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Sample records for plutonium metal buttons

  1. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  3. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

  4. Mechanics of plutonium metal aerosolization

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Reliable estimates of hazards posed by a plutonium release are contingent on the availability of technical data to define the source term for aerosolization of plutonium oxide particles and the resulting size distribution. The release of aerosols from the oxidation of plutonium metal depends partly on the forces acting on the particles while they remain attached to the bulk material and partly on the ability of the airstream around the metal ingot to transport the particles when they detach. The forces that attach or detach the plutonium oxide particles can be described as binding of the particle to the metal or oxide layer around it and expansion and contraction stresses and external vibration. Experimental data forms the basis for defining size distributions and release fractions for plutonium oxide. The relevance of the data must be evaluated in the light of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium metal, plutonium oxide, and intermediate Plutonium compounds. The effects of temperature on reaction kinetics must also be understood when evaluating experimental data. Size distribution functions are remarkably similar for products of all Pu+gas reactions. The distributions are all bimodal. Marked differences are seen in the sizes of large particles depending on reaction temperature and reaction rate. However, the size distributions of small particles are very similar. The bimodal distribution of small particles vanishes as the sizes of the large particles decrease to the point of equal dimensions with the small particles. This is the situation realized for the fine plutonium oxide powder produced by air oxidation at room temperature. This report addresses important factors for defining the formation of an aerosol from the oxidation of plutonium metal. These factors are oxidation kinetics of plutonium metal and plutonium hydride, the particle distribution of products formed by the reactions, and the kinetics of processes limiting entrainment of particles.

  5. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  7. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  8. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T; Mason, Richard E; Freibert, Franz J; Willson, Stephen P; Veirs, Douglas K; Worl, Laura A; Archuleta, Alonso; Conger, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  9. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  10. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T.; Caviness, Michael L.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  11. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    STAN, MARIUS; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S.

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  12. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. PMID:25933290

  13. 15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Determination of plutonium metal origins

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or material smuggled from existing stockpiles. A list of signature elements and what can be determined from them have been developed. Work needs to be done in converting concentrations of signature species into a quantitative forensic analysis, particularly in regard to reactor performance, but this should require only a small effort. A radiochemical analysis scheme has been developed for measuring these nuclides; more work is needed, particularly for determining fission product concentrations. A sample of Pu metal has been analyzed and several parameters determined that are strong indicators of its point of origin.

  15. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  16. Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

    1980-07-01

    Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

  17. CSER 96-023: CSER for PFP glovebox HC-21A with 4.4 kilogram plutonium cans

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-17

    This criticality safety evaluation report addresses the criticality impact of increasing plutonium oxide content from 2.5 kg oxide storage cans to 5.0 kg oxide Pu storage cans. Glovebox HC-21A is used to move plutonium metal buttons from cans into furnace boats prior to transferring them to the muffle furnace gloveboxes. Glovebox HC-21A supports muffle furnace operations where plutonium buttons are burned to form paw, (H/Pu < 2). The paw, is returned to glovebox HC-21A and sieved and packed into the 4.,f kg Pu cans. The plutonium mass limit is set at 7.5 kg plutonium when plutonium metal is present. The plutonium mass limit is set at 15. kg plutonium when no plutonium metal is present. Additionally, there are other requirements to assure criticality safety during this operation.

  18. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  19. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    About 5 kg of ingrown /sup 241/Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the /sup 241/Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel.

  20. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

  1. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

  2. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  3. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  4. Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Sreekumari, S S

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II). PMID:22432329

  5. MODELING OF DIFFUSION OF PLUTONIUM IN OTHER METALS AND OF GASEOUS SPECIES IN PLUTONIUM-BASED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is aimed at developing and utilizing computational-modeling-based methodology to treat two major problems. The first of these is to be able to predict the diffusion of plutonium from the surface into the interior of another metal such as uranium or stainless steel (f...

  6. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  7. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

    2012-07-02

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03-0.05 M KF, 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 2.0-3.5 h. When B was used as the neutron poison, 10 M HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.05-0.1 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe, and 1 g/L B resulted in complete dissolution of the metal in 0.75-2.0 h. Dissolution rates estimated using data from the flowsheet demonstrations agreed reasonably well with the measured rates; although, a discrepancy was observed in the Gd system. The presence of 1 g/L Gd or B in the dissolving solution had about the same effect on the dissolution rate. The predominant Pu valence in the dissolving solution was Pu(IV). The concentration of Pu(VI) was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy and was estimated to be significantly less than 1 wt %. The offgas generation rates and H{sub 2} concentrations measured in the offgas from experiments performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05 M KF, 1.9 g/L Fe and either 1 g/L Gd or B were approximately the same. These data support the conclusion that the presence of either 1 g/L Gd or B had the same general effect on the dissolution rate. The calculated offgas generation during the dissolutions was 0.6 mol offgas/mol of Pu. The H{sub 2} concentration measured in the offgas from the dissolution using Gd as the neutron poison was approximately 0.5 vol %. In the B system, the H{sub 2} ranged from nominally 0.8 to 1 vol % which is about the same as measured in the Gd system within the uncertainty of the analysis. The offgas generation rate for the dissolution performed using 10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.03 M KF, 0.5 g/L Gd, and 1.9 g/L Fe was approximately a factor of two less than produced in the other dissolutions; however, the concentration of H{sub 2} measured in the offgas was higher. The adjusted concentration ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 vol % as the dissolution proceeded. Higher concentrations of H{sub 2} occur when the Pu dissolution proceeds by a metal/acid reaction rather than nitrate oxidation. The higher H{sub 2} concentration could be attributed to the reduced activity of the fluoride

  8. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized ?-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  9. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  10. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, S. A.; Bourne, M. M.; Dolan, J. L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  11. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, MARK VON

    2007-01-10

    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  12. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  13. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  14. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF concentration to 0.175 M, the dissolution of 300 g of Pu metal is expected to be essentially complete in 6 h. The dissolution of larger batch sizes would result in the formation of PuO{sub 2} solids. Incomplete dissolution of the PuO{sub 2} formed from the metal is not a solubility limitation, but can be attributed to a combination of reduced acidity and complexation of fluoride which slows the dissolution kinetics and effectively limits the mass of Pu dissolved.

  15. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John K.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  16. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    SciTech Connect

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-25

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  17. CSER 98-003: Criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    SciTech Connect

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-23

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into GloveboxHC-21 A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95. Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  18. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  19. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  20. An Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Multiplicity Measurements of Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John; Miller, Eric; Solomon, Clell J. Jr.; Dennis, Ben; Meldrum, Amy; Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara

    2012-06-21

    In January 2009, Sandia National Laboratories conducted neutron multiplicity measurements of a polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere. Over the past 3 years, those experiments have been collaboratively analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations conducted by University of Michigan (UM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and North Carolina State University (NCSU). Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments consistently overpredict the mean and variance of the measured neutron multiplicity distribution. This paper presents a sensitivity study conducted to evaluate the potential sources of the observed errors. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements exhibited systematic over-prediction of the neutron multiplicity distribution. The over-prediction tended to increase with increasing multiplication. MCNPX-PoliMi had previously been validated against only very low multiplication benchmarks. We conducted sensitivity studies to try to identify the cause(s) of the simulation errors; we eliminated the potential causes we identified, except for Pu-239 {bar {nu}}. A very small change (-1.1%) in the Pu-239 {bar {nu}} dramatically improved the accuracy of the MCNPX-PoliMi simulation for all 6 measurements. This observation is consistent with the trend observed in the bias exhibited by the MCNPX-PoliMi simulations: a very small error in {bar {nu}} is 'magnified' by increasing multiplication. We applied a scalar adjustment to Pu-239 {bar {nu}} (independent of neutron energy); an adjustment that depends on energy is probably more appropriate.

  1. Buttons and Beaux (Arts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, David D.

    1997-01-01

    Describes graphical elements--backgrounds, buttons, rules, and enhancements like drop shadows--that can transform Web pages without significantly increasing download time. Used thoughtfully and consistently, such graphical elements can create a unique style that serves as a personal Web page trademark. (AEF)

  2. The Button Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Charley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes The Button Project. It started as a dream, a need to educate future generations about the Holocaust, to teach tolerance, and to remember the past. Under the auspices of the Jewish Federation of Peoria, a small band of people joined together with the goal of teaching people about the Holocaust so that it will…

  3. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Scott; Bridgewater, Jon S; Ward, John W; Allen, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  4. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an uranium-plutonium fuel irradiated by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

    2011-11-01

    After fast-neutron irradiation, uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N is shown to acquire a complex structure consisting of a solid solution that is based on the nitrides of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanides and contains condensed phases U2N3, CeRu2, BaTe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, LaSe, metallic molybdenum, technetium, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallics. The contents and compositions of these phases are calculated at a temperature of 900 K and a burn-up fraction up to 14% (U + Pu). The change in the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied during the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of transformation of U103Ru3, 137CsI, 140Ba3N2, and 241PuN is calculated.

  6. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  7. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  8. Arthroscopically Confirmed Femoral Button Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Rezende, Fernando C.; Martins Neto, Ayrton; Fayard, Jean M.; Thaunat, Mathieu; Kader, Deiary F.

    2014-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a graft suspension device for cruciate ligament reconstruction. It is an adjustable-length graft loop cortical fixation device designed to eliminate the requirement for loop length calculation and to facilitate complete graft fill of short femoral sockets that are common with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament placement. The adjustable loop length means “one size fits all,” thus removing the need for multiple implant sizes and allowing graft tensioning even after fixation. However, the device has been associated with the same complications that have been described with EndoButton (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) fixation. The button of the TightRope RT may remain in the femoral tunnel rather than flipping outside of the tunnel to rest on the lateral femoral cortex, or it may become jammed inside the femoral canal. Conversely, the button may be pulled too far off the femoral cortex into the overlying soft tissue and flip in the substance of the vastus lateralis. We describe a new and simple arthroscopic technique to directly visualize the deployment and seating of the TightRope button on the lateral cortex of the femur to avoid all the aforementioned complications. PMID:25126492

  9. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Jones, M.M.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.

    1997-12-31

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for {sup 241}Am(III) and {sup 238}Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4.

  10. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  11. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Scott; Bridgewater, Jon S; Ward, John W; Allen, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is exothermically absorbed in many transition metals, all rare earths and the actinides. The hydrogen gas adsorbs, dissociates and diffuses into these metals as atomic hydrogen. Absorbed hydrogen is generally detrimental to Pu, altering its properties and greatly enhancing corrosion. Measuring the heat of solution of hydrogen in Pu and its alloys provides significant insight into the thermodynamics driving these changes. Hydrogen is present in all Pu metal unless great care is taken to avoid it. Heats of solution and formation are provided along with evidence for spinodal decomposition.

  12. Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an irradiated uranium-plutonium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

    2009-10-01

    A complex structure is shown to form in the uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N irradiated by fast neutrons. It consists of a uranium-based solid solution; plutonium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanide nitrides; and individual condensed phases such as U2N3, BaTe, CeRu2, LaSe, Rh3Te2, USe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, metallic molybdenum, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallic compounds. The amount and composition of these phases are calculated at temperatures of 900 and 1900 K in the process of depletion to 18% heavy atoms (U + Pu). The variation of the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied upon the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of the transformations of 89Sr3N2 and 90Sr3N2 to 89YN + 89Y and 90ZrN + 90Zr, respectively, is calculated.

  13. Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

    2009-09-01

    Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the Feynman method was equally shared between the uncertainties in fitting the data to the Feynman equations and the neutron multiplicity of 239Pu. Material and geometry uncertainties in the benchmark experiment were generally much smaller than uncertainties in the analysis methods.

  14. Inclusion Behavior During the Electron Beam Button Melting Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, J. P.; Defay, B.; Jourdan, J.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2012-10-01

    The high mechanical performance of alloys developed for the manufacture of turbine disks depend upon the size and the number density of the inclusions. The electron beam button method has been practiced since the 1980s as a technique to quantify the cleanliness of the superalloys as well as to identify the nature and the size of the inclusions. The technique involves melting the sample into a hemispherical water-cooled crucible and the low density inclusions (mainly oxides) are concentrated by a combination of Marangoni and buoyancy forces into an area at the top surface of the button referred to as the raft. We have experimentally studied the behavior of oxide inclusions in special steels using both high definition video and infrared cameras. We have observed the inversion of the Marangoni effect due to the presence of sulfur, which leads to a positive temperature coefficient of the surface tension. A mathematical modeling has been carried out to simulate the turbulent fluid flow associated with the temperature field in the metallic pool of the button. The surface temperature profile has been successfully compared with the measured data. A post-processor numerical tool calculates the inclusion trajectories taking into account the turbulent fluctuation velocity by a stochastic approach. Hence, the behavior of a population of inclusions has been statistically studied, and the dependence of the capture efficiency on the inclusion size has been analyzed.

