance.

Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

2007-06-21

359

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2013-01-01

360

21 CFR 172.480 - Silicon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Silicon dioxide. 172.480 Section 172.480 ...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.480 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in food in...

2009-04-01

361

21 CFR 172.480 - Silicon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Silicon dioxide. 172.480 Section 172.480 ...CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.480 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in food in...

2010-01-01

362

21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Silicon dioxide. 573.940 Section 573.940 ...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed...

2009-04-01

363

Instrumentation for studying binder burnout in an immobilized plutonium ceramic wasteform  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program produces a ceramic wasteform that utilizes organic binders. Several techniques and instruments were developed to study binder burnout on full size ceramic samples in a production environment. This approach provides a method for developing process parameters on production scale to optimize throughput, product quality, offgas behavior, and plant emissions. These instruments allow for offgas analysis, large-scale TGA, product quality observation, and thermal modeling. Using these tools, results from lab-scale techniques such as laser dilametry studies and traditional TGA/DTA analysis can be integrated. Often, the sintering step of a ceramification process is the limiting process step that controls the production throughput. Therefore, optimization of sintering behavior is important for overall process success. Furthermore, the capabilities of this instrumentation allows better understanding of plant emissions of key gases: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile inorganics including some halide compounds, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

Mitchell, M; Pugh, D; Herman, C

2000-04-21

364

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-10-01

365

METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE  

DOEpatents

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

Faris, B.F.

1961-04-25

366

Benefit/Cost Analysis of Plutonium Recycle Options in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium...

H. Lowenberg J. B. Burnham F. Fisher W. H. Ray

1977-01-01

367

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2013-01-01

368

10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to §...

2013-01-01

369

Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass  

SciTech Connect

The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

1997-03-05

370

A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning.

O'Holleran, T. P.

1998-05-18

371

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

372

Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carboncarbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially,

Iwao Omae

2006-01-01

373

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

374

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas having at least methane, ethane and heavier. It comprises: first, separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane and a second stream, having methane, carbon

Apffel

1989-01-01

375

Real-time measurement of plutonium in air by direct-inlet surface ionization mass spectrometry. Status report  

SciTech Connect

A new technique is being developed for monitoring low-level airborne plutonium on a real-time basis. The technique is based on surface ionization mass spectrometry of airborne particles. It will be capable of measuring plutonium concentrations below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) level. A complete mass spectrometer was designed and constructed for this purpose. Major components which were developed and made operational for the instrument include an efficient inlet for directly sampling particles in air, a wide dynamic range ion detector and a minicomputer-based ion-burst measurement system. Calibration of the direct-inlet mass spectrometer (DIMS) was initiated to establish the instrument's response to plutonium dioxide as a function of concentration and particle size. This work revealed an important problem - bouncing of particles upon impact with the ionizing filament. Particle bounce results in a significant loss of measurement sensitivity. The feasibility of using an oven ionizer to overcome the particle bounce problem has been demonstrated. A rhenium oven ionizer was designed and constructed for the purpose of trapping particles which enter via the direct inlet. High-speed particles were trapped in the oven yielding a measurement sensitivity comparable to that for particles which are preloaded. Development of the Pu DIMS can now be completed by optimizing the oven design and calibrating the instrument's performance with UO/sub 2/ and CeO/sub 2/ particles as analogs to PuO/sub 2/ particles.

Stoffels, J.J.

1980-04-01

376

An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies  

SciTech Connect

Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

1999-03-01

377

Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)  

SciTech Connect

This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

Weiss, E.V.

1997-01-23

378

Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}7} M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes.

Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

1995-12-31

379

Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles  

SciTech Connect

The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to /sup 239/Pu oxide and nitrate or /sup 238/Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to /sup 238/Pu oxide and /sup 239/Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% (/sup 239/Pu oxide), 45% (/sup 238/Pu oxide) or 50% (/sup 239/Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures. (ACR)

Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

1984-10-01

380

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03

381

Plutonium fractionation in southern Baltic Sea sediments.  

PubMed

In this study, different chemical plutonium fractions (dissolved in water, connected to carbonates, connected to oxides, complexed with organic matter, mineral acids soluble and the rest) in sediments from the Vistula River estuary, the Gda?sk Basin and the Bornholm Deep were determined. The distribution of (239+240)Pu in analysed sediments samples was not uniform but dependent on its chemical form, depth and the sediment geomorphology. The highest amount of plutonium exists in middle parts of sediments and comes from the global atmospheric fallout from nuclear tests in 1958-1961. According to all analysed fractions, the biggest amount of (239+240)Pu was in the mobile form, connected to carbonate fractions from the Vistula River estuary, the Gulf of Gda?sk and the Bornholm Deep sediments. PMID:22612422

Strumi?ska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Pawlukowska, Magdalena

2012-05-21

382

Los Alamos Plutonium Facility Waste Management System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the new computer-based transuranic (TRU) Waste Management System (WMS) being implemented at the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Waste Management System is a distributed computer processing system stored in a Sybase database and accessed by a graphical user interface (GUI) written in Omnis7. It resides on the local area network at the Plutonium Facility and is accessible by authorized TRU waste originators, count room personnel, radiation protection technicians (RPTs), quality assurance personnel, and waste management personnel for data input and verification. Future goals include bringing outside groups like the LANL Waste Management Facility on-line to participate in this streamlined system. The WMS is changing the TRU paper trail into a computer trail, saving time and eliminating errors and inconsistencies in the process.

