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1

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

2

Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

Orth, D.A.

2003-01-16

3

Uranium-plutonium metallic spikes for IDMS accountancy measurements: preparation and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloys containing uranium and plutonium have been prepared as candidates for use as metallic spikes for IDMS determinations of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel solutions. Three compositions, U-0.5%Pu-50%Ti, U-0.5%Pu-25%Nb-25%Zr and U-1%Pu-2.3%Nb , prepared by crucible-less induction melting, were selected because of good cold formability. The plutonium homogeneity was estimated to be 0.1-0.4% RSD for samples containing 100 mg uranium and 1 mg plutonium by a ?-spectrometric method using 235U in the spike as an internal standard to correct for self-absorption. Metallography was carried out on buttons and foils of each of the alloys and revealed fine, homogeneous structures. All the percentages indicated in this work are weight percentages.

Orea Rocha, J. M.; Ingelbrecht, C. D.; Criado Portal, A. J.

1993-09-01

4

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01

5

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01

6

Six-kilogram-scale electrorefining of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

The electrorefining of metallic plutonium scrap to produce high purity metal has been an established procedure at Los Alamos since 1964. This is a batch process and was limited to 4-kg plutonium because of criticality safety considerations. Improvements in critical mass measurements have permitted us to develop a process for 6-kg plutonium. The 6-kg process is now operational. The increased size of the process, together with other improvements which have been made, makes plutonium electrorefining the principal industrial tool for processing and purifying metallic plutonium scrap.

Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.; Apgar, S.A. III; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-01

7

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results

Nathan

2002-01-01

8

15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

9

Direct reduction of actinide oxide and carbide to metal: Application to the preparation of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different conversion and refining methods for the preparation of high purity plutonium metal are described: the calciothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by electrorefining; the thoriothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by selective evaporation; the tantalothermic reduction of plutonium carbide followed by selective evaporation. The calciothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by electrorefining is used for the semi-industrial or large scale production of high purity plutonium metal. The rate and yield of preparation and refining is high. With high purity reactants the reduction of the oxide with thorium is well adapted to obtain high purity plutonium metal on the laboratory scale. The tantalothermic reduction of plutonium carbide gives high purity plutonium metal even with impure plutonium starting material (recovered from waste). This results from the high selectivity at the different steps of the process.

Spirlet, J. C.; Müller, W.; Van Audenhove, J.

1985-06-01

10

Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

1980-07-01

11

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study.

Nathan, S.J.

2002-02-04

12

THE DETERMINATION OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF NEPTUNIUM IN PLUTONIUM METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the neptunium content (10 to 2000 ; ppm) of plutonium metal. The neptunium is separated from plutonium by solvent ; extraction with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and then determined with a square-wave ; polarograph. Results show neptunium contents ranging from 25 to 500 ppm. The ; precision at these two levels is about plus or minus 10

L. J. Slee; G. Phillips; E. N. Jenkins

1959-01-01

13

Preparation of Pure Plutonium Metal Standards for Nondestructive Assay  

SciTech Connect

To calibrate neutron coincidence and neutron multiplicity counters for passive assay of plutonium, certain detector parameters must be determined. When one is using small plutonium metal samples, biases can be introduced from non-zero multiplication and impurities. This paper describes preparing small, pure plutonium metal standards with well-known geometries to enable accurate multiplication corrections and with acceptably low levels of impurities. To minimize multiplication, these standards are designed as 2-cm-diameter foils with varying thicknesses and masses of 1.4, 3.6, and 7.2 g plutonium. These standards will significantly improve characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters. They can also be equally useful for gamma-ray spectrometry and calorimetry. Five sets will be made: four for other US Department of Energy plutonium facilities, and one set to remain at Los Alamos. We will also describe other nondestructive assay standards that are planned for the next few years.

S. -T. Hsue; J. E. Stewart; M. S. Krick

2000-11-01

14

Adsorption of Neptunium and Plutonium on Metal Phosphites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The removal of neptunium and plutonium from water by adsorption on titanium, zirconium, bismuth, thorium, and uranium phosphites was investigated. These phosphites hydrolyze in neutral or alkaline solution producing the hydrous metal oxides that are more ...

G. L. Silver

1979-01-01

15

Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification  

SciTech Connect

Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

1996-01-01

16

Dissolution of Fissile Materials Containing Plutonium and Beryllium Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal were dissolved at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a program to disposition nuclear materials during the deactivation of the FB?Line facility. Some of these items contained both Pu and beryllium (Be) metal as a composite material. The Pu and Be metals were physically separated to minimize the amount of Be associated

Tracy S. Rudisill; Mark L. Crowder

2006-01-01

17

Button batteries  

MedlinePLUS

... Also, you can call the National Button Battery Ingestion Hotline (202-625-3333). ... Clark L, White NC, Marsolek M: Emerging battery ingestion hazard: Clinical implications. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6): 1168- ...

18

Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

About 5 kg of ingrown /sup 241/Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the /sup 241/Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel.

Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

1980-12-01

19

Rapid dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid followed by conversion to a nitric acid medium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium metal that does not meet product purity specifications and aged plutonium metal into which /sup 241/Am has grown must be recycled through a recovery and purification process. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the initial recycle step is dissolution of the metal. Since about 1962, sulfamic acid has been the accepted dissolvent in the SRP process. This paper dicusses the dissolving of plutonium metal in sulfamic aid. 4 refs.

Gray, L.W.

1981-01-01

20

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

2012-02-21

21

Gastrostomy button: clinical appraisal.  

PubMed

We retrospectively studied all gastrostomy buttons inserted in the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane between 1988 and 1995. One hundred and thirty-two patients (M = 60, F = 72) and 388 buttons were analysed. Intellectual handicap and cystic fibrosis comprised the majority of patients. Thirty-three patients had gastrostomy buttons inserted primarily, whereas, 99 patients received gastrostomy buttons inserted into matured gastrostomy stoma. The average longevity of all determined buttons (n = 280) was 360.43 days (SD = 310.24). The first buttons inserted primarily (n = 25) had longer longevity than the first buttons inserted into matured gastrostomy stoma (n = 82) with statistical significance. The average longevity of subsequent buttons was significantly less than the first buttons. Valve incompetence and leakage of gastric content around the shaft were the most common causes of button removal. We concluded that the gastrostomy button is the method of choice for long term enteral feeding in children. PMID:10998835

Ruangtrakool, R; Ong, T H

2000-08-01

22

Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

Not Available

1984-01-01

23

In situ purification, alloying and casting methodology for metallic plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium metal that has been double ER (electrorefined/electrorefining) was further purified via zone refining, using a floating molten zone to minimize the introduction of impurities. The temperature of the molten zone was 750°C, and the atmosphere was 10 -5 Pa. A total of ten zone refining passes were made at a travel rate of 1.5 cm/h. There were 19 elements reduced to quantities below the minimum detectable limits (MDL) by zone refining, while P, K, and W were significantly reduced. The zone-refined metal was then used in an in situ distillation, alloying, and casting step to prepare tapered specimens for single-crystal growth experiments. Specifically, 241Am was distilled from Pu metal by levitating Pu metal with 1 wt% Ga in the melt in a Crystallox vertical electromagnetic levitation crucible at 10 -5 Pa. The Pu is alloyed with Ga to stabilize the ? phase (fcc symmetry) upon solidification. The Pu was chill-cast directly from the electromagnetic levitation field into 1- cm tapered specimens. A water-cooled ceramic mold was used, and the Pu metal was cooled at a rate of 100°C/min. A microstructure examination of the specimen showed 10 × 25 ?m acicular grains with a density of 15.938 g/cm 3 (±0.002 g/cm 3).

Lashley, Jason C.; Blau, Michael S.; Staudhammer, Karl P.; Pereyra, Ramiro A.

24

Atomistic models of point defects in plutonium metal.  

SciTech Connect

The aging properties of plutonium (Pu) metal and alloys are. driven by a combination of materials composit ion, p rocessing history, and self-irradiat ion effects . Understanding these driving forces requires a knowledge of both t h ermodynamic and defect properties of the material . The multiplicity of phases and the small changes in tempe rat u re, pressure, and/or stress that can induce phase changes lie at the heart of these properties . In terms of radiation damage, Pu metal represents a unique situation because of the large volume chan ges that accompany the phase changes . The most workable form of the meta l is the fcc (S-) phase, which in practice is stabi l ized by addit io n of a ll oying el eme n ts s u c h as Ga or Al. The thermodynamically stable phase at ambient conditions is the monoclinic (a-) phase, which, however, is 2 0 % lower i n volume th an the S phase . In stabilized Pu metal, there is an in t er play between th e n atu ral swe l li n g tendencies of fcc metals and the volume-contraction tendency of the u n d erlyin g thermodynamicall y stable phase. This study exp lores the point d efect pr operties that are necessary to model the long-term outcome of this interplay.

Valone, S. M. (Steven M.); Baskes, M. I. (Michael I.); Uberuaga, B. P. (Blas Pedro); Voter, A. F.

2003-01-01

25

MODELING OF DIFFUSION OF PLUTONIUM IN OTHER METALS AND OF GASEOUS SPECIES IN PLUTONIUM-BASED SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research is aimed at developing and utilizing computational-modeling-based methodology to treat two major problems. The first of these is to be able to predict the diffusion of plutonium from the surface into the interior of another metal such as uranium or stainless steel (f...

26

Criteria for Preparing and Packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage  

SciTech Connect

This Standard provides criteria for packaging of plutonium metals and stabilized oxides for storage periods of at least 50 years. To meet the criteria, plutonium-bearing materials must be in stable forms and be packaged in containers designed to maintain their integrity both under normal storage conditions and during anticipated handling accidents.

NONE

1994-12-01

27

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03-0.05 M KF, 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 2.0-3.5 h. When B was used as the neutron poison, 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.05-0.1 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe, and 1 g/L B resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 0.75-2.0 h. Dissolution rates estimated using data from the flowsheet demonstrations agreed reasonably well with the measured rates; although, a discrepancy was observed in the Gd system. The presence of 1 g/L Gd or B in the dissolving solution had about the same effect on the dissolution rate. The predominant Pu valence in the dissolving solution was Pu(IV). The concentration of Pu(VI) was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy and was estimated to be significantly less than 1 wt %. The offgas generation rates and H{sub 2} concentrations measured in the offgas from experiments performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe and either 1 g/L Gd or B were approximately the same. These data support the conclusion that the presence of either 1 g/L Gd or B had the same general effect on the dissolution rate. The calculated offgas generation during the dissolutions was 0.6 mol offgas/mol of Pu. The H{sub 2} concentration measured in the offgas from the dissolution using Gd as the neutron poison was approximately 0.5 vol %. In the B system, the H{sub 2} ranged from nominally 0.8 to 1 vol % which is about the same as measured in the Gd system within the uncertainty of the analysis. The offgas generation rate for the dissolution performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03 M KF, 0.5 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe was approximately a factor of two less than produced in the other dissolutions; however, the concentration of H{sub 2} measured in the offgas was higher. The adjusted concentration ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 vol % as the dissolution proceeded. Higher concentrations of H{sub 2} occur when the Pu dissolution proceeds by a metal/acid reaction rather than nitrate oxidation. The higher H{sub 2} concentration could be attributed to the reduced activity of the fluoride

Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

2012-07-02

28

Plutonium pyrophoricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the published literature on ignition and burning of plutonium metal was conducted in order to better define the characteristic of pyrophoric plutonium. The major parameter affecting ignition is the surface area\\/mass ratio of the sample. Based on this parameter, plutonium metal can be classified into four categories: (1) bulk metal, (2) film and foils, (3) chips and

Stakebake

1992-01-01

29

Virtual button interface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

Jones, J.S.

1999-01-12

30

Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions  

SciTech Connect

The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

1995-05-01

31

Dissolution of Plutonium Metal in 8-10 M Nitric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO(sub 2)) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes ...

R. Pierce, T. Rudisill

2012-01-01

32

Dissolution of Plutonium Scrub Alloy and Anode Heel Materials in H-Canyon  

SciTech Connect

H-Canyon has a ''gap'' in dissolver operations during the last three months of FY03. One group of material to be processed during the gap is pre-existing scrub alloy material. There are 14 cans of material containing approximately 3.8 kilograms of plutonium. Of the 14 cans, it was anticipated that four cans contain salts, two cans contain anode heel materials, and eight cans contain scrub alloy buttons. H-Canyon desires to process the materials using a flowsheet similar to the SS and C (sand, slag and crucible) dissolution flowsheet used in F-Canyon. The materials will be loaded into carbon steel cans and then placed into aluminum metal charging bundles. Samples were sent to Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for characterization and flowsheet testing -- four MSE salts, two anode heels, and seven scrub alloy buttons. SRTC dissolved and characterized each of the samples. Two of them, originally thought to be MSE salts, were found to be graphite mold materials and were unsuitable for processing in H-Canyon. Characterization studies confirmed that the identification of the remaining items as MSE salts, scrub alloy buttons, and anode heel materials was correct. The MSE salts and anode heels solids are comprised primarily of plutonium, potassium, sodium and chloride. Both the MSE salts and anode heels left behind small amounts of residual solids. The scrub alloy buttons are comprised primarily of plutonium and aluminum. The solids dissolve readily with light, effervescent gas generation at the material surface and only trace amounts of NOx generation. Of the seven button samples, four dissolved completely. Two button samples contained small amounts of tantalum that did not dissolve. The last of the seven scrub alloy samples left a trace amount of residual plutonium solids. It is anticipated that the presence of undissolved fissile material is a function of where the sample was located relative to the button surface.

PIERCE, RA

2004-04-12

33

Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

1998-09-30

34

The Button Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes The Button Project. It started as a dream, a need to educate future generations about the Holocaust, to teach tolerance, and to remember the past. Under the auspices of the Jewish Federation of Peoria, a small band of people joined together with the goal of teaching people about the Holocaust so that it will…

Armstrong, Charley

2005-01-01

35

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

36

Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems  

SciTech Connect

Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

2004-07-02

37

Illuminated push-button switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

Iwagiri, T.

1983-01-01

38

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect

According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-10

39

Begin With Buttons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 8-lesson unit students use buttons to explore logical and numerical relationships that form the conceptual basis for understanding addition and subtraction operations. Topics include counting, ordinal numbers (and relative position), classification (attributes), relationships between numbers, addition of sets, commutativity of addition, sums to 10, fact families (including subtraction), three models of subtraction ("take away", comparative, missing addend), and bar graphs. Includes student activity sheets and a link to an online graphing applet.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

40

Technical documentation to support the evaluation of handling of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, a can containing a plutonium metal ingot was opened. The sides of the inner storage can had collapsed. As the inner can was opened, an apparent flame appeared to issue from the opening. Based on the reaction and possible pressurization of the glovebox, a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening was issued. This document contains some of the technical documents to resolve the screening.

COOPER, T.D.

1999-08-31

41

Separating Metallic Beryllium from Plutonium by Selective Dissolution with Ammonium Fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium metal is stabilized for long-term storage by calcining to produce PuOâ. However, if beryllium is present, the calcined product may have a high neutron dose rate because of the ⁹Be(α,n)¹²C reaction in the finely divided oxide mixture. (At LLNL, inadvertent calcining of a mixture of â500 g Pu\\/50 g Be produced a neutron source of â5 R\\/hr.) Therefore, for

2006-01-01

42

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF concentration to 0.175 M, the dissolution of 300 g of Pu metal is expected to be essentially complete in 6 h. The dissolution of larger batch sizes would result in the formation of PuO{sub 2} solids. Incomplete dissolution of the PuO{sub 2} formed from the metal is not a solubility limitation, but can be attributed to a combination of reduced acidity and complexation of fluoride which slows the dissolution kinetics and effectively limits the mass of Pu dissolved.

Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

2007-10-15

43

2nd Annual Los Alamos Plutonium Metal Standard Exchange Workshop : "preliminary" results  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. This program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has reestablished the Pu metal exchange program. During the first year, five DOE facilities, Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, and New Brunswick Laboratory, Savannah River and the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE)' at Aldermaston are participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are being prepared and distributed to the various sites primarily for destructive measurements for elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program is intended to provide independent verification of analytical measurement capability for each participating facility and to allow problems to be identified. Significants achievements in FY02 will be described. Results from category 1 elements and comparisons with Rocky Flats standards exchange metal historical data will also be presented. The roles and responsibilities of LANL and the external laboratories have been defined.

Tandon, L. (Lav); Slemmons, A. K. (Alice K.)

2002-01-01

44

Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jones, V.D.

1998-07-01

45

Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.  

SciTech Connect

Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

Mattingly, John K.

2009-11-01

46

Interactions Between Plutonium and Other Metals in Connection with Their Arrangement in Mendeleev's Periodic Table; VZAIMODEISTVIE PLUTONIYA S DRUGIMI METALLAMI V SVYAZI S IKH RASPOLOZHENIEM V PERIODICHESKOI SISTEME D.I. MENDELEEVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some general characteristics deduced from the study of the interaction ; between plutonium and other metals are considered. It is pointed out that ; plutonium does not interact with alkali and alkaline earth elements. Plutonium ; combines with the metals of the Ia and IIa subgroups of the periodic table to ; form a number of compounds. Plutonium and the

A. A. Bochvar; S. T.. Konobeevskii

1959-01-01

47

Plutonium pyrophoricity  

SciTech Connect

A review of the published literature on ignition and burning of plutonium metal was conducted in order to better define the characteristic of pyrophoric plutonium. The major parameter affecting ignition is the surface area/mass ratio of the sample. Based on this parameter, plutonium metal can be classified into four categories: (1) bulk metal, (2) film and foils, (3) chips and turnings, and (4) powder. Other parameters that can alter the ignition of the metal include experimental, chemical, physical, and environmental effects. These effects are reviewed in this report. It was concluded from this review that pyrophoric plutonium can be conservatively defined as: Plutonium metal that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 150{degrees}C or below in the absence of external heat, shock, or friction. The 150{degrees}C temperature was used to compensate for the self-heating of plutonium metal. For a practical definition of whether any given metal is pyrophoric, all of the factors affecting ignition must be considered.

Stakebake, J.L.

1992-06-02

48

Button versus buttonless castings for removable partial denture frameworks.  

PubMed

Casting removable partial dentures (RPDs) without completely filling the sprue channels and generating casting buttons would result in saving metal and making more defect-free castings. This investigation tested whether a complete and sound RPD casting can be obtained when a minimal amount of metal is used. A factorial experimental design, three spruing methods, two metal feeding directions, and two different weights of metal were used to cast 60 Kennedy class II, modification 1 RPDs. The metal used to cast each framework was either enough to result in a full button or in no button. Visual and radiographic examinations and counting of defects were made by two independent operators who were unaware of the spruing method, feeding direction, or amount of metal used to make the framework. The completeness of the casting and the presence of porosities were evaluated for clasps, major connectors, and meshworks. The use of minimal metal to cast RPDs was equally as successful as using enough for a full button, provided that the appropriate spruing arrangement and metal feeding direction were chosen. Indirect metal feeding for maxillary RPDs was successful with the proper spruing arrangement. PMID:7990051

Mohammed, H; Hassaballa, M A; Talic, Y F

1994-10-01

49

An Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Multiplicity Measurements of Plutonium Metal  

SciTech Connect

In January 2009, Sandia National Laboratories conducted neutron multiplicity measurements of a polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere. Over the past 3 years, those experiments have been collaboratively analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations conducted by University of Michigan (UM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and North Carolina State University (NCSU). Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments consistently overpredict the mean and variance of the measured neutron multiplicity distribution. This paper presents a sensitivity study conducted to evaluate the potential sources of the observed errors. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements exhibited systematic over-prediction of the neutron multiplicity distribution. The over-prediction tended to increase with increasing multiplication. MCNPX-PoliMi had previously been validated against only very low multiplication benchmarks. We conducted sensitivity studies to try to identify the cause(s) of the simulation errors; we eliminated the potential causes we identified, except for Pu-239 {bar {nu}}. A very small change (-1.1%) in the Pu-239 {bar {nu}} dramatically improved the accuracy of the MCNPX-PoliMi simulation for all 6 measurements. This observation is consistent with the trend observed in the bias exhibited by the MCNPX-PoliMi simulations: a very small error in {bar {nu}} is 'magnified' by increasing multiplication. We applied a scalar adjustment to Pu-239 {bar {nu}} (independent of neutron energy); an adjustment that depends on energy is probably more appropriate.

Mattingly, John [North Carolina State University; Miller, Eric [University of Michigan; Solomon, Clell J. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis, Ben [University of Michigan; Meldrum, Amy [University of Michigan; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan

2012-06-21

50

Plutonium(V\\/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu (a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)) to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI)

Gary A. Icopini; Joe G. Lack; Larry E. Hersman; Mary P. Neu; Hakim Boukhalfa

2009-01-01

51

Dynamic and quasi-static simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal containers subject to 30-foot dropping  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers is in support of the design and testing project The results from the dynamic analysis show some important facts that have not been considered before. The internal bagless transfer can will have higher stress than the primary container. The quasi-static analysis provides a conservative solution. In both vertical upright drop (dynamic) and inclined upside down drop (quasi-static) the containers are structurally sound.

Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

1995-01-01

52

The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

53

Electrochemical investigation into the mechanism of plutonium reduction in electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently impure plutonium metal is purified at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a molten salt electrorefining process. Electrorefining is an effective method for producing high-purity plutonium metal (> 99.95%). In general this process involves the oxidation of impure plutonium metal from a molten plutonium anode or a solvent metal\\/plutonium anode, transport of plutonium ions through a molten salt electrolyte, and

L. E. McCurry; G. M. M. Moy

1987-01-01

54

Dissolution of Plutonium Metal Using Nitric Acid Solutions Containing Potassium Fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deinventory and deactivation of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FB-Line facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items

Tracy S. Rudisill; Mark L. Crowder; Michael G. Bronikowski

2008-01-01

55

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials

T. Rudisill; M. Crowder; M. Bronikowski

2007-01-01

56

Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an uranium-plutonium fuel irradiated by fast neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fast-neutron irradiation, uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N is shown to acquire a complex structure consisting of a solid solution that is based on the nitrides of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanides and contains condensed phases U2N3, CeRu2, BaTe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, LaSe, metallic molybdenum, technetium, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallics. The contents and compositions of these phases are calculated at a temperature of 900 K and a burn-up fraction up to 14% (U + Pu). The change in the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied during the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of transformation of U103Ru3, 137CsI, 140Ba3N2, and 241PuN is calculated.

Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

2011-11-01

57

Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect

A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

1997-12-31

58

Plutonium dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A two-step process is described for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M--1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M--0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45 C and 70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen. 2 figs.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1996-01-09

59

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

60

Inclusion Behavior During the Electron Beam Button Melting Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high mechanical performance of alloys developed for the manufacture of turbine disks depend upon the size and the number density of the inclusions. The electron beam button method has been practiced since the 1980s as a technique to quantify the cleanliness of the superalloys as well as to identify the nature and the size of the inclusions. The technique involves melting the sample into a hemispherical water-cooled crucible and the low density inclusions (mainly oxides) are concentrated by a combination of Marangoni and buoyancy forces into an area at the top surface of the button referred to as the raft. We have experimentally studied the behavior of oxide inclusions in special steels using both high definition video and infrared cameras. We have observed the inversion of the Marangoni effect due to the presence of sulfur, which leads to a positive temperature coefficient of the surface tension. A mathematical modeling has been carried out to simulate the turbulent fluid flow associated with the temperature field in the metallic pool of the button. The surface temperature profile has been successfully compared with the measured data. A post-processor numerical tool calculates the inclusion trajectories taking into account the turbulent fluctuation velocity by a stochastic approach. Hence, the behavior of a population of inclusions has been statistically studied, and the dependence of the capture efficiency on the inclusion size has been analyzed.

Bellot, J. P.; Defay, B.; Jourdan, J.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

2012-10-01

61

4.MD, 5.MD Button Diameters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: With a partner or group, gather a handful of round buttons from a diverse collection, and use a ruler to measure the diameter of each button to the nea...

62

Plutonium controversy  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

Richmond, C.R.

1980-01-01

63

The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai

2009-01-01

64

Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere  

SciTech Connect

Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the Feynman method was equally shared between the uncertainties in fitting the data to the Feynman equations and the neutron multiplicity of 239Pu. Material and geometry uncertainties in the benchmark experiment were generally much smaller than uncertainties in the analysis methods.

John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

2009-09-01

65

Modeling of diffusion of plutonium in other metals and of gaseous species in plutonium-based systems. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The problem being addressed is to establish standards for storage conditions for containers (e.g. stainless steel containers) meant to hold nuclear waste for long periods of time, e.g. fifty years, such as to ensure the integrity of the containers without being excessively conservative, i.e., being unnecessarily costly. Allowable storage temperature is an important parameter for the standards. Diffusion processes are central to certain processes that initiate corrosion of the containers or that lead to the release of gases increasing pressure that can rupture the container. The scientific goals of this project are: (1) to predict diffusion constants on an ab initio basis, i.e. diffusion distances in specified time at specified temperature, for atomic species from plutonium-based waste materials into storage container materials such as stainless steel or vice versa, (2) to predict the time development at specified temperature of complex diffusion processes in plutonium-based oxide type waste materials in the presence of water vapor such that gases may be released within a container. This predictive ability will help to provide information relevant to setting standards for waste container vessels and storage conditions. This project was initiated on September 15, 1997, so that this summary reports progress after about 2/3 of the first year of a three-year project.'

Cooper, B.R. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (US); Fernando, G.W. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (US)

1998-06-01

66

Alpha radiation effects on weapons-grade plutonium encapsulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific understanding of material problems in the long-term storage of plutonium pits is investigated using experimental and theoretical models. The durability of the plutonium pit depends on the integrity of the metal cladding that encapsulates the plutonium. Given sufficient time, the energetic alpha particles (helium nuclei) produced by nuclear decay of the plutonium would degrade the mechanical strength of

Mehmet Saglam

2000-01-01

67

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26

68

Standard test method for the determination of impurities in plutonium metal: acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis  

E-print Network

1.1 This Test Method covers the determination of 58 trace elements in plutonium (Pu) metal. The Pu sample is dissolved in acid, and the concentration of the trace impurities are determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 1.2 This Test Method is specific for the determination of trace impurities in Pu metal. It may be applied to other types of Pu materials, such as Pu oxides, if the samples are dissolved and oxidized to the Pu(IV) state. However, it is the responsibility of the user to evaluate the performance of other matrices. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01

69

Electrochemical investigation into the mechanism of plutonium reduction in electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

Currently impure plutonium metal is purified at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a molten salt electrorefining process. Electrorefining is an effective method for producing high-purity plutonium metal (> 99.95%). In general this process involves the oxidation of impure plutonium metal from a molten plutonium anode or a solvent metal/plutonium anode, transport of plutonium ions through a molten salt electrolyte, and reduction of the plutonium ions at a tungsten cathode to pure plutonium metal. Purification of the plutonium metal from impurities is based on the difference in free energies of formation between the various metallic impurities associated with plutonium. To obtain a better understanding of the overall electrorefining process and its inefficiencies, an electrochemical investigation into the mechanism for plutonium reduction in a typical electrorefining environment was undertaken. Cyclic voltammetry was selected as the method for determining the electrode mechanism for plutonium reduction at tungsten electrodes. In addition to the standard electrorefining melt (equimolar NaCl-KCl), additional melts that were being investigated in our solvent anode work were also investigated. With insight gained from this investigation, it was hoped that a better selection of electrorefining operating parameters could be obtained.

McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.

1987-01-01

70

Low temperature oxidation of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

Nelson, Art J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Roussel, Paul [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-05-15

71

Plutonium aging  

SciTech Connect

The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

Olivas, J.D.

1999-03-01

72

Practical considerations of the gastrostomy button.  

PubMed

Low-profile gastrostomy replacement devices (LPGRDs), also called gastrostomy buttons, provide patients with a desirable alternative to traditional catheters. Contraindications to LPGRDs include acutely angled gastrostomy tracts, tracts created with a mucosa lining, the need for jejunal feedings or significant decompression, planned retroesophageal dilation and tracts that are longer than the LPGRDs. Gastrostomy and patient considerations lead to a variety of scheduling practices. Management adaptations help maintain LPGRD patency and functioning of the anti-reflux valve and plug. Other adaptations are necessary for patients receiving thickened feedings or medications per gastrostomy, needing intermittent decompression or having high intra-abdominal pressure. Determining the correct LPGRD size and dilating the tract or cauterizing conclude this discussion which is summarized in a checklist following the text. PMID:1878389

Townsend, L C

1991-08-01

73

Gemini Planet Imager One Button Approach  

E-print Network

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an "extreme" adaptive optics coronagraph system that is now on the Gemini South telescope in Chile. This instrument is composed of three different systems that historically have been separate instruments. These systems are the extreme Adaptive Optics system, with deformable mirrors, including a high-order 64x64 element MEMS system; the Science Instrument, which is a near-infrared integral field spectrograph; and the Calibration system, a precision IR wavefront sensor that also holds key coronagraph components. Each system coordinates actions that require precise timing. The observatory is responsible for starting these actions and has typically done this asynchronously across independent systems. Despite this complexity we strived to provide an interface that is as close to a one-button approach as possible. This paper will describe the sequencing of these systems both internally and externally through the observatory.

Dunn, Jennifer; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Smith, Malcolm; Wooff, Robert; Savransky, Dmitry; Palmer, Dave; Macintosh, Bruce; Weiss, Jason; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Goodsell, Stephen J

2014-01-01

74

Button Battery Foreign Bodies in Children: Hazards, Management, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Objective. The demand and usage of button batteries have risen. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses and occasionally are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this work is to study the different presentations of button battery foreign bodies and present our experience in the diagnosis and management of this hazardous problem in children. Patients and Methods. This study included 13 patients. The diagnostic protocol was comprised of a thorough history, head and neck physical examination, and appropriate radiographic evaluation. The button batteries were emergently extracted under general anesthesia. Results. The average follow-up period was 4.3 months. Five patients had a nasal button battery. Four patients had an esophageal button battery. Three patients had a button battery in the stomach. One patient had a button battery impacted in the left external ear canal. Apart from a nasal septal perforation and a tympanic membrane perforation, no major complications were detected. Conclusion. Early detection is the key in the management of button battery foreign bodies. They have a distinctive appearance on radiography, and its prompt removal is mandatory, especially for batteries lodged in the esophagus. Physicians must recognize the hazardous potential and serious implications of such an accident. There is a need for more public education about this serious problem. PMID:23936851

Thabet, Mohammed Hossam; Basha, Waleed Mohamed; Askar, Sherif

2013-01-01

75

Modification of the LaryButton for Tracheoesophageal Speech  

PubMed Central

Tracheoesophageal (TE) speech using a voice prosthesis and hands-free speaking valve with intraluminal attachment is the gold standard for voice restoration after total laryngectomy. Modification of a standard self-retaining silicone cannula or button often aids in the attachment of a speaking valve within the tracheal lumen for hands-free TE speech production. An increased number of laryngectomized individuals are able to achieve hands-free TE speech when the standard length, flange, and diameter of a silicone button is customized to accommodate individual tracheostomal contours. A technique is presented for modification of a standard silicone button, the LaryButton, to facilitate hands-free TE speech after total laryngectomy. PMID:19853175

Lewin, Jan S.; Montgomery, Patti C.; Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Chambers, Mark S.

2014-01-01

76

Comparative Study of button BPM Trapped Mode Heating  

SciTech Connect

The combination of short bunches and high currents found in modern light sources and colliders can result in the deposition of tens of watts of power in BPM buttons. The resulting thermal distortion is potentially problematic for maintaining high precision beam position stability, and in the extreme case can result in mechanical damage. We present a simple algorithm that uses the input parameters of beam current, bunch length, button diameter, beampipe aperture, and fill pattern to calculate a relative figure-of-merit for button heating. Data for many of the world's light sources and colliders is compiled in a table. Using the algorithm, the table is sorted in order of the relative magnitude of button heating.

Cameron,P.; Singh, O.

2009-05-04

77

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precip...

M. J. Palmer

1990-01-01

78

Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

1996-01-15

79

Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems AxOy–ZrO2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of

W. L. Gong; W. Lutze; R. C. Ewing

2000-01-01

80

Welding Plutonium Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

HUDLOW, SL

2004-04-20

81

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

1993-06-01

82

Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

Wijesinghe, A.M.

1996-08-23

83

Studies of a Liquid Anode for Plutonium Electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a solvent anode as an alternate method for producing plutonium metal of high purity by an electrorefining process. Our goals are to produce metal of 99.98% purity with an anode residue containing less than 2% of the plutonium in the feed material. If we are successful, we will design and demonstrate a system utilizing semi-continuous and remotely

David F. Bowersox; James A. Mcneese; Dana C. Christensen

1987-01-01

84

Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment  

SciTech Connect

The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

Neu, M.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

85

A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect

Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

1998-12-01

86

Brief article Pushing moral buttons: The interaction between personal force  

E-print Network

Brief article Pushing moral buttons: The interaction between personal force and intention in moral Trolley problem Personal force Intention a b s t r a c t In some cases people judge it morally acceptable to sacrifice one person's life in order to save several other lives, while in other similar cases they make

Greene, Joshua D.

87

Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility  

E-print Network

Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility Abstract Over time, advances in video game system hardware have facilitated the evolution of video game mechanics from simple to complex Interfaces and Presentation: User Interfaces - Input Devices and Strategies Introduction Video games

Kane, Shaun K.

88

A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-15

89

Field comparison of three inhalable samplers (IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 and Button) for welding fumes.  

PubMed

Inhalable sampler efficiency depends on the aerodynamic size of the airborne particles to be sampled and the wind speed. The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of three personal inhalable samplers for welding fumes generated by Manual Metal Arc (MMA) and Metal Active Gas (MAG) processes. The selected samplers were the ones available in Spain when the study began: IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 (GSP) and Button. Sampling was carried out in a welding training center that provided a homogeneous workplace environment. The static sampling assembly used allowed the placement of 12 samplers and 2 cascade impactors simultaneously. 183 samples were collected throughout 2009 and 2010. The range of welding fumes' mass concentrations was from 2 mg m(-3) to 5 mg m(-3). The pooled variation coefficients for the three inhalable samplers were less than or equal to 3.0%. Welding particle size distribution was characterized by a bimodal log-normal distribution, with MMADs of 0.7 ?m and 8.2 ?m. For these welding aerosols, the Button and the GSP samplers showed a similar performance (P = 0.598). The mean mass concentration ratio was 1.00 ± 0.01. The IOM sampler showed a different performance (P < 0.001). The mean mass concentration ratios were 0.90 ± 0.01 for Button/IOM and 0.92 ± 0.02 for GSP/IOM. This information is useful to consider the measurements accomplished by the IOM, GSP or Button samplers together, in order to assess the exposure at workplaces over time or to study exposure levels in a specific industrial activity, as welding operations. PMID:22037834

Zugasti, Agurtzane; Montes, Natividad; Rojo, José M; Quintana, M José

2012-02-01

90

Long Head of the Biceps Tenodesis With Cortical Button Technique  

PubMed Central

There are several options for long head of the biceps (LHB) tenodesis and yet no standard of care. This technical note describes a cortical button technique for LHB tenodesis. We have taken the BicepsButton (Arthrex, Naples, FL) for distal biceps acute primary repair and applied it to the LHB. The biceps tenotomy is completed arthroscopically, and a standard subpectoral approach is used. The biceps is pulled out and whipstitched starting at the myotendinous junction and moving proximally. The humerus is drilled in a unicortical manner slightly larger than the tendon, and the button is passed through a small hole to the posterior cortex. A suture through the tendon provides additional fixation strength to the construct. This is an elegant and effective method of tenodesis that uses a smaller-diameter drill hole in the humerus. The goals of LHB tenodesis are to restore function, reduce pain, and improve cosmesis. This technique offers comparable function and cosmesis with the potential advantage of improving postoperative pain outcomes and lowering the rate of complications. PMID:23875157

Snir, Nimrod; Hamula, Mathew; Wolfson, Theodore; Laible, Catherine; Sherman, Orrin

2013-01-01

91

Pediatric button battery injuries: 2013 task force update.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years, there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of severe injuries involving children who ingest button batteries. Injury can occur rapidly and children can be asymptomatic or demonstrate non-specific symptoms until catastrophic injuries develop over a period of hours or days. Smaller size ingested button batteries will often pass without clinical sequellae; however, batteries 20mm and larger can more easily lodge in the esophagus causing significant damage. In some cases, the battery can erode into the aorta resulting in massive hemorrhage and death. To mitigate against the continued rise in life-threatening injuries, a national Button Battery Task Force was assembled to pursue a multi-faceted approach to injury prevention. This task force includes representatives from medicine, public health, industry, poison control, and government. A recent expert panel discussion at the 2013 American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) Meeting provided an update on the activities of the task force and is highlighted in this paper. PMID:23896385

Jatana, Kris R; Litovitz, Toby; Reilly, James S; Koltai, Peter J; Rider, Gene; Jacobs, Ian N

2013-09-01

92

Plasticity of Button-Like Junctions in the Endothelium of Airway Lymphatics in Development and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cells of initial lymphatics have discontinuous button-like junctions (buttons), unlike continuous zipper-like junctions (zippers) of collecting lymphatics and blood vessels. Buttons are thought to act as primary valves for fluid and cell entry into lymphatics. To learn when and how buttons form during development and whether they change in disease, we examined the appearance of buttons in mouse embryos and their plasticity in sustained inflammation. We found that endothelial cells of lymph sacs at embryonic day (E)12.5 and tracheal lymphatics at E16.5 were joined by zippers, not buttons. However, zippers in initial lymphatics decreased rapidly just before birth, as buttons appeared. The proportion of buttons increased from only 6% at E17.5 and 12% at E18.5 to 35% at birth, 50% at postnatal day (P)7, 90% at P28, and 100% at P70. In inflammation, zippers replaced buttons in airway lymphatics at 14 and 28 days after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection of the respiratory tract. The change in lymphatic junctions was reversed by dexamethasone but not by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 signaling by antibody mF4-31C1. Dexamethasone also promoted button formation during early postnatal development through a direct effect involving glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation in lymphatic endothelial cells. These findings demonstrate the plasticity of intercellular junctions in lymphatics during development and inflammation and show that button formation can be promoted by glucocorticoid receptor signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells. PMID:22538088

Yao, Li-Chin; Baluk, Peter; Srinivasan, R. Sathish; Oliver, Guillermo; McDonald, Donald M.

2012-01-01

93

FIRE AND EXPLOSION TESTS OF PLUTONIUM GLOVEBOXES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the fire and explosion resistance of new plutonium metallurgy ;\\u000a gloveboxes and to obtain information pertinent to fire control, fire and ;\\u000a explosion tests were conducted in one of the gloveboxes. It was found that over ;\\u000a l0% oxygen is required for non-metal, and that over 5% oxygen is required for ;\\u000a freely burning metal fires. However, metal

Rhude

1962-01-01

94

Recovery of plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, plutonium-beryllium neutron sources have traditionally been processed for plutonium recovery by precipitating the plutonium as plutonium oxalate, calcining to plutonium dioxide, redissolving the oxide and then precipitating as oxalate again. In most cases three dissolutions of the oxide are required to reduce beryllium content enough to meet specifications. We first introduced an ion-exchange process

1990-01-01

95

THE PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM-ALUMINUM AND OTHER PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of plutonium-aluminum alloys by the direct reduction of plutonium trifluoride and plutonium dioxide is described. Plutonium trifluoride is reduced more rapidly at 800 deg C than at 1125 deg C with liquid aluminum owing to the evolution of gaseous aluminum monofluoride at the lower temperature. Plutonium dioxide is reduced readily by an excess of liquid aluminum at 1200

Runnalls; O. J. C

1958-01-01

96

Alpha-plutonium's Grüneisen parameter.  

PubMed

Reported Grüneisen parameters ? of alpha-plutonium range from 3.0 to 9.6, which is remarkable because typical Grüneisen parameter uncertainty seldom exceeds ± 0.5. Our six new estimates obtained by different methods range from 3.2 to 9.6. The new estimates arise from Grüneisen's rule, from Einstein model and Debye model fits to low-temperature ?V/V, from the bulk modulus temperature dependence, from the zero-point-energy contribution to the bulk modulus, and from another Grüneisen relationship whereby ? is estimated from only the bulk modulus and volume changes with temperature (or pressure). We disregard several high estimates because of the itinerant-localized 5f-electron changes during temperature changes and pressure changes. Considering all these estimates, for alpha-plutonium, we recommend ? = 3.7 ± 0.4, slightly high compared with values for all elemental metals. PMID:21386421

Ledbetter, Hassel; Lawson, Andrew; Migliori, Albert

2010-04-28

97

Optimization of four-button beam position monitor configuration for small-gap vacuum chambers  

SciTech Connect

Induced charges on a four-button beam position monitor (BPM) system attached on a beam chamber of narrow rectangular cross sections are calculated as a 2-D electrostatic problem of image charges. The calculation shows that for a narrow chamber of width/height (2w/2h) {much_gt} 1, over 90% of the induced charges are distributed within a distance of 2h from the charged beam position in the direction of the chamber width. Therefore, a four-button system with a button diameter of (2--2.5)h and no button offset from the beam position is the most efficient configuration. The four-button BPMs used for 8-mm and 5-mm chambers in the APS have relatively low sensitivities because the button locations are outside the range where the induced charge densities are low and the button diameters are less than 2h. Using derived formulae, button sensitivities and beam position coefficients are calculated for the buttons of the most efficient case and of the 8-mm and 5-mm chambers. The formulae may be used to validate the method of computer modeling for BPM buttons on a beam chamber of an arbitrary cross section.

Kim, S.H.

1998-03-27

98

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium  

SciTech Connect

A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate and potassium fluoride (HAN) to a temperature between 40 and 70 C, then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not ore than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

Karraker, D.G.

1992-12-31

99

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

100

Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

Not Available

1995-01-01

101

Cellular automaton modeling of traffic flow at a crosswalk with push button  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a cellular automaton model is presented to depict the traffic flow at such a crosswalk with push button. The characteristics of vehicle flow with various arriving rate of pedestrians are investigated. Flux curves and spatiotemporal diagrams are plotted to show different traffic states and the phase transition features. A parameter, named as button reaction time, is introduced to represent the green time for vehicle flow after the button is pushed by a pedestrian. The effect of button reaction time on saturated flux is investigated. The results show that there is a critical value of button reaction time. The saturated flux increases rapidly when button reaction time is smaller than the critical value, while it increases slowly otherwise. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed and the results coincide with the simulation ones.

Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang

2014-07-01

102

Design of a Communications Interface for E-Textile Buttons Dave I. Lehn  

E-print Network

Design of a Communications Interface for E-Textile Buttons Dave I. Lehn dlehn@vt.edu Craig W. Neely Professor T. Martin 2:00 TH ­ CRN 16445 #12;2DL / CN / KS, 2003 ECE 5984: E-Textile Buttons Table to this design project. #12;3DL / CN / KS, 2003 ECE 5984: E-Textile Buttons Abstract This research presents

103

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM PUMP EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Plutonium Pump Experiment was a subcritical mock-up of a ; reactor core in which a plutonium-iron alloy was circulated by means of a sodium ; lift pump. Sodium for the lift pumping was circulated by an E. M. pump in an ; isothermal loop at 500 deg C. The purpose of the test was to study pump ;

J. E. Deverall; G. L. Caldwell

1962-01-01

104

Plutonium storage phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed.

Szempruch, R.

1995-12-01

105

Pectoralis major muscle rupture repair: technique using unicortical buttons.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, there has been increased awareness of pectoralis major muscle injuries necessitating further evaluation of management options and, in particular, surgical repair. Injury typically occurs when an eccentric load is applied to the muscle, such as with bench pressing, and failure usually occurs through the tendon. Although nonoperative management is sometimes appropriate, given the injury's propensity for young, active male patients, surgical intervention is often warranted. Because the injury typically occurs at the muscle-tendon interface, surgery focuses on repair of the avulsed tendon into its anatomic attachment site. We describe the use of a unicortical suture button to repair the ruptured tendon. This technique achieves the goals of strong fixation and anatomic repair of the tendon back into its native footprint. PMID:23766966

Metzger, Paul D; Bailey, James R; Filler, Robert D; Waltz, Robert A; Provencher, Matthew T; Dewing, Christopher B

2012-09-01

106

Actor and analyst: a response to Coopmans and Button.  

PubMed

We question the logic of Coopmans and Button's critique of our analysis of expertise on three grounds. First, their critique depends on a clear distinction between actor and analysts that we show cannot be maintained. Second, we question their reticence to allow the use of taxonomies in the analysis of expertise, suggesting that it is contradicted by their own descriptions of expert work, and we accuse them of making a mistake in the way they relate commonsense to specialist skills. Finally, we express our puzzlement at the antiseptic-like precautions that some ethnomethodologists apply to analysts' categories, especially given that--as we show--analysts' categories sometimes provide a superior resource for understanding and can change the actors' world as well as describing it. PMID:25362834

Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

2014-10-01

107

Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium  

SciTech Connect

A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (..cap alpha..,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the /sup 240/Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride.

Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

1987-01-01

108

77 FR 60435 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Video Challenge  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Video Challenge AGENCY: Office of the National...announces the launch of the Blue Button Video Challenge. This challenge is an open call...create short, engaging and entertaining videos that create awareness of the ``Blue...

2012-10-03

109

Glove-Based Sensor Support for Dynamic Tangible Buttons in Spatial Augmented Reality Design Environments  

E-print Network

dynamically positioned controls with a wearable glove sen- sor system for simulating prototype design design system employing Spa- tial Augmented Reality (SAR) for appearance presentation, tangible buttons SAR appearance, movable tan- gible buttons and the wearable RFID glove in use. Previous research has

Thomas, Bruce

110

The Things of Civilization, the Matters of Empire: Representing Jemmy Button  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects upon the many representations of Jemmy Button, a Fuegian native who was abducted to England and returned to Tierra del Fuego in the first half of the 19th century. Travel and science writers like Robert Fitzroy, Charles Darwin, W. Parker Snow, and social Darwinist writers such as Max Nordau reflected upon Jemmy Button's life and fate –

Ruth Mayer

2008-01-01

111

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

112

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOEpatents

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02

113

Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

1993-12-01

114

Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values which are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is re-established.

Ackerman, J.P.

1991-01-01

115

Spiked Alloy Production for Accelerated Aging of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The accelerated aging effects on weapons grade plutonium alloys are being studied using {sup 238}Pu-enriched plutonium metal to increase the rate of formation of defect structures. Pyrochemical processing methods have been used to produce two {sup 238}Pu-spiked plutonium alloys with nominal compositions of 7.5 wt% {sup 238}Pu. Processes used in the preparation of the alloys include direct oxide reduction of PuO{sub 2} with calcium and electrorefining. Rolled disks were prepared from the spiked alloys for sampling. Test specimens were cut out of the disks for physical property measurements.

Wilk, P A; McNeese, J A; Dodson, K E; Williams, W L; Krikorian, O H; Blau, M S; Schmitz, J E; Bajao, F G; Mew, D A; Matz, T E; Torres, R A; Holck, D M; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M

2009-07-10

116

Plutonium: The disposal decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy`s dual-track disposition strategy was driven by three principal assumptions: (1) Surplus plutonium should not be left indefinitely in storage because it is too easy to reuse it in weapons (the {open_quotes}breakout{close_quotes} scenario) and too vulnerable to theft, particularly in Russia where inventory controls are weak. (2) Given the fact that the world is already awash in civil plutonium (upwards

1997-01-01

117

Oxidation kinetics of plutonium in air: Consequences for environmental dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic studies show that plutonium corrosion in air is catalyzed by plutonium hydride on the metal surface and suggest that the process has caused storage containers to fail. The catalyzed reaction initiates at 25{degrees}C, indiscriminately consumes both O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and transforms metal into a dispersible product at a 10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} faster rate (0.6 {+-} 0.1 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min) than normal air oxidation. The catalyzed Pu+O{sub 2} reaction advances into the metal at a linear rate of 2.9 m/h. Rate equations and particle size data, which are presented for catalyzed and atmospheric corrosion at temperatures up to 3500{degrees}C, provide a technical basis for more accurately assessing the dispersal hazard posed by plutonium metal.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Martz, J.C.

1997-09-01

118

Electrorefining of uranium and plutonium — A literature review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is a comprehensive review of the literature on uranium and plutonium electrorefining in molten salts. It covers work published from 1943 to November 1991. Electrodeposition and electrodissolution at solid and liquid metal electrodes are discussed as well as mass transfer in liquid metal and molten salt phases.

Willit, J. L.; Miller, W. E.; Battles, J. E.

1992-11-01

119

Purification of plutonium via electromagnetic levitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium metal that has been double electrorefined (ER) was further purified via zone refining, using a levitated molten zone to minimize the introduction of impurities. The temperature of the molten zone was 750 °C, and the atmosphere was 10-5 Pa. A total of ten zone refining passes were made at a travel rate of 1.5 cm/hr. In order to study the efficiency of the zone refining process, core samples were taken after every two zone refining passes in five locations along the length plutonium specimen. Several impurities were reduced to levels below that of instrument detection limits, and it appears that six sequential zone refining passes are required to obtain the highest purity metal.

Lashley, J. C.; Blau, M. S.; Quagliano, J. R.

2000-07-01

120

Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.  

PubMed

System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2?s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision. PMID:24980983

Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

2014-11-01

121

The gastrostomy button: a prospective assessment of safety, success, and spectrum of use.  

PubMed

The gastrostomy button is a new, skin level, nonrefluxing, mushroom-tipped feeding device which can be used to replace conventional gastrostomy catheters. We have prospectively evaluated 31 consecutive patients managed with this appliance and our results show that the button can be successfully placed in 90% of cases without serious morbidity or mortality. The procedure is quick to perform, requires minimal intravenous sedation, and is well-suited to a broad range of socially active gastrostomy-dependent patients. Patients found the aesthetics, convenience, and independence of the low profile design attractive and no individual wished to return to the original method of feeding. Small and medium-sized buttons were easier to place than larger devices. Gastrocutaneous reflux through the appliance occurred in 11% of cases and was a common cause for replacement. Alert, ambulatory patients with an established gastrostomy and short or medium-sized gastrocutaneous fistulous tracts are ideal candidates for the button. PMID:2493407

Foutch, P G; Talbert, G A; Gaines, J A; Sanowski, R A

1989-01-01

122

Plutonium Disposition Now!  

SciTech Connect

A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000`s. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries.

Buckner, M.R.

1995-05-24

123

ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1± 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9± 0.5

Motoji Ikeya; Junko Miyajima; Shunzo Okajima

1984-01-01

124

Thermocron iButton and iBBat temperature dataloggers emit ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermocron iButton dataloggers are widely used to measure thermal microclimates experienced by wild animals. The iBBat is\\u000a a smaller version of the datalogger, also commercially available, that is used to measure animal skin or core body temperatures\\u000a when attached externally or surgically implanted. Field observations of bats roosting under a bridge suggested that bats avoided\\u000a locations with iButtons. A heterodyne

Craig K. R. Willis; Joel W. Jameson; Paul A. Faure; Justin G. Boyles; Virgil Brack Jr; Tom H. Cervone

2009-01-01

125

Uranium plutonium oxide fuels. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO/sub 2/ used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described.

Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

1981-01-01

126

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which

1991-01-01

127

Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant at about 120 metric tons and a comparable amount of excess military plutonium is anticipated from reductions in nuclear weapon stockpiles (IAEA Report, 1998). Although inventories of civilian material are in oxide form, Pu from weapons programs exists primarily as metal. Plutonium is a radiological toxin (Voelz, 2000); its management in a safe and secure manner is essential for protecting workers, the public, and the environment.

Haschke, John M.; Stakebake, Jerry L.

128

Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride  

SciTech Connect

Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H{sub 2} after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuH{sub x})-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuH{sub x} catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (E{sub a} = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 {+-} 0.03 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed.

Allen, T.H.; Haschke, J.M.

1998-06-01

129

Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

2000-01-01

130

Plutonium: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

Condit, R.H.

1993-10-01

131

Atomic spectrum of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels.

Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

1984-08-01

132

Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under touch force load, the integrated diaphragm will have a bending deformation. Then, its mechanical strain is converted into the required electrical energy by means of the piezoelectric effect presented to the diaphragm. Structural design (i) makes the piezoceramic work under static compressive stress instead of static or dynamic tensile stress, (ii) achieves a satisfactory stress level and (iii) provides the diaphragm and the button with a fatigue lifetime in excess of millions of touch operations. To improve the button’s function, the effect of some key properties consisting of dimension, boundary condition and load condition on electrical behavior of the piezoelectric diaphragm are evaluated by electromechanical coupling analysis in ANSYS. The finite element analysis (FEA) results indicate that the modification of these properties could enhance the diaphragm significantly. Based on the key properties’ different contributions to the improvement of the diaphragm’s electrical energy output, they are incorporated into the piezoelectric diaphragm’s redesign or the structural design of the piezo-based button. The comparison of the original structure and the optimal result shows that electrical energy stored in the diaphragm and the voltage output are increased by 1576% and 120%, respectively, and the volume of the piezoceramic is reduced to 33.6%. These results will be adopted to update the design of the self-powered button, thus enabling a large decrease of energy consumption and lifetime cost of the MMI.

Sun, Hao; de Vries, Theo J. A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

2012-03-01

133

Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01

134

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

ULLAH, M K

2001-02-26

135

Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Children with Developmental Disabilities by means of Button-Press Task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The button-press task means that the subject observes a moving target and presses a button to stop it when the target enters a specified area on a computer display. Subjects perform normal task, suppressed task and delayed task. In the suppressed task, the moving target disappears at some point during the trial. In the delayed task, there is some lag time between the time of pressing button and of stopping target. In these tasks, subjects estimate the movement of the target, and press the button considering his/her own reaction time. In our previous study, we showed that cognitive and motor function was able to be evaluated by these tasks. In this study, we examined error data of children with developmental disabilities to evaluate the cognitive function, and investigated the learning processes. Moreover, we discussed the developmental stages by comparing the children with disabilities to normal control children, and we clarified the behavior characteristics of children with developmental disabilities. Asa result, it was shown that our evaluation method and system for the button-press task were effective to evaluate cognitive ability of children with developmental disabilities.

Nakazono, Shogo; Kobori, Satoshi

136

Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

1987-03-01

137

Plutonium age dating reloaded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

138

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

139

Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate  

SciTech Connect

The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu{sub 2}[B{sub 12}O{sub 18}(OH){sub 4}Br{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·0.5H{sub 2}O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

140

Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.  

PubMed

The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

2014-04-15

141

Review of operating experience at the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Facility, 1963-1977  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the operation of the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Plant at Technical Area 21 for the period 1964 through 1977. During that period, approximately 1568 kg of plutonium metal, > 99.95% pure, was produced in 653 runs from 1930 kg of metal fabrication scrap, 99% pure. General considerations of the electrorefining process and facility operation and recommendations for further improvement of the process are discussed.

Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.

1981-12-01

142

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium with chlorophosphonazo III in n-pentanol  

SciTech Connect

Microgram amounts of plutonium are measured spectrophotometrically as the plutonium-chlorophosphonazo III complex after extraction into n-pentanol from 1.5 M HCl. The relative standard deviation is 1.5% for the range of 2.5 to 17.5 ..mu..g. The tolerance is excellent for many metals and nonmetals present in nuclear fuel-cycle materials. A preceding anion-exchange-column separation increases tolerance for certain metals and nonmetals.

Saponara, N.M.; Marsh, S.F.

1982-03-01

143

Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01

144

N-Pu-U (Nitrogen-Plutonium-Uranium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume C4 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 4: Selected Nuclear Materials and Engineering Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Nitrogen-Plutonium-Uranium.

Materials Science International Team MSIT

145

O-Pu-U (Oxygen-Plutonium-Uranium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume C4 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 4: Selected Nuclear Materials and Engineering Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Oxygen-Plutonium-Uranium.

Materials Science International Team MSIT

146

Four-button BPM coefficients in cylindrical and elliptic beam chambers.  

SciTech Connect

Beam position monitor (BPM) coefficients are calculated from induced charges on four-button BPMs in circular and elliptic beam chambers for {gamma} >>1. Since the beam chamber cross-section for the APS storage ring is different from an exact elliptic geometry, numerical values of the BPM coefficients and their inversions are computed from two-dimensional electrostatic field distributions inside an exact geometry of the beam chamber. Utilizing Green's reciprocation theorem, a potential value is applied to the buttons rather than changing the beam position, and potential distributions corresponding to the beam positions are then computed.

Kim, S.H.

1999-04-08

147

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

148

Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-08-11

149

Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil  

SciTech Connect

Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

Rothe, R.E.

1997-05-01

150

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production or alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals ; uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium is described. ; A halide salt or the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at l3O0 deg ; C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter ;

Runnals; O. J. C

1959-01-01

151

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals ; uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium are ; described. A halide salt of the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated ; at 1300 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and ; cause the latter

Runnals; O. J. C

1959-01-01

152

Hypermedia User-Interface Design: The Role of Individual Differences in Placement of Icon Buttons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of students at Purdue University that examined the roles of gender, right- versus left-handedness, and mouse experience in preferences concerning the placement of icon buttons within hypermedia user-interface designs. Response rate is examined, order of presentation is discussed, and further research is suggested. (11 references)…

Marquez, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.

1992-01-01

153

MODIFICATION OF SHIRT BUTTONS FOR RETROSPECTIVE RADIATION DOSIMETRY AFTER A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT  

E-print Network

Note MODIFICATION OF SHIRT BUTTONS FOR RETROSPECTIVE RADIATION DOSIMETRY AFTER A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT. Health Phys. 100(5):542­547; 2011 Key words: detector, thermoluminescent; dosimetry, person- nel to calculate doses on an individual basis, exposures might have to be assessed by biological dosimetry in order

Brenner, David Jonathan

154

Online Supplemental Materials for: Pushing Moral Buttons: The Interaction Between Personal Force and Intention in  

E-print Network

Online Supplemental Materials for: Pushing Moral Buttons: The Interaction Between Personal Force the death of" as opposed to "kill" or "save") and a third person perspective rather than a second person. On the following page you will be presented with a description of a situation and an action that a person

Greene, Joshua D.

155

Acceptable Operating Force for Buttons on In-Ear Type Headphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The touch headphones are a solution for providing playback and volume controls on in-ear type headphones. One of the issues with placing controls on earpieces is that applied pressure is transferred to the inner ear, which potentially creates discomfort. The experiment described in this short paper shows that conventional button switches are not well accepted. Users preferred to operate a

Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans

2005-01-01

156

Pushing back: evaluating a new behaviour for the back and forward buttons in web browsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Back button on web browsers is one of the world's most heavily used user interface components, yet its behaviour is commonly misunderstood. This paper describes the evaluation of a 'temporal' alternative to the normal 'stack-based' behaviour of Back and Forward. The main difference of the temporal scheme is that it maintains a complete list of previously visited pages. The

Andy Cockburn; Bruce J. Mckenzie; Michael Jasonsmith

2002-01-01

157

"Ask Me About Our Research" Campaign Button | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

UCSF has created buttons that physicians and nurses wear to encourage patients to ask about the department’s research projects. While these products do not specifically promote clinical trials, they may help set a tone that prioritizes clinical research and shows that trials are normal, everyday work.

158

Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

... The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: ... Findings About Our Resident Microbes This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

159

The Quest for Instantaneous Perfection and the Demand for "Push-Button" Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational leaders in the United States are faced with a society seeking instantaneous perfection, immediate and perfect solutions. In education, this leads to a demand for push-button administration and an abandonment of trust in educators' judgment. As exemplified by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), the search for quick fixes results in…

Batagiannis, Stella C.

2009-01-01

160

Button Batteries in Nose - How Long is it Safe to Wait ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author 1 had earlier presented a case history of an eight year old child, who had presented to emergency services on a weekend with 1 week history of inserting a foreign body (Button Battery) in the nose. The child was taken up for surgery after three days. The time of removal was over a week since the time of

Ajit Man Singh

161

Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization  

SciTech Connect

Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g PUO{sub 2}/cm{sup 2} of metal surface per min) and independent of temperature above 500{degrees}C. Total mass and particle distributions are derived for oxide products formed by reactions of plutonium metal and hydride. The mass distributions for products of all metal-gas reactions are remarkably similar with approximately 0.07 mass% of the oxide particles having geometric diameters {le} 10 {mu}m. In comparison, 25 mass% of the oxide formed by the PuH{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction is in this range. Experimental values of mass fractions released during oxidation are evaluated and factors that alter the release fraction are discussed.

Haschke, J.M.

1992-07-01

162

Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

1999-06-18

163

Laparoscopic button cholecystostomy for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis in two children.  

PubMed

Background?Untreated, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) results in fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. It has been shown that partial external biliary diversion (PEBD) may prevent from liver transplantation in patients without cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to present a new laparoscopic technique using a button instead of a bowel conduit for PEBD. Patients and Methods?Two boys with PFIC (patient 1, 17 months; patient 2, 12 years) underwent laparoscopic button cholecystostomy using a 3-trocar technique by insertion of a 14 French MIC KEY button (Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc, Draper, Utah, United States) at the gallbladder fundus secured with two absorbable purse-string sutures. Beside the suitability of the procedure, end points included course of serum bile acids, total bilirubin, liver enzymes, and pruritus at a follow-up of 6 months. Results?No complications related to the operation occurred. Relieve of pruritus was achieved in both the children, due to adequate bile drainage during a follow-up period of 6 months. In patient 2, a 10-mm gallstone was removed simultaneously. In patient 1, serum bile acids decreased from 12.3 to 6.6 µmol/L and in patient 2, serum bile acids decreased from 106.3 to 2.9 µmol/L. Total bilirubin, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase are kept in normal ranges during follow-up. Patient's and parent's acceptance with the button was excellent. Conclusion?Laparoscopic button cholecystostomy is a simple, safe, and sufficient technique for PEBD in patients with PFIC. It achieves an adequate bile flow with consecutive relief of pruritus and avoids an enteric anastomosis. PMID:24327224

Schukfeh, Nagoud; Gerner, Patrick; Paul, Andreas; Kathemann, Simone; Metzelder, Martin

2014-10-01

164

CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL BENZOTRIAZOLES AND RELATED POLYMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Benzotriazole (bta-H) is a well-known corrosion inhibitor for copper, copper-alloy, and other metal surfaces. Typical uses are to deactivate surfaces of computer hard drives and other internal metal computer parts, and for treatment of apparel hardware such as zippers and buttons...

165

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

Hale, S.J.

1991-12-31

166

Reaction kinetics relevant to the recycle hydride-dehydride process for plutonium recovery  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project were the expansion of fundamental knowledge of plutonium chemistry and the development of information for enhancing plutonium recovery methods and weapons safety. Results of kinetic studies demonstrate that the monoxide monohydride, PuO(H), formed during corrosion of plutonium by water in pyrophoric when dry and acts as an initiator for hydride-catalyzed reaction of the metal with air. The catalyzed corrosion rate of Pu is 10{sup 8} times faster than that in dry air and transforms plutonium into a readily aerosolized material. A potential application for the catalytic reaction is in the direct recovery of plutonium as oxide. Wet PuO(H) is non-pyrophoric and the safety hazard posed by its formation is reduced if the material is not allowed to dry.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

1997-10-01

167

Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

Burgess, M. [ed.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

1998-04-01

168

Electrorefining of cerium: Part 2, Cerium as a surrogate for plutonium electrorefining studies  

SciTech Connect

The plutonium metal produced by the Direct Oxide Reduction Process is associated with other metallic impurities that have to be removed. The purification of plutonium is achieved using electrorefining process through a molten salt medium. The optimization of process parameters involved in electrorefining is required to make the process effective, in terms of the metal purity, cell efficiency and overall process reliability. Since the study of strategic and radioactive metals requires the use of a surrogate, it is important to choose surrogates that simulate the process as closely as possible. Cerium has been chosen to study the electrorefining behavior of plutonium. The differences that exist in the physico-chemical properties between the two metals have been critically examined and appropriate models have been developed to study the behavior. Cerium is a justified choice for the investigation.

Raraz, A.G.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy

1992-01-01

169

EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

DiSabatino, A.

1998-06-01

170

The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.  

PubMed

The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation. PMID:23175453

Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

2013-02-14

171

History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-18

172

LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

Bronson, M.C.

1997-10-01

173

[A study on button-type alkali-manganese battery in Ringer's solution--limited injury factor on the electric discharge in body].  

PubMed

Many cases of tissue injury caused by a button battery appearing as a foreign body have been reported in the otolaryngology field. However, there have been very few studies on the mechanism of tissue injury by batteries. In this study, we inserted a button-type battery into 4cm3 of Ringer's solution, which is similar to serous fluid, at both room temperature (20 degrees C) and body temperature (37 degrees C), and observed the electro-chemical reactions between the negative and positive terminals over 6 hours. We identified the products of these reactions, measured the remaining electromotive force (EMF), and observed the changes in pH and metallic ion concentrations over time. In conclusion, the following three major groups of factors causing tissue injury were suggested: 1) At the positive terminal the HCl acid and HClO produced broke down, and chlorine gas was dissolved into the solution. 2) At the negative terminal, the OH- radical was produced by reduction of water. 3) Potassium hydroxide (KOH), nickel (Ni2+), manganese (Mnn+), chrome (Crn+), and lead (Pb2+) leaked from the battery at the poles, due to oxidation, and were partially dissolved in the serous fluid. These factors may result in serious tissue injury. In addition, each electro-chemical reaction occurred in a very short time at these relatively high temperatures, and as a result, may be the cause of these tissue injuries. PMID:8568583

Ohhashi, S; Hattori, Y; Ueno, N; Shimizu, K

1995-11-01

174

Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project, 1978-1981  

SciTech Connect

The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

1982-09-01

175

Impact of ADTT concepts on the management of global plutonium inventories  

SciTech Connect

The impact of a number of current and future nuclear systems on global plutonium inventories is assessed under realistic forecasts of nuclear power growth. Advanced systems, such as those employing Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) and liquid metal reactors, show significant promise for meeting future plutonium management needs. These analyses also indicate requirements for a higher level of detail in the nuclear fuel cycle model and for development of a metric to more quantitatively assess the proliferation risk of plutonium arising from the civilian fuel cycle.

Davidson, J.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Arthur, E.D.

1996-07-01

176

eButton: A Wearable Computer for Health Monitoring and Personal Assistance  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in mobile devices have made profound changes in people's daily lives. In particular, the impact of easy access of information by the smartphone has been tremendous. However, the impact of mobile devices on healthcare has been limited. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases are still initiated by occurrences of symptoms, and technologies and devices that emphasize on disease prevention and early detection outside hospitals are under-developed. Besides healthcare, mobile devices have not yet been designed to fully benefit people with special needs, such as the elderly and those suffering from certain disabilities, such blindness. In this paper, an overview of our research on a new wearable computer called eButton is presented. The concepts of its design and electronic implementation are described. Several applications of the eButton are described, including evaluating diet and physical activity, studying sedentary behavior, assisting the blind and visually impaired people, and monitoring older adults suffering from dementia. PMID:25340176

Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E.; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Yiran; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Jia, Wenyan

2014-01-01

177

Technology-Assisted Patient Access to Clinical Information: An Evaluation Framework for Blue Button  

PubMed Central

Background Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on “Blue Button,” a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. Objective We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. Methods A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VA’s ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Results Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. Conclusions The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations. PMID:24675395

Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K

2014-01-01

178

Modeling Shrinkage and Density Changes During Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrinkage characteristics and apparent density of whole button mushrooms were determined at various moisture content levels (ranging from 5 to 92% wet basis) during microwave-vacuum drying at two different power (150 and 250 W) and pressure (10 and 20 kPa) levels. The above properties during convective hot air drying at 60°C were also measured for comparison. In both microwave-vacuum and

S. K. Giri; Suresh Prasad

2006-01-01

179

Studies on decontamination of spent ion exchange resin used for plutonium purification in PUREX stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the studies on decontaminations of spent ion exchange resin used for purification of plutonium in PUREX\\u000a process stream. Studies were carried out to optimize the chemical procedure for removal of plutonium and fission products\\u000a activities form spent Ion Exchange resin. Different metal complexing reagents were tested for leaching out of radionuclides\\u000a entrapped in irradiated spent ion

K. K. Gupta; Suman Kumar Singh; G. A. Inamdar; A. Madhusudan; S. C. Tripathi

2009-01-01

180

Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.5 in slab and cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.5. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylindrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 112 to 332 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 52% for all experiments.