  15. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  16. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. PMID:25662210

  17. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  18. Touch button to make your selection

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    when cameras are selected) Source preview screen (displays selected local or remote source) -Touch to view full screen Touch to return to main videoconferencing control page Touch to return to mainTouch button to make your selection Video Conferencing requires a password OVER Mic mute and unmute

  19. Mass-Loss Buttons Monitor Material Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. N.

    1982-01-01

    Small button-sized samples attached to parent materials are simple way of monitoring degradation of parent in harsh environments. Samples determine effects of multiple exposures to environmental extremes without disturbing fit or function of parent. They are less costly and more convenient than complex instrumentation normally required to measure complete temperature/pressure time history of parent component.

  20. A Plutonium Storage Container Pressure Measurement Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, T.J.

    2002-05-10

    Plutonium oxide and metal awaiting final disposition are currently stored at the Savannah River Site in crimp sealed food pack cans. Surveillances to ensure continued safe storage of the cans include periodic lid deflection measurements using a mechanical device.

  1. LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities National Security

    E-print Network

    support national interests in plutonium-238 heat source fabrication, surveillance, production metal preparation and recovery operations. Foundry, machining, welding, and assembly operations also are required for pit manufacturing, as well as a complete suite of nondestructive analyses to ensure product

  2. Ir/PuO/sub 2/ compatibility: transfer of impurities from plutonium dioxide to iridium metal during high temperature aging

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.H.; Christie, W.H.; Pavone, D.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium oxide fuel pellets for powering radioisotopic thermoelectric generators for NASA space vehicles are encapsulated in iridium which has been grain-boundary-stabilized with thorium and aluminum. After aging for 6 months at 1310/sup 0/C under vacuum, enhanced grain growth is observed in the near-surface grains of the iridium next to the PuO/sub 2/. Examination of the grain boundaries by AES and SIMS shows a depletion of thorium and aluminum. Iron, chromium, and nickel from the fuel were found to diffuse into the iridium along the grain boundaries. Enhanced grain growth appears to result from thorium depletion in the grain boundaries of the near-surface grains next to the fuel. However, in one instance grain growth was slowed by the formation of thorium oxide by oxygen diffusing up the grain boundaries.

  3. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  4. Device for mechanically stabilizing web ribbon buttons during growth initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Paul K. (inventor); Fortier, Edward P. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a stabilization device for stabilizing dendritic web seed buttons during initiation of crystal growth from a float melt zone. The invention includes angular maintenance means for maintaining a constant angular orientation between the axis of a growth initiation seed and the upper surface of a web button during withdrawal of the web button from the melt. In the preferred embodiment, the angular means includes an adjustable elevation tube which surrounds the seed, the weight of which may be selectively supported by the seed button during web button withdrawal.

  5. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  6. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  8. Seaborg's Plutonium?

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Norman; Keenan J. Thomas; Kristina E. Telhami

    2015-02-17

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  9. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  10. Estimation of the formation rates of polyatomic species of heavy metals in plutonium analyses using a multicollector ICP-MS with a desolvating nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The analyses of IAEA and environmental samples for Plutonium isotopic content are conducted normally at very low concentrations of Pu–usually in the range of part per trillion level and even more often at the parts per quadrillion level. To analyze such low concentrations, the interferences in the analytical solution must be reduced as much as possible. Polyatomic interferences (PIs), formed by the heavy metals (HMs) from Hf to Bi are known to create the problems for Pu isotopic analyses, because even the relatively high resolution of a modern multicollector ICP-MS is not enough to separate Pu isotopes from this PIs in most of the cases. Desolvating nebulizers (DSN) (e.g. APEX and AridusII) reduce significantly the formation of PIs compare to the use of wet plasma. The purpose of this work was to investigate the rate of formation of PIs, produced by HMs, when high resolution MC ICP-MS with desolvating nebulizer was used for Pu isotopic analyses and to estimate the influence of the metals present in the sample on the results of analyses. The NU Plasma HR Multicollector and AridusII desolvating nebulizer were used in this investigation. This investigation was done for all Pu isotopes normally analyzed by ICP-MS, including ²??Pu, with the exception of ²³?Pu, which most of the time can’t be analyzed by ICP-MS, because of the overwhelming presence of ²³?U in the solutions. The PI formation rates were determined and reported for all 12 HMs from Hf to Bi. Selected IAEA samples were scanned for the presence of HMs and the influence of HMs on the results of Pu isotopic analyses was evaluated. It was found that the implemented separation procedure provides sufficient separation of HM from Pu, although the effect of PIs on the measurement of low level isotopes like ²?¹Pu and ²?²Pu in some cases can still be observed.

  11. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.P.

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  12. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

  13. A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

    1998-12-01

    Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

  14. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  15. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry (Los Alamos, NM); Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Trujillo, Eddie A. (Espanola, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  16. Button Battery Foreign Bodies in Children: Hazards, Management, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Mohammed Hossam; Basha, Waleed Mohamed; Askar, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The demand and usage of button batteries have risen. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses and occasionally are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this work is to study the different presentations of button battery foreign bodies and present our experience in the diagnosis and management of this hazardous problem in children. Patients and Methods. This study included 13 patients. The diagnostic protocol was comprised of a thorough history, head and neck physical examination, and appropriate radiographic evaluation. The button batteries were emergently extracted under general anesthesia. Results. The average follow-up period was 4.3 months. Five patients had a nasal button battery. Four patients had an esophageal button battery. Three patients had a button battery in the stomach. One patient had a button battery impacted in the left external ear canal. Apart from a nasal septal perforation and a tympanic membrane perforation, no major complications were detected. Conclusion. Early detection is the key in the management of button battery foreign bodies. They have a distinctive appearance on radiography, and its prompt removal is mandatory, especially for batteries lodged in the esophagus. Physicians must recognize the hazardous potential and serious implications of such an accident. There is a need for more public education about this serious problem. PMID:23936851

  17. TO CHANGE YOUR Hit the messages button and

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    TO CHANGE YOUR PASSWORD Hit the messages button and login Press 4 > 3 > 1 Enter new password Enter new password again to confirm it and press # Changing Greeting Settings TO RECORD A GREETING Hit Password 4-3-2 = Change recorded Name Checking Messages Hit the messages button and login Press 1 to hear

  18. Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-09-08

    Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

  19. Characterization and stability of thin oxide films on plutonium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, H. G. García; Roussel, P.; Moore, D. P.; Pugmire, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were employed to study oxide films on plutonium metal surfaces. Measurements of the relative concentrations of oxygen and plutonium, as well as the resulting oxidation states of the plutonium (Pu) species in the near-surface region are presented. The oxide product of the auto-reduction (AR) of plutonium dioxide films is evaluated and found to be an oxide species which is reduced further than what is expected. The results of this study show a much greater than anticipated extent of auto-reduction and challenge the commonly held notion of the stoichiometric stability of Pu 2O 3 thin-films. The data indicates that a sub-stoichiometric plutonium oxide (Pu 2O 3 - y ) exists at the metal-oxide interface. The level of sub-stoichiometry is shown to depend, in part, on the carbidic contamination of the metal surface.

  20. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  1. Microstructure and phase formation in a 17 weight percent plutonium oxide devitrified waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.K.; Johnson, S.G.; O`Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    Plutonium containing ceramic waste forms have been prepared by dry mixing and melting glass frit, simulated zirconia high level waste calcine from chemical reprocessing, samarium oxide, titanium metal, and plutonium oxide. Materials were produced using melt times of 4 and 12 hours at 1,450 C followed by a thermal anneal at 500 C. Complex materials with a substantial volume fraction of crystalline phases were the result. The principle plutonium bearing phase was identified as a fluorite structured plutonium-zirconium-samarium phase of variable stoichiometry. This high plutonium phase preferentially segregated to the bottom of the waste form. A waste form was also melted using metallic plutonium in a quantity equivalent to 15 wt% plutonium oxide. XRD results indicate that the metal was completely oxidized on melting.

  2. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  3. 15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  5. Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

    2009-11-20

    Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

  6. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  7. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  8. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

  9. Disposition of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The projected availability of up to 50 tonnes, i.e., 50,000 kg, of excess plutonium from the U.S. nuclear weapons program by the year 2005 has captured the interest of nuclear power proponents as well as opponents. Proponents see an opportunity in the availability of additional fissile material that can further the development of advanced nuclear reactors while simultaneously consuming the excess plutonium. Opponents of nuclear power see an opportunity not only to ensure that the number of nuclear weapons in the world remains at currently projected reduced levels but also to dispose of the excess plutonium in a way that renders it permanently unusable. As both the custodian and manager of excess plutonium from retired nuclear weapons, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating options for disposition of the excess plutonium. This paper reviews a number of available options for disposition and considers issues that must be addressed.

  10. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO/sub 2/ to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures.

  11. Disposing of the world`s excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis.

  12. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  13. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  14. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  15. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  16. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  17. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  18. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

  19. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility

    E-print Network

    Kane, Shaun K.

    Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility Abstract Over time, advances in video game system hardware have facilitated the evolution of video game mechanics from simple to complex Interfaces and Presentation: User Interfaces - Input Devices and Strategies Introduction Video games

  1. Screen Control Use these buttons to raise or

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    and down or to mute either the speakers or the microphone. Podium Touch-Screen Control Panel Looking.220.5001 Press touch-screen anywhere to activate. #12; Screen Control Use these buttons to raise or lower the projector screen. Projector Control Use

  2. Field comparison of three inhalable samplers (IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 and Button) for welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Zugasti, Agurtzane; Montes, Natividad; Rojo, José M; Quintana, M José

    2012-02-01

    Inhalable sampler efficiency depends on the aerodynamic size of the airborne particles to be sampled and the wind speed. The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of three personal inhalable samplers for welding fumes generated by Manual Metal Arc (MMA) and Metal Active Gas (MAG) processes. The selected samplers were the ones available in Spain when the study began: IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 (GSP) and Button. Sampling was carried out in a welding training center that provided a homogeneous workplace environment. The static sampling assembly used allowed the placement of 12 samplers and 2 cascade impactors simultaneously. 183 samples were collected throughout 2009 and 2010. The range of welding fumes' mass concentrations was from 2 mg m(-3) to 5 mg m(-3). The pooled variation coefficients for the three inhalable samplers were less than or equal to 3.0%. Welding particle size distribution was characterized by a bimodal log-normal distribution, with MMADs of 0.7 ?m and 8.2 ?m. For these welding aerosols, the Button and the GSP samplers showed a similar performance (P = 0.598). The mean mass concentration ratio was 1.00 ± 0.01. The IOM sampler showed a different performance (P < 0.001). The mean mass concentration ratios were 0.90 ± 0.01 for Button/IOM and 0.92 ± 0.02 for GSP/IOM. This information is useful to consider the measurements accomplished by the IOM, GSP or Button samplers together, in order to assess the exposure at workplaces over time or to study exposure levels in a specific industrial activity, as welding operations. PMID:22037834

  3. 107a Equipment Instructions Power on Receiver (use Marantz remote) and push "DVD" button on remote.

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    107a Equipment Instructions Play CD Power on Receiver (use Marantz remote) and push "DVD" button down equipment Power off Receiver (use Marantz remote) and push "Standby" button on remote. Power off (Marantz). Shutting down equipment Power off Receiver (use Marantz remote) and push "Standby" button

  4. INTERCOMPARISON OF PLUTONIUM-239 MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1977 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency distributed calibrated solutions of plutonium-239 to laboratories interested in participating in an intercomparison study of plutonium analysis. Participants were asked to perform a quantitative radioactivity analysis of the soluti...

  5. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, Ian W.; Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  6. Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, John M.; Stakebake, Jerry L.