Smith, K.; Montoya, A.; Wieneke, R.; Wulff, D.; Smith, C.; Gruetzmacher, K.

1997-02-01

383

Dissolution of plutonium oxide in nitric acid at high hydrofluoric acid concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitirc acid (HNO/sub 3/) at high hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations has been investigated. Dissolution rate curves were obtained using 12M HNO/sub 3/ and HF at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 1.0 molar. The dissolution rate increased with HF concentration up to 0.2M and then decreased at higher concentrations. There was very little plutonium dissolved at 0.7 and 1.0M HF because of the formation of insoluble PuF/sub 4/. Various oxidizing agents were added to 12M HNO/sub 3/-1M HF dissolvent to oxidize Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and prevent the formation of PuF/sub 4/. Ceric (Ce(IV)) and silver (Ag(II)) ions were the most effective in dissolving PuO/sub 2/. Although these two oxidants greatly increased the dissolution rate, the rates were not as rapid as those obtained with 12M HNO/sub 3/-0.2M HF.

Kazanjian, A.R.; Stevens, J.R.

1984-06-15

384

Recent improvements in plutonium gamma-ray analysis using MGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

MGA is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program for determining relative plutonium isotopic abundances. It can determine plutonium isotopic abundances better than 1% using a high-resolution, low-energy, planar germanium detector and measurement times ten minutes or less. We have modified MGA to allow determination of absolute plutonium isotopic abundances in solutions. With calibration of a detector using a known solution concentration

W. D. Ruhter; R. Gunnink

1992-01-01

385

Investigations of plutonium immobilization into the vitreous compositions  

SciTech Connect

Development and characterizations of phosphate and borosilicate glasses for vitrifying high level waste (HLW) solutions in Russia has been extensive. The technical data generated were for low concentrations (less than 0.05% Pu) of plutonium. Limited studies have been performed with plutonium concentrations one to two orders of magnitude larger. The results of these studies are being used to plan and implement an expanded experimental program to establish the limitations and characteristics of plutonium in similar glass compositions.

Matyunin, Y.I., [State Research Center of Russian Federation, A. A. Bochvar All Russian Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM)

1998-04-15

386

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

Schubert, J.

1958-06-01

387

Separation and Recovery of Uranium and Plutonium from Oxalate Supernatant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of uranium and plutonium from oxalate supernatant, obtained after precipitating plutonium oxalate, containing ~10 g\\/l uranium and 30100 mg\\/l plutonium in 3M HNO3 and 0.100.18M oxalic acid solution has been carried out. In one extraction step with 30% TBP in dodecane: ~92% of uranium and ~7% of Pu is extracted. The raffinate containing the remaining U and Pu

K. M. Michael; G. H. Rizvi; J. N. Mathur; A. Ramanujam

2000-01-01

388

Detection of plutonium with the microwave plasma continuous emissions monitor  

SciTech Connect

The first successful detection of plutonium with a continuous microwave plasma emissions monitor has been demonstrated. Seven plutonium emission peaks in the 362 - 366 nm and 449 - 454 nm ranges were clearly observed. The strongest peak was at 453.62 nm. This peak and five of the other plutonium peaks were easily distinguishable from possible interference from iron emission peaks with a spectrometer resolution of 0.1 nm. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Rhee, D.Y.; Woskov, P.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Gervais, K.; Surma, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

389

Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. This DSA was developed in accordance with DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities''. Upon approval and implementation of this document, the current safety basis documents will be retired.

DODD, E.N.

2003-10-08

390

Management of disused plutonium sealed sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI\\/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United

Julia Rose Whitworth; Michael W Pearson; Cristy Abeyta

2010-01-01

391

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900°C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and\\/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In

D. F. Bowersox; D. C. Christensen; J. D. Williams

1987-01-01

392

Plutonium-Based Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of the nuclear power got its start in the 50ies based on 235 U thermal reactors of all the types, which had\\u000a been earlier developed for production of arm plutonium and tritium and for submarines. It was assumed that as thermal reactors\\u000a accumulated Pu and fast breeders were being mastered (their first power units were commissioned in 1972-1975

V. V. Orlov

393

Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Environmental Data Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of existing environmental and ecological information at areas identified as potential locations of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) facilities. This information is required to document existing environmental and baseline conditions from which SPD construction and operation impacts can be defined. It will be used in developing the required preoperational monitoring plan to be used at specific SPD facilities construction sites.

Fledderman, P.D.

2000-08-24

394

MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS  

DOEpatents

A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

1961-01-24

395

Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.  

SciTech Connect

We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Jackson, J. W. (Joseph W.); Boerigter, S. T. (Stephen T.); Averill, W. A. (William A.); Fasel, J. H. (Joseph H.)