Lloyd, R.C.

1986-12-01

181

Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.4 in Slab and Cylindrical Geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.4. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylinqrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 105 to 436 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 0.4 for all experiments.

Lloyd, RC

1988-04-01

182

Random Walks with ``Back Buttons'' \\Lambda Ronald Fagin y Anna R. Karlin z Jon Kleinberg x Prabhakar Raghavan --  

E-print Network

Random Walks with ``Back Buttons'' \\Lambda Ronald Fagin y Anna R. Karlin z Jon Kleinberg x@cs.cornell.edu. -- Verity, Inc. 892 Ross Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089. pragh@verity.com. This work was done while the author

Kleinberg, Jon

183

Co-Design: Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The successful induction casting of plutonium is a challenge which requires technical expertise in areas including physical metallurgy, surface and corrosion chemistry, materials science, electromagnetic engineering and a host of other technologies all which must be applied in concert. Here at LANL, we are employing a combined experimental and computational approach to design molds and develop process parameters needed to produce desired temperature profiles and improved castings. Computer simulations are performed using the commercial code FLOW-3D and the LANL ASC computer code TRUCHAS to reproduce the entire casting process starting with electromagnetic or radiative heating of the mold and metal and continuing through pouring with coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and non-isothermal solidification. This approach greatly reduces the time required to develop a new casting designs and also increases our understanding of the casting process, leading to a more homogeneous, consistent product and better process control. We will discuss recent casting development results in support of unalloyed plutonium rods for mechanical testing.

Korzekwa, Deniece R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knapp, Cameron M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korzekwa, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibbs, John W [Northwestern University

2012-07-25

184

System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

NONE

1996-05-08

185

Plutonium focus area  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-08-01

186

Plutonium solution analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

Burns, D.A.

1994-09-01

187

Plutonium removal limit for the disposition of plutonium-bearing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in world politics have resulted in the United States reducing its nuclear weapons and stopping plutonium production. Prior plutonium production, dismantling warheads, and decontamination and decommissioning some facilities have produced plutonium-bearing materials which must continue to be managed. As each lot of material is processed, the processor must decide whether to remove the plutonium before discarding the material

W. C. White; B. Mowery; R. Felt; F. King; J. D. Hurley

1992-01-01

188

Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

NONE

1996-11-01

189

Design and fabrication of SGS plutonium standards  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes our experience of fabricating four sets of plutonium segmented gamma scanner (SGS) can standards. The fabrication involves careful planning, meticulous execution in weighing the plutonium oxide while minimizing contamination, chemical analyses by three different national laboratories to get accurate and independent plutonium concentrations, vertical scanning to assure mixing of the plutonium and the diluent, and finally the nondestructive verification measurement. By following these steps, we successfully fabricated 4 sets or 20 SGS can standards. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hsue, S.T.; Simmonds, S.M.; Longmire, V.L.; Long, S.M.

1991-01-01

190

BIOLOGICALLY-MEDIATED REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

SciTech Connect

An innovative biological treatment technology successfully reduced plutonium concentration in soil from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by over 80%. The final volume of plutonium-contaminated material that required disposal was reduced by over 90%. These results, achieved by an independent testing laboratory, confirm the results reported previously using NTS soil. In the previous test a 2530-gram sample of soil (350 to 400 pCi/g Pu) resulted in production of 131 grams of sludge (6,320 pCi/ g Pu) and a treated soil containing 72 pCi/g of Pu. The technology is based on the biological acidification of the soil and subsequent removal of the plutonium and other dissolved metals by a low volume, low energy water leaching process. The leachate is treated in a sulfate-reducing bioreactor to precipitate the metals as metal sulfides. Water may be recycled as process water or disposed since the treatment process removes over 99% of the dissolved metals including plutonium from the water. The plutonium is contained as a stable sludge that can be containerized for final disposal. Full-scale process costs have been developed which employ widely used treatment technologies such as aerated soil piles (biopiles) and bioreactors. The process costs were less than $10 per cubic foot, which were 40 to 50% lower than the baseline costs for the treatment of the NTS soil. The equipment and materials for water and sludge treatment and soil handling are commercially available.

Jerger, Douglas E., Ph.D.,; Alperin, Edward S., QEP,; Holmes, Robert G., Ph.D.

2003-02-27

191

Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and kinetics of helium in the metal lattice as well as ab initio calculations of the disposition of gallium in the fcc plutonium lattice and its resulting effects on phase stability. Experimentally this project aimed to establish experimental capabilities crucial to the prediction of helium effects in metals, such as transmission electron microscopy, thermal helium effusion, and the development of a laser-driven mini-flyer for understanding the role of helium and associated defects on shock response of plutonium surrogates.

Stevens, M.F.; Zocco, T.; Albers, R.; Becker, J.D.; Walter, K.; Cort, B.; Paisley, D.; Nastasi, M.

1998-12-31

192

Estimating China's Production of Plutonium for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the history of China's production of plutonium for nuclear weapons, and uses that history and analogies to the production process in the United States and Russia to estimate the amount of plutonium China produced at its two known facilities. That analysis leads to an estimate that China produced 2 to 5 tonnes of plutonium at these facilities

David Wright; Lisbeth Gronlund

2003-01-01

193

Robot vision system for remote plutonium disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tons of weapons-usable plutonium has been declared surplus to the national security needs of the United States. The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a US Department of Energy sponsored program to place excess plutonium in a stable form and make it unattractive for reuse. A vision system was developed as part of PIP robotic and remote systems development. This vision

Kriikku; Eric M. Kriikku

2000-01-01

194

Analysis of plutonium dioxide by coulometry  

SciTech Connect

Conditions for dissolution of plutonium dioxide have been determined. To transfer plutonium dioxides quantitatively in solution it should be heated with an HCl + HI mixture and boiled down three times in nitric acid. The disolution was monitored by potential scanning coulometry. The plutonium quantity was determined on a PKU-2 coulometric unit. Metrological parameters of the method have been evaluated.

Sklyarenko, I.S.; Andriets, V.V.; Chubukova, T.M.

1995-07-01

195

SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE  

SciTech Connect

Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

2009-11-10

196

A Proteomic Approach to Identification of Plutonium Binding Proteins in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Plutonium can enter the body through different routes and remains there for decades; however its specific biochemical interactions are poorly defined. We, for the first time, have studied plutonium-binding proteins using a metalloproteomic approach with rat PC12 cells. A combination of immobilized metal ion chromatography, 2D gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were employed to analyze potential plutonium-binding proteins. Our results show that several proteins from PC12 cells show affinity towards Pu4+-NTA (plutonium bound to nitrilotriacetic acid). Proteins from seven different spots in the 2D gel were identified. In contrast to the previously known plutonium-binding proteins transferrin and ferritin, which bind ferric ions, most identified proteins in our experiment are known to bind calcium, magnesium, or divalent transition metal ions. The identified plutonium interacting proteins also have functional roles in downregulation of apoptosis and other pro-proliferative processes. MetaCore analysis based on this group of proteins produced a pathway with a statistically significant association with development of neoplastic diseases. PMID:22146473

Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E.; He, Chuan; Jensen, Mark P.

2013-01-01

197

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1994-01-01

198

Patellar button wear patterns in well-functioning total knee arthroplasty retrievals.  

PubMed

One of the common reasons for early revision or poor outcome in total knee arthroplasty is due to patellar maltracking, loosening, or pain. The analysis of how the patellofemoral mechanism operates and wears in vivo has not been a focus of many retrieval studies. This paper describes the wear pattern observed on patellar buttons from well-functioning TKA specimens that were harvested as part of a donor program. The attempt was to describe the variations in wear patterns to see if any commonalities existed that may predict a well-functioning patellofemoral mechanism after TKA. PMID:21284590

Lindsey, Jason A; Conner, Devin; Godleski, Peter; Perkinson, Brian; Mihalko, William M; Williams, John L

2010-01-01

199

Historical review of plutonium storage container failures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment, an investigation was made to characterize the can failures at LLNL. Since the LLNL Plutonium Facility was opened for plutonium operations in 1961, there have only been three can failures that could be remembered by plutonium handlers, vault workers, chemical analysts, and material managers. Only one of these can failures was discovered during the processing of more than 606 packages containing plutonium as part of the LLNL Plutonium Inventory Reduction Program. A very low failure rate, especially since some of the 606 cans had been in storage for two to three decades. Two of the three containers that failed were made of aluminum and were packaged with 1.25 inch diameter plutonium metal spheres. The cans were split down their entire length and the plutonium metal was heavily oxidized. The secondary gallon container of the third package failure was found to be imploded in the storage vault. Upon closer examination, the plastic bags around the inner pint can were badly melted and the lid on the can was loose. Like the other two failures, the metal was heavily oxidized. In all three of the can failures, it is theorized that air entered the inner can through incomplete sealing and the oxygen in the air then reacted with the plutonium metal to produce plutonium oxide. Air was supplied to the inner can by permeation through the surrounding plastic bag. The air could have either diffused through the bag or could have been pumped through the twisted and taped ends of the inner most bag. The inner bags and cans were packaged into second bags and cans in an air atmosphere; therefore, trapping air inside the packaging configuration that could have passed through the bags. A failure of the inner can integrity would be necessary for the air to pass into it. In all three LLNL can failure cases, it is believed that the seal of the inner can was not sufficient to prevent a breach of the can environment.

Dodson, K.E.

1994-05-01

200

Method of separating thorium from plutonium  

DOEpatents

A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

1984-07-10

201

Hanford-derived plutonium in Columbia River sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry data on plutonium isolated from Columbia River sediments exhibit mean ratios of plutonium-240 to plutonium-242 consistent with those observed for integrated global fallout. Ratios of plutonium-240 to plutonium-239 show marked deviations from accepted fallout values, suggesting a second source of plutonium-239. This additional plutonium-239 arises from the decay of neptunium-239 produced in reactor effluent water from the old

T. M. Beasley; L. A. Ball; J. E. Andrews; J. E. Halverson

1981-01-01

202

Plutonium immobilization form evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

Gray, L. W., LLNL

1998-02-13

203

Zirconia -- A ceramic for excess weapons plutonium wastes  

SciTech Connect

The authors synthesized a ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste in solid solution with zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}){sub ss}. ZrO{sub 2} has a large solubility for other metal oxides. More than twenty binary systems A{sub x}O{sub y}-ZrO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature, including PuO{sub 2}, rare earth elements, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. The authors show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO{sub 2}, together with plutonium (simulated by Th{sup 4+}, Ce{sup 4+}, or U{sup 4+}) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia does not undergo amorphization upon irradiation.

Gong, W.L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

1999-07-01

204

Plutonium from Chernobyl in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of coniferous forest litter collected in POland, of known ?-emitters activity, have been analysed for ? emitting plutonium isotopes. Specific as well as surface activities of the samples have been determined. Chernobyl and global fallout components have been distinguished for each sample. The observed maximum surface activity for Chernobyl fallout is above 25 Bq m?2 (for all ?-emitting Pu

Jerzy W. Mietelski

1995-01-01

205

Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

1974-01-01

206

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02

207

TRACHEOSTOMAPLASTY: A SURGICAL METHOD FOR IMPROVING RETENTION OF AN INTRALUMINAL STOMA BUTTON FOR HANDS-FREE TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL SPEECH  

PubMed Central

Background We describe a minimally invasive surgical technique, tracheostomaplasty, to overcome anatomical deformities of the stoma that preclude successful retention of a stoma button for hands free tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 21 patients who underwent tracheostomaplasty after laryngectomy to accommodate an intraluminal valve attachment for hands-free TE speech. Results Sixteen men and 5 women (median age, 65 years; median follow-up, 27.7 months) underwent tracheostomaplasty; 6 patients developed a mild cellulitis that required therapy and 5 patients required a minor revision surgery. At last follow-up, 15 (71%) patients successfully achieved hands-free TE speech using an intraluminal stoma button. Three patients only retained the intraluminal device to facilitate digital occlusion. Tracheostomaplasty failed in 3 patients because of granulation tissue formation or stomal stenosis. Conclusions Tracheostomaplasty is a successful technique to improve intraluminal retention of a stoma button for hands-free TE speech in laryngectomy patients. PMID:20848405

Moreno, Mauricio A.; Lewin, Jan S.; Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Bishop Leone, Julie K.; Barringer, Denise A.

2014-01-01

208

Reactions of plutonium and uranium with water: Kinetics and potential hazards  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry and kinetics of reactions between water and the metals and hydrides of plutonium and uranium are described in an effort to consolidate information for assessing potential hazards associated with handling and storage. New experimental results and data from literature sources are presented. Kinetic dependencies on pH, salt concentration, temperature and other parameters are reviewed. Corrosion reactions of the metals in near-neutral solutions produce a fine hydridic powder plus hydrogen. The corrosion rate for plutonium in sea water is a thousand-fold faster than for the metal in distilled water and more than a thousand-fold faster than for uranium in sea water. Reaction rates for immersed hydrides of plutonium and uranium are comparable and slower than the corrosion rates for the respective metals. However, uranium trihydride is reported to react violently if a quantity greater than twenty-five grams is rapidly immersed in water. The possibility of a similar autothermic reaction for large quantities of plutonium hydride cannot be excluded. In addition to producing hydrogen, corrosion reactions convert the massive metals into material forms that are readily suspended in water and that are aerosolizable and potentially pyrophoric when dry. Potential hazards associated with criticality, environmental dispersal, spontaneous ignition and explosive gas mixtures are outlined.

Haschke, J.M.

1995-12-01

209

Comparison of numeric keyboard and CRT line-labeled buttons for information access. [in computerized, area navigation system for aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test were conducted to determine whether differences in speed and accuracy are experienced when using either line-labeled index buttons or a numeric keyboard for page selection in airborne CRT-display area navigation systems. The experiment was conducted with six airline pilots, each flying the same two simulated RNAV routes. Three pilot subjects used line-labeled buttons adjacent to the CRT screen, while three used a numeric keyboard for page access. The hypothesis of no differences in response times between the two modes of access could not be rejected.

Williams, D.

1976-01-01

210

The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities.

Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

1995-11-01

211

Potential nuclear explosive yield of reactor-grade plutonium using the disassembly theory of early reactor safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disassembly theory of reactor safety analysis developed for early metal-fueled criticals is applied to determining the potential nuclear explosive yield of reactor-grade plutonium. After verification of the theoretical models, materials data, and equation of state by recalculation of published data, this disassembly theory is applied to so-called hypothetical nuclear explosive devices (HNEDs) based on reactor-grade plutonium. The masses for

G. Kessler; W. Höbel; B. Goel; W. Seifritz

2008-01-01

212

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30

213

Development of weld closure stations for plutonium long-term storage containers  

SciTech Connect

Weld closure stations for plutonium long-term storage containers have been designed, fabricated, and tested for the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the TA-55 Plutonium Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. ARIES is a processing system used for the dismantlement of the plutonium pits from nuclear weapons. ARIES prepares the extracted-plutonium in a form which is compatible with long-term storage and disposition options and meets international inspection requirements. The processed plutonium is delivered to the canning module of the ARIES line, where it is packaged in a stainless steel container. This container is then packaged in a secondary container for long-term storage. Each of the containers is hermetically sealed with a full penetration weld closure that meets the requirements of the ASME Section IX Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Welding is performed with a gas tungsten arc process in an inert atmosphere of helium. The encapsulated helium in the nested containers allows for leak testing the weld closure and container. The storage package was designed to meet packaging requirements of DOE Standard 3013-96 for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxides. Development of the process parameters, weld fixture, weld qualification, and the welding chambers is discussed in this paper.

Fernandez, R.; Martinez, D.A.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Ortega, R.E.; Rofer, C.K.; Romero, W.; Stewart, J.; Trujillo, V.L.

1998-12-31

214

Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility  

SciTech Connect

The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

215

Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

1997-10-01

216

Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet. PMID:19552428

Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

2009-07-22

217

Features of the discharging characteristics of button-type lithium cells with copper oxide cathode  

SciTech Connect

The problem of correlation of the basic parameters of 1.5 V button-type lithium cells is discussed. It is shown that the efficiency of such cells is determined, in particular, by the magnitude of the equilibrium potential difference between the electrodes which, for the Li-CuO system, is close to the open-circuit voltage of the silver-zinc cell system. It is determined that there is no dynamic self-charging of the cells with copper oxide cathodes during electromechanical loading of wristwatches. It is shown that, for the cells, it is typical to have a relatively low internal resistance during the course of discharging and virtually no swelling.

Kuksenko, S.P.; Danilin, V.V.; Skakal`skii, A.I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Kiev (Ukraine)] [and others

1993-01-20

218

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

1998-05-01

219

Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH⁠ââ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K\\/sub H\\/, is proportional to P¹² and the rate of the dehydriding process, K\\/sub D\\/, is inversely proportional to P¹² suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite

J. M. Haschke; J. L. Stakebake

1979-01-01

220

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Sturcken, E.F.

1991-01-01

221

Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing

G. L. Hovis; M. W. Stokes; M. E. Smith; J. W. Wong

1999-01-01

222

A comparison of the design of Russian and US containers for plutonium oxide storage.  

SciTech Connect

The safe storage of plutonium in the form of plutonium oxide (Pu02) is a major concern in countries with significant plutonium inventories . The goal is to stabilize and package oxide in such a way that the possibility of leaks and failures are unlikely. Currently in Russia, Pu02 is stored 1 at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC, Zheleznogorsk) and at the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC, former Tomsk-7). (Plutonium metal is stored at PA 'Mayak' and is not addressed here) . Current storage containers for Russian Pu02 do not meet modern safety requirements . Further, every three years the gaskets have to be replaced . The containers can become over pressurized due to radiation processes and this results in possible container failures 1 . In the US, Pu02 is present at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites 2 . US reports of long time storage of Pu02 show a few cases of storage container failures 2 among thousand of intact cases. Major causes of malfunction are metal oxidation in non-airtight packages and gas pressurization from inadequately stabilized oxide . Because of these failures the US DOE adopted a standard 3 for stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing material that addresses these vulnerabilities .

Mason, C. F. V. (Caroline F. V.); Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Wedman, Douglas E.; Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Erickson, R. M. (Randall M.); Hansen, W. J. (Walter J.); Roberson, G. D.

2003-01-01

223

Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and

Michael F. Stevens; Thomas Zocco; Robert Albers; J. David Becker; Kevin Walter; Barbara Cort; Dennis Paisley; Michael Nastasi

1998-01-01

224

Solidus and liquidus temperatures in the uranium-plutonium-zirconium system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in metallic fuel for nuclear reactors has prompted study of the solidus and liquidus for the uranium-plutonium-zirconium system. These temperatures are of importance in assessing the possibility of fuel melting during abnormal reactor conditions. Data obtained in previous work in this area were found to be inadequate for the needs of the current reactor development effort. A dual

L. Leibowitz; E. Veleckis; R. A. Blomquist; A. D. Pelton

1987-01-01

225

Structures of plutonium coordination compounds: A review of past work, recent single crystal x-ray diffraction results, and what we're learning about plutonium coordination chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compounds we have isolated and characterized include plutonium(III) and plutonium(IV) bound by ligands with a range of donor types and denticity (halide, phosphine oxide, hydroxamate, amine, sulfide) in a variety of coordination geometries. For example, we have obtained the first X-ray structure of Pu(III) complexed by a soft donor ligand. Using a "one pot" synthesis beginning with Pu metal strips and iodine in acetonitrile and adding trithiacyclononane we isolated the complex, PuI3(9S3)(MeCN)2 (Figure 1). On the other end of the coordination chemistry spectrum, we have obtained the first single crystal structure of the Pu(IV) hexachloro anion (Figure 2). Although this species has been used in plutonium purification via anion exchange chromatography for decades, the bond distances and exact structure were not known. We have also characterized the first plutonium-biomolecule complex, Pu(IV) bound by the siderophore desferrioxamine E.In this presentation we will review the preparation, structures, and importance of previously known coordination compounds and of those we have recently isolated. We will show the coordination chemistry of plutonium is rich and varied, well worth additional exploration.

Neu, M. P.; Matonic, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Scott, B. L.

2000-07-01

226

Criticality experiments with dilute plutonium-uranium nitrate solution at plutonium fractions of 0. 2 and 0. 5 in cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these experiments is to obtain data on the minimum fissil concentration for criticality from measurements on a large (low neutron leakage) cylindrical vessel. The limiting concentration is fundamental data unique to the particular fuel mixture studied and is important for criticality control. Prior to these measurements, no data existed concerning the effect of dissolved uranium on the minimum critical concentration of plutonium. These data can be applied whenever mixtures of plutonium and uranium exist, in the head end of a fuel reprocessing plant through the first solvent extraction cycle, in storage vessels, and during product conversion when a coprocessing scheme is used. A series of critical experiments was completed in large cylindrical geometry with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions with a water reflector. The concentrations were 22 and 53 g (Pu + U)/l with a plutonium-to-total-heavy-metal (HM) ratio (plutonium plus uranium) of 0.52 or 0.23, respectively. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan.

Lloyd, R.C.; Matsumoto, T.

1987-01-01

227

LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities National Security  

E-print Network

- tinide chemistry; nuclear materials separation, processing, and recovery; plutonium metallurgy, preparation, casting, fabrication, and recovery; machining and metallurgy laboratories; and de- structive

228

Use of the reversed button device to treat an atrial septal aneurysm associated with a patent foramen ovale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atrial septal aneurysm may be associated with a patent foramen ovale. When paradoxical emboli result, the shunt must be closed and the atrial septal aneurysm excised. A reversed buttoned occluder device was successfully used for the transcatheter treatment of this condition.

V. K. Mehan; E. B. Sideris; B. Meier

1995-01-01

229

Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes  

SciTech Connect

Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

Enriquez, A. E. (Alejandro E.); Matonic, J. H. (John H.); Scott, B. L. (Brian L.); Neu, M. P. (Mary P.)