    The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant at about 120 metric tons and a comparable amount of excess military plutonium is anticipated from reductions in nuclear weapon stockpiles (IAEA Report, 1998). Although inventories of civilian material are in oxide form, Pu from weapons programs exists primarily as metal. Plutonium is a radiological toxin (Voelz, 2000); its management in a safe and secure manner is essential for protecting workers, the public, and the environment.

  7. Comparison of options for plutonium disposal reactors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.; Radder, J.A.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has resulted in an excess of plutonium in the weapons stockpiles of the United States and other nations. A number of mostly reactor-based systems have been proposed to denature this plutonium, as opposed to storing and guarding it indefinitely. A Department of Energy task force has been set up to consider this problem, and the National Academy of Sciences is evaluating it as well. In this report, three major reactor types -- the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR), and the Modular High-Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) -- are considered in terms of various qualities applicable to plutonium denaturing. These qualities include safety, management experience, waste disposal, economics, public acceptance, and others. On the basis of these considerations, it appears that the ALWR ranks at or near the top in most categories. This reactor type deserves closer consideration in terms of plutonium denaturing and disposition.

  8. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  9. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  10. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  11. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels.

  12. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  14. Cellular automaton modeling of traffic flow at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a cellular automaton model is presented to depict the traffic flow at such a crosswalk with push button. The characteristics of vehicle flow with various arriving rate of pedestrians are investigated. Flux curves and spatiotemporal diagrams are plotted to show different traffic states and the phase transition features. A parameter, named as button reaction time, is introduced to represent the green time for vehicle flow after the button is pushed by a pedestrian. The effect of button reaction time on saturated flux is investigated. The results show that there is a critical value of button reaction time. The saturated flux increases rapidly when button reaction time is smaller than the critical value, while it increases slowly otherwise. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed and the results coincide with the simulation ones.

  15. Cellular automaton modeling of traffic flow at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a cellular automaton model is presented to depict the traffic flow at such a crosswalk with push button. The characteristics of vehicle flow with various arriving rate of pedestrians are investigated. Flux curves and spatiotemporal diagrams are plotted to show different traffic states and the phase transition features. A parameter, named as button reaction time, is introduced to represent the green time for vehicle flow after the button is pushed by a pedestrian. The effect of button reaction time on saturated flux is investigated. The results show that there is a critical value of button reaction time. The saturated flux increases rapidly when button reaction time is smaller than the critical value, while it increases slowly otherwise. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed and the results coincide with the simulation ones.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  17. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu{sub 2}[B{sub 12}O{sub 18}(OH){sub 4}Br{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·0.5H{sub 2}O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  18. Modification and miniaturization of Thermochron iButtons for surgical implantation into small animals.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2009-05-01

    Thermochron iButtons are being used increasingly by animal physiologists to measure long-term patterns of body temperature in reptiles, birds and mammals. Typically, iButtons are surgically implanted into the intraperitoneal cavity where they measure and store body temperature together with the date and time from an onboard real-time clock. In 16-bit resolution, the DS1922L iButton can store a total of 4,096 data points over pre-determined sampling intervals. iButtons have proved invaluable in measuring patterns of torpor and hibernation in animals larger than 70 g. Weighing around 3.5 g after potting with wax, iButtons are too heavy and large to implant into animals smaller than 70 g because their weight exceeds 5% of the animal's total body weight. This paper describes how the stainless steel canister housing the DS 1922L iButton battery and circuit board can be removed to reduce the weight of the components to 1.49 g after waxing (ready for implantation) without compromising the function or battery life of the iButton. The modified iButton can be implanted into animals as small as 20-30 g. Calibration data revealed an offset of ca. 1 degrees C on average, confirming that iButtons must be calibrated prior to implantation. PMID:19115060

  19. Review of operating experience at the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Facility, 1963-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    This report reviews the operation of the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Plant at Technical Area 21 for the period 1964 through 1977. During that period, approximately 1568 kg of plutonium metal, > 99.95% pure, was produced in 653 runs from 1930 kg of metal fabrication scrap, 99% pure. General considerations of the electrorefining process and facility operation and recommendations for further improvement of the process are discussed.

  20. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  1. CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.

    2010-09-15

    This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

  2. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  3. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  4. Quick Start -Graphic Button Overview Film Orientation CLICK to rotate the camera 90 to

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Quick Start - Graphic Button Overview Film Orientation CLICK to rotate the camera 90° to match°). Manual Straighten CLICK "-" or "+" to jog the image to a straight position. Zoom CLICK the down or up on the view screen. Help CLICK to enable the Help cursor, then CLICK any button in for more information

  5. 77 FR 60435 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Video Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Video Challenge AGENCY: Office of... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) announces the launch of the Blue Button Video Challenge. This challenge is an open call for the public to create short, engaging and entertaining...

  6. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation of Science, University of Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom; r Plant Research International-Mushrooms 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We

  7. Button battery injuries in the pediatric aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Ettyreddy, Abhinav R; Georg, Matthew W; Chi, David H; Gaines, Barbara A; Simons, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Children with a button battery impaction present with nonspecific symptoms that may account for a delay in medical care. We conducted a retrospective study of the clinical presentation, management, and complications associated with button battery ingestion in the pediatric aerodigestive tract and to evaluate the associated long-term morbidity. We reviewed the medical records of 23 patients who were treated for button battery impaction at our tertiary care children's hospital from Jan. 1, 2000, through July 31, 2013. This population was made up of 14 boys and 9 girls, aged 7 days to 12 years (mean: 4 yr). Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of impaction; there were 9 impactions in the esophagus and 7 each in the nasal cavity and stomach. We compiled information on the type and size of each battery, the duration of the impaction, presenting symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. The mean duration of battery impaction was 40.6, 30.7, and 21.0 hours in the esophagus, nasal cavity, and stomach, respectively. We were able to identify the specific type of battery in 13 cases; 11 of these cases (85%) involved a 3-V 20-mm lithium ion battery, including all cases of esophageal impaction in which the type of battery was identified. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were vomiting (n = 7 [30%]), difficulty feeding (n = 5 [22%]), cough (n = 5), and bloody nasal discharge (n = 5); none of the presenting signs and symptoms predicted the severity of the injury or the outcome. The median length of hospital stay was far greater in the esophageal group (12 days) than in the nasal and stomach groups (1 day each; p = 0.006). Battery impaction in the esophagus for more than 15 hours was associated with a significantly longer postoperative hospital stay than impaction for less than 15 hours (p = 0.04). Esophageal complications included strictures (n = 5), perforation (n = 3), and tracheoesophageal fistula formation (n = 2). Clinicians should consider battery impaction in the upper aerodigestive tract as an emergency that can lead to significant long-term morbidity, and therefore immediate surgical intervention is required. PMID:26670755

  8. SELECTION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FOR DISPOSITION TO WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Mcclard, J.; Christopher, J.

    2012-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS). Included in the evaluation are up to 6 metric tons (MT) of plutonium in the form of impure oxides and metals for which a disposition plan has not been decided, among options that include preparation as feed for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; disposing to high-level waste through the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB Line and H Canyon; can-in-canister disposal using the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility; and preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE and SRS have identified at least 0.5 MT of plutonium that, because of high levels of chemical and isotopic impurities, is impractical for disposition by methods other than the WIPP pathway. Characteristics of these items and the disposition strategy are discussed.

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  10. Surplus weapons plutonium: Technologies for pit disassembly/conversion and MOX fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Toevs, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will provide a description of the technologies involved in the disposition of plutonium from surplus nuclear weapon components (pits), based on pit disassembly and conversion and on fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for disposition through irradiation in nuclear reactors. The MOX/Reactor option is the baseline disposition plan for both the US and russian for plutonium from pits and other clean plutonium metal and oxide. In the US, impure plutonium in various forms will be converted to oxide and immobilized in glass or ceramic, surrounded by vitrified high level waste to provide a radiation barrier. A similar fate is expected for impure material in Russia as well. The immobilization technologies will not be discussed. Following technical descriptions, a discussion of options for monitoring the plutonium during these processes will be provided.

  11. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

    2010-02-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

  12. Response of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter in plutonium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, A.W.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents response characteristics and the development of dose algorithms for the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCNO) implemented on January 1, 1995. The HCND was accredited under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) during 1994. The HCND employs two neutron dose components consisting of (1) an albedo thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), and (2) a track-etch dosimeter (TED). Response characteristics of these two dosimeter components were measured under the low-scatter conditions of the Hanford 318 Building Calibration Laboratory, and under the high-scatter conditions in the workplace at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The majority of personnel neutron dose at Hanford (currently and historically) occurs at the PFP. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable sources were used to characterize dosimeter response in the laboratory. At the PFP, neutron spectra and dose-measuring instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters, were used to determine the neutron dose under several configurations from three different plutonium sources: (1) plutonium tetrafluoride, (2) plutonium metal, and (3) plutonium oxide. In addition, measurements were performed at many selected work locations. The HCNDs were included in all measurements. Comparison of dosimeter- and instrument-measured dose equivalents provided the data necessary to develop HCND dose algorithms and to assess the accuracy of estimated neutron dose under actual work conditions.

  13. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  14. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  15. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  16. Effects on the long term storage container by thermal cycling alpha plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, B.F.; Prenger, F.C.; Veirs, D.K.; Hill, D.D.; Isom, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the validity of the steady state temperature limit of 100 C established by the DOE-STD-3013-96 for storing alpha plutonium metal. Studies with an alpha plutonium ingot combined with strain gauge measurements indicate that the stainless steel storage container, yields very little (0.005 in.) to the expanding plutonium metal as it undergoes alpha beta phase transformation at temperatures above 112 C. Another experiment using an alpha plutonium rod for point loading of the container wall showed no measured deformation of the container. The results of strain measurements for alpha beta and beta alpha transformations for twenty five thermal cycles are reported. Finite element modeling using the measured data predicts that the compressive yield strength is 3,500 psi versus the literature value of 13,000 psi.

  17. Impact of ADTT concepts on the management of global plutonium inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Arthur, E.D.

    1996-07-01

    The impact of a number of current and future nuclear systems on global plutonium inventories is assessed under realistic forecasts of nuclear power growth. Advanced systems, such as those employing Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) and liquid metal reactors, show significant promise for meeting future plutonium management needs. These analyses also indicate requirements for a higher level of detail in the nuclear fuel cycle model and for development of a metric to more quantitatively assess the proliferation risk of plutonium arising from the civilian fuel cycle.

  18. Purification and Characterization of ?-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    PubMed

    Aši?, Adna; Beši?, Larisa; Muhovi?, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    ?-Glucosidase (?-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on ?-glucosidase. In this study, ?-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and ?-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit ?-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus ?-glucosidase. PMID:26614504

  19. BPM Button Optimization to Minimize Distortion Due to Trapped Mode Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron,P.; Blednyk, A.; Kosciuk, B.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, I.; Singh, O

    2009-05-04

    The outer circumference of a BPM button and the inner circumference of the button housing comprise a transmission line. This transmission line typically presents an impedance of a few tens of ohms to the beam, and couples very weakly to the 50 ohm coaxial transmission line that comprises the signal path out of the button. The modes which are consequently excited and trapped often have quality factors of several hundred, permitting resonant excitation by the beam. The thermal distortion resulting from trapped mode heating is potentially problematic for achieving the high precision beam position measurements needed to provide the sub-micron beam position stability required by light source users. We present a button design that has been optimized via material selection and component geometry to minimize both the trapped mode heating and the resulting thermal distortion.

  20. Behind the Scenes: Leinbach Is Shuttle's 'Button Pusher' - Duration: 5 minutes, 25 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    He's the guy who, figuratively, pushes "the big red button" to send the shuttle into space. Astronaut Mike Massimino takes you inside the firing room at the Kennedy Space Center to meet Shuttle Lau...