2002-01-01

396

THE PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several known methods for small-scale preparation of PuCl have ; been studied for adaptation to a larger scale. A new method, that of the thermal ; decomposition of dipyridinium plutonium hexachloride, can be used for 10 g or ; larger quantities but the PuCl product is impure. The best method, ; involving the intermediate preparation of Pu\\/sup 3+\\/oxalate, has been

B. R. Harder; F. Hudswell; K. L. Wilkinson

1957-01-01

397

Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two major phases during fiscal years 1999 and 2000.

Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

1999-07-01

398

Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO batch size

M. S. Coops; J. B. Knighton; L. J. Mullins

1982-01-01

399

Redox speciation of plutonium in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the stability of Pu(V) as the dominant oxidation state of tracer concentrations of plutonium in natural waters is reviewed. Laboratory experiments for solutions of 0.1 and 1.0M (NaCl) ionic strength and pH 310 confirm the dominance of Pu(V) as the state in solution. Humics in the waters can cause reduction to Pu(IV).

G. R. Choppin

1991-01-01

400

Nuclear weapons and power-reactor plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-10 that for making nuclear bombs, 'reactor-grade' plutonium produced by the normal operation of uranium-fuelled power reactors is necessarily much inferior to specially made 'weapons-grade' Pu: so infe- rior in explosive power or predictability that its potential use by amateurs is not a serious problem and that governments would instead make the higher-performance weapons-grade Pu in special production reactors. Although

Amory B. Lovins

1980-01-01

401

Method for dehydrating manganese dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for preparing a water-free lithium-manganese dioxide battery comprising: assembling the battery comprising lithium anode, a cathode comprising carbon and manganese dioxide, and a cell container; adding to the cell container a fluid containing a dehydrating agent which reacts with water bound to the manganese dioxide to form a reaction product that is extractable from the manganese dioxide; removing the fluid from the cell container; hermetically sealing and connecting the container to a vacuum source; establishing a vacuum within the compartment to pull off any remaining amount of the fluid and any volatile reaction product from the manganese dioxide; releasing the vacuum; and adding anhydrous electrolyte and hermetically sealing the cell.

Marincic, N.; Fuksa, R.

1987-05-05

402

PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL  

DOEpatents

A process of recovering plutonium from neutronbombarded uranium fuel by dissolving the fuel in equimolar aluminum chloride-potassium chloride; heating the mass to above 700 deg C for decomposition of plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride; extracting the plutonium trichloride into a molten salt containing from 40 to 60 mole % of lithium chloride, from 15 to 40 mole % of sodium chloride, and from 0 to 40 mole % of potassium chloride or calcium chloride; and separating the layer of equimolar chlorides containing the uranium from the layer formed of the plutonium-containing salt is described. (AEC)

Moore, R.H.

1962-04-10

403

Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management  

SciTech Connect

The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public.

Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

1995-12-31

404

Design of the improved plutonium canister assay system (IPCAS)  

SciTech Connect

The improved Plutonium Canister Assay System (iPCAS) is designed to detect gross and partial defects in the declared plutonium content of plutonium and MOX storage canisters during transfer to storage and process areas of the MOX fuel fabrication facility in Kokkasho, Japan. In addition, an associated Gamma Isotopics System (GIS) will be used to confirm facility-declared plutonium isotopics with accuracy sufficient to reduce the amount of destructive isotopic analysis needed. The design of the iPCAS instrument and its associated GIS is described and the expected performance of the instrument is discussed.

Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.); Baker, M. C. (Michael C.); Bourret, S. C.; Polk, P. J. (Paul J.); Vo, Duc T.

2001-01-01

405

Volatile Impurities in the Plutonium Immobilization Ceramic Wasteform  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 18 of the 50 metric tons of plutonium identified for disposition contain significant quantities of impurities. A ceramic waste form is the chosen option for immobilization of the excess plutonium. The impurities associated with the stored plutonium have been identified (CaCl2, MgF2, Pb, etc.). For this study, only volatile species are investigated. The impurities are added individually. Cerium is used as the surrogate for plutonium. Three compositions, including the baseline composition, were used to verify the ability of the ceramic wasteform to accommodate impurities. The criteria for evaluation of the effect of the impurities were the apparent porosity and phase assemblage of sintered pellets.

Cozzi, A.D.

1999-10-15

406

Safety aspects with regard to plutonium vitrification techniques  

SciTech Connect

Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantling US and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. Various disposition options are under consideration. One option is to vitrify the plutonium with the addition of {sup 137}Cs or high-level waste to act as a deterrent to proliferation. The primary safety problem associated with vitrification of plutonium is to avoid criticality in form fabrication and in the final repository over geologic time. Recovery should be as difficult (costly) as the recovery of plutonium from spent fuel.

Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.

1995-05-11

407

Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography] Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

1993-03-01

408

Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results.

Hamilton, L.

2000-04-28

409

Plutonium Immobilization Program -- Cold pour Phase 1 test results  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results.

Hamilton, L.

2000-01-18

410

Ambiguous and forbidden parameter combinations for aqueous plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of forbidden and ambiguous oxidation-state distributions for plutonium are easier to understand when presented graphically. This note describes two diagrams that illustrate the phenomena.

Silver, Gary L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

411

Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process  

SciTech Connect

We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

1989-01-01

412

A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA  

SciTech Connect

A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

2012-02-02

413

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

Hamilton, R.L.