2002-01-01

230

Plutonium: The density-functional-theory point of view  

SciTech Connect

Density-functional theory (DFT) is a remarkably successful tool for describing many metals throughout the Periodic Table. Here we present the results of this theory when applied to plutonium metal, the perhaps most complex and difficult-to-model metal of all. The fundamental product of DFT is the ground-state total energy. In the case of Pu, we show that DFT produces total energies that can predict the complex phase diagram accurately. Focusing on the {delta} phase, we show that DFT electronic structure is consistent with measured photoemission spectra. The observed non-magnetic state of {delta}-Pu could possibly be explained in DFT by spin moments, likely disordered, that are magnetically neutralized by anti-parallel aligned orbital moments. As an alternative to this non-magnetic model an extension of DFT with enhanced orbital polarization is presented in which magnetism can be suppressed.

Soderlind, P; Landa, A

2008-10-30

231

Production and crystal growth of isotopic rare-earth metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large single crystals of high-purity rare-earth metal isotopes 154Sm, 163Dy, and 170Er were obtained by grain growth during high-temperature annealing. Isotopic separation produced about 60 g each of the isotopes in metal oxide form. The isotopic enrichment was 99.5, 96.9, and 96.1% for the 154Sm, 163Dy, and 170Er, respectively. The metal was formed by high-temperature reduction and distillation. Collection efficiency was about 92%, and the total impurity content was <500 ppm by weight. The metal was cast into a button in a water-cooled copper mold using a high-purity, arc-melting facility. Melt losses were about 50 mg for 163Dy and 170Er and 200 mg for 154Sm. The buttons were sealed in argon-filled tantalum cans, heated by induction, and annealed for 96 h at 917, 1375, and 1450 °C for the Sm, Dy, and Er, respectively. Any metal lost from the button was recoverable from the tantalum can interior. The resultant specimens had five to eight single crystal grains. The largest, 163Dy, was about 2.5 × 2.5 × 0.5 cm. All buttons had one or two grains large enough for neutron diffraction experiments. The substructure misorientation was <0.3° as measured by neutron diffraction.

Reed, R. E.; Grisham, W. B.

1972-07-01

232

Expected behavior of plutonium in the IFR fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled reactor that will consist initially of a U-Zr alloy core in which the enriched uranium will be replaced gradually by plutonium bred in a uranium blanket. The plutonium is concentrated to the required level by extraction from the molten blanket material with a CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing MgCl2 as an oxidant (halide slagging). The CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing dissolved PuCl3 and UCl3 is added to the core process where fission products are removed by electrorefining, using a liquid cadmium anode, a metal cathode, and a LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2-BaCl2 molten salt electrolyte. The product is recovered as a metallic deposit on the cathode. The Halide slagging step is operated at about 1250 deg and the electrorefining step at about 450 C. These processes are expected to give low fission-product decontamination factors of the order of 100.

Steunenberg, R. K.; Johnson, I.

233

Alpha radiation effects on weapons-grade plutonium encapsulating materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific understanding of material problems in the long-term storage of plutonium pits is investigated using experimental and theoretical models. The durability of the plutonium pit depends on the integrity of the metal cladding that encapsulates the plutonium. Given sufficient time, the energetic alpha particles (helium nuclei) produced by nuclear decay of the plutonium would degrade the mechanical strength of the metal cladding which could lead to cladding failure and dispersion of plutonium. It is shown that the long-term behavior of the encapsulating materials can be simulated by beam implantation and subsequent analysis using experimental techniques of Electron Microscopy and Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). In addition computer simulations using the TRIM code were made in order to correlate the measurements to cladding damage. The Neutron Depth Profiling measurements done with samples that had 10 16 cm-2 3He beam implant dose showed no helium redistribution, indicating no microcracking between bubbles, for both beryllium and stainless steel, the pit cladding materials of interest. However, helium redistribution and significant helium loss were observed for samples with a beam implant dose of 1018 cm-2 , indicating microstructural damage. The SEM observations were consistent with the NDP measurements. The proper interpretation of the results rests on the realization that (i)the deleterious effects are related to helium concentration, not implant dose, and (ii)a specified maximum concentration of helium is achieved with a much smaller dose when monoenergetic ions are implanted using beam geometry than for the situation where Pu alphas stop in the pit cladding. Helium is distributed over a much smaller depth interval for beam implantation of monoenergetic ions as compared to the pit cladding implanted ions. Taking this effect into account and using the calculated pit implant dose gives a pit storage time for the 1016 cm-2 beam implant dose results equal to ~300 years for SS-316 cladding and ~1800 years for Be cladding. Based on this argument it is concluded from the results of the measurements that there most likely would be no radiation damage or microstructural changes in bulk SS-316 or Be cladding for 100 years of pit storage.

Saglam, Mehmet

234

Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

1983-12-01

235

Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a postulated plutonium hydride burn  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a postulated chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures.

Crea, B.A.

1998-05-21

236

Assessment of plutonium storage safety issues at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) mission for utilization and storage of nuclear materials has recently changed as a result of the end of the ``Cold War`` era. Past and current plutonium storage practices largely reflect a temporary, in-process, or in-use storage condition which must now be changed to accommodate longer-term storage. This report summarizes information concerning current plutonium metal and oxide storage practices which was presented at the Office of Defense programs (DP) workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 26-27, 1993 and contained in responses to questions by DP-62 from the field organizations.

Not Available

1994-01-01

237

Utilization of principal component analysis on plutonium EXAFS data from the advanced photon source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1941 discovery of plutonium (Pu) by Glenn Seaborg, this enigmatic metal has been the subject of intense scientific investigation. Despite these efforts, there is still much to be learned about the unusual physical and mechanical properties of plutonium and its alloys. In particular, unalloyed Pu undergoes six allotropic phase transformations upon cooling from the melt to room temperature. Many of these phase transformations result in large volume changes and produce low-symmetry crystal structures. These unusual characteristics have made the metallurgy of Pu and Pu alloys particularly challenging.

Terry, Jeff; Schulze, Roland K.; Zocco, Thomas G.; Farr, J. Doug; Archuleta, Jeff; Ramos, Mike; Martinez, Ray; Pereyra, Ramiro; Lashley, Jason; Wasserman, Steve; Antonio, Mark; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam; Soderholm, Lynne

2000-07-01

238

Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

Duncan, A.

2007-12-31

239

USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

2008-07-15

240

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding

1993-01-01

241

Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the

Tadahiro Katsuta; Tatsujiro Suzuki

2011-01-01

242

Plutonium Immobilization Program: Can-in-Canister  

SciTech Connect

'The end of the cold war brought about a potential new danger, the existence of surplus weapons grade plutonium in the U.S. and Russia. Bilateral disposition programs provide the preferred long-term solution. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. approach to plutonium immobilization using the Can-in-Canister technology.'

Rankin, D.T.

1999-07-14

243

Plutonium Finishing Plant operational readiness review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan describes the readiness review process to be used to meet the objectives to support the restart of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to convert the chemically-acting plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for processing in the remote mechanical C'' (RMC) line. The scope of this plan will cover the restart readiness review needs of the PFP Material Stabilization

Eschenbaum

1992-01-01

244

Reactive sintering of plutonium-bearing titanates.  

SciTech Connect

Titanate ceramics are being developed for the immobilization of weapons-grade plutonium. These multi-phase ceramics are intended to be both corrosion and proliferation resistant. Reactive sintering techniques were refined to reproducibly provide titanate ceramics for further characterization and testing. Plutonium-bearing pyrochlore-rich composites were consolidated to greater than 90% of their theoretical density.

Hash, M. C.

1999-06-24

245

Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

2003-01-01

246

Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

1995-10-30

247

The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

248

Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

2008-07-31

249

Plutonium Uptake and Distribution in Mammalian Cells: Molecular vs Polymeric Plutonium  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the cellular responses to molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium using PC12 cells derived from rat adrenal glands. Materials and methods Serum starved PC12 cells were exposed to polymeric and molecular forms of plutonium for three hours. Cells were washed with 10 mM EGTA, 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4 to remove surface sorbed plutonium. Localization of plutonium in individual cell was quantitatively analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. Results Molecular plutonium complexes introduced to cell growth media in the form of NTA, citrate, or transferrin complexes were taken up by PC12 cells, and mostly co-localized with iron within the cells. Polymeric plutonium prepared separately was not internalized by PC12 cells but it was always found on the cell surface as big agglomerates; however polymeric plutonium formed in situ was mostly found within the cells as agglomerates. Conclusions PC12 cells can differentiate molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium. Molecular plutonium is taken up by PC12 cells and mostly co-localized with iron but aged polymeric plutonium is not internalized by the cells. PMID:21770702

ARYAL, BAIKUNTHA P.; GORMAN-LEWIS, DREW; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; WILSON, RICHARD E.; LAI, BARRY; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE E.; JENSEN, MARK P.

2013-01-01

250

TERTIARY AMINE EXTRACTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented to show the effect of pertinent variables on the ; extraction of plutonium. The extraction of plutonium(III) and (VI) is shown to ; be small. The data on the extraction of plutonium(IV) by several amines are ; presented and discussed. Some experiments on the effect of the organic diluent ; on the solubility of the plutonium(IV)-amine complex

1958-01-01

251

Recurrent dacryocystitis and lacrimocutaneous fistula caused by a retained Griffiths' collar button stent.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man presented with a white plastic-like material exposed in the left medial canthal area, with a fistula and purulent discharge. He had undergone endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy 7 years earlier for left eye epiphora; he had persistent postoperative epiphora and recurrent dacryocystitis despite multiple drainage attempts and antibiotics elsewhere. Computed tomography showed bilateral enlarged cystic lacrimal sacs, with a well-defined contoured tunnel-like hole at the center of the left sac. Treatment included excision of the foreign body, which was a Griffiths' collar button nasolacrimal stent, excision of the fistula tract, and revision dacryocystorhinostomy with implantation of bicanalicular silicone stent. He recovered with no further symptoms or complications. This case highlights the importance of follow-up for removal of an implanted Griffiths' stent after dacryocystorhinostomy. Patients with recurrent dacryocystitis may benefit from a detailed history of previous surgery, careful examination, and imaging to evaluate for endogenous and exogenous foreign bodies such as lacrimal sac calculi, and retained lacrimal sac stents. PMID:24206106

Comez, Arzu Taskiran; Guclu, Oguz; Gencer, Baran; Kara, Selcuk; Tufan, Hasan Ali

2014-04-01

252

Parallel Single Cancer Cell Whole Genome Amplification Using Button-Valve Assisted Mixing in Nanoliter Chambers  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneity of tumor cells and their alteration during the course of the disease urges the need for real time characterization of individual tumor cells to improve the assessment of treatment options. New generations of therapies are frequently associated with specific genetic alterations driving the need to determine the genetic makeup of tumor cells. Here, we present a microfluidic device for parallel single cell whole genome amplification (pscWGA) to obtain enough copies of a single cell genome to probe for the presence of treatment targets and the frequency of its occurrence among the tumor cells. Individual cells were first captured and loaded into eight parallel amplification units. Next, cells were lysed on a chip and their DNA amplified through successive introduction of dedicated reagents while mixing actively with the help of integrated button-valves. The reaction chamber volume for scWGA 23.85 nl, and starting from 6–7 pg DNA contained in a single cell, around 8 ng of DNA was obtained after WGA, representing over 1000-fold amplification. The amplified products from individual breast cancer cells were collected from the device to either directly investigate the amplification of specific genes by qPCR or for re-amplification of the DNA to obtain sufficient material for whole genome sequencing. Our pscWGA device provides sufficient DNA from individual cells for their genetic characterization, and will undoubtedly allow for automated sample preparation for single cancer cell genomic characterization. PMID:25233459

Yang, Yoonsun; Swennenhuis, Joost F.; Rho, Hoon Suk; Le Gac, Severine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

2014-01-01

253

Plutonium focus area. Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

NONE

1997-09-01

254

Automated amperometric plutonium assay system  

SciTech Connect

The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition.

Burt, M.C.

1985-01-01

255

An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium  

PubMed Central

Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway, receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small angle scattering demonstrate that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein’s C-terminal lobe and iron bound in the N-lobe (PuCFeNTf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin’s two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake. PMID:21706034

Jensen, Mark P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G.; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Soderholm, L.

2012-01-01

256

An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( XSD); (Univ. of Chicago); (Northwestern Univ.)

2011-08-01

257

The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

Allen, T.H.

1991-01-01

258

Properties of plutonium and its alloys for use as fast reactor fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher melting U-Pu-Zr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

Hecker, Siegfried S.; Stan, Marius

2008-12-01

259

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed for inhibitory activity against the three major pathogens of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, i.e. the fungi Verticillium

Marina Sokovi?

2006-01-01

260

Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed for inhibitory activity against the three major pathogens of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, i.e. the fungi Verticillium

M. Sokovic; Griensven van L. J. L. D

2006-01-01

261

Effect of weathering and thickness on the opacity of acrylic resin and ocular button for artificial eyes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the opacity of the polymethylmethacrylate for ocular prosthesis using an ocular button, a colorless resin for the ocular prostheses, and 4 brands of acrylic colorless resin in the function of weathering (0, 504, or 1008 h) and thickness (1 and 3.5 mm). One hundred twenty specimens were confectioned (made) and allocated into 12 groups (n = 10). Opacity analysis was carried out with a spectrophotometer of visible ultraviolet reflection before and after weathering by 504 and 1008 hours. Data for the opacity were expressed in DeltaE. Data were then analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P < 0.01). The data demonstrated statistically significant differences; manufactured ocular button (DeltaE = 47.4) and the resin Vipi Cril (DeltaE = 38.11) presented greater and minor values of opacity, respectively. The weathering showed statistical difference among times (0 h, DeltaE = 36.32; 504 h, DeltaE = 39.98; and 1008 h, DeltaE = 43.9). Ocular button and evaluated resins presented greater values of opacity when presented in 3.5 mm in thickness. The values of opacity increased with the progression of the time of weathering, independent of the evaluated material and the thickness. PMID:20061974

Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

2010-01-01

262

HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration  

SciTech Connect

The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996.

Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

1997-10-01

263

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

Kriikku, E.

1999-05-13

264

What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

Forsberg, C.W.

1995-06-29

265

Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.2 and 1.0 in Annular Cylindrical Geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutoniumuranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.2 and 1.0. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in annular cylindrical geometry. The measurements were made with a water reflector. The central region included a concrete, polyethylene or void annular cylindrical insert. Interior to the insert was a stainless steel bottle containing plutonium-uranium solution or a void region. In one experiment the central region was filled with a solid cadmium-covered polyethylene insert. The concentration of the solution in the annular region was varied from 61 to 489 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 0.22 or 0.97 for all experiments.

Lloyd, RC

1988-04-01

266

Dietary supplementation with white button mushrooms augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice.  

PubMed

We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBMs) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response using a Salmonella vaccination and infection animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 0%, 2%, or 5% WBM for 4 wk before oral vaccination with live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL1479. Four weeks after immunization, mice were orally infected with virulent Salmonella typhimurium SL1344. Immunization increased animal survival and, among immunized mice, the 2% WBM group had a higher survival rate than the other groups. Next, we fed mice 2% WBMs to determine the immunological mechanism underlying the WBM-potentiated protective effect. We found that WBM supplementation increased Salmonella-specific blood immunoglobulin (Ig) G and fecal IgA concentrations. WBM-fed mice also had a higher IgG2a and unchanged IgG1 production, leading to an elevated IgG2a:IgG1 ratio and indicating an enhanced T helper 1 response. Consistent with these results, WBM-fed mice had higher interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-17A production and unchanged IL-4 production in their splenocytes after polyclonal (anti-CD3/CD28) or antigen-specific stimulation. Furthermore, WBM-fed mice had more DCs in the spleen, and these DCs expressed higher levels of activation markers CD40 and major histocompatibility complex-II. These mice also produced more IL-12 and TNF-? postimmunization. Together, these results suggest that WBMs may improve Salmonella vaccine efficacy through an enhanced adaptive immune response. PMID:24259557

Wang, Junpeng; Niu, Xinli; Du, Xiaogang; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Wu, Dayong

2014-01-01

267

Automatic motor task selection via a bandit algorithm for a brain-controlled button  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on sensorimotor rhythms use a variety of motor tasks, such as imagining moving the right or left hand, the feet or the tongue. Finding the tasks that yield best performance, specifically to each user, is a time-consuming preliminary phase to a BCI experiment. This study presents a new adaptive procedure to automatically select (online) the most promising motor task for an asynchronous brain-controlled button. Approach. We develop for this purpose an adaptive algorithm UCB-classif based on the stochastic bandit theory and design an EEG experiment to test our method. We compare (offline) the adaptive algorithm to a naïve selection strategy which uses uniformly distributed samples from each task. We also run the adaptive algorithm online to fully validate the approach. Main results. By not wasting time on inefficient tasks, and focusing on the most promising ones, this algorithm results in a faster task selection and a more efficient use of the BCI training session. More precisely, the offline analysis reveals that the use of this algorithm can reduce the time needed to select the most appropriate task by almost half without loss in precision, or alternatively, allow us to investigate twice the number of tasks within a similar time span. Online tests confirm that the method leads to an optimal task selection. Significance. This study is the first one to optimize the task selection phase by an adaptive procedure. By increasing the number of tasks that can be tested in a given time span, the proposed method could contribute to reducing ‘BCI illiteracy’.

Fruitet, Joan; Carpentier, Alexandra; Munos, Rémi; Clerc, Maureen

2013-02-01

268

Effect of temperature and button mushroom varieties on life history of Lycoriella auripila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

PubMed

Temperature-dependent development and population growth parameters of the fungus gnat, Lycoriella auripila (Winnertz), on button (737 and A15) mushroom were evaluated at nine constant temperatures, ranging from 8, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, 22.5, 25, 27, and 30 degrees C and developmental rates were modeled as a function of temperature. At 25 and 27 degrees C, an average of 20.89 and 22.43 d was needed for L. auripila to complete its development from oviposition to adult eclosion on 737 and A15, respectively. The population failed to survive at 8 and 30 degrees C. The developmental times of males or females on each variety at various constant temperatures differed significantly. The regression and Ikemoto and Takai linear models, in the absence of 10, 12.5, and 27 degrees C, described the relationship of developmental rate to temperature for male and female of L. auripila very well. Data were fitted to various nonlinear temperature-dependent models. The Logan 6 and Briere 1 nonlinear models provided the best estimation for Topt and Tmax and are highly recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of L. auripila on 737 and A15, respectively. On 737 variety, significant differences were observed among all growth parameters at various temperatures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for L. auripila was 0.134 on 737 variety at 25 degrees C, which was significantly >0.052 on A15 variety at the same temperature. No other data are available in using linear and nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and L. auripila development. Understanding the influence of temperature on development of L. auripila is discussed with respect to pest management in mushroom production. PMID:23448022

Farsani, Najmeh Shirvani; Zamani, Abbas Ali; Abbasi, Saeid; Kheradmand, Katayoon

2013-02-01

269

Plutonium focus area: Technology summary  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-03-01

270

International shipment of plutonium by air  

SciTech Connect

In support of the United States (US) Government`s decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method.

Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

1995-05-01

271

Plutonium Sphere Reflected by Reflected by Beryllium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by beryllium was performed using the Planet critical assembly at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF). The beryllium reflector consisted of a pair of inner and outer hemisphere...

D. Loaiza, J. Hutchinson

2013-01-01

272

Carbonate Complexation of Plutonium(IV).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemis...

D. E. Hobart, P. D. Palmer, T. W. Newton

1985-01-01

273

Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-05-24

274

Design and evaluation of plutonium electrorefining cells  

SciTech Connect

A plutonium electrorefining cell was designed for stationary furnace operation. This cell and the LANL electrorefining cell were evaluated. Results of this evaluation and comparison to existing production electrorefining at Rocky Flats are presented.

Not Available

1987-01-01

275

Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

Burney, G.A.

1983-01-01

276

Dangerous surplus. [Management of weapons plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of existing arms control reduction commitments, approximately 50 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium is expected to become surplus in the United States--and a similar or larger amount in Russia--over the next 10 years. It is crucial that this surplus weapons plutonium be managed in a way that minimizes the danger that it will be re-used for weapons,

Holdren

2009-01-01

277

Explosive properties of reactor?grade plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following discussion focuses on the question of whether a terrorist organization or a threshold state could make use of plutonium recovered from light?water?reactor fuel to construct a nuclear explosive device having a significantly damaging yield. Questions persist in some nonproliferation policy circles as to whether a bomb could be made from reactor?grade plutonium of high burn?up, and if so,

J. Carson Marka

1993-01-01

278

Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications  

SciTech Connect

In September, 1997, nine of the world`s plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes.

Bryson, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31

279

A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

1998-12-31

280

Development of a ceramic form for immobilization of excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Between 8 and 50 metric tonnes of excess plutonium are currently planned to be immobilized in a glass or ceramic waste form in the US. The immobilized Pu would then be encased in HLW glass (the can-in-canister alternative), which would provide a radiation barrier to enhance the proliferation resistance of the material. Associated with the plutonium are about 15 metric tonnes of uranium primarily {sup 238}U and a variety of other impurities (primarily Ga, Mo, Al, Mg, Si, and Cl) totaling about 1 metric tonne or less. Immobilization of this material is complicated by the fact that the uranium content in the various feed streams varies widely, from 0 to about 95%. The proposed ceramic form is composed of about 90% zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and/or pyrochlore (CaPuTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) with about 10% other phases, typically hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). The form is a variation of Synroc-C, which contains nominally 30% zirconolite, 30% perovskite, 30% hollandite, and 10% rutile and noble metal alloys. Zirconolite and perovskite are the actinide host phases in Synroc-C with zirconolite being the more durable phase. The pyrochlore structure is closely related to zirconolite and forms at higher actinide loadings. Thus, this mineral is of interest for plutonium deposition in ceramic. Pyrochlore has the advantage that it is cubic rather the monoclinic like zirconolite. Cubic mineral swell isotropically when radiation damaged. As a result, differential strain in the microstructure will be minimal, leading to significantly less microcracking of the form after thousands of years in a repository. Zirconolites and pyrochlores containing uranium and.or thorium exist in nature and have demonstrated actinide immobilizations for periods exceeding 100 million years.

Van Konynenburg, R.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Ryerson, F.; Shaw, H.; Curtis, P.

1997-04-22

281

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This

D. A. Brownson; D. J. Hanson; H. S. Blackman

1993-01-01

282

Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (<0.14 wt%) is also present in these samples. The isotopic composition of the uranium varied widely but was consistent among each category of material. The primary water-soluble anions in these samples were Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-. The only major anion observed in the Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

2005-07-01

283

Recent trends of plutonium fallout observed in Japan: plutonium as a proxy for desertification.  