  1. An Asymptomatic Foreign Body in the Nose in an Eighteen-Year-Old Patient: Button Battery

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Merih; Ovet, Gultekin; Alatas, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Foreign bodies lodged in the upper airway are a common occurrence in children. Many unusual foreign bodies in the nose have been reported as foreign bodies like nuts, plastic toy parts, beads, and so forth. Most of these produce minimal morbidity but button batteries due to their early chemical disintegration require early surgical intervention. Here, we report a case of button battery lodged in the nose for several years with a symptom of nasal obstruction and chronic sinusitis. PMID:26664757

  2. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D.; Betts, Jon B.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Mielke, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Migliori, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5—the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)—and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability—therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  3. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, B J; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Betts, Jon B; Mitchell, J N; Tobash, P H; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-17

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5--the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)--and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability--therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  4. Co-Design: Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Korzekwa, Deniece R.; Knapp, Cameron M.; Korzekwa, David A.; Gibbs, John W

    2012-07-25

    The successful induction casting of plutonium is a challenge which requires technical expertise in areas including physical metallurgy, surface and corrosion chemistry, materials science, electromagnetic engineering and a host of other technologies all which must be applied in concert. Here at LANL, we are employing a combined experimental and computational approach to design molds and develop process parameters needed to produce desired temperature profiles and improved castings. Computer simulations are performed using the commercial code FLOW-3D and the LANL ASC computer code TRUCHAS to reproduce the entire casting process starting with electromagnetic or radiative heating of the mold and metal and continuing through pouring with coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and non-isothermal solidification. This approach greatly reduces the time required to develop a new casting designs and also increases our understanding of the casting process, leading to a more homogeneous, consistent product and better process control. We will discuss recent casting development results in support of unalloyed plutonium rods for mechanical testing.

  5. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  6. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL BENZOTRIAZOLES AND RELATED POLYMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzotriazole (bta-H) is a well-known corrosion inhibitor for copper, copper-alloy, and other metal surfaces. Typical uses are to deactivate surfaces of computer hard drives and other internal metal computer parts, and for treatment of apparel hardware such as zippers and buttons...

  8. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  9. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  10. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  11. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  12. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future.

  13. Evaluation of wireless determination of skin temperature using iButtons.

    PubMed

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Daanen, Hein A M; Wouters, Loek; Fronczek, Rolf; Raymann, Roy J E M; Severens, Natascha M W; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2006-07-30

    Measurements of skin temperatures are often complicated because of the use of wired sensors. This is so in field studies, but also holds for many laboratory conditions. This article describes a wireless temperature system for human skin temperature measurements, i.e. the Thermochron iButton DS1291H. The study deals with validation of the iButton and its application on the human skin, and describes clinical and field measurements. The validation study shows that iButtons have a mean accuracy of -0.09 degrees C (-0.4 degrees C at most) with a precision of 0.05 degrees C (0.09 degrees C at most). These properties can be improved by using calibration. Due to the size of the device the response time is longer than that of conventional sensors, with a tau in water of 19 s. On the human skin under transient conditions the response time is significantly longer, revealing momentary deviations with a magnitude of 1 degrees C. The use of iButtons has been described in studies on circadian rhythms, sleep and cardiac surgery. With respect to circadian rhythm and sleep research, skin temperature assessment by iButtons is of significant value in laboratory, clinical and home situations. We demonstrate that differences in laboratory and field measurements add to our understanding of thermophysiology under natural living conditions. The advantage of iButtons in surgery research is that they are easy to sterilize and wireless so that they do not hinder the surgical procedure. In conclusion, the application of iButtons is advantageous for measuring skin temperatures in those situations in which wired instruments are unpractical and fast responses are not required. PMID:16797616

  14. Energetic optimization of a piezo-based touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; de Vries, Theo J. A.; de Vries, Rene; van Dalen, Harry

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of a touch-operated button for man-machine interfaces based on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques. In the mechanical button, a common piezoelectric diaphragm, is assembled to harvest the ambient energy from the source, i.e. the operator’s touch. Under touch force load, the integrated diaphragm will have a bending deformation. Then, its mechanical strain is converted into the required electrical energy by means of the piezoelectric effect presented to the diaphragm. Structural design (i) makes the piezoceramic work under static compressive stress instead of static or dynamic tensile stress, (ii) achieves a satisfactory stress level and (iii) provides the diaphragm and the button with a fatigue lifetime in excess of millions of touch operations. To improve the button’s function, the effect of some key properties consisting of dimension, boundary condition and load condition on electrical behavior of the piezoelectric diaphragm are evaluated by electromechanical coupling analysis in ANSYS. The finite element analysis (FEA) results indicate that the modification of these properties could enhance the diaphragm significantly. Based on the key properties’ different contributions to the improvement of the diaphragm’s electrical energy output, they are incorporated into the piezoelectric diaphragm’s redesign or the structural design of the piezo-based button. The comparison of the original structure and the optimal result shows that electrical energy stored in the diaphragm and the voltage output are increased by 1576% and 120%, respectively, and the volume of the piezoceramic is reduced to 33.6%. These results will be adopted to update the design of the self-powered button, thus enabling a large decrease of energy consumption and lifetime cost of the MMI.

  15. Vitrification of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Mckibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    As a result of nuclear disarmament activities, many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the US and Russia, producing a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russia is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the US and Russia present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a relatively safe, durable, accountable, proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades of experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include immobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. A strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be discussed. In this strategy, the arsenal of vitrification tools, procedures and techniques already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a common, borosilicate glass form for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.

  16. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  17. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  18. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  19. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G. (Los Alamos, NM); Blum, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  20. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  1. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  2. Evaluation of Cognitive Function of Children with Developmental Disabilities by means of Button-Press Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Shogo; Kobori, Satoshi

    The button-press task means that the subject observes a moving target and presses a button to stop it when the target enters a specified area on a computer display. Subjects perform normal task, suppressed task and delayed task. In the suppressed task, the moving target disappears at some point during the trial. In the delayed task, there is some lag time between the time of pressing button and of stopping target. In these tasks, subjects estimate the movement of the target, and press the button considering his/her own reaction time. In our previous study, we showed that cognitive and motor function was able to be evaluated by these tasks. In this study, we examined error data of children with developmental disabilities to evaluate the cognitive function, and investigated the learning processes. Moreover, we discussed the developmental stages by comparing the children with disabilities to normal control children, and we clarified the behavior characteristics of children with developmental disabilities. Asa result, it was shown that our evaluation method and system for the button-press task were effective to evaluate cognitive ability of children with developmental disabilities.

  3. Plutonium immobilization form evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L. W., LLNL

    1998-02-13

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

  4. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  5. Plutonium Processing at Los Alamos

    E-print Network

    atoms, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale and has been centered on the nexus between nuclear weapons and domestic nuclear power--drawing energy from an atomic energy sources. Historically, plutonium was first produced in production reactors; extracted

  6. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  7. Endoscopic Gastrostomy Button With Double-Lasso U-Stitch in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Matthew L.; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Lozada, Jose S.; Magnuson, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Placement of surgical gastric access is a common operative procedure, with multiple techniques. We describe a cost-effective, safe, and easy-to-perform primary endoscopic gastrostomy button placement in the pediatric population, using a novel double–transcutaneous lasso U-stitch push technique. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a single center's experience of 24 consecutively performed primary gastrostomy button placements in infants and children aged 3 weeks to 20 years, from October 2012 through October 2014. Results: The procedure was generally well tolerated, with no intraoperative complications. No conversions to laparoscopic or open procedures were necessary. There were no early tube dislodgements and no postoperative complications within the first 4 weeks. Conclusion: The endoscopic primary gastrostomy button placement with a transcutaneous lasso U-stitch is a safe, fast, elegant, and cost-effective alternative to a standard percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement. PMID:25848198

  8. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  9. Balloon and Button Spectroscopy: A Hands-On Approach to Light and Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribaudo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Without question, one of the most useful tools an astronomer can use to study the universe is spectroscopy. However, for students in introductory physics or astronomy classes, spectroscopy is a relatively abstract concept that combines new physics topics such as thermal radiation, atomic physics, and the wave and particle nature of light and matter. In response to this conceptual hurdle, we have developed an exercise where balloons represent stars, buttons represent photons, and students produce and interperet spectra by sorting buttons of various colors.

  10. Reimplantation of the two coronary ostia as a single button in Ross procedure.

    PubMed

    Mwambu, Tom P; Cherian, Vijit K; Sankar, Madhu N; Sumithran, Gangadharan; Coelho, Robert; Snehal, Kulkarni; Cherian, Kotturathu M

    2002-09-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with severe aortic regurgitation due to a dysplastic aortic valve. He underwent a Ross procedure employing a mini-root replacement technique. At surgery, he was found to have eccentrically located coronary ostia which were both reimplanted as a single button into the pulmonary autograft. Postoperatively, multislice computed tomographic coronary angiography demonstrated satisfactory reimplantation of the coronary artery ostia with no evidence of kinking or compression of the coronary arteries. This case report supports the technique of transfer of coronary ostia as a single button where coronary anatomy is unfavorable for their individual transfer. PMID:12358397

  11. Button Battery Ingestion in Children: A Paradigm for Management of Severe Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestions.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Kristina; Brumbaugh, David E; Kramer, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal injuries secondary to button battery ingestions in children have emerged as a dangerous and difficult management problem for pediatricians. Implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach, with rapid and coordinated care, is paramount to minimize the risk of negative outcomes. In addition to providing a comprehensive review of the topic, this article outlines the authors' referral center's experience with patients with severe battery ingestion, highlighting the complications, outcomes, and important lessons learned from their care. The authors also propose an algorithm for clinical care that may be useful for guiding best management of pediatric button battery ingestion. PMID:26616899

  12. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  13. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  14. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.

    PubMed

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

    2006-01-15

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. PMID:16393805

  15. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  17. Provenance of unknown plutonium material.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2008-10-01

    The determination of the provenance of 'unknown' plutonium material is demonstrated through a simulation study based on an isotopic fingerprinting approach. Plutonium of known provenance was considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to evaluate the potential of the approach and verify its predictive capabilities. Factor analysis was used to compare the Pu isotopic composition of the 'unknown' material with Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. The provenance of the 'unknown material' is assigned to the commercial fuel with which exhibits the highest degree of similarity with respect to the Pu composition. The approach appears promising since it accurately predicted the provenance of the one 'unknown' sample considered; nevertheless, the approach is still at the development stage. Important challenging issues related to the simulation uncertainties and its testing on real laboratory samples have to be explored prior to evaluating the potential of the approach. PMID:18639370

  18. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-06-17

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water.

  19. A comparison of the design of Russian and US containers for plutonium oxide storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C. F. V.; Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Wedman, Douglas E.; Eller, P. G.; Erickson, R. M.; Hansen, W. J.; Roberson, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The safe storage of plutonium in the form of plutonium oxide (Pu02) is a major concern in countries with significant plutonium inventories . The goal is to stabilize and package oxide in such a way that the possibility of leaks and failures are unlikely. Currently in Russia, Pu02 is stored 1 at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC, Zheleznogorsk) and at the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC, former Tomsk-7). (Plutonium metal is stored at PA 'Mayak' and is not addressed here) . Current storage containers for Russian Pu02 do not meet modern safety requirements . Further, every three years the gaskets have to be replaced . The containers can become over pressurized due to radiation processes and this results in possible container failures 1 . In the US, Pu02 is present at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites 2 . US reports of long time storage of Pu02 show a few cases of storage container failures 2 among thousand of intact cases. Major causes of malfunction are metal oxidation in non-airtight packages and gas pressurization from inadequately stabilized oxide . Because of these failures the US DOE adopted a standard 3 for stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing material that addresses these vulnerabilities .

  20. Direct conversion of plutonium-containing materials to borosilicate glass for storage or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-06-27

    A new process, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), has been invented for the direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, and residue into borosilicate glass. The glass should be acceptable for either the long-term storage or disposition of plutonium. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into homogeneous glass (1) simplifies safeguards and security; (2) creates a stable chemical form that meets health, safety, and environmental concerns; (3) provides an easy storage form; (4) may lower storage costs; and (5) allows for future disposition options. In the GMODS process, mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids containing plutonium are fed directly into a glass melter where they are directly converted to glass. Conventional glass melters can accept materials only in oxide form; thus, it is its ability to accept materials in multiple chemical forms that makes GMODS a unique glass making process. Initial proof-of-principle experiments have converted cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials to glass. Significant technical uncertainties remain because of the early nature of process development.

  1. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  3. The Quest for Instantaneous Perfection and the Demand for "Push-Button" Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2009-01-01

    Educational leaders in the United States are faced with a society seeking instantaneous perfection, immediate and perfect solutions. In education, this leads to a demand for push-button administration and an abandonment of trust in educators' judgment. As exemplified by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), the search for quick fixes results in…

  4. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBM) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response ...