2000-01-04

414

Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung  

SciTech Connect

A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

1980-08-01

415

Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report  

SciTech Connect

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

1982-09-08

416

PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-07

417

New nuclear safe plutonium ceramic compositions with neutron poisons for plutonium storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex of works is conducted to study the possibility of reprocessing surplus weapon-grade plutonium to a critical-mass-free composition with neutron poison. Nuclear safe ceramic compositions of PuO2 with four most efficient neutron poisons, Hf, Gd, Li, and B, are fabricated in the laboratory. Various methods for fabrication of the compositions with PuO2 depending on neutron poison element are used and studied: a - by sintering initial component powders; b - by impregnation of a porous skeleton made of neutron poison oxide with plutonium sol-gel; c - by sintering microspheres made of plutonium oxide with neutron poison (B4C), with the microspheres having a coating completely absorbing alpha particles. .

Nadykto, B. A.; Timofeeva, L. F.

2000-07-01

418

Plutonium release from pressed plutonium oxide fuel pellets in aquatic environments  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium oxide pellets (80% /sup 238/Pu, 40 g each) were exposed to fresh water and sea water at two temperatures for 3 y in enclosed glass chambers. The concentrations of plutonium observed in the waters increased linearly with time throughout the experiment. However, the observed release rates were inversely dependent on temperature and salinity, ranging from 160 ..mu..Ci/day for cold fresh water to 1.4 ..mu..Ci/day for warm sea water. The total releases, including the chamber residues, showed similar dependencies. A major portion (typically greater than 50%) of the released plutonium passed through a 0.1-..mu..m filter, with even larger fractions (greater than 80%) for the fresh water systems.

Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.; Heaton, R.C.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

1983-12-01

419

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON ZIRCONIUM PYROPHOSPHATE  

DOEpatents

A method is given for separating plutonium in its reduced, phosphate- insoluble state from other substances. It involves contacting a solution containing the plutonium with granular zirconium pyrophosphate.

Stoughton, R.W.

1961-01-31

420

Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload  

SciTech Connect

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

Not Available

1980-04-01

421

Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

Barney, G.S.

1997-10-22

422

Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.  

PubMed Central

Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

1988-01-01

423

Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.

Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

1988-11-01

424

Primary bone neoplasms in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Primary bone neoplasms developed in beagle dogs briefly exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was initially deposited in the respiratory tract where it was retained with a half time greater than 100 days. A portion of the /sup 238/Pu was solubilized and translocated to the liver and skeleton. Five years after exposure, 46 osteosarcomas developed in 35 of 144 exposed dogs. The cumulative absorbed radiation doses to skeleton for these dogs ranged from 210 to 830 rad. Of the 46 bone tumors, 22 originated in the vertebrae, 12 in the humeri, 6 in the pelves, and 6 in miscellaneous long and flat bones. Most of the tumors were well-differentiated sarcomas. Only 10 of the tumors metastasized; the lung was the organ most often invaded. Bone tumors were associated with lesions of radiation osteodysplasia. The number of bone tumors found in this study indicated that inhaled /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was an effective skeletal carcinogen. The rate of solubilization in the lung and translocation to bone may be a factor in the radiation dose pattern and type and location of bone tumors that developed after inhalation of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/.

Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinneyk, J.A.; Merickel, B.S.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.D.

1981-10-01

425

Primary bone neoplasms in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Primary bone neoplasms developed in beagle dogs briefly exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. 238PuO2 was initially deposited in the respiratory tract where it was retained with a half time greater than 100 days. A portion of the 238Pu was solubilized and translocated to the liver and skeleton. Five years after exposure, 46 osteosarcomas developed in 35 of 144 exposed dogs. The cumulative absorbed radiation doses to skeleton for these dogs ranged from 210 to 830 rad. Of the 46 bone tumors, 22 originated in the vertebrae, 12 in the humeri, 6 in the pelves, and 6 in miscellaneous long and flat bones. Most of the tumors were well-differentiated sarcomas. Only 10 of the tumors metastasized; the lung was the organ most often invaded. Bone tumors were associated with lesions of radiation osteodysplasia. The number of bone tumors found in this study indicated that inhaled 238PuO2 was an effective skeletal carcinogen. The rate of solubilization in the lung and translocation to bone may be a factor in the radiation dose pattern and type and location of bone tumors that developed after inhalation of 238PuO2.

Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Merickel, B.S.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

1981-10-01

426

Plutonium Alloys Containing Controlled Amounts of Plutonium Allotropes Obtained by Application of High Pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alloys are useful as nuclear fission reactor fuels in the form of solid rods or other shapes. A stabilized plutonium base alloy containing from 0.6 to 4.0 atom percent gallium aluminum, or zinc is made by compressing the alloy to its transformation pr...

R. O. Elliott K. A. Gschneidner

1964-01-01

427

Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update.  

PubMed

Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker's mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. PMID:9314220

Voelz, G L; Lawrence, J N; Johnson, E R

1997-10-01

428

Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

HERZOG, K.R.