PubMed

Plutonium in monthly deposition samples collected in Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan from 1990 to end of 2001 is reported, together with monthly plutonium deposition in Nagasaki and Yonaguni in 2000. The annual deposition of (239,240)Pu during the period from 1990 to 2001 shows no systematic interannual variation. However, monthly (239,240)Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to seasonal cycle of soil dusts originating from the East Asian arid area. Plutonium isotopic ratios in the deposition samples suggest that significant amounts of the recent (239,240)Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to the resuspension of plutonium-bearing surface soil particles; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian arid areas. The recent increased tendency of (239,240)Pu content in residues in deposition samples may reflect desertification in the East Asian continent. PMID:12729272

Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Chang, B W

2003-04-01

284

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08

285

Introducing equipment and plutonium glove box modifications for monitoring gas generation over plutonium oxide materials.  

SciTech Connect

DOE is embarking on a program to store large quantities of Pu-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials for long-term storage are metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard. Experience with PuO, materials has shown that gases generated by catalytic and/or radiolytic processes may accumulate. Of concern are the generation of H, gas from adsorbed water and the generation of HCI or CI, gases from the radiolysis of chloride-containing salts. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the standard. The containers and surveillance equipment are interfaced with a plutonium glovebox and are designed to allow the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time. The surveillance activities and glovebox interfaces include Raman fiber optic probes, a gas analysis sampling port, corrosion monitors, and pressure and temperature feedthrus. Data collection for these containers is automated in order to reduce worker exposure. The equipment design and glovebox modifications are presented.

Padilla, D. D. (Dennis D.); Berg, J. M. (John M.); Carrillo, A. G. (Alejandro G.); Montoya, A. R. (Adam R.); Morris, J. S. (John S.); Veirs, D. K. (Douglas Kirk); Martinez, M. A. (Max A.); Worl, L. A. (Laura A.); Harradine, D. M. (David M.); Hill, D. D. (Dallas D.)

2002-01-01

286

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28

287

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently

P. G. Eller; J. L. Stakebake; T. D. Cooper

2002-01-01

288

Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated

P. G. Eller; J. L. Stakebake; T. D. Cooper

2001-01-01

289

Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-03-01

290

Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National

J. R. Distefano; J. H. Devan; J. R. Keiser; R. L. Klueh; W. P. Eatherly

1995-01-01

291

Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe1-xMnxOOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, because goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements indicated that essentially all the Mn in the goethite existed as Mn(III), even though Mn was added during mineral synthesis as Mn(II). Importantly, energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that Mn did not exist as discrete phases and that it was homogeneously mixed into the goethite to within the limit of detection of the method. Furthermore, Mössbauer spectra demonstrated that all Fe existed as Fe(III), with no Fe(II) present. Plutonium(VI) sorption experiments were conducted open to air and no attempt was made to exclude carbonate. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows us to directly and unambiguously measure the oxidation state of plutonium in situ at the mineral surface. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. This reduction appears to be strongly correlated with mineral solution pH, coinciding with pH transitions across the point of zero charge of the mineral. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. This combination of extensive mineral characterization and advanced spectroscopy suggests that sorption of the plutonium onto the surface of the mineral was followed by reduction of the plutonium at the surface of the mineral to form an inner-sphere complex. Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with such substituted-mineral phases is important for risk assessment purposes at radioactively contaminated sites and long-term underground radioactive waste repositories.

Hu, Yung-Jin; Schwaiger, Luna Kestrel; Booth, Corwin H.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Cristiano, Elena; Kaplan, Daniel; Nitsche, Heino

2010-03-09

292

Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01

293

Dissolution of FB-Line Residues Containing Beryllium Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrap materials containing plutonium (Pu) metal were dissolved at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a program to disposition nuclear materials during the deactivation of the FB-Line facility. Some of these items contained both Pu and beryllium (Be) metal as a composite material. The Pu and Be metals were physically separated to minimize the amount of Be associated

TRACY S. RUDISILL; MARK L. CROWDER

2005-01-01

294

Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design  

SciTech Connect

Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

Brown, T.H.

1997-11-01

295

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

1992-01-01

296

Safeguards and security requirements for weapons plutonium disposition in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the issues surrounding the safeguarding of the plutonium disposition process in support of the United States nuclear weapons dismantlement program. It focuses on the disposition of the plutonium by burning mixed oxide fuel in light water reactors (LWR) and addresses physical protection, material control and accountability, personnel security and international safeguards. The S and S system needs to meet the requirements of the DOE Orders, NRC Regulations and international safeguards agreements. Experience has shown that incorporating S and S measures into early facility designs and integrating them into operations provides S and S that is more effective, more economical, and less intrusive. The plutonium disposition safeguards requirements with which the US has the least experience are the implementation of international safeguards on plutonium metal; the large scale commercialization of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication; and the transportation to and loading in the LWRs of fresh mixed oxide fuel. It is in these areas where the effort needs to be concentrated if the US is to develop safeguards and security systems that are effective and efficient.

Thomas, L.L.; Strait, R.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program

1994-10-01

297

Temperature dependence of elastic moduli of polycrystalline ? plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic moduli of pure polycrystalline beta plutonium were measured over its full range of existence (417-491 K) using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The Debye temperature (138 K), Poisson's ratio (0.28), Gruneisen parameter (2.3), and the zero-temperature atomic volume (21.2 Å3) were computed from the measurements. Both bulk and shear moduli decrease smoothly on warming with expected discontinuities at the phase boundaries. The shear modulus is surprisingly nearly the same for beta and gamma Pu. The temperature dependence of bulk moduli for beta Pu is, like gamma Pu, unusually small. Poisson's ratio shows very strong differences among alpha, beta, and gamma Pu indicating they are entirely different metals. The zero-temperature elastic moduli were computed for the three phases as well as for gallium-stabilized delta Pu (also measured by us) and compared to calculations.

Suzuki, Yoko; Fanelli, V. R.; Betts, J. B.; Freibert, F. J.; Mielke, C. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Ramos, M.; Saleh, T. A.; Migliori, A.

2011-08-01

298

Bone suture anchors versus the pullout button for repair of distal profundus tendon injuries: a comparison of strength in human cadaveric hands.  

PubMed

Avulsion or distal tendon laceration of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) is classically repaired to the base of the distal phalanx via a pullout suture over a button. Bone suture anchors, used extensively in other surgical areas, have recently been proposed for reattachment of the FDP to the distal phalanx. The FDP tendons of the index, long, and ring fingers in 9 fresh frozen cadeveric hands were randomized to 1 of 3 repair techniques after simulated distal avulsion injuries. These were the pullout button using 3-0 monofilament nylon in a 2-strand Bunnell suture pattern, the 1.8 mm Mini QuickAnchor (Mitek Products, Norwood, MA) using 3-0 braided polyester in a 2-strand Bunnell suture pattern, and the Mitek micro anchor using 3-0 braided polyester with a modified 4-strand Becker suture pattern. Nine specimens were loaded to failure, noting maximum load and mode of failure. The 1.3 mm Micro QuickAnchor (Mitek) technique (69.6 +/- 10.8 N) was significantly stronger than the pullout button (43.3 +/- 4.8 N) or the Mini anchor technique (44.6 +/- 12.7 N). The Micro bone suture anchor provides a stronger tendon to bone repair than the pullout button or the Mini anchor. Given the disadvantages of the pullout button, the Micro bone suture anchor with the modified Becker technique is worth consideration as an alternative method to repair distal FDP avulsions. PMID:11418912

Brustein, M; Pellegrini, J; Choueka, J; Heminger, H; Mass, D

2001-05-01

299

10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2013-01-01

300

10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2010-01-01

301

10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2011-01-01

302

10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2010-01-01

303

10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

...licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2014-01-01

304

10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2013-01-01

305

10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2012-01-01

306

10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

...licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2014-01-01

307

10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2012-01-01

308

10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies...the agreement or is received at the plant for use or processing in the plant but which is, in fact, for any...

2011-01-01

309

Plutonium in surface soil in the Hanford plant environs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses for plutonium in air, water, and foodstuffs have long been part ; of the routine surveillance program at Hanford. In addition, the ground and ; other surfaces have been surveyed for plutonium where there was possible ; deposition from stack emissions, waste spills, etc., using direct instrument ; measurements. Detectable plutonium deposition from the few such incidents has ;

J. P. Corley; D. M. Robertson; F. P. Brauer

1972-01-01

310

Storage MOX: A Third Way for Plutonium Disposal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2010, the UK could have 110 tons of separated civilian plutonium and Russia up to 150 tons of excess weapons and civil plutonium. Neither country has enough LWR capacity for disposal in MOX fuel. Plutonium disposal via MOX fuel is also difficult for some other countries. Combined disposal with HLW may be infeasible after reprocessing ends because the reprocessing

J. Kang; F. N. von Hippel; A. MacFarlane; R. Nelson

2002-01-01

311

The behaviour of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Ocean is a major repository of plutonium released from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Both global fallout from plutonium released to the stratosphere as well as close-in fallout from the troposphere contributed to the present levels of plutonium in seawater and sediment of the Pacific Ocean. The paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the

Hugh D. Livingston; Pavel P. Povinec; Toshimichi Ito; Orihiko Togawa

2001-01-01

312

Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures—The Science 2006 Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also

Michael J. Fluss; David E. Hobart; Patrick G. Allen; Gordon D. Jarvinen

2007-01-01

313

VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

314

THE ROLE OF PLUTONIUM IN THE BRITISH NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two principal incentives for the utilization of plutonium in ; reactors as part of the British Nuclear Power Programme. Plutonium will become ; available in increasing amounts from the natural uranium reactors, and ; assessments indicate that fast reactors burning plutonium may produce power more ; cheaply than any other reactor systems so far envisaged. The nuclear ;

Kronberger

1963-01-01

315

Preparation of a glovebox for casting enriched plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: Prepare existing glovebox for casting, heat treating and storing enriched plutonium, Upgrade seismic systems to reduce dispersion hazard, Upgrade atmospheric systems to reduce oxidation of plutonium, Upgrade vacuum system to prevent oxidation, InstalI/upgrade induction heating systems to melt plutonium and heat mold

Ronquillo, R. D. (Richard D.); Trujillo, C. M. (Chris M.); Trujillo, C. C. (Claudette C.)

2002-01-01

316

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09

317

A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today`s laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

318

Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

Cannell, G.R.

2002-02-28

319

Hydrothermal synthesis, structural, Raman, and luminescence studies of Am[M(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O and Nd[M(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O (M=Ag, Au): Bimetallic coordination polymers containing both trans-plutonium and transition metal elements  

SciTech Connect

The polymeric compounds consisting of the man-made element, americium, and gold and silver dicyanides were prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions at 120 deg. C. It was found that the americium ion and the transition metal ions are interconnected through cyanide bridging in the compounds. Given the similarities in the radii of americium and neodymium, crystals of the latter were also characterized for comparison purposes. The four compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the hexagonal space group, P6{sub 3}/mcm, with only slight differences in their unit cell parameters. Crystallographic data (MoK{alpha}, {lambda}=0.71073 A): Am[Ag(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O (1), a=6.7205(10) A, c=18.577(3) A, V=726.64(19), Z=2; Am[Au(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O (2),a=6.666(2) A, c=18.342(3) A, V=705.9(4), Z=2; Nd[Ag(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O (3), a=6.7042(4) A, c=18.6199(14) A, V=724.77(8), Z=2; and Nd[Au(CN){sub 2}]{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O (4), a=6.6573(13) A, c=18.431(4) A, V=707.2(2), Z=2. The coordination around the Am and/or Nd consists of six N-bound CN{sup -} groups resulting in a trigonal prismatic arrangement. Three capping oxygen atoms of coordinated water molecules complete the tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination environment, providing a total coordination number of nine for the f-elements. Raman spectroscopy, which compliments the structural analyses, reveals that the four compounds display strong signals in the {nu}{sub CN} stretching region. When compared with KAg(CN){sub 2} or KAu(CN){sub 2}, the {nu}{sub CN} stretching frequencies for these compounds blue-shift due to bridging of the dicyanometallate ions with the f-element ions. There is subsequent reduction in electron density at the cyanide center. Compared with the silver systems, the {nu}{sub CN} frequency appears at higher energy in the gold dicyanide complexes. This shift is consistent with the structural data where the carbon-nitrogen bond distance is found to be shorter in the gold dicyanides. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polymeric compounds between the 'man-made' trans-plutonium element, americium, and transition metal ions were prepared using the hydrothermal synthetic procedure. The Am{sup 3+} ion and the transition metals, Au and/or Ag, are interconnected through cyanide bridging. The coordination around americium consists of six CN{sup -} groups coordinated through the N atoms resulting in a trigonal prismatic environment. Three oxygen atoms of coordinated water molecules complete the tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination environment for Am{sup 3+}, providing a total coordination number of 9.

Assefa, Zerihun [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)], E-mail: zassefa@ncat.edu; Kalachnikova, Katrina [Department of Chemistry, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Haire, Richard G. [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sykora, Richard E. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)], E-mail: rsykora@jaguar1.usouthal.edu

2007-11-15

320

Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium- contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert ; vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine ; gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials ; were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. ; During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility ; accompanied

J. Barth; M. G. White; P. B. Dunaway

1975-01-01

321

The AL-R8 SI: the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the USDOE Pantex Plant.  

PubMed

The AL-R8 SI (sealed insert) is the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the U.S. DOE Pantex Plant. The sealed insert is a stainless steel container that will be placed inside a modified AL-R8 container to stagepits. A pit is a hollow sphere of plutonium metal which is the primary fissionable material in nuclear weapons (warheads and bombs). It is hermetically sealed by a cladding material, which is usually stainless steel. Personnel exposures to ionizing radiation from the pits in storage are expected to decrease due to the attenuation provided by the new SI. All personnel exposures to ionizing radiation at Pantex Plant are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Pantex Plant secures the common defense and national security of the United States by safely staging plutonium pits in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. PMID:10527158

Eifert, E J; Vickers, L D

1999-11-01

322

Determination of plutonium-239 + plutonium-240 and plutonium-241 in environmental samples using low-level liquid scintillation spectrometry.  

PubMed

A radiochemical method for the simultaneous determination of 239Pu + 240Pu and 241Pu in environmental samples has been developed. In the course of the analysis a 236Pu tracer was used for estimating the chemical yield of plutonium isotopes. After suitable pre-treatment of the sample, the plutonium nuclides in solution were coprecipitated with iron(III) hydroxide and calcium oxalate and isolated further from impurities and interfering radionuclides by means of anion-exchange chromatography. Plutonium isotopes in the eluate (NH4I-HCI) were converted into nitrate form and then extracted with 20 ml of 5% bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate extractive cocktail. The final organic solution was measured spectrometrically using an ultra-low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer, Quantulus (LKB, 1220 Wallac). The chemical yields of plutonium range from 25 to 50% for 100 I of sea-water and 30 to 60% for 40 g of dried soil sample. The counting efficiencies are nearly 100% for 239Pu + 240Pu and 48.8% for 241Pu, respectively. The detection limits were estimated to be 0.20 mBq for 239Pu + 240Pu and 2.2 mBq for 241Pu, respectively. The proposed procedure has been tested for the simultaneous determination of 239Pu + 240Pu and 241Pu in sea-water (Irish Sea, North Sea) and soils (Cumbrian coast, UK; Byelorussia, USSR). PMID:1580376

Yu, Y F; Bjørnstad, H E; Salbu, B

1992-03-01

323

IAEA activities on the safe handling and disposition of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The buildup of the inventory of plutonium from dismantled warheads as well as from civilian nuclear programs and its disposition are under intense international debate. The activities of the IAEA in the technical area will be presented in this paper. It deals with (1) estimation of world wide inventories of civil plutonium both current and projected, (2) preparation of a safety document on safe handling and storage of plutonium, (3) exchange of information and discussion on some reactor technologies associated with the disposition of plutonium and it provides the necessary support to the ongoing initiatives for more transparency in management of plutonium.

Oi, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management

1995-12-31

324

Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known  

SciTech Connect

In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

Condit, R.H.

1993-07-01

325

Influence of the Size of Collecting Metal on Removal of Platinum Group Metals from Molten Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of Pd, Ru and RuO2 from molten glass was studied using liquid Cu as the collecting metal. To increase the collision frequency between Cu and these platinum group metals (PGMs), copper-ruby glass containing Cu nanoparticles was used for the removal. The glass was prepared by the reduction of CuO dissolved in glass using Si as the reductant. Existence of the Cu nanoparticles was conformed by a measurement of the absorption peak of surface plasmon resonance at 595 nm. Another glass containing Cu particles of around 30 ?m was prepared as a control specimen. By a heating of the two glasses with PGMs at 1473 K, separable metal buttons formed in both glasses. Metallic Pd and Ru were collected more than 90% in either metal buttons. There was no significant difference between the two glasses for the removal of metals. On the other hand, RuO2, which was reduced to metallic Ru by Cu, was collected 83% for the ruby glass, while not more than 52% for the control glass. The use of copper-ruby glass was effective for the removal of the oxide. The results of a leaching test of the glasses indicated that dispersing smaller Cu particles in glass had an effect to decrease the leaching rate of Cu from the glass into nitric acid.

Uruga, Kazuyoshi; Sawada, Kayo; Enokida, Youichi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

326

Water vapor adsorption on plutonium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption isotherms of water vapor on plutonium dioxide were measured ; gravimetrically at 30, 50, and 85 deg C. The data show water to be irreversibly ; chemisorbed until the oxide is saturated. Any subsequent adsorption is physical ; and completely reversible. The chemisorbed limit varied from 1 monolayer at 85 ; deg C to 3 monolayers at 30 deg

J. L. Stakebake; L. M. Steward

1973-01-01

327

PROSERPINE. HOMOGENEOUS CRITICAL EXPERIMENT WITH PLUTONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Proserpine, a zero power homogeneous reactor experiment with ; plutonium sulfate dissolved in light water, is briefly described. The lowest ; critical mass is 257.2 g of Pu. The vessel is of Zircaloy surrounded by a ; reflector of beryllium oxide. The absolute calibration of reactivlty by ; poisoning with boron and the study of the temperature coefficient in

Tachon

1958-01-01

328

Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2013-12-31

329

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

1998-05-01

330

Proliferation Resistance Attributes of Advanced Plutonium Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain public acceptance for future use of Pu, new concepts must overcome the present concerns about environmental compliance as well as con- cerns about misusing plutonium of the civil nuclear fuel cycle for nuclear explosives e.g. by terrorists. In future the preferable remedy is the multi-recycling of all transuranium elements in fast neutron reac- tors. In such a partitioning

L. Koch

331

Plutonium fractionation in southern Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different chemical plutonium fractions (dissolved in water, connected to carbonates, connected to oxides, complexed with organic matter, mineral acids soluble and the rest) in sediments from the Vistula River estuary, the Gda?sk Basin and the Bornholm Deep were determined. The distribution of Pu in analysed sediments samples was not uniform but dependent on its chemical form, depth

Dagmara I. Strumi?ska-Parulska; Bogdan Skwarzec; Magdalena Pawlukowska

2012-01-01

332

Dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitric acid  

SciTech Connect

Two alternative procedures of the electrochemical dissolution of plasmothermal plutonium dioxide in nitric acid were studied: reductive dissolution in the presence of U(IV) stabilized by hydrazine and dissolution in hot nitric acid at the alternating current supply. The current field accelerates dissolution of PuO{sub 2}.

Nikitina, G.P.; Zhukova, I.N.; Egorova, V.P. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-07-01

333

Plutonium Management in the Medium Term  

SciTech Connect

For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review.

Hesketh, Kevin [BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services (United Kingdom); Schlosser, Gerhard; Porsch, Dieter F. [Framatome ANP (France); Wolf, Timm [Framatome ANP (France); Koeberl, Oliver [CEA Cadarache (France); Lance, Benoit [Belgonucleaire (Belgium); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Ellis, Ron [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Uchikawa, Sadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Mineo, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamamoto, Toru [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (Japan); Sagayama, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Sartori, Enrico [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (France)

2004-12-15

334

Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

Weekly air samples of 25000 m(3) volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. (137)Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median (239,240)Pu activities were 100 nBq/m(3) and (238)Pu activities 34 nBq/m(3). The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m(3), respectively, and in half of the filters the (238)Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and (137)Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 microBq/m(3). Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 microSv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring (210)Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. PMID:16197982

Lehto, J; Salminen, S; Jaakkola, T; Outola, I; Pulli, S; Paatero, J; Tarvainen, M; Ristonmaa, S; Zilliacus, R; Ossintsev, A; Larin, V

2006-07-31

335

In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months earlier. This visit began a 17-year, 41 journey relationship with the Russian nuclear complex dedicated to working with them in partnership to protect and safeguard their weapons and fissile materials, while addressing the plight of their scientists and engineers. In the process, we solved a forty-year disagreement about the plutonium-gallium phase diagram and began a series of fundamental plutonium science workshops that are now in their tenth year. At the Yonbyon reprocessing facility in January 2004, my North Korean hosts had hoped to convince me that they have a nuclear deterrent. When I expressed skepticism, they asked if I wanted to see their ``product.'' I asked if they meant the plutonium; they replied, ``Well, yes.'' Thus, I wound up holding 200 grams of North Korean plutonium (in a sealed glass jar) to make sure it was heavy and warm. So began the first of my six journeys to North Korea to provide technical input to the continuing North Korean nuclear puzzle. In Trombay and Kalpakkam a few years later I visited the Indian nuclear research centers to try to understand how India's ambitious plans for nuclear power expansion can be accomplished safely and securely. I will describe these and other attempts to deal with the nonproliferation legacy of the cold war and the new challenges ahead. )

Hecker, Siegfried

2010-02-01

336

System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference  

SciTech Connect

A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

NONE

1996-07-01

337

Alpha-plutonium's polycrystalline elastic moduli over its full temperature range.  

PubMed

alpha-plutonium's volume-corrected polycrystal elastic moduli were measured between 18 K and the upper limit of its occurrence, near 400 K. The two independent moduli for a polycrystal-bulk and shear-behave smoothly, indicating no phase transition. Both moduli show the same 50% increase on cooling, an order of magnitude larger than in other metals. The Debye temperature obtained from low-temperature elastic moduli, 207 K, significantly exceeds most previous estimates. The Gruneisen parameter gamma=5.3, obtained from the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus, is intermediate among previous estimates using other approaches, alpha-plutonium's Poisson ratio nu is low: 0.18, nearly temperature independent, and its small decrease on warming opposes usual behavior. The high gamma, large but equal bulk modulus and shear modulus fractional stiffening on cooling, and near-temperature-invariant nu are attributed to a single mechanism: 5-f electron localization-delocalization. PMID:17902836

Migliori, A; Pantea, C; Ledbetter, H; Stroe, I; Betts, J B; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Freibert, F; Dooley, D; Harrington, S; Mielke, C H

2007-10-01

338

Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP.