  5. 77 FR 33737 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Blue Button Mash Up Challenge”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Blue Button Mash Up Challenge'' AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. Award Approving Official:...

  6. "Ask Me About Our Research" Campaign Button | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    UCSF has created buttons that physicians and nurses wear to encourage patients to ask about the department’s research projects. While these products do not specifically promote clinical trials, they may help set a tone that prioritizes clinical research and shows that trials are normal, everyday work.

  7. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: ... Findings About Our Resident Microbes This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  8. Using Buttons to Better Manage Online Presence: How One Academic Institution Harnessed the Power of Flair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dority Baker, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how the University of Nebraska College of Law and Schmid Law Library use "buttons" to manage Law College faculty members' and librarians' online presence. Since Google is the primary search engine used to find information, it is important that librarians and libraries assist Web site…

  9. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} is also likely to be present in deposits and scales that have formed on the steel surfaces of the tank. Over the operational period and after closure of Tank 18, Ostwald ripening has and will continue to transform PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} to a more crystalline form of plutonium dioxide, PuO{sub 2(c)}. After bulk waste removal and heel retrieval operations, the free hydroxide concentration decreased and the carbonate concentration in the free liquid and solids increased. Consequently, a portion of the PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} has likely been converted to a hydroxy-carbonate complex such as Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)}. or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}. Like PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)}, Ostwald ripening of Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)} or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} would be expected to occur to produce a more crystalline form of the plutonium carbonate complex. Due to the high alkalinity and low carbonate concentration in the grout formulation, it is expected that upon interaction with the grout, the plutonium carbonate complexes will transform back into plutonium hydroxide. Although crystalline plutonium dioxide is the more stable thermodynamic state of Pu(IV), the low temperature and high water content of the waste during the operating and heel removal periods in Tank 18 have limited the transformation of the plutonium into crystalline plutonium dioxide. During the tank closure period of thousands of years, transformation of the plutonium into a more crystalline plutonium dioxide form would be expected. However, the continuing presence of water, reaction with water radiolysis products, and low temperatures will limit the transformation, and will likely maintain an amorphous Pu(OH){sub 4} or PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} form on the surface of any crystalline plutonium dioxide produced after tank closure. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) measurements of Tank 18 residues are recommended to confirm coordination environments of the plutonium. If the presence of PuO(CO{sub 3}){sub (am,hyd)} is confirmed by XAS, it is recommended that e

  10. Intrinsically disordered caldesmon binds calmodulin via the “buttons on a string” mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Permyakov, Sergei E.; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    We show here that chicken gizzard caldesmon (CaD) and its C-terminal domain (residues 636–771, CaD136) are intrinsically disordered proteins. The computational and experimental analyses of the wild type CaD136 and series of its single tryptophan mutants (W674A, W707A, and W737A) and a double tryptophan mutant (W674A/W707A) suggested that although the interaction of CaD136 with calmodulin (CaM) can be driven by the non-specific electrostatic attraction between these oppositely charged molecules, the specificity of CaD136-CaM binding is likely to be determined by the specific packing of important CaD136 tryptophan residues at the CaD136-CaM interface. It is suggested that this interaction can be described as the “buttons on a charged string” model, where the electrostatic attraction between the intrinsically disordered CaD136 and the CaM is solidified in a “snapping buttons” manner by specific packing of the CaD136 “pliable buttons” (which are the short segments of fluctuating local structure condensed around the tryptophan residues) at the CaD136-CaM interface. Our data also show that all three “buttons” are important for binding, since mutation of any of the tryptophans affects CaD136-CaM binding and since CaD136 remains CaM-buttoned even when two of the three tryptophans are mutated to alanines. PMID:26417545

  11. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  12. What Lives in Your Belly Button? Study Finds "Rain Forest" of Species1 Thousands of bacteria found in navels. "It's quite beautiful," researcher says.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    What Lives in Your Belly Button? Study Finds "Rain Forest" of Species1 Thousands of bacteria found. The upshot? Belly buttons, it turns out, are a6 lot like rain forests. The whole thing started about two, they did so in huge numbers. "That makes the belly button a lot like rain forests," Dunn27 said. In any

  13. Plutonium: The density-functional-theory point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlind, P; Landa, A

    2008-10-30

    Density-functional theory (DFT) is a remarkably successful tool for describing many metals throughout the Periodic Table. Here we present the results of this theory when applied to plutonium metal, the perhaps most complex and difficult-to-model metal of all. The fundamental product of DFT is the ground-state total energy. In the case of Pu, we show that DFT produces total energies that can predict the complex phase diagram accurately. Focusing on the {delta} phase, we show that DFT electronic structure is consistent with measured photoemission spectra. The observed non-magnetic state of {delta}-Pu could possibly be explained in DFT by spin moments, likely disordered, that are magnetically neutralized by anti-parallel aligned orbital moments. As an alternative to this non-magnetic model an extension of DFT with enhanced orbital polarization is presented in which magnetism can be suppressed.

  14. Alpha radiation effects on weapons-grade plutonium encapsulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglam, Mehmet

    The scientific understanding of material problems in the long-term storage of plutonium pits is investigated using experimental and theoretical models. The durability of the plutonium pit depends on the integrity of the metal cladding that encapsulates the plutonium. Given sufficient time, the energetic alpha particles (helium nuclei) produced by nuclear decay of the plutonium would degrade the mechanical strength of the metal cladding which could lead to cladding failure and dispersion of plutonium. It is shown that the long-term behavior of the encapsulating materials can be simulated by beam implantation and subsequent analysis using experimental techniques of Electron Microscopy and Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). In addition computer simulations using the TRIM code were made in order to correlate the measurements to cladding damage. The Neutron Depth Profiling measurements done with samples that had 10 16 cm-2 3He beam implant dose showed no helium redistribution, indicating no microcracking between bubbles, for both beryllium and stainless steel, the pit cladding materials of interest. However, helium redistribution and significant helium loss were observed for samples with a beam implant dose of 1018 cm-2 , indicating microstructural damage. The SEM observations were consistent with the NDP measurements. The proper interpretation of the results rests on the realization that (i)the deleterious effects are related to helium concentration, not implant dose, and (ii)a specified maximum concentration of helium is achieved with a much smaller dose when monoenergetic ions are implanted using beam geometry than for the situation where Pu alphas stop in the pit cladding. Helium is distributed over a much smaller depth interval for beam implantation of monoenergetic ions as compared to the pit cladding implanted ions. Taking this effect into account and using the calculated pit implant dose gives a pit storage time for the 1016 cm-2 beam implant dose results equal to ~300 years for SS-316 cladding and ~1800 years for Be cladding. Based on this argument it is concluded from the results of the measurements that there most likely would be no radiation damage or microstructural changes in bulk SS-316 or Be cladding for 100 years of pit storage.

  15. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  16. Assessment of plutonium storage safety issues at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) mission for utilization and storage of nuclear materials has recently changed as a result of the end of the ``Cold War`` era. Past and current plutonium storage practices largely reflect a temporary, in-process, or in-use storage condition which must now be changed to accommodate longer-term storage. This report summarizes information concerning current plutonium metal and oxide storage practices which was presented at the Office of Defense programs (DP) workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 26-27, 1993 and contained in responses to questions by DP-62 from the field organizations.

  17. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

  18. Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.4 in slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, B.A.; Keeton, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    R. C. Lloyd of PNL has completed and published a series of critical experiments with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solutions (Reference 1). This series of critical experiments was part of an extensive program jointly sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and was carried out in the mid-1980`s. The experiments evaluated here (published as Report PNL-6327) were performed with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solution in a variable thickness slab tank with two 106.7 cm square sides and a width that could be varied from 7.6 to 22.8 cm. The objective of these experiments was to obtain experimental data to permit the validation of computer codes for criticality calculations and of cross-section data to minimize the uncertainties inherent therein, so that facility safety, efficiency, and reliability could be enhanced. The concentrations of the solution were about 105, 293, and 435 g(Pu+U)/liter with a ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) of about 0. 40 for all eight experiments. Four measurements were made with a water reflector, and four with no reflector. Following the publication of the initial PNL reports, considerable effort was devoted to an extensive reevaluation of this series of experiments by a collaboration of researchers from ORNL, PNL, and PNC (Reference 2). Their work resulted in a more accurate description of the ``as built`` hardware configuration and the materials specifications. For the evaluations in this report, the data published in Reference 2 by Smolen et al. is selected to supersede the original PNL report. Eight experiments have been evaluated and seven (063, 064, 071, 072, 074, 075, and 076) provide benchmark criticality data. Experiment 073 could not achieve criticality within vessel height limitations.

  19. Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

  20. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  1. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on ?-plutonium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Flores, Harry G.; Pugmire, David L.

    2010-03-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO2) and the sesquioxide (Pu2O3). The nature of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO2 film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner Pu2O3 film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu4+; O/Pu=2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu3+; O/Pu=1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu2O3-y). The Pu2O3-y films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y~0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  2. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Flores, Harry G; Pugmire, David L

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  3. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  4. Robot vision system for remote plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-03-13

    Tons of weapons-usable plutonium has been declared surplus to the national security needs of the United States. The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a US Department of Energy sponsored program to place excess plutonium in a stable form and make it unattractive for reuse. A vision system was developed as part of PIP robotic and remote systems development. This vision system provides visual feedback to a can-loading robot that places plutonium/ceramic pucks in stainless steel cans. Inexpensive grayscale CCD cameras were used in conjunction with an off-the-shelf video capture card and computer to build an effective two-camera vision system. Testing demonstrates the viability of this technology for use in the Plutonium Immobilization Project facility, which is scheduled to begin operations in 2008.

  5. Simulation of moderated plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John K.; Pozzi, S. A.; Clarke, S. D.; Dennis, B.; Miller, E. C.

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to improve detection methods that can reliably identify special nuclear material (SNM). One method that can be used to identify special nuclear material is neutron multiplicity analysis. This method detects multiple time-correlated neutrons released from a fission event in the SNM. This work investigates the ability of the software code MCNP-PoliMi to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements from a highly moderated SNM source. A measurement of a 4.5-kg alpha-phase metal plutonium sphere surrounded by up to 6 inches of polyethylene shells has recently been performed by Sandia National Laboratories personnel at the Nevada Test Site. A post-processing code was developed to account for dead-time effects within the detector and to determine the neutron multiplicity distributions for various time intervals. With the distributions calculated, the Feynman-Y can be determined. The Feynman-Y is a metric that measures the level of correlation present in a sample. At this time MCNP-PoliMi is able predict the Feynman-Y within 10% of the measured value.

  6. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  7. Adaptation of the IBM ECR (electric cantilever robot) robot to plutonium processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.; Pedrotti, L.R. ); Halter, E.A.; Crossfield, M. )

    1990-12-01

    The changing regulatory climate in the US is adding increasing incentive to reduce operator dose and TRU waste for DOE plutonium processing operations. To help achieve that goal the authors have begun adapting a small commercial overhead gantry robot, the IBM electric cantilever robot (ECR), to plutonium processing applications. Steps are being taken to harden this robot to withstand the dry, often abrasive, environment within a plutonium glove box and to protect the electronic components against alpha radiation. A mock-up processing system for the reduction of the oxide to a metal was prepared and successfully demonstrated. Design of a working prototype is now underway using the results of this mock-up study. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Phonon and magnetic structure in ?-plutonium from density-functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Söderlind, Per; Zhou, F.; Landa, A.; Klepeis, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present phonon properties of plutonium metal obtained from a combination of density-functional-theory (DFT) electronic structure and the recently developed compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). The CSLD model is here trained on DFT total energies of several hundreds of quasi-random atomic configurations for best possible accuracy of the phonon properties. The calculated phonon dispersions compare better with experiment than earlier results obtained from dynamical mean-field theory. The density-functional model of the electronic structure consists of disordered magnetic moments with all relativistic effects and explicit orbital-orbital correlations. The magnetic disorder is approximated in two ways: (i) a special quasi-random structure and (ii) the disordered-local-moment method within the coherent potential approximation. Magnetism in plutonium has been debated intensely, but the present magnetic approach for plutonium is validated by the close agreement between the predicted magnetic form factor and that of recent neutron-scattering experiments. PMID:26514238

  9. Phonon and magnetic structure in ?-plutonium from density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Söderlind, Per; Zhou, F; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E

    2015-01-01

    We present phonon properties of plutonium metal obtained from a combination of density-functional-theory (DFT) electronic structure and the recently developed compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). The CSLD model is here trained on DFT total energies of several hundreds of quasi-random atomic configurations for best possible accuracy of the phonon properties. The calculated phonon dispersions compare better with experiment than earlier results obtained from dynamical mean-field theory. The density-functional model of the electronic structure consists of disordered magnetic moments with all relativistic effects and explicit orbital-orbital correlations. The magnetic disorder is approximated in two ways: (i) a special quasi-random structure and (ii) the disordered-local-moment method within the coherent potential approximation. Magnetism in plutonium has been debated intensely, but the present magnetic approach for plutonium is validated by the close agreement between the predicted magnetic form factor and that of recent neutron-scattering experiments. PMID:26514238

  10. Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, E.S.