1999-09-01

429

10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. THE MILL ROLLED INGOTS INTO SHEETS THAT WERE THEN CUT INTO CIRCLE BLANKS TO BE PASSED THROUGH THE CENTER LINE FOR PRESSING. (2/19/63) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

430

Evaluation of weapons-grade plutonium disposition options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving high levels of plutonium annihilation. Evaluations were performed

D. A. Brownson; D. J. Hanson

1993-01-01

431

PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS  

DOEpatents

S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

Duffield, R.B.

1959-02-24

432

Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being

S. Eaton; C. Beard; J. Buksa; D. Butt; K. Chidester; G. Havrilla; K. Ramsey

1997-01-01

433

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity

J. Marra; C. Crawford; K. Fox; N. Bibler

2011-01-01

434

Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans,

Kriikku

1999-01-01

435

Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants  

SciTech Connect

Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFPs Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)39H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2011-03-10

436

Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

1993-12-01

437

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2009-01-01

438

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2010-01-01

439

Plutonium burning with high temperature gas-cooled reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary study on nuclear characteristics of plutoniumburning with High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTR). The following information is obtained from comparison of features of HTR and cell burn-up calculations with the use of HTR fuel: (1) HTR has good potential for plutonium utilization. (2) Core property changes at around the same quantity of plutonium as fissile uranium.

T Nakata; Y Matsuki; T Mouri

1995-01-01

440

Demolition of Hanford's 223-S Plutonium Concentration Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the technical approach being used to demolish a plutonium-contaminated processing facility at the Hanford Site. This project represents the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. Thi...

G. T. Berlin E. R. Lloyd D. S. Mantooth T. K. Orgill

2004-01-01

441

Open air demolition of facilities highly contaminated with plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and

E. R. Lloyd; M. B. Lackey; J. M. Stevens; L. C. Zinsli

2007-01-01

442

Radiological emergency experience in an industrial plutonium plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 3rd Health Physics Society midyear topical symposium; Los Angeles, ; California, USA (29 Jan 1969). See CONF-690103-P3. Four separate radiation ; accidents at NUMEC's Plutonium Plant are described. Two involved exploding glove ; boxes, one was a hand amputation in a plutonium milling machine box and the ; fourth was an uncontrolled release of ¹⁹²Ir aerosol from a shielded

R. Caldwell; T. Potter; E. Schnell; C. A. Willis

1972-01-01

443

HECTOR Measurements on Plutonium-Uranium Metal Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HECTOR technique for deducing lattice parameters from measurements on single fuel elements has been applied to a range of plutonium-uranium metal rods. Elements containing up to 1/2% of plutonium with Pu240 contents in the range 3 to 24% were used, th...

R. Richmond R. C. Bannerman J. W. W. Fripp B. L. H. Burbidge

1965-01-01

444

Plutonium mobility and its fate in soil and sediment environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile plutonium was found in waterlogged soil and reservoir sediment from the Nishiyama district of Nagasaki, accumulating from the local fallout released in the explosion of the A-bomb in 1945. Less than 10% of the total deposited plutonium had turned into a mobile form in the bottom sediment of the reservoir. The environmental conditions in the soft and sediment are

Yasunori Mahara; Akira Kudo

2001-01-01

445

Joint U.S.\\/Russian plutonium disposition study: Nonproliferation issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to establish joint activities in the disposition of fissile materials from nuclear materials, the US and Russia agreed to conduct joint work to develop consistent comparisons of various alternatives for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium. Joint working groups were established for the analysis of alternatives for plutonium management for water reactors, fast reactors, storage, geological formations, immobilization

C. Jaeger; B. Erkkila; B. Fearey; M. Ehinger; S. McAllister; V. Chitaykin; V. Ptashny

1996-01-01

446

Japanese Plutonium Stockpiles: A Transportation, Storage, and Public Relations Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with Japan's nuclear policies, Japanese nuclear power companies have regularly shipped depleted uranium fuel to reprocessing plants in the United Kingdom and France. These British and French companies extract plutonium from Japanese spent fuel; the newly reprocessed plutonium may be used to create a derivative nuclear fuel called MOX (mixed oxide fuel). Currently, the Japanese government seeks to

William D. Turner

2003-01-01

447

Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

1996-09-01

448

How much plutonium does North Korea really have?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, as part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, the author estimated the maximum quantity of plutonium that could be produced in thermal research reactors in the potential nuclear weapon states (including North Korea), based on their declared power level. D. Albright has estimated the amount of plutonium the North Koreans may have produced since

Dreicer

1997-01-01

449

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2013-01-01

450

Tributyl-phosphate-impregnated sorbents for plutonium-uranium separations  

SciTech Connect

Bayer AG Lewatit OC-1023, a macroporous sorbent impregnated with tributyl phosphate (TBP), was evaluated for the separation of uranium and plutonium from mixed actinide residues. The sorbent was tested for uranium breakthrough capacity, plutonium washing, and uranium elution behavior. TBP-impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 was compared to the Lewatit OC-1023.

Alford, C.E.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-03-24

451

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

452

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

453

Martensitic nature of {delta} {yields} {gamma} allotropic transformation in plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Isothermal and isoplethal studies using differential scanning calorimetry have been conducted to characterize the allotropic transformations of plutonium. The {delta}-{gamma} transformation (upon cooling) was observed to have a classic martensitic nature. The work described herein is the first quantitative study of this phenomena in plutonium.