Gray, L W; Burney, G A; Reilly, T A; Wilson, T W; McKibben, J M

1980-01-01

339

Plutonium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of plutonium contamination in the environment. Topics include plutonium contamination in freshwater and marine sediments, plutonium bioaccumulation, plutonium transport in the food chain, plutonium accumulation in the soil, methods of analysis, plutonium removal from contaminated soils, and plutonium contamination from nuclear fallout and nuclear waste. Government regulations on containment and disposal of plutonium contaminated wastes are described. Government regulations regarding plutonium levels in consumer products and drinking water are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

340

Appendix F: Simulation Programs (LabSims) Note: Up-to-date information on using the LabSims can be found by pressing the "Sim Help" button at the  

E-print Network

objects in their initial positions. The "||" button is "Pause", which stops everything. The buttons are meant to look like those on a DVD player or VCR. 3D NAVIGATION You can "walk" around in the 3D window pictured below you can adjust the cart's initial speed or position, change the ramp angle, change the cart

Minnesota, University of

341

Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll. [Pulmonary exposure from dust-borne plutonium aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of

J. H. Shinn; D. N. Homan; W. L. Robison

1980-01-01

342

Plutonium dioxide storage: Conditions for preparation and handling  

SciTech Connect

Desorption and adsorption of plutonium dioxide are derived from production-scale experiments that demonstrate techniques of preparing weapons-grade material for extended storage. In combination with data from literature, results define conditions for preparing and certifying PuO{sub 2} and provide essential information for developing and implementing a repackaging process compliant with DOE standards for safe storage of plutonium. As demonstrated by loss-on-ignition (LOI) analysis, adsorbates are effectively removed by heating the oxide in air at 950 C for two hours. After oxides are fired at this temperature, specific surface areas are consistently less than 5 m{sup 2}/g. Due to this low surface area, water adsorption by fired oxide is limited to a maximum of 0.2 mass % at 50% relative humidity. Kinetic data for the adsorption process show that water is accommodated on the oxide surface by a sequence of distinct first-order steps comprising five types of adsorbate interaction and accumulating ten molecular layers of H{sub 2}0 at 100% humidity. An equation defining the humidity dependence of the adsorption rate during the first step is applied in estimating time periods that a fired oxide may remain in given configurations without detrimental adsorption. Particle size measurements show that the source terms for environmental dispersal of oxides prepared by hydride-catalyzed reaction of metal and by oxalate calcination are approximately 20 and 0.1 mass %, respectively, and that the values are reduced by firing. Evidence for a chemical reaction between dioxide and water is discussed and practical applications of the results to oxide stabilization and LOI analysis are presented.

Haschke, J.M.; Ricketts, T.E.

1995-08-01

343

2010 Ocean Sciences Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-print Network

to the previous page, close this browser window or click the 'X' button in the top right corner of the page. ID at the class level. Conversely, molecular tools, such as rDNA cloning, have biases inherent in nucleic acid for construction of 18S rDNA clone libraries that were subject to sequence analysis, while microscopic cell counts

344

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-print Network

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous here to send an email ScholarOne Abstracts® (patent #7,257,767 and #7,263,655). © ScholarOne, Inc., 2010. All Rights Reserved. ScholarOne Abstracts and ScholarOne are registered trademarks of Scholar

Sparks, Donald L.

345

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-print Network

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous ScholarOne Abstracts® (patent #7,257,767 and #7,263,655). © ScholarOne, Inc., 2010. All Rights Reserved. ScholarOne Abstracts and ScholarOne are registered trademarks of ScholarOne, Inc. Terms and Conditions

Sparks, Donald L.

346

REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

2011-10-04

347

Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass  

SciTech Connect

The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

1997-03-05

348

Los Alamos Plutonium Facility Waste Management System  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the new computer-based transuranic (TRU) Waste Management System (WMS) being implemented at the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Waste Management System is a distributed computer processing system stored in a Sybase database and accessed by a graphical user interface (GUI) written in Omnis7. It resides on the local area network at the Plutonium Facility and is accessible by authorized TRU waste originators, count room personnel, radiation protection technicians (RPTs), quality assurance personnel, and waste management personnel for data input and verification. Future goals include bringing outside groups like the LANL Waste Management Facility on-line to participate in this streamlined system. The WMS is changing the TRU paper trail into a computer trail, saving time and eliminating errors and inconsistencies in the process.

Smith, K.; Montoya, A.; Wieneke, R.; Wulff, D.; Smith, C.; Gruetzmacher, K.

1997-02-01

349

Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes  

SciTech Connect

Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}7} M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes.

Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

1995-12-31

350

Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting for Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and WasteTreatment, Storage and Disposal Activities  

SciTech Connect

The sixth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held November 15-17, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, and Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 55 Russian attendees from 16 different Russian organizations and four non-Russian attendees from the US. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C. The 16 different Russian design, industrial sites, and scientific organizations in attendance included staff from Rosatom/Minatom, Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia (GOSATOMNADZOR, NIERA/GAN), All Russian Designing & Scientific Research Institute of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), A. A. Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), All Russian & Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT), Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation Specialized State Designing Institute (GSPI), State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR), Siberian Chemical Combine Tomsk (SCC), Mayak PO, Mining Chemical Combine (MCC K-26), Institute of Biophysics (IBPh), Sverdlosk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building (SNIIChM), Kurchatov Institute (KI), Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Science (IPCh RAS) and Radon PO-Moscow. The four non-Russian attendees included one representative from DOE NNSA, and LLNL, and two from Duratek, The meeting was organized into three major sessions: (1) Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal; (2) Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation; (3) Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. Twenty presentations were made on the topic of Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal (Session II), ten presentations on Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation (Session III), and four presentations on Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation (Session IV). In addition, DOE/NNSA, Minatom/Rosatom and TVEL summarized the bases for the conference at the beginning of the meeting (Session I). Nine months had passed since the last LLNL contracts review meeting. During that time period, LLNL and TVEL have been able to sign six contracts for a total of $1,700,000 in the areas of: (1) Waste treatment, storage and disposal; and (2) Plutonium packaging, storage and transportation. The scope of several other work projects are now in various stages of development in these areas. It is anticipated that more contracts will be signed before the next meeting of this type. These events have allowed us to start work in our technical activities under new direction from TVEL, which is now the single Russian organization to coordinate and conclude contracts with LLNL. The meeting presentations and discussions have defined where we are and where we are going in the near term in regard to our joint interests in excess weapons plutonium disposition. Each topical section of this Proceedings is introduced by a summary of the presentations in that section.

Jardine, L J

2005-06-30

351

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2014-01-01

352

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2011-01-01

353

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2012-01-01

354

10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

2013-01-01

355

Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. This DSA was developed in accordance with DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities''. Upon approval and implementation of this document, the current safety basis documents will be retired.

DODD, E.N.

2003-10-08

356

NAS outlines best options for plutonium disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best options for disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium are fabrication into mixed-oxide fuel for use in existing reactors or vitrification with high-level radioactive waste, a National Academy of Sciences panel has concluded. The academy's Committee on International Security and Arms Control said a third option was burial in deep boreholes, although it said more research was needed to determine

Lobsenz

1994-01-01

357

Nuclear weapons and power-reactor plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-10 that for making nuclear bombs, 'reactor-grade' plutonium produced by the normal operation of uranium-fuelled power reactors is necessarily much inferior to specially made 'weapons-grade' Pu: so infe- rior in explosive power or predictability that its potential use by amateurs is not a serious problem and that governments would instead make the higher-performance weapons-grade Pu in special production reactors. Although

Amory B. Lovins

1980-01-01

358

The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Hobart, D E; Palmer, P D; Newton, T W

1985-01-01

359

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

360

Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199  

SciTech Connect

The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Edwin N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

361

A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA  

SciTech Connect

A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

2012-02-02

362

Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande  

SciTech Connect

Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

1993-03-01

363

Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil  

SciTech Connect

A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

John D. Bess

2012-01-01

364

Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural colloid transport in all re-injections. The data will be discussed in terms of natural colloid properties, including size distribution and electrokinetic properties, as well as the reactive transport behavior of Pu and Cs. We will also discuss the implications of the results for colloid-mediated contaminant transport, management of contaminated sites and forensic data interpretation.

Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

2013-12-01

365

Solidus and liquidus temperatures in the uranium-plutonium-zirconium system  

SciTech Connect

Renewed interest in metallic fuel for nuclear reactors has prompted study of the solidus and liquidus for the uranium-plutonium-zirconium system. These temperatures are of importance in assessing the possibility of fuel melting during abnormal reactor conditions. Data obtained in previous work in this area were found to be inadequate for the needs of the current reactor development effort. A dual effort was undertaken to provide the needed data. These were (1) thermodynamic phase diagram analysis and calculation of the ternary solidus and liquidus surfaces and (2) experimental determination of solidus and liquidus temperatures for selected alloys. The methods used and results obtained are described.

Leibowitz, L.; Veleckis, E.; Blomquist, R.A.; Pelton, A.D.

1987-01-01

366

SYNTHESIS OF NEW WATER-SOLUBLE METAL-BINDING POLYMERS: COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of metals that require removal and concentration exist in DOE waste, ground, or process waters. These can include, for example, RCRA metals such as mercury in mixed waste, valuable metals such as copper in acid mine drainage, actinides in plutonium processing facilities...

367

Method and apparatus for providing negative ions of actinide-metal hexafluorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a novel method and a novel generator, or source, for providing gaseous negative ions of selected metal hexafluorides. The method is summarized as follows: in an evacuated zone, reacting gaseous fluorine with an actinide-metal body selected from the group consisting of uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium to convert at least part of the metal to the

R. N. Compton; P. W. Reinhardt; W. R. Garrett

1978-01-01

368

Preliminary engineer`s flow sketch and process description, Redox feed preparation from current metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basis feed to the Redox plant is 5,000 lb\\/day of uranium, supplied both as current irradiated uranium metal slugs in jackets, and as uranium compounds from the existing metal waste storage tanks. The proportions of the two feeds are chosen according to the enrichment level of the irradiated metal, so as to give a plutonium production of about 650

1949-01-01

369

Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo  

PubMed Central

Intracellular acidosis is a profound negative regulator of myocardial performance. We hypothesized that titrating myofilament calcium sensitivity by a single histidine substituted cardiac troponin I (A164H) would protect the whole animal physiological response to acidosis in vivo. To experimentally induce severe hypercapnic acidosis, mice were exposed to a 40% CO2 challenge. By echocardiography, it was found that systolic function and ventricular geometry were maintained in cTnI A164H transgenic (Tg) mice. By contrast, non-Tg (Ntg) littermates experienced rapid and marked cardiac decompensation during this same challenge. For detailed hemodymanic assessment, Millar pressure-conductance catheterization was performed while animals were treated with a ?-blocker, esmolol, during a severe hypercapnic acidosis challenge. Survival and load-independent measures of contractility were significantly greater in Tg vs. Ntg mice. This assay showed that Ntg mice had 100% mortality within 5 min of acidosis. By contrast, systolic and diastolic function were protected in Tg mice during acidosis, and they had 100% survival. This study shows that, independent of any ?-adrenergic compensation, myofilament-based molecular manipulation of inotropy by histidine-modified troponin I maintains cardiac inotropic and lusitropic performance and markedly improves survival during severe acidosis in vivo.—Palpant, N. J., D'Alecy, L. G., Metzger, J. M. Single histidine button in cardiac troponin I sustains heart performance in response to severe hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in vivo. PMID:19141534

Palpant, Nathan J.; D'Alecy, Louis G.; Metzger, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

370

White Button Mushrooms Increase Microbial Diversity and Accelerate the Resolution of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice123  

PubMed Central

The effect of feeding C57BL/6 mice white button (WB) mushrooms or control (CTRL) diets for 6 wk was determined on the bacterial microflora, urinary metabolome, and resistance to a gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen. Feeding mice a diet containing 1 g WB mushrooms/100 g diet resulted in changes in the microflora that were evident at 2 wk and stabilized after 4 wk of WB feeding. Compared with CTRL-fed mice, WB feeding (1 g/100 g diet) increased the diversity of the microflora and reduced potentially pathogenic (e.g., Clostridia) bacteria in the GI tract. Bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phylum increased and the Firmicutes phylum decreased in mushroom-fed mice compared with CTRL. The changes in the microflora were also reflected in the urinary metabolome that showed a metabolic shift in the WB-fed compared with the CTRL-fed mice. The WB feeding and changes in the microbiome were associated with fewer inflammatory cells and decreased colitis severity in the GI mucosa following Citrobacter rodentium infection compared with CTRL. Paradoxically, the clearance of C. rodentium infection did not differ even though Ifn-? and Il-17 were higher in the colons of the WB-fed mice compared with CTRL. Adding modest amounts of WB mushrooms (1 g/100 g diet) to the diet changed the composition of the normal flora and the urinary metabolome of mice and these changes resulted in better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium. PMID:23343678

Varshney, Jyotika; Ooi, Jot Hui; Jayarao, Bhushan M.; Albert, Istvan; Fisher, Jenny; Smith, Rhonda L.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Cantorna, Margherita T.

2013-01-01

371

PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS FROM SOIL CONTAINING PLUTONIUM-238 DIOXIDE PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for ...

372

Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

HERZOG, K.R.

1999-09-01

373

Metal Preferences and Metallation*  

PubMed Central

The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ?25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ?70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

2014-01-01

374

Evaluation of the surface properties of calcined plutonium peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven batches of calcined plutonium peroxide were prepared and characterized by nitrogen and argon adsorption. The surface areas of all batches were similar and unaffected by grinding, indicating most of the exposed area was internal. Water vapor adsorbed on the plutonium dioxide was found to decrease nitrogen adsorption at -196°C and thereby reduce the BET surface area. Porosity analysis by

J. L. Stakebake; H. N. Robinson

1984-01-01

375

Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant at about 120

John M. Haschke; Jerry L. Stakebake

2011-01-01

376

Using the IFR to dispose of excess weapons plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium is a man-made radioactive element with a long half-life. The only way to dispose of plutonium permanently is by causing it to fission. The fission process is efficient only in a fast neutron spectrum, and multiple recycle with a minimal loss is required to approach complete destruction. To be consistent with nonproliferation objectives, the process should be compatible with

W. H. Hannum; D. C. Wade

1997-01-01

377

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2012-01-01

378

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2010-01-01

379

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2013-01-01

380

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2014-01-01

381

10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section...Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a...or delivered to a carrier for air transport unless: (1) The...

2011-01-01

382

Plutonium in the arctic marine environment--a short review.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers. PMID:15258672

Skipperud, Lindis

2004-06-18

383

Mound Laboratory plutonium study: Presentation to the scientific review panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Mound plutonium study. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the inventory of plutonium 238 in the environment at Mound, determine the source, and alleviate potential health hazards. Analysis of soils, water, vegetation, fishes, and runoff were performed.

D. R. Rogers; W. H. Westendorf; J. R. McClain

1975-01-01

384

Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants  

SciTech Connect

Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2011-03-10

385

Plutonium Finishing Plant operational readiness review. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan describes the readiness review process to be used to meet the objectives to support the restart of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to convert the chemically-acting plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for processing in the remote mechanical ``C`` (RMC) line. The scope of this plan will cover the restart readiness review needs of the PFP Material Stabilization

Eschenbaum

1992-01-01

386

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

387

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

388

Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.  

PubMed

In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. PMID:21692652

Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

2011-10-01

389

Dynamic characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, Nevada tuff, and water  

SciTech Connect

One of the technical options being considered for long term disposition of weapons grade plutonium is geologic storage at Yucca Mountain. Multikilogram quantities of plutonium are to be vitrified, placed within a heavy steel container, and buried in the material know as Nevada tuff. It has been postulated that after ten thousand years, geologic and chemical processes would have disintegrated the steel container and created the possibility for plutonium to form mixtures with Nevada tuff and water that could lead to a nuclear explosion in the range of kilotons. A survey and description of critical homogeneous mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water which also identified the mixture regimes where autocatalytic dynamic behavior is possible was completed. This study is a follow up of this survey and the major objective is to examine the dynamic behavior of the worst case critical and supercritical configurations of plutonium, water and Nevada tuff.

Myers, W.; Rojas, S.; Kimpland, R.H.; Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.; Hayes, D.; Paternoster, R.; Anderson, R.; Stratton, W.

1996-02-01

390

Modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) including a plutonium scavenging model as well as an advection-diffusion model has been developed for modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean. Calculated 239, 240Pu water profile concentrations and 239, 240Pu inventories in water and sediment of the Pacific Ocean have showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The presence of local fallout plutonium in central North Pacific waters has been confirmed. The observed 240Pu/239Pu mass ratios confirm that plutonium originating from local fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls is more rapidly removed from surface waters to deeper waters than plutonium originating from global fallout. The developed OGCM can be used for modelling the dispersion of other non-conservative tracers in the ocean as well. PMID:12860091

Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

2003-01-01

391

Estimates of radiological risk from a terrorist attack using plutonium.  

PubMed

The possible use of radioactivity dispersal devices by terrorist groups has been recently reported in the news. In this paper, we discuss the threat of terrorist attacks by plutonium, with particular attention to the dispersal of plutonium by explosion or fire. Doses resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosol induced by a plutonium explosion or fire are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (the HOTSPOT code) for different meteorological conditions. Ground contamination and resuspension of dust are also considered in the simulations. Our simulations suggest that acute effects from a plutonium dispersal attack are very unlikely. For late stochastic effects, the explosion poses a greater hazard than fire. However, even in the worst-case scenario, the dispersed plutonium would cause relatively few excess cancers (around 80 in a city of 2 million inhabitants) after many years from the explosion, and these excess cancers would remain undetected against the background of cancer fatalities. PMID:12201055

Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo

2002-06-01

392

Extraction and Purification of Plutonium by a Tertiary Amine; EXTRACTION ET PURIFICATION DU PLUTONIUM PAR UNE AMINE TERTIAIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trilaurylamins diluted with a paraffinic solvent (dodecane) was studied ; as part of the research dealing with the separation and purification of plutonium. ; The physical properties (solubility of nitrates in the amine as a function of ; temperature) and the resistance to radiation of this substance were examined. ; The extraction characteristics of nitric solutions of plutonium, uranium, and

M. de Trentinian; A. Chesne

1960-01-01

393

Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Szaniszlo, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1998-05-01

394

A titrimetric method for the sequential determination of thorium and plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the sequential determination of thorium and plutonium has been developed. In the sample solution containing thorium and plutonium, thorium is first determined by complexometric titration with EDTA and then in the same solution plutonium is determined by redox titration employing potentiometry. Prior to the determination of plutonium, EDTA is destroyed by fuming with concentrated HClO4. Thorium is

Keshav Chander; S. P. Hasilkar; S. G. Marathe

1991-01-01

395

Behavior of plutonium and americium at liquid cadmium cathode in molten LiCl–KCl electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the electrochemical conditions on the behavior of plutonium and proper conditions for plutonium recovery at the liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) used in the pyrometallurgical reprocessing were studied by the electrotransport experiments with small, not stirred electrodes. Plutonium was successfully collected up to 7.75 wt% without disturbance by solid phase formation at the surface. Plutonium collected beyond saturation

Masatoshi Iizuka; Koich Uozumi; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Osamu Shirai; Yasuo Arai

2001-01-01

396

Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6166 (United States)

2007-07-01

397

Management of disused plutonium sealed sources  

SciTech Connect

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

398

AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10-5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

2013-01-01

399

AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.  

PubMed

VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

2013-01-01

400

Short-term irradiation behavior of low-density americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels irradiated in a fast reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short-term irradiation test (B14) was conducted using the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The objective of the test was to investigate the early thermal behavior of americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am-MOX) fuels such as fuel restructuring and redistribution of actinides. Four fuel pins which contained 2.4 wt.% americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am, Pu, U)O 2-x fuels were supplied for testing. Pellet-cladding gap width and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) molar ratio of oxide fuels were determined as experimental parameters. The respective amounts of plutonium and americium in the fuel pellets were 31 and 2.4 wt.%. The fuel pins were irradiated at the maximum linear heating rate of ˜470 W cm -1 in the B14 test. After the irradiation, post-irradiation examinations were conducted. The influences of both pellet-cladding gap width and O/M molar ratio on the fuel restructuring were confirmed, and no fuel melting was observed. Americium and plutonium were similarly redistributed depending on the O/M molar ratio. In the fuel specimen of the highest O/M molar ratio, the difference in contents between americium and plutonium around the central void was significant. From the examination results, the margins to the criteria in the thermal design of the fuel pin would be suitable under the expected operating conditions of a conventional fast breeder reactor.

Maeda, K.; Katsuyama, K.; Ikusawa, Y.; Maeda, S.

2011-09-01

401

Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushrooms on host resistance to influenza infection and immune function in mice.  

PubMed

Previously, we showed that mice fed white button mushrooms (WBM) had enhanced immune functions known to help the body's antiviral defence. In the present study, we tested whether WBM conferred protection against viral infection. Young (4-month-old) and old (22-month-old) C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0, 2 or 10 % WBM powder for 8 weeks. Mice were then infected with influenza Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), and killed at day 0 (uninfected), 2, 5 or 7 post-infection. The primary outcomes of the study were viral titre and body weight. Secondary outcomes were natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. The results showed that WBM did not affect viral titre, nor did it prevent infection-induced weight loss. WBM supplementation was found to enhance NK cell activity in old mice and to increase interferon (IFN)-? production in young and old mice under naive (uninfected) conditions, but it had no such effect after infection. The lack of a mushroom supplementation effect on NK activity and concanavalin A-stimulated IFN-? production after infection may explain the immune system's failure to reduce viral load and weight loss in mice after influenza infection. WBM supplementation, however, did induce changes in other aspects of the immune response: it significantly increased the production of T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in uninfected mice and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? in infected mice. These mushroom-induced systemic changes, however, were not adequate to confer a protective effect against influenza infection. PMID:23200185

Xu, Yanmei; Na, Lixin; Ren, Zhihong; Xu, Jianguo; Sun, Changhao; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Wu, Dayong

2013-03-28

402

Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Chen, Shiuan

2011-01-01

403

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche  

PubMed Central

Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and ?-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:23045686

Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagye, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

2012-01-01

404

Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Chen, Yate-Ching Yuan, Shiuan

2011-01-01

405

Plutonium contamination in the environment. September 1977-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for September 1977-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of plutonium contamination in the environment. Topics include plutonium contamination in freshwater and marine sediments, plutonium bioaccumulation, plutonium transport in the food chain, plutonium contamination bioindicators, methods of analysis, plutonium genotoxicity, plutonium contamination in soil and groundwater, and plutonium contamination from nuclear fallout and nuclear facilities. Plutonium distribution changes due to stratification in oxic and anoxic environments are described. (Contains 83 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-05-01

406

Estimation of plutonium in Hanford Site waste tanks based on historical records  

SciTech Connect

An estimation of plutonium in the Hanford Site waste storage tanks is important to nuclear criticality concerns. A reasonable approach for estimating the plutonium in the tanks can be established by considering the recovery efficiency of the chemical separation plants on the plutonium produced in the Hanford reactors. The waste loss from the separation processes represents the bulk of the plutonium in the waste tanks. The lesser contributor of plutonium to the waste tanks was the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). When the PFP waste is added to the plutonium waste from separations, the result is the total estimated amount of plutonium discharged to the waste tanks at the Hanford Site. This estimate is for criticality concerns, and therefore is based on conservative assumptions (giving higher plutonium values). The estimate has been calculated to be {approx}981 kg of plutonium in the single- and double-shell high-level waste tanks.