    1989-10-09

    A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2008-07-31

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  12. Phonon and magnetic structure in ?-plutonium from density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, Per; Zhou, F.; Landa, A.; Klepeis, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    We present phonon properties of plutonium metal obtained from a combination of density-functional-theory (DFT) electronic structure and the recently developed compressive sensing lattice dynamics (CSLD). The CSLD model is here trained on DFT total energies of several hundreds of quasi-random atomic configurations for best possible accuracy of the phonon properties. The calculated phonon dispersions compare better with experiment than earlier results obtained from dynamical mean-field theory. The density-functional model of the electronic structure consists of disordered magnetic moments with all relativistic effects and explicit orbital-orbital correlations. The magnetic disorder is approximated in two ways: (i) a special quasi-random structure and (ii) the disordered-local-moment method within the coherent potential approximation. Magnetism in plutonium has been debated intensely, but the present magnetic approach for plutonium is validated by the close agreement between the predicted magnetic form factor and that of recent neutron-scattering experiments.

  13. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Evolving density and static mechanical properties in plutonium from self-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, B. W.; Thompson, S. R.; Lema, K. E.; Hiromoto, D. S.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.

    2009-03-01

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 wt% of highly specific activity isotope 238Pu into the 239Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on 238Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by ˜0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  15. Plutonium Uptake and Distribution in Mammalian Cells: Molecular vs Polymeric Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    ARYAL, BAIKUNTHA P.; GORMAN-LEWIS, DREW; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; WILSON, RICHARD E.; LAI, BARRY; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE E.; JENSEN, MARK P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the cellular responses to molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium using PC12 cells derived from rat adrenal glands. Materials and methods Serum starved PC12 cells were exposed to polymeric and molecular forms of plutonium for three hours. Cells were washed with 10 mM EGTA, 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4 to remove surface sorbed plutonium. Localization of plutonium in individual cell was quantitatively analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. Results Molecular plutonium complexes introduced to cell growth media in the form of NTA, citrate, or transferrin complexes were taken up by PC12 cells, and mostly co-localized with iron within the cells. Polymeric plutonium prepared separately was not internalized by PC12 cells but it was always found on the cell surface as big agglomerates; however polymeric plutonium formed in situ was mostly found within the cells as agglomerates. Conclusions PC12 cells can differentiate molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium. Molecular plutonium is taken up by PC12 cells and mostly co-localized with iron but aged polymeric plutonium is not internalized by the cells. PMID:21770702

  16. Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M

    2002-12-01

    A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and showed that CO{sub 2} pellet blasting (or CO{sub 2} cleaning) reduced both fixed and smearable contamination on tools. In 1997, LLNL proved that even tritium contamination could be removed from a variety of different matrices using CO{sub 2}cleaning. CO{sub 2} cleaning is a non-toxic, nonconductive, nonabrasive decontamination process whose primary cleaning mechanisms are: (1) Impact of the CO{sub 2} pellets loosens the bond between the contaminant and the substrate. (2) CO{sub 2} pellets shatter and sublimate into a gaseous state with large expansion ({approx}800 times). The expanding CO{sub 2} gas forms a layer between the contaminant and the substrate that acts as a spatula and peels off the contaminant. (3) Cooling of the contaminant assists in breaking its bond with the substrate. Thus, LLNL conducted feasibility testing to determine if CO{sub 2} pellet blasting could remove Pu contamination (e.g., uranium oxide) from uranium metal without abrading the metal matrix. This report contains a summary of events and the results of this test.

  17. eButton: A Wearable Computer for Health Monitoring and Personal Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingui; Burke, Lora E.; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Yiran; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Bai, Yicheng; Li, Yuecheng; Li, Chengliu; Jia, Wenyan

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile devices have made profound changes in people's daily lives. In particular, the impact of easy access of information by the smartphone has been tremendous. However, the impact of mobile devices on healthcare has been limited. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases are still initiated by occurrences of symptoms, and technologies and devices that emphasize on disease prevention and early detection outside hospitals are under-developed. Besides healthcare, mobile devices have not yet been designed to fully benefit people with special needs, such as the elderly and those suffering from certain disabilities, such blindness. In this paper, an overview of our research on a new wearable computer called eButton is presented. The concepts of its design and electronic implementation are described. Several applications of the eButton are described, including evaluating diet and physical activity, studying sedentary behavior, assisting the blind and visually impaired people, and monitoring older adults suffering from dementia. PMID:25340176

  18. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G.; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Soderholm, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway, receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small angle scattering demonstrate that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein’s C-terminal lobe and iron bound in the N-lobe (PuCFeNTf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin’s two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake. PMID:21706034

  19. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L.

    2011-08-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  20. Kläui ligand thin films for rapid plutonium analysis by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Susan K; Mueller, Alexander H; Oldham, Warren J

    2014-01-21

    As part of a nuclear forensics capability, rapid and effective methods to analyze for plutonium and other actinide metals are needed. A key requirement of these methods is that they afford a high chemical yield while still providing isotopic information necessary for forensic evaluation. Toward this objective, a new method for binding plutonium for analysis by alpha spectrometry has been developed. Thin films of Kläui-type tripodal oxygen donor ligands were prepared by spin-casting solutions onto glass substrates. Three different ligands were evaluated for plutonium binding, and the best results were obtained using the ethyl-substituted complex Na[Cp*Co(P(O)(OEt)2)3], which bound 80-88% of the dissolved Pu under equilibrium conditions. The thin films are simple and inexpensive to prepare and exhibit excellent alpha spectral resolution, having line widths of ~33 keV. The method has been successfully applied to analyze for plutonium in both an archived nuclear debris sample and a certified environmental soil sample. The results obtained from the soil analysis are in good agreement with the certified values, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method for rapid plutonium analysis. PMID:24397315

  1. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  2. High temperature radiance spectroscopy measurements of solid and liquid uranium and plutonium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Tougait, O.; Eloirdi, R.; Malki, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the radiance of liquid and solid uranium and plutonium carbides at wavelengths 550 nm ? ? ? 920 nm is reported. A fast multi-channel spectro-pyrometer has been employed for the radiance measurements of samples heated up to and beyond their melting point by laser irradiation. The melting temperature of uranium monocarbide, soundly established at 2780 K, has been taken as a radiance reference. Based on it, a wavelength-dependence has been obtained for the high-temperature spectral emissivity of some uranium carbides (1 ? C/U ? 2). Similarly, the peritectic temperature of plutonium monocarbide (1900 K) has been used as a reference for plutonium monocarbide and sesquicarbide. The present spectral emissivities of solid uranium and plutonium carbides are close to 0.5 at 650 nm, in agreement with previous literature values. However, their high temperature behaviour, values in the liquid, and carbon-content and wavelength dependencies in the visible-near infrared range have been determined here for the first time. Liquid uranium carbide seems to interact with electromagnetic radiation in a more metallic way than does the solid, whereas a similar effect has not been observed for plutonium carbides. The current emissivity values have also been used to convert the measured radiance spectra into real temperature, and thus perform a thermal analysis of the laser heated samples. Some high-temperature phase boundaries in the systems U-C and Pu-C are shortly discussed on the basis of the current results.

  3. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  4. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  6. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    PubMed

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  7. The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent Russian plutonium immobilization contract work. This proceedings document presents the wide extent of Russian immobilization activities, provides a reference for their work, and makes it available to others.

  11. Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J; Mansourov, O A

    1999-01-25

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  12. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-06-29

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

  13. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process and immobilize 17 tonnes of plutonium in ten years. The project schedule for either case is shown in a table.

  14. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact with metallographic polishing lubricants, solvents, or chemicals. And water being one of the most reactive solutions, is not used in the preparation. Figure 2 shows an example of a plutonium sample in which an oxide film has formed on the surface due to overexposure to solutions. it has been noted that nucleation of the hydride/oxide begins around inclusions and samples with a higher concentration of impurities seem to be more susceptible to this reaction. Figure 3 shows examples of small oxide rings, forming around inclusions. Lastly, during the cutting, grinding, or polishing process there is enough stress induced in the sample that the surface can transform from the soft face-centered-cubic delta phase (30 HV) to the strain-induced monoclinic alpha{prime} phase (300 HV). Figure 4 and 5 shows cross-sectional views of samples in which one was cut using a diamond saw and the other was processed through 600 grit. The white layers on the edges is the strain induced alpha{prime} phase. The 'V' shape indentation in Figure 5 was caused by a coarser abrasive which resulted in transformations to a depth of approximately 20 {micro}m. Another example of the transformation sensitivity of plutonium can be seen in Figure 6, in which the delta phase has partly transformed to alpha{prime} during micro hardness indentation.

  15. Management of plutonium in THORP

    SciTech Connect

    Parkes, P.; Evans, M.

    1996-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) is currently actively commissioning its state-of-the-art thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP). In its first 10 yr of operation, it will process {approximately}8000t of oxide fuel from advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) and light water reactors (LWRs). The bulk of this fuel belongs to overseas customers, notably Germany and Japan. The reprocessing plant itself will separate the irradiated fuel, after a suitable period of storage in water-filled ponds to allow for the bulk of the short-lived fission product to decay, into its components of cladding, fission products, and purified uranium and plutonium oxides. The zirconium cladding remaining after dissolution will be encapsulated into a cement-based matrix, and the fission products will be vitrified for eventual disposal in an underground repository. Effluents from the processes are processed in a series of associated plants.

  16. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  17. Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, M.C.; Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C.

    1998-12-31

    In September, 1997, nine of the world`s plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes.

  18. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  19. System 80+: The premier plutonium burner

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, N.W.; Flynn, E.P.; Knapp, R.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The disarmament plans of both the United States and the former Soviet Union will result in the need to dispose of excess plutonium on both sides. While the final details remain to be determined, it is currently anticipated that device disassembly will result in a requirement to [open quotes]denature[close quotes] (i.e., make unsuitable for weapons use) [approximately]100 tonnes of plutonium by 2018. The denaturing of the plutonium is accomplished by the buildup of [sup 240]Pu content in the material through in-reactor irradiation of plutonium-bearing fuel. The System 80+[trademark] standard design is of particular interest because its predecessor, System 80[trademark], was originally specifically designed to make use of an all-plutonium core. A single System 80+[trademark] reactor can meet the 100-tonne disposal requirement. Because the System 80+[trademark] advanced standard plant design is based on a proven technology base and is very far along in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) design certification process, it would provide the quickest, most economical vehicle for denaturing the surplus plutonium.

  20. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (<0.14 wt%) is also present in these samples. The isotopic composition of the uranium varied widely but was consistent among each category of material. The primary water-soluble anions in these samples were Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-. The only major anion observed in the Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

  1. Button batteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... batteries are tiny, round batteries usually used to power watches and hearing aids. Children often accidentally swallow ... health care provider will measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. ...

  2. Hydrolysis of plutonium: Corrosion kinetics in DMSO solutions containing simulated high explosive and water

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.; Pruner, R.E. II

    1995-01-01

    A sequence of experiments is described that address the compatibility of plutonium metal with dimethyl sulfoxide solvent and with solutions containing simulated HMX explosive and simulated explosive plus water. In the absence of water, reaction is slow and forms a thin adherent product layer on clean metal surfaces. Corrosion of oxide-coated plutonium is observed after 15 to 20 days in a solution containing 0.18 mass % (0.11 M) water. After corrosion initiates, the rate accelerates rapidly and attains a value of 0.13 mg Pu/cm{sup 2} h with a surface that is approximately one percent active. Dependence of the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction on water concentration is evaluated using the data from literature sources. Hazards associated with the use of wet dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent for removing explosives during weapon dismantlement are identified and a simple method for their mitigation is outlined.