Lopez, P.C.; Cost, J.R.; Axler, K.M.

1996-09-01

454

Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant

Kan

1998-01-01

455

Decommissioning the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I) was decommissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, in 1980. The LAMPRE I was a sodium-cooled reactor built to develop plutonium fuels for fast breeder application...

J. R. Harper R. Garde

1981-01-01

456

SURFACE TENSION OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM AT THE MELTING POINT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The achievement of a floating zone melting apparatus, especially studied ; for radioactive materials refining, enabled the surface tension of molten uranium ; and plutonium to be determined by the drop-weight method: 1500 dynes\\/ cm for ; uranium, 550 dynes\\/cm for plutonium. (auth);

Spriet

1963-01-01

457

Studies of a Liquid Anode for Plutonium Electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a solvent anode as an alternate method for producing plutonium metal of high purity by an electrorefining process. Our goals are to produce metal of 99.98% purity with an anode residue containing less than 2% of the plutonium in the feed material. If we are successful, we will design and demonstrate a system utilizing semi-continuous and remotely

David F. Bowersox; James A. Mcneese; Dana C. Christensen

1987-01-01

458

THE SOLUTION SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF REFRACTORY METALS IN MOLTEN PLUTONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution susceptibilities of molybdenum, titanium, vnnadium, and ; zirconium in molten plutonium iind in some molten plutonium alloys are given. ; Results from tests of over 9000 hr, indicate that vanadium miiv have the ; greiitest resistance to dissolution. (J.E.D.);

Schonfeld

1952-01-01

459

Decommissioning the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I) was decommissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, in 1980. The LAMPRE I was a sodium-cooled reactor built to develop plutonium fuels for fast breeder applications. It was retired in the mid-1960s. This report describes the decommissioning procedures, the health physics programs, the waste management, and the

J. R. Harper; R. Garde

1981-01-01

460

Plutonium metal and alloy preparation by molten chloride reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfactory reduction of molten plutonium trichloride (pure and in combination with 20 wt % sodium chloride) by calcium, lanthanum, and cerium has been demonstrated on the 10-g scale. The yields were satisfactory for this scale of operation, and it is indicated that these reductions may be useful for large-scale operations. Significant separations of plutonium from rare earth impurities was demonstrated

Reavis

1984-01-01

461

Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOEpatents

High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

Schulz, Wallace W. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01

462

Bioaccumulation and distribution of plutonium in fish from Gdansk Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of 238Pu and 239+240Pu determinations in four representative species of Baltic fish collected in Gdansk Bay: flounder, herring, cod and sprat, are presented and discussed. The plutonium isotopes are amongst the more radiotoxic nuclides. In the marine environment, the highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the sediments, but the complex biogeochemical cycle of the

Bogdan Skwarzec; Dagmara I Struminska; Alicja Borylo

2001-01-01

463

Evaluation of continuous air monitor placement in a plutonium facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Energy appraisers found continuous air monitors at Department of Energy plutonium facilities alarmed less than 30% of the time when integrated room plutonium air concentrations exceeded 500 DAC-hours. Without other interventions, this alarm percentage suggests the possibility that workers could be exposed to high airborne concentrations without continuous air monitor alarms. Past research has shown that placement of

Jeffrey J. Whicker; John C. Rodgers; Charles I. Fairchild; Ronald C. Scripsick; Ricky C. Lopez

1997-01-01

464

Volatile chelates and organic compounds of neptunium and plutonium  

SciTech Connect

In this review, volatile coordination and organic compounds of neptunium and plutonium are described, including complex halides, alkoxides, borohydrides, ..beta..-diketonates, phthalocyanines, and organometallic ..pi..-complexes. Comparison is made with analogous compounds of other f-elements (particularly, uranium and thorium). The prospects of practical use of volatile compounds of neptunium and plutonium are discussed.

Mishin, V.Ya.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.

1987-01-01

465

Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure

Michael E Cournoyer; Archie E Nixon; Robert L Dodge; Keith W Fife; Arnold M Sandoval; Vincent E Garcia

2010-01-01

466

Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg?1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13? coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

2013-06-01

467

CHLORINE DIOXIDE: DRINKING WATER ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evansville has working in conjunction with Olin Corporation in evaluating two alternative chlorine dioxide generation and application techniques. s a result of these investigations, combined methodologies have been developed that significantly reduce finished water oxychlorine re...

468

Voltammetric Membrane Chlorine Dioxide Electrode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A voltammetric membrane electrode system has been modified and applied to the in situ measurement of chlorine dioxide. The electrode system consisted of a gold cathode, a silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold counter electrode. Different ...

R. Dormond-Herrera K. H. Mancy

1980-01-01

469

Preparation of Pure Plutonium Metal Standards for Nondestructive Assay  

SciTech Connect

To calibrate neutron coincidence and neutron multiplicity counters for passive assay of plutonium, certain detector parameters must be determined. When one is using small plutonium metal samples, biases can be introduced from non-zero multiplication and impurities. This paper describes preparing small, pure plutonium metal standards with well-known geometries to enable accurate multiplication corrections and with acceptably low levels of impurities. To minimize multiplication, these standards are designed as 2-cm-diameter foils with varying thicknesses and masses of 1.4, 3.6, and 7.2 g plutonium. These standards will significantly improve characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters. They can also be equally useful for gamma-ray spectrometry and calorimetry. Five sets will be made: four for other US Department of Energy plutonium facilities, and one set to remain at Los Alamos. We will also describe other nondestructive assay standards that are planned for the next few years.