Roetman, V.E.; Roblyer, S.P.; Toffer, H.

1994-09-01

407

The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

408

Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the {alpha} and {delta} phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a single-site approximation (SSA), the characteristic Kondo interaction energy, the f-electron shell occupation number, the effective degeneracy of the ground-state f multiplet, and the crystal field splitting energy are estimated. The ground state in plutonium is considered as a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with different valences. The temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium is calculated. It is shown that {delta} plutonium satisfies the Wilson and Kadowaki-Woods universal relations, whereby it can be classified as a Kondo system. At the same time, the problem of the position of plutonium in the general classification of solids, as well as the problem of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium, remains open. The concept of multiple intermediate valence (MIV) is put forward as a possible means for solving the above problems. The MIV regime is characterized by fluctuations from the basic configuration 3+ to the states 4+ and 2+, which make a fundamental difference between plutonium and 4f electron systems based, say, on samarium.

Clementyev, E. S.; Mirmelstein, A. V., E-mail: mirmelstein@mail.r [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-Zababakhin Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, Division of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

409

Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01

410

Plutonium and tritium produced in the Hanford Site production reactors  

SciTech Connect

In a news release on December 7, 1993, the Secretary of Energy announced declassification action that included totals for plutonium and tritium production in the Hanford Site production reactors. This information was reported as being preliminary because it was not fully supported by documentation. Subsequently, production data were made available from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) records that indicated an increase of about one and one-half metric tons in total plutonium production. The Westinghouse Hanford Company was tasked by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office to substantiate production figures and DOE-HQ data and to provide a defensible report of weapons- (6 wt% {sup 240}Pu) and nonweapons- (fuels-)grade (nominally 9 wt% or higher {sup 240}Pu) plutonium and tritium production in the Hanford Site production reactors. The task was divided into three parts. The first part was to determine plutonium and tritium production based on available reported accountability records. The second part was to determine plutonium production independently by calculational checks based on reactor thermal power generation and plutonium conversion factors representing the various reactor fuels. The third part was to resolve differences, if they occurred, in the reported and calculational results. In summary, the DOE-HQ-reported accountability records of plutonium and tritium production were determined to be the most defensible record of Hanford Site reactor production. The DOE-HQ records were consistently supported by the independent calculational checks and the records of operational data. Total production quantities are 67.4 MT total plutonium, which includes 12.9 MT of nonweapons-grade plutonium. The total tritium production was 10.6 kg.

Roblyer, S.P.

1994-09-28

411

Implementation impacts of PRL methodology. [PRL (Plutonium Recovery Limit)  

SciTech Connect

This report responds to a DOE-SR request to evaluate the impacts from implementation of the proposed Plutonium Recovery Limit (PRL) methodology. The PRL Methodology is based on cost minimization for decisions to discard or recover plutonium contained in scrap, residues, and other plutonium bearing materials. Implementation of the PRL methodology may result in decisions to declare as waste certain plutonium bearing materials originally considered to be a recoverable plutonium product. Such decisions may have regulatory impacts, because any material declared to be waste would immediately be subject to provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The decision to discard these materials will have impacts on waste storage, treatment, and disposal facilities. Current plans for the de-inventory of plutonium processing facilities have identified certain materials as candidates for discard based upon the economic considerations associated with extending the operating schedules for recovery of the contained plutonium versus potential waste disposal costs. This report evaluates the impacts of discarding those materials as proposed by the F Area De-Inventory Plan and compares the De-Inventory Plan assessments with conclusions from application of the PRL. The impact analysis was performed for those materials proposed as potential candidates for discard by the De-Inventory Plan. The De-Inventory Plan identified 433 items, containing approximately 1% of the current SRS Pu-239 inventory, as not appropriate for recovery as the site moves to complete the mission of F-Canyon and FB-Line. The materials were entered into storage awaiting recovery as product under the Department's previous Economic Discard Limit (EDL) methodology which valued plutonium at its incremental cost of production in reactors. An application of Departmental PRLs to the subject 433 items revealed that approximately 40% of them would continue to be potentially recoverable as product plutonium.

Caudill, J.A.; Krupa, J.F.; Meadors, R.E.; Odum, J.V.; Rodrigues, G.C.

1993-02-01

412

Metal recovery from porous materials  

DOEpatents

A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

Sturcken, E.F.

1992-10-13

413

Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

1993-06-01

414

Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

Edmunds, T.

1995-02-01

415

Accelerator-driven assembly for plutonium transformation (ADAPT)  

SciTech Connect

A particle accelerator-driven spallation target and corresponding blanket region are proposed for the ultimate disposition of weapons-grade plutonium being retired from excess nuclear weapons in the US and Russia. The highly fissile plutonium is contained within .25 to .5 cm diameter silicon-carbide coated graphite beads, which are cooled by helium, within the slightly subcritical blanket region. Major advantages include very high one-pass burnup (over 90 %), a high integrity waste form (the coated beads), and operation in a subcritical mode, thereby minimizing the vulnerability to the positive reactivity feedbacks often associated with plutonium fuel.

Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Powell, J.; Schweitzer, D.

1994-11-01

416

Gas pycnometry for density determination of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

The traditional method for plutonium density determination is by measuring the weight loss of the component when it is immersed in a liquid of known density, Archimedes` Principle. The most commonly used heavy liquids that are compatible for plutonium measurement are freon and monobromobenzene, but these pose serious environmental and health hazards. The contaminated liquid is also a radiological waste concern with difficult disposition. A gaseous medium would eliminate these environmental and health concerns. A collaborative research effort between the Savannah River Technology Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a gaseous density measurement process for plutonium hemishells.

Collins, S.; Randolph, H.W.

1997-08-19

417

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

Kriikku, E.

1998-11-25

418

LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

SciTech Connect

H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the presence of oxalate by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). To use the TGA-MS for carbon or oxalate content, some method development will be required. However, the TGA-MS is already used for moisture measurements. Therefore, SRNL initiated method development for the TGA-MS to allow quantification of oxalate or total carbon. That work continues at this time and is not yet ready for use in this study. However, the collected test data can be reviewed later as those analysis tools are available.

Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

2012-08-22

419

Uranium and plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Uranium 234 and 235 were found to be highly enriched relative to uranium 238 in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of April and May 1980. The anomalous uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada on January 24, 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The concentration of /sup 238/U in rain increased markedly after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, and it appeared as if a large quantity of natural uranium was injected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption. The pattern of variation of the concentrations of uranium in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

Sakuragi, Y.; Meason, J.L.; Kuroda, P.K.

1983-04-20

420

Development of a plutonium-239 recovery incinerator  

SciTech Connect

A Plutonium-239 Recovery Incinerator is being developed for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to reduce the volume of solid glovebox waste and to allow recovery of Pu-239 from the waste. The process will also allow treatment of some waste materials that are not certifiable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It will consist of two electrically heated combustion chambers (furnace and afterburner) and a dry filtration off-gas system. A unique feature of the process is that it uses pyrohydrolysis to produce an ash that is amenable to Pu recovery through nitric acid/HF dissolution. A series of thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses have been performed to characterize potential incinerator feed materials. A functioning furnace mockup was built and operated to demonstrate electrically-heated pyrohydrolysis operation. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Williams, S; Charlesworth, D L

1988-01-01

421

Developments in plutonium waste assay at AWE.  

PubMed

In 2002 a paper was presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) on the assay of low level plutonium (Pu) in soft drummed waste (Miller 2002 INMM Ann. Meeting (Orlando, FL, 23-27 July 2002)). The technique described enabled the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), at Aldermaston in the UK, to meet the stringent Low Level Waste Repository at Drigg (LLWRD) conditions for acceptance for the first time. However, it was initially applied to only low density waste streams because it relied on measuring the relatively low energy (60 keV) photon yield from Am-241 during growth. This paper reviews the results achieved when using the technique to assay over 10,000 waste packages and presents the case for extending the range of application to denser waste streams. PMID:19454791

Miller, T J

2009-06-01

422

Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra  

SciTech Connect

The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu/sup 3 +/ in LaCl/sub 3/, and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states.

Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

1982-01-01

423

Thermophysical properties of coexistent phases of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is the element with the greatest number of allotropic phases. Thermally induced transformations between these phases are typically characterized by thermal hysteresis and incomplete phase reversion. With Ga substitutal in the lattice, low symmetry phases are replaced by a higher symmetry phase. However, the low temperature Martensitic phase transformation ({delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime}) in Ga stabilized {delta}-phase Pu is characterized by a region of thermal hysteresis which can reach 200 C in extent. These regions of thermal hysteresis offer a unique opportunity to study thermodynamics in inhomogeneous systems of coexistent phases. The results of thermophysical properties measured for samples of inhomogeneous unalloyed and Ga alloyed Pu will be discussed and compared with similar measurements of their single phase constituents.

Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Dan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

424

Global plutonium management: A security option  

SciTech Connect

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

Sylvester, K.W.B.

1998-12-31

425

Determination of Plutonium-Beryllium Source Strength by Manganese Activation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study the manganese-sulfate-bath technique was used to determine the total neutron output of a Plutonium-Beryllium neutron source. Activation trials were conducted using 4 different concentrations of manganese sulfate and 3 different size containe...

P. F. Whitworth

1988-01-01

426

Automated controlled-potential coulometer for plutonium determination  

SciTech Connect

The automated controlled-potential coulometer for the determination of plutonium described in this report is the second in a series of automated instruments designed to determine plutonium and uranium contents in nuclear fuel cycle materials. The measurement precision of the instrument is 0.1% relative standard deviation at the 5-mg plutonium level. A highly selective method of analysis was developed, involving reduction of plutonium to Pu(III) in a 5.5 M hydrochloric acid-0.015 M sulfamic acid electrolyte; oxidation of diverse ions, but not Pu(III); addition of phosphate complexant to reduce the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) potential; and oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV) as the measurement step. Construction details of the mechanical and electrical systems of the instrument and control-system software are described, along with instrument preoperational adjustments and tests and sample analysis operations.

Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.

1981-05-01

427

Comparative behavior of americium and plutonium in wastewater  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the behavior of trace americium and plutoniumin wastewater fed into purification systems. Activities of the elements were determined on a semiconductive alpha-ray spectrometer. the distributio nonuniformity, or heterogeneity, of americium and plutonium per unit volume of wastewater was determined quantitatively before and after passage through filter papers. The two elements were found to be in a colloidal or pseudocolloidal state in the original wastewater sample at pH 6. On acidifying the wastewater from pH 4 to 1 M nitric acid the americium passed quantitatively into the water phase but the most plutonium remained in the colloidal or pseudocolloidal state. the plutonium also passed quantitatively into the water phase in wastewater at a 1 M nitric acid acidity but only after a prolonged (12-day) hold. A knowledge of the heterogeneity of plutonium and americium in wastewaters made it possible to quickly distinguish their state, i.e., colloidal, pseudocolloidal, or in true solution.

Tsvetaeva, N.E.; Filin, V.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Rudaya, L.Y.; Shapiro, K.Y.; Shcherbakov, B.Y.

1986-09-01

428

Factors Affecting Plant Absorption, Transport and Fate of Plutonium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the...

T. R. Garland, D. A. Cataldo, K. M. McFadden, R. E. Wildung

1984-01-01

429

Neutronic analysis of a proposed plutonium recycle assembly  

E-print Network

A method for the neutronic analysis of plutonium recycle assemblies has been developed with emphasis on relative power distribution prediction in the boundary area of vastly different spectral regions. Such regions are ...

Solan, George Michael

1975-01-01

430

Overview of Modeling and Simulations of Plutonium Aging  

SciTech Connect

Computer-aided materials research is now an integral part of science and technology. It becomes particularly valuable when comprehensive experimental investigations and materials testing are too costly, hazardous, or of excessive duration; then, theoretical and computational studies can supplement and enhance the information gained from limited experimental data. Such is the case for improving our fundamental understanding of the properties of aging plutonium in the nuclear weapons stockpile. The question of the effects of plutonium aging on the safety, security, and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile emerged after the United States closed its plutonium manufacturing facility in 1989 and decided to suspend any further underground testing of nuclear weapons in 1992. To address this, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiated a research program to investigate plutonium aging, i.e., the changes with time of properties of Pu-Ga alloys employed in the nuclear weapons and to develop models describing these changes sufficiently reliable to forecast them for several decades. The November 26, 2006 press release by the NNSA summarizes the conclusions of the investigation, '...there appear to be no serious or sudden changes occurring, or expected to occur, in plutonium that would affect performance of pits beyond the well-understood, gradual degradation of plutonium materials'. Furthermore, 'These studies show that the degradation of plutonium in our nuclear weapons will not affect warhead reliability for decades', then NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said. 'It is now clear that although plutonium aging contributes, other factors control the overall life expectancy of nuclear weapons systems'. The origin of plutonium aging is the natural decay of certain plutonium isotopes. Specifically, it is the process of alpha decay in which a plutonium atom spontaneously splits into a 5 MeV alpha particle and an 85keV uranium recoil. The alpha particle traverses the lattice, slowly loosing energy through electronic excitations, acquiring two electrons to become a helium atom, then finally coming to rest approximately 10 microns away with the generation of a few-hundred Frenkel pairs. The uranium recoil immediately displaces a couple-thousand Pu atoms from their original lattice sites. This process, which occurs at a rate of approximately 41 parts-per-million per year, is the source of potential property changes in aging plutonium. Plutonium aging encompasses many areas of research: radiation damage and radiation effects, diffusion of point defects, impurities and alloying elements, solid state phase transformations, dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties, equations of state under extreme pressures, as well as surface oxidation and corrosion. Theory, modeling, and computer simulations are involved to various degrees in many of these areas. The joint research program carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory encompassed experimental measurements of numerous properties of newly fabricated reference alloys, archival material that have accumulated the effects of several decades of radioactive decay, and accelerated aging alloys in which the isotropic composition was adjusted to increase the rate of self-irradiation damage. In particular, the physical and chemical processes of nuclear materials degradation were to be studied individually and in great depth. Closely coupled to the experimental efforts are theory, modeling, and simulations. These efforts, validated by the experiments, aim to develop predictive models to evaluate the effects of age on the properties of plutonium. The need to obtain a scientific understanding of plutonium aging has revitalized fundamental research on actinides and plutonium in particular. For example, the experimental discovery of superconductivity in Pu-based compounds, the observation of helium bubbles in naturally aged material, and the measurement of phonon dispersion properties in gallium-stabilized delta plu

Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

2007-04-24

431

Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

Congdon, J.W.

2001-07-10

432

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

433

Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

1988-03-01

434

Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards\\u000a posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated\\u000a civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant\\u000a at about 120

John M. Haschke; Jerry L. Stakebake

435

Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards\\u000a posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated\\u000a civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant\\u000a at about 120

John M. Haschke; Jerry L. Stakebake

436

Nondestructive assay of plutonium fuel for FFTF and supporting operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium fuel in connection with the Fast Flux Test Facility and supporting operations at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory is described. Plutonium materials associated with these operations include PuO2, mixed oxide powder and pellets, fast breeder reactor fuel pins and fuel bundles, solutions, dry scrap and waste. State-of-the-art NDA instruments utilized in safeguards and material control

P. Goris; G. B. Frandsen; G. P. Gottschalk; M. C. Lambert; J. A. Petty

1981-01-01

437

Optimization of solvent extraction cycles to separate plutonium and neptunium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the steps taken to assess the potential of a solvent extraction process for separating plutonium from neptunium. The plutonium, namely ²³⁸Pu, is of importance because it is the isotope used in making radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heaters and is obtained by irradiating ²³⁷Np targets in a high neutron flux environment. After the neptunium targets have been

D. L. Marsh; L. F. Miller; W. Bond; R. C. Martin; L. K. Felker; R. M. Wham; G. K. Schweitzer

1998-01-01

438

Optimization of solvent extraction cycles to separate plutonium and neptunium  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the steps taken to assess the potential of a solvent extraction process for separating plutonium from neptunium. The plutonium, namely {sup 238}Pu, is of importance because it is the isotope used in making radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heaters and is obtained by irradiating {sup 237}Np targets in a high neutron flux environment. After the neptunium targets have been irradiated, the targets could then be processed by solvent extraction methods.

Marsh, D.L.; Miller, L.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bond, W.; Martin, R.C.; Felker, L.K.; Wham, R.M. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Schweitzer, G.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-09-01

439

Evolving Metallurgical Behaviors in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The plutonium alpha-decay leads to the age-related changes in physical properties. We review our experimental approaches including analytical techniques to assess the effects of extended aging on plutonium alloys, together with our recent results on age-related changes in physical and static mechanical properties. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop capabilities to predict metallurgical evolution driven by aging effects.

Chung, B W; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S

2009-05-05

440

Radiochemical determination of plutonium in glass fiber filters  

SciTech Connect

Multi-filter ambient air samples were analyzed to determine percent recovery and sensitivity at levels necessary for ambient air monitoring. The average percent recovery of plutonium-236 in ambient air samples using S and S glass fiber filters and analytical results for S and S glass fiber filters spiked with plutonium-239 at a concentration of 4.03 dis/min are tabulated.

Trice, C.

1984-06-12

441

Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)  

SciTech Connect

In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

1988-04-01

442

Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

1996-03-01

443

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

444

Decontamination of Battelle-Columbus' Plutonium Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Laboratory, owned and operated by Battelle Memorial Institute's Columbus Division, was located in Battelle's Nuclear Sciences area near West Jefferson, Ohio, approximately 17 miles west of Columbus, Ohio. Originally built in 1960 for plutonium research and processing, the Plutonium Laboratory was enlarged in 1964 and again in 1967. With the termination of the Advanced Fuel Program in March, 1977, the decision was made to decommission the Plutonium Laboratory and to decontaminate the building for unrestricted use. Decontamination procedures began in January, 1978. All items which had come into contact with radioactivity from the plutonium operations were cleaned or disposed of through prescribed channels, maintaining procedures to ensure that D and D operations would pose no risk to the public, the environment, or the workers. The entire program was conducted under the cognizance of DOE's Chicago Operations Office. The building which housed the Plutonium Laboratory has now been decontaminated to levels allowing it to house ordinary laboratory and office operations. A ''Finding of No Significant Impact'' (FNSI) was issued in May, 1980.

Rudolph, A.; Kirsch, G.; Toy, H.L. (comps.)

1984-11-12

445

VARIABILITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF IMPURITIES IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING, LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the development of a compositional envelope that describes the retention of various impurities in lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass for vitrification and immobilization of excess, defense-related plutonium. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define types and concentrations of impurities in the LaBS glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. Sixty surrogate glass compositions were developed through a statistically designed approach to cover the anticipated ranges of concentrations for several impurity species expected in the plutonium feeds. An additional four glass compositions containing actual plutonium oxide were selected based on their targeted concentrations of metals and anions. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory and shielded cells facility to determine the degree of retention of the impurity components, the impact of the impurities on the durability of each glass, and the degree of crystallization that occurred, both upon quenching and slow cooling. Overall, the LaBS glass system appears to be very tolerant of most of the impurity types and concentrations projected in the plutonium waste stream. For the surrogate glasses, the measured CuO, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, NiO, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations fell very close to their target values across the ranges of concentrations targeted in this study for each of these components. The measured CaO and PbO concentrations were consistently higher than the targeted values. The measured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were very close to the targets except for the one highest targeted value for each of these components. A solubility limit may have been approached in this glass system for K{sub 2}O and MgO. The measured Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations were well below their target values for all of the study glasses. This is likely due to volatilization of these species during melting of the glass batch. Note that the degree of volatilization that occurred in this crucible-scale study may differ from the full-scale melter. The measured HfO{sub 2} concentrations were below their target values for all of the surrogate glasses. It is likely that for HfO{sub 2}, the solubility limit in the glass was exceeded and some of the HfO{sub 2} batch material remained in the bottom of the crucibles after pouring the glasses. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that some crystalline HfO2 remained in some of the surrogate glasses with the lowest concentration of impurities. No other crystalline phases were identified. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all 60 of the surrogate glass compositions tested were very durable, regardless of thermal history, with the highest normalized release for boron being 0.041 g/L. The pH of the leachate solutions was generally lower than that of conventional waste glasses due to the lack of alkali in the LaBS glass, which likely impacted the PCT results. The normalized release rates for the elements measured were generally too small to attempt to correlate the results with the compositions of the test glasses. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure results showed that no hazardous metals were leached from the surrogate glasses in any measurable concentration. A plutonium-containing crystalline phase with a cross-shaped morphology was identified via SEM in the glasses fabricated with plutonium oxide. This phase was identified in a previous study of plutonium-bearing LaBS glasses and may provide an opportunity to intentionally crystallize some of the plutonium oxide into a highly insoluble form with an intrinsic neutron absorber. Additional work is necessary to better characterize the influence that this phase has on durability of the glass. The PCT results for the plutonium-containing LaBS glasses with impurities were si

Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Charles Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; James Marra, J

2007-09-26

446

Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution of PuO2 can be achieved with 6 to 8 M nitric acid + 14 M HF or 8 M nitric acid + 4 M HF mixtures. In the latter case, quantitative dissolution of plutonium oxide was demonstrated only with sonication. Overall, the results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration to dissolve refractory plutonium oxide does not offer any substantial advantage over conventional ?heat and mix? treatment. Oxidative treatment by AgO appears to be effective only when very little or no oxidizable materials are present in the digested sample. The catalytic use of Ag(II) in the ''Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution'' technology would probably be more effective than using AgO because the Ag(II) is continually regenerated electrochemically. Reductive treatment with titanium trichloride in HCl solution proves to be less efficient than the previously observed effect based on in situ generation of Ti(III) in phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid media using a dip probe sonication setup. The previous experiments, however, were performed at higher temperature and with non-steady concentration profiles of Ti(III) ion in the process of sonochemical digestion.

Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2006-10-12

447

Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C