  3. Introducing equipment and plutonium glove box modifications for monitoring gas generation over plutonium oxide materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, D. D.; Berg, J. M.; Carrillo, A. G.; Montoya, A. R.; Morris, J. S.; Veirs, D. K.; Martinez, M. A.; Worl, L. A.; Harradine, D. M.; Hill, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    DOE is embarking on a program to store large quantities of Pu-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials for long-term storage are metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard. Experience with PuO, materials has shown that gases generated by catalytic and/or radiolytic processes may accumulate. Of concern are the generation of H, gas from adsorbed water and the generation of HCI or CI, gases from the radiolysis of chloride-containing salts. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the standard. The containers and surveillance equipment are interfaced with a plutonium glovebox and are designed to allow the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time. The surveillance activities and glovebox interfaces include Raman fiber optic probes, a gas analysis sampling port, corrosion monitors, and pressure and temperature feedthrus. Data collection for these containers is automated in order to reduce worker exposure. The equipment design and glovebox modifications are presented.

  4. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  5. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  6. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yung-Jin; Schwaiger, Luna Kestrel; Booth, Corwin H.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Cristiano, Elena; Kaplan, Daniel; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-03-09

    Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe1-xMnxOOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, because goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements indicated that essentially all the Mn in the goethite existed as Mn(III), even though Mn was added during mineral synthesis as Mn(II). Importantly, energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that Mn did not exist as discrete phases and that it was homogeneously mixed into the goethite to within the limit of detection of the method. Furthermore, Mössbauer spectra demonstrated that all Fe existed as Fe(III), with no Fe(II) present. Plutonium(VI) sorption experiments were conducted open to air and no attempt was made to exclude carbonate. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows us to directly and unambiguously measure the oxidation state of plutonium in situ at the mineral surface. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. This reduction appears to be strongly correlated with mineral solution pH, coinciding with pH transitions across the point of zero charge of the mineral. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. This combination of extensive mineral characterization and advanced spectroscopy suggests that sorption of the plutonium onto the surface of the mineral was followed by reduction of the plutonium at the surface of the mineral to form an inner-sphere complex. Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with such substituted-mineral phases is important for risk assessment purposes at radioactively contaminated sites and long-term underground radioactive waste repositories.

  8. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...to the activity concentration values for plutonium specified in Appendix A, Table A-2, of this part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium is shipped in a single package containing no more than...

  9. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...to the activity concentration values for plutonium specified in Appendix A, Table A-2, of this part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium is shipped in a single package containing no more than...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...to the activity concentration values for plutonium specified in Appendix A, Table A-2, of this part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium is shipped in a single package containing no more than...

  11. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to the activity concentration values for plutonium specified in Appendix A, Table A-2, of this part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium is shipped in a single package containing no more than...

  12. GPU-Accelerated Framework for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging at the Push of a Button

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myounghee; Kim, Kyunghun; Jang, Sun-Joo; Cho, Han Saem; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Ryu, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has become one of the important clinical tools for intracoronary imaging to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease, which has been one of the leading causes of death. To help more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, many researchers have recently worked on visualization of various coronary microscopic features including stent struts by constructing three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering from series of cross-sectional intracoronary FD-OCT images. In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, "push-of-a-button" graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated framework for intracoronary OCT imaging. Our framework visualizes 3D microstructures of the vessel wall with stent struts from raw binary OCT data acquired by the system digitizer as one seamless process. The framework reports the state-of-the-art performance; from raw OCT data, it takes 4.7 seconds to provide 3D visualization of a 5-cm-long coronary artery (of size 1600 samples x 1024 A-lines x 260 frames) with stent struts and detection of malapposition automatically at the single push of a button. PMID:25880375

  13. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  14. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  15. Safeguards and security requirements for weapons plutonium disposition in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.L.; Strait, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    This paper explores the issues surrounding the safeguarding of the plutonium disposition process in support of the United States nuclear weapons dismantlement program. It focuses on the disposition of the plutonium by burning mixed oxide fuel in light water reactors (LWR) and addresses physical protection, material control and accountability, personnel security and international safeguards. The S and S system needs to meet the requirements of the DOE Orders, NRC Regulations and international safeguards agreements. Experience has shown that incorporating S and S measures into early facility designs and integrating them into operations provides S and S that is more effective, more economical, and less intrusive. The plutonium disposition safeguards requirements with which the US has the least experience are the implementation of international safeguards on plutonium metal; the large scale commercialization of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication; and the transportation to and loading in the LWRs of fresh mixed oxide fuel. It is in these areas where the effort needs to be concentrated if the US is to develop safeguards and security systems that are effective and efficient.

  16. Dry process for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium using a rotary furnace equipped with a copper collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, C. V.; Anthony, Rayford G.; Shivraj, Chokkaram; Philip, Elizabeth; Pitt, W. Wilson; Roundhill, Max; Beard, Carl

    2000-07-01

    Currently the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium is achieved using complex aqueous processing involving solvent extraction and ion exchange; this process generates large quantities of wastewater containing radioactive materials. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, researchers have been developing a simpler alternative process referred to as the thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) process; vaporized gallium suboxide is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 °C or higher. During the TIGR process some of the gallium suboxide prematurely decomposes to gallium metal and gallium trioxide, which deposit on furnace and vent surfaces.

  17. White paper on possible inclusion of mixed plutonium-uranium oxides in DOE-STD-3013-96

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.; Venetz, T.; Szempruch, R.; McClard, J.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report assesses stabilization issues concerning mixed plutonium-uranium oxides containing < 50 wt% Pu. It recommends that these materials be stored under a revision to DOE-STD-3013-96 ``Criteria for Preparing and Packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage,`` which addresses long-term storage of materials > 50 mass % Pu. Possible consequences of uranium substitution on thermal stabilization, specific surface areas, moisture readsorption behavior, loss-on-ignition analysis, and criticality safety of the oxide are examined and discussed.

  18. Surveillance of sealed containers with plutonium oxide materials (ms163)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worl, Laura; Berg, John; Ford, Doris; Martinez, Max; McFarlan, Jim; Morris, John; Padilla, Dennis; Rau, Karen; Smith, Coleman; Veirs, Kirk; Hill, Dallas; Prenger, Coyne

    2000-07-01

    DOE is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials destined for long-term storage include metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard, where the packaging consists of two nested, welded, stainless steel containers. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the 3013 standard at both full- and small-scale capacities (2.4 liter and 0.005 liter, respectively), Figures 1 and 2. The containers are designed to maintain the volume to material mass ratio while allowing the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time.

  19. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium bearing salt baths waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-12-31

    The salt flux issuing from the electrofining of plutonium metal or alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt processes promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on an electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as Cl2 gas followed by its trapping on soda lime cartridge; a complete oxidative dissolution of refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the backend: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions.

  20. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Removal of Uranium from Plutonium Solutions by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-22

    The anion exchange capacity in the HB-Line Phase II Facility will be used to purify plutonium solutions potentially containing significant quantities of depleted uranium. Following purification, the plutonium will be precipitated as an oxalate and calcined to plutonium oxide (PuO2) for storage until final disposition.

  2. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-12-05

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements.

  3. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  4. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  5. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  6. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  7. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  8. Disposition of plutonium in deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Walter, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. A variety of disposition options are under consideration. One option is to place the plutonium either directly or in an immobilized form at the bottom of a deep borehole that is then sealed. Deep-borehole disposition involves placing plutonium several kilometers deep into old, stable, rock formations that have negligible free water present. Containment assurance is based on the presence of ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration and communication with the biosphere. Recovery would be extremely difficult (costly) and impossible to accomplish clandestinely.

  9. Fabrication of zircon for disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.C.; Huang, J.Y.; Serrano, P.L.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In an effort to address the problems of long term storage and nuclear waste minimization, zircon has been proposed as a host medium for plutonium and other actinides recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of large scale fabrication of Pu-bearing zircon. Since PuO{sub 2} is thermodynamically less stable than ZrO{sub 2}, it is expected that the process parameters determined for synthesizing ZrSiO{sub 4} (zircon) would be applicable to those for PuSiO{sub 4} (Pu-zircon). Furthermore, since the foremost concern in plutonium processing is the potential for contamination release, this work emphasizes the development of process parameters, using zircon first, to anticipate potential material problems in the containment system for reaction mixtures during processing. Stoichiometric mixtures of ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, in hundred-gram batches, have been subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures near 1,500 C and pressures approximately 10,000 psi. The product materials have been analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, and are found to consist of zircon after approximately two hours of reaction time. From this work, it is clear that the fabrication of large quantities of Pu-zircon is feasible. The most notable result of this work is evidence for the existence of container problems. This result, in turn, suggests potential solutions to these problems. Experiments with the quartz inner container, the glass sealant, a sacrificial metal barrier, and a metal outer container are being investigated to mitigate these potential hazards.

  10. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  11. Study of the formation, prevention, and recovery of plutonium from plutonium esters in the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L. W.; Burney, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses the basic Purex process to separate /sup 239/Pu from /sup 238/U and fission products. Dark-brown, dense solids containing up to 30% Pu have previously occurred in rotameters in the plutonium finishing operations. The kinetics of formation of this mixture of DBP- and MBP-Pu esters suggest two methods to prevent the formation of the solids. A selective dissolution method using NaOH metathesis has been developed to separate the phosphate ester from the plutonium before dissolution of the residual plutonium hydroxide in a HNO/sub 3/-HF medium.

  12. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs. PMID:23458827

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

    2008-07-15

    The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

  14. Plutonium-244: confirmation as an extinct radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Alexander, E C; Lewis, R S; Reynolds, J H; Michel, M C

    1971-05-21

    The mass spectrum of xenon from spontaneous fission in a laboratory sample of plutonium-244 is precisely what meteoriticists predicted it would be; this discovery completes a web of proof that this nuclide is a bona fide extinct radioactivity of galactic origin, that r-process nucleosynthesis was ongoing in the galaxy at the time of the birth of the sun, and that the early meteoritic abundances of plutonium-244, heretofore tentative, can be utilized with confidence in models for the chronology of galactic nucleosynthesis. The search for an explanation for anomalous fission-like xenon in carbonaceous chondrites can now be narrowed. PMID:17792940

  15. Waste measurements at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

  16. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc Ta

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  17. The AL-R8 SI: the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the USDOE Pantex Plant.

    PubMed

    Eifert, E J; Vickers, L D

    1999-11-01

    The AL-R8 SI (sealed insert) is the next generation staging container for plutonium pits at the U.S. DOE Pantex Plant. The sealed insert is a stainless steel container that will be placed inside a modified AL-R8 container to stagepits. A pit is a hollow sphere of plutonium metal which is the primary fissionable material in nuclear weapons (warheads and bombs). It is hermetically sealed by a cladding material, which is usually stainless steel. Personnel exposures to ionizing radiation from the pits in storage are expected to decrease due to the attenuation provided by the new SI. All personnel exposures to ionizing radiation at Pantex Plant are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Pantex Plant secures the common defense and national security of the United States by safely staging plutonium pits in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. PMID:10527158

  18. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

    1992-01-01

    A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  19. Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-07-01

    In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

  20. Determination of plutonium-239 + plutonium-240 and plutonium-241 in environmental samples using low-level liquid scintillation spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y F; Bjørnstad, H E; Salbu, B

    1992-03-01

    A radiochemical method for the simultaneous determination of 239Pu + 240Pu and 241Pu in environmental samples has been developed. In the course of the analysis a 236Pu tracer was used for estimating the chemical yield of plutonium isotopes. After suitable pre-treatment of the sample, the plutonium nuclides in solution were coprecipitated with iron(III) hydroxide and calcium oxalate and isolated further from impurities and interfering radionuclides by means of anion-exchange chromatography. Plutonium isotopes in the eluate (NH4I-HCI) were converted into nitrate form and then extracted with 20 ml of 5% bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate extractive cocktail. The final organic solution was measured spectrometrically using an ultra-low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer, Quantulus (LKB, 1220 Wallac). The chemical yields of plutonium range from 25 to 50% for 100 I of sea-water and 30 to 60% for 40 g of dried soil sample. The counting efficiencies are nearly 100% for 239Pu + 240Pu and 48.8% for 241Pu, respectively. The detection limits were estimated to be 0.20 mBq for 239Pu + 240Pu and 2.2 mBq for 241Pu, respectively. The proposed procedure has been tested for the simultaneous determination of 239Pu + 240Pu and 241Pu in sea-water (Irish Sea, North Sea) and soils (Cumbrian coast, UK; Byelorussia, USSR). PMID:1580376