S. -T. Hsue; J. E. Stewart; M. S. Krick

2000-11-01

470

Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

Erickson, S.A.

1999-10-04

471

Estimates of radiological risk from a terrorist attack using plutonium.  

PubMed

The possible use of radioactivity dispersal devices by terrorist groups has been recently reported in the news. In this paper, we discuss the threat of terrorist attacks by plutonium, with particular attention to the dispersal of plutonium by explosion or fire. Doses resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosol induced by a plutonium explosion or fire are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (the HOTSPOT code) for different meteorological conditions. Ground contamination and resuspension of dust are also considered in the simulations. Our simulations suggest that acute effects from a plutonium dispersal attack are very unlikely. For late stochastic effects, the explosion poses a greater hazard than fire. However, even in the worst-case scenario, the dispersed plutonium would cause relatively few excess cancers (around 80 in a city of 2 million inhabitants) after many years from the explosion, and these excess cancers would remain undetected against the background of cancer fatalities. PMID:12201055

Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo

2002-06-01

472

BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

1959-02-10

473

Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium  

SciTech Connect

A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (..cap alpha..,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the /sup 240/Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride.

Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

1987-01-01

474

Disposing of the world`s excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis.

McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

1998-12-31

475

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES  

DOEpatents

Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

1960-09-13

476

Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride  

SciTech Connect

Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H{sub 2} after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuH{sub x})-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuH{sub x} catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (E{sub a} = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 {+-} 0.03 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed.

Allen, T.H.; Haschke, J.M.

1998-06-01

477

Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

Rothe, R.E.

1998-04-01

478

Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

2005-09-29

479

Laser isotope separation: the plutonium connection  

SciTech Connect

A new process that promises to enrich uranium more cheaply and easily than either of the technologies currently used is described. The new process, called laser isotope separation (LIS), uses lasers to selectively excite and ionize uranium-235 and then accumulates that isotope on collectors. The advantages of the LIS process are discussed. It is concluded that the government's growing support of the laser isotope separation process may reconnect civilian nuclear power to the military requirements for enough plutonium for 14,000 new warheads.

Palmer, G.; Bolef, D.I.

1984-03-01

480

Plutonium isotope measurements from across continental Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 240Pu/239Pu ratio of the global plutonium fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing is typically in the range 0.170.19. However, the influence of regional nuclear installations or nearby weapons test sites can lead to local values outside this range. We report 240Pu/239Pu ratios at 14 representative sites across the Australian continent, and find that the weapons tests carried out in Australia appear to have made a significant contribution to the total fallout in the center of the continent, despite their relatively small explosive yield.

Tims, Stephen G.; Fifield, L. Keith; Hancock, Gary J.; Lal, Rajeev R.; Hoo, Wee T.

2013-01-01

481

Photocatalytic titanium dioxide composite.  

PubMed

In recent years, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has gained much more interest for its semiconducting properties for use as photocatalytic material because it rapidly and completely mineralizes organic without harmful byproducts. Based on inspiration from biology, which uses organic structures to guide nucleation and growth of minerals, we demonstrate controlled synthesis of TiO2 using a hydrophilic synthetic polymer. In the absence of the polymer, TiO2 completely transforms to rutile by 72 hours, however with the addition of the polymer larger anatase crystallites are observed due to the reduced number of nuclei formed. Under these conditions, complete transformation to rutile was not observed due to diffusion-limited growth of TiO2 as well as the presence of an organic coating on the crystallites. However nanoparticles are difficult to recover from effluent streams. We use the polymer to develop bulk composite TiO2-organic structures which can be fabricated and tailored as a stand alone photocatalysts, eliminating the need for nanoparticle recovery systems, thereby reducing processing costs. PMID:22103115

Kinsinger, Nichola; Tantuccio, Anthony; Sun, Minwei; Yan, Yushan; Kisailus, David

2011-08-01

482

The Transport of Plutonium, Americium and Curium in the Blood of Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of disappearance from the blood of plutonium, americium and curium after intravenous injection in various chemical forms has been studied in rats. The rate of removal of plutonium is markedly influenced by the physicochemical form of the injected plutonium and especially by the presence of colloidal material. The plasma clearance rate of plutonium injected as a citrate solution

G. A. Turner; D. M. Taylor

1968-01-01

483

Milling and blending of ceramic powders for the plutonium immobilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Plutonium Immobilization Program is the immobilization of surplus weapons usable plutonium in a ceramic form. The ceramic will then be encapsulated in high level waste glass using the can-in-can configuration. In the ceramic line of the immobilization plant, surplus plutonium oxide of less than 100 micron particle size will be received for immobilization. The plutonium oxide

D T Herman; W E Biehl

2000-01-01

484

METHOD OF FORMING PLUTONIUM-BEARING CARRIER PRECIPITATES AND WASHING SAME  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process ; for the recovery of plutonium is presented. In this process the plutonium is ; first segregated in the LaF\\/su precipitate and this precipitate is later ; dissolved and the plutonium reprecipitated as the peroxide. It has been found ; that the loss of plutonium by its remaining in the supernatant

Faris

1959-01-01

485

Behavior of plutonium and americium at liquid cadmium cathode in molten LiClKCl electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the electrochemical conditions on the behavior of plutonium and proper conditions for plutonium recovery at the liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) used in the pyrometallurgical reprocessing were studied by the electrotransport experiments with small, not stirred electrodes. Plutonium was successfully collected up to 7.75 wt% without disturbance by solid phase formation at the surface. Plutonium collected beyond saturation

Masatoshi Iizuka; Koich Uozumi; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Osamu Shirai; Yasuo Arai

2001-01-01

486

Verification of plutonium content in spent fuel assemblies using neutron self-interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amounts of plutonium in reactor spent fuel assemblies has led to increased research directed toward the measurement of the plutonium for safeguards verification. The high levels of fission product gamma-ray activity and curium neutron backgrounds have made the plutonium measurement difficult. We have developed a new technique that can directly measure both the U concentration and the plutonium

Howard O Menlove; Apencer H Menlove; Stephen J Tobin

2009-01-01

487

AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes  

PubMed Central

VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu=(5.71.0)נ10?5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

2013-01-01

488

Plutonium isotopes in the Hungarian environment.  

PubMed

More than 50 soil samples were analysed from different parts of the country, the activity concentration of 239+240Pu was in the range of 0.01-0.84 Bq/kg dry soil with the average of 0.10 Bq/kg. 238Pu could be detected only in few moss samples and 238Pu/239+240Pu ratio determines the origin of plutonium. 241Pu was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The activity concentration of this isotope in the soil is between 0.04 and 3.74 Bq/kg with the average of 0.82 Bq/kg, while in the moss is also similar 0.01-2.07 Bq/kg fresh mass with the average of 0.43 Bq/kg. Significant difference could not be observed between the different types of soils occurring in the country, but the results could be sorted according to the sampling carried out on undisturbed or cultivated area. The isotope ratios 241Pu/239+240Pu prove that the origin of the plutonium in Hungary is the global fallout determined by the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. PMID:17983692

Varga, Beata; Tarjn, Sandor; Vajda, Nora

2007-11-05

489

Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6166 (United States)

2007-07-01

490

Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity.

Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-09-01

491

Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic  

SciTech Connect

The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

1997-09-01

492

Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01

493

Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the ? and ? phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a single-site approximation (SSA), the characteristic Kondo interaction energy, the f-electron shell occupation number, the effective degeneracy of the ground-state f multiplet, and the crystal field splitting energy are estimated. The ground state in plutonium is considered as a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with different valences. The temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility of ? plutonium is calculated. It is shown that ? plutonium satisfies the Wilson and Kadowaki-Woods universal relations, whereby it can be classified as a Kondo system. At the same time, the problem of the position of plutonium in the general classification of solids, as well as the problem of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of ? plutonium, remains open. The concept of multiple intermediate valence (MIV) is put forward as a possible means for solving the above problems. The MIV regime is characterized by fluctuations from the basic configuration 3+ to the states 4+ and 2+, which make a fundamental difference between plutonium and 4 f electron systems based, say, on samarium.

Clementyev, E. S.; Mirmelstein, A. V.

2009-07-01

494

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

495

How much plutonium does North Korea really have?  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study, as part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, the author estimated the maximum quantity of plutonium that could be produced in thermal research reactors in the potential nuclear weapon states (including North Korea), based on their declared power level. D. Albright has estimated the amount of plutonium the North Koreans may have produced since 1986 in the 5-megawatt-electric power reactor at Yongbon. Albright provided an upper-bound estimate of 53 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium produced cumulatively if the gas-graphite (magnox) reactor had achieved a load factor of 0.80. This cumulative estimate of 53 kilograms ignores the potential plutonium production in the 8-megawatt-thermal research reactor, IRT-DPRK. To better quantify the cumulative North Korean production, the author conducted a study to estimate the amount of plutonium that could have been produced in the IRT-DPRK research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a period it was not safeguarded. The author estimates that, at most, an additional 6 to 33 kilograms of plutonium could have been produced cumulatively in the research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a 12-year period it was not safeguarded, resulting in a total of 13 to 47 kilograms of plutonium possibly produced in both the research and power reactors.

Dreicer, J.S.

1997-11-01

496

Global estimation of potential unreported plutonium in thermal research reactors  

SciTech Connect

As of November, 1993, 303 research reactors (research, test, training, prototype, and electricity producing) were operational worldwide; 155 of these were in non-nuclear weapon states. Of these 155 research reactors, 80 are thermal reactors that have a power rating of 1 MW(th) or greater and could be utilized to produce plutonium. A previously published study on the unreported plutonium production of six research reactors indicates that a minimum reactor power of 40 MW (th) is required to make a significant quantity (SQ), 8 kg, of fissile plutonium per year by unreported irradiations. As part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, we determined an upper bound on the maximum possible quantity of plutonium that could be produced by the 80 thermal research reactors in the non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). We estima