  1. Fluctuating valence in a correlated solid and the anomalous properties of delta-plutonium.

    PubMed

    Shim, J H; Haule, K; Kotliar, G

    2007-03-29

    Although the nuclear properties of the late actinides (plutonium, americium and curium) are fully understood and widely applied to energy generation, their solid-state properties do not fit within standard models and are the subject of active research. Plutonium displays phases with enormous volume differences, and both its Pauli-like magnetic susceptibility and resistivity are an order of magnitude larger than those of simple metals. Curium is also highly resistive, but its susceptibility is Curie-like at high temperatures and orders antiferromagnetically at low temperatures. The anomalous properties of the late actinides stem from the competition between itinerancy and localization of their f-shell electrons, which makes these elements strongly correlated materials. A central problem in this field is to understand the mechanism by which these conflicting tendencies are resolved in such materials. Here we identify the electronic mechanisms responsible for the anomalous behaviour of late actinides, revisiting the concept of valence using a theoretical approach that treats magnetism, Kondo screening, atomic multiplet effects and crystal field splitting on the same footing. We find that the ground state in plutonium is a quantum superposition of two distinct atomic valences, whereas curium settles into a magnetically ordered single valence state at low temperatures. The f(7) configuration of curium is contrasted with the multiple valences of the plutonium ground state, which we characterize by a valence histogram. The balance between the Kondo screening and magnetism is controlled by the competition between spin-orbit coupling, the strength of atomic multiplets and the degree of itinerancy. Our approach highlights the electronic origin of the bonding anomalies in plutonium, and can be applied to predict generalized valences and the presence or absence of magnetism in other compounds starting from first principles. PMID:17392780

  2. Fluctuating valence in a correlated solid and the anomalous properties of ?-plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. H.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.

    2007-03-01

    Although the nuclear properties of the late actinides (plutonium, americium and curium) are fully understood and widely applied to energy generation, their solid-state properties do not fit within standard models and are the subject of active research. Plutonium displays phases with enormous volume differences, and both its Pauli-like magnetic susceptibility and resistivity are an order of magnitude larger than those of simple metals. Curium is also highly resistive, but its susceptibility is Curie-like at high temperatures and orders antiferromagnetically at low temperatures. The anomalous properties of the late actinides stem from the competition between itinerancy and localization of their f-shell electrons, which makes these elements strongly correlated materials. A central problem in this field is to understand the mechanism by which these conflicting tendencies are resolved in such materials. Here we identify the electronic mechanisms responsible for the anomalous behaviour of late actinides, revisiting the concept of valence using a theoretical approach that treats magnetism, Kondo screening, atomic multiplet effects and crystal field splitting on the same footing. We find that the ground state in plutonium is a quantum superposition of two distinct atomic valences, whereas curium settles into a magnetically ordered single valence state at low temperatures. The f7 configuration of curium is contrasted with the multiple valences of the plutonium ground state, which we characterize by a valence histogram. The balance between the Kondo screening and magnetism is controlled by the competition between spin-orbit coupling, the strength of atomic multiplets and the degree of itinerancy. Our approach highlights the electronic origin of the bonding anomalies in plutonium, and can be applied to predict generalized valences and the presence or absence of magnetism in other compounds starting from first principles.

  3. Features of the discharging characteristics of button-type lithium cells with copper oxide cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Kuksenko, S.P.; Danilin, V.V.; Skakal`skii, A.I.

    1993-01-20

    The problem of correlation of the basic parameters of 1.5 V button-type lithium cells is discussed. It is shown that the efficiency of such cells is determined, in particular, by the magnitude of the equilibrium potential difference between the electrodes which, for the Li-CuO system, is close to the open-circuit voltage of the silver-zinc cell system. It is determined that there is no dynamic self-charging of the cells with copper oxide cathodes during electromechanical loading of wristwatches. It is shown that, for the cells, it is typical to have a relatively low internal resistance during the course of discharging and virtually no swelling.

  4. Arthroscopic fixation with intra-articular button for tibial intercondylar eminence fractures in skeletally immature patients.

    PubMed

    Memisoglu, Kaya; Muezzinoglu, Umit S; Atmaca, Halil; Sarman, Hakan; Kesemenli, Cumhur C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experiences with arthroscopy-guided intra-articular button fixation in the treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures in skeletally immature children. Eleven adolescent patients with an average age of 12.2 years were treated arthroscopically between January 2005 and February 2007. At follow-up evaluation at 69 months, we did not find any instability. Only minimal differences were found in the functional outcomes (Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores: 95.7 and 94.3, respectively). None of the patients had a leg-length discrepancy defined at the time of the final follow-up. The advantages of this technique are as follows: (a) it is a simple and reliable arthroscopic technique with a direct view, (b) the fixation is stable, PMID:26340367

  5. Watch-top text-entry: Can phone-style predictive text-entry work with only 5 buttons?

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    alphabetic buttons and a central space key. The study includes a technical evaluation of likely error rates.f. handwriting (e.g. Graffiti), many-key soft-keyboards (e.g see [3]), or gesture input (e.g. T-Cube or Cirrin [6, followed by UVWXYZ, NOPQRST, ABCDEFG then GHIJKLM at which point HUMAN would be suggested as the most

  6. Welcome Center Garage Special Event Parking Request (please complete all sections of form before clicking Submit by Email button)

    E-print Network

    Dranishnikov, Alexander

    clicking Submit by Email button) Event Date Event Name Event Host Contact Information Event Time NumberWelcome Center Garage Special Event Parking Request (please complete all sections of form before of Spaces Requested (20 space minimum required) GARAGE RESERVATION FEE SCHEDULE Event reservations occurring

  7. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushrooms on host resistance to influenza infection and immune function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we showed that mice fed white button mushrooms (WBM) had enhanced immune functions known to help the body’s antiviral defense. In this study, we tested if WBM could afford protection against viral infection. Young (4-mo) and old (22-mo) C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0, 2 per cen...

  9. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  10. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  11. Hot-Button Issues for Teachers: What Every Educator Needs to Know About Leadership, Testing, Textbooks, Vouchers, and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vairo, Philip D.; Marcus, Sheldon; Weiner, Max

    2007-01-01

    One of the tragedies of American education is that so many teachers do not understand or are unaware of educational issues and how they impact on their profession. There is a gap between teacher perceptions and reality and this book is a first step in closing that gap. Hot-Button Issues for Teachers is a timely, comprehensive book that addresses…

  12. EXTERNAL PRACTICUM INFORMATION SHEET Please fill out the information requested and return to via the email button above, or return

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    the email button above, or return to: Counseling Psychology Practicum Coordinator Texas Tech University, Department of Psychology, MS 42051 Lubbock, TX 79409-2051 Primary Supervisor Information Name Degree: Address of Placement (check all that apply) School Detention Center Community Agency Neuropsychiatry Jail or Prison

  13. ECE 271 Microcomputer Architecture and Applications________________________________________University of Maine Lab 1: Interfacing Push-button and LED

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yifeng

    to send out SOS in Morse code (···­ ­ ­ ···) if the user button is pressed. #12;ECE 271 Microcomputer. It is free but limits your data and code to 32 KB, which is not an issue for all homework and lab assignments cool. The following gives a few examples but you are not limited to this. Creative ideas are always

  14. Plasma Interactions with a Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Greg; Martin, Elijah; Bourham, Mohamed

    2004-11-01

    The impaction of the plasma generated in inertial confinement fusion on a liquid metal wall in the target chamber, of a NIF type design, can produce sputtering of particulate matter. In order to best engineer the design of the target chamber we will be modeling the plume characteristics of an arc-generated plasma interacting with a liquid metal substrate. Once characteristic of our experiment are made the results will be scaled using multiple parameters for comparison to NIF. Our experimental setup is contained in a device named AGEIS: within the AGEIS chamber we generate pulsed copper plasma between two electrodes with a large capacitor bank at 20 Torr. Positioned below the generated plasma is our target substrate the liquid lead pool and above are located mirror finish aluminum collection buttons. The height and geometric configurations of the collection buttons is changed to produce a model of the plume generated from the liquid metal. Analyzing images of the buttons surface in the NIH code J-Image produces both particulate density and size. Along with this data of the plume we record for each of our shots the electrical data of the plasma along with the spectrum. This data allows for the calculation of plasma parameters used for scaling.

  15. Study and analysis of the stress state in a ceramic, button-head, tensile specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, M.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Martin, R.L.; Jenkins, V.T.; Tennery, V.J.

    1991-09-01

    The final results are reported for a study to identify and correct the causes of nongage-section failures (notably button-head failures) in ceramic tensile specimens observed in several laboratories. Numerical modeling of several candidate specimen gripping systems has shown inherent stress concentrations near the specimen button head at which the maximum stress may approach 75 to 100% of the gage-section stress for certain grip conditions. Empirical comparisons of both tapered- and straight-collet gripping systems revealed compromises in both systems. The straight-collet system, with deformable collets, is simpler to use but produces statistically significant greater average percent bending for all tests than those produced for the tapered-collet system, which is slightly more difficult to use. Empirical tensile tests of {approximately}50 aluminium oxide and {approximately}50 silicon nitride specimens were conducted to evaluate the loading capability of both gripping systems, the percent bending in each system, and the potential of consistently producing successful test results. These tests revealed that, due to variations in individuals specimens or the individual specimen/grip interfaces, neither of the gripping systems can consistently produce bending of less than 3 to 4% at failure although occasional values of {approximately}0.5% bending were attained. Refinements of grinding procedures and dimensional measurement techniques have shown critical details in both the practices and consistency of machining necessary for achieving the dimensional tolerances while minimizing subsurface damage. Numerical integration techniques indicate that up to a consistent 5.0% bending during fast- fracture tests can be tolerated before large influences are detected in the determination of the Weibull modulus and the Weibull characteristic strength.

  16. Determination of airborne wood dust in Button samples by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Cheol-Woong; Chirila, Madalina M.; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Rando, Roy J.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the toxicity of inhaled wood dust support the need for techniques to quantitate wood content of mixed industrial dusts. The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis technique was applied to the determination of wood content of 181 inhalable dust samples (geometric mean concentration: 0.895 mg/m3; geometric standard deviation: 2.73) collected from six wood product industry factories using 25mm glass fibre filters with the Button aerosol sampler. Prior to direct DRIFTS analysis the filter samples were treated with ethyl acetate and re-deposited uniformly. Standards ranging from 125 ?g to 4000 ?g were prepared for red oak, southern yellow pine, and red cedar and used for quantitation of samples depending upon the wood materials present at a given factory. The oak standards spectra were quantitated by linear regression of response in Kubelka-Munk units at 1736 cm?1, whereas the pine standards and the cedar standards spectra were quantitated by polynomial regression of response in log 1/R units at 1734 cm?1, with the selected wavenumbers corresponding to stretching vibration of free C=O from cellulose and hemicelluloses. For one factory which used both soft- and hardwoods, a separate polynomial standard curve was created by proportionally combining the oak and pine standards polynomial regression equations based on response (log 1/R) at 1734 cm?1. The analytical limits of detection were approximately 52 ?g of oak, 20 ?g of pine, 30 ?g of cedar, and 16 ?g of mixed oak and pine for the factory with mixed woods. Overall, the average of dry wood dust percentage of inhalable dust was approximately 56% and the average dry wood dust weight was 0.572mg for the Button samples. Across factories, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.001) for the percentage of dry wood dust in inhalable dust with factory averages ranging from 33.5 to 97.6%. PMID:26526539

  17. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-12-19

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  18. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. Dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitina, G.P.; Zhukova, I.N.; Egorova, V.P.

    1995-07-01

    Two alternative procedures of the electrochemical dissolution of plasmothermal plutonium dioxide in nitric acid were studied: reductive dissolution in the presence of U(IV) stabilized by hydrazine and dissolution in hot nitric acid at the alternating current supply. The current field accelerates dissolution of PuO{sub 2}.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

  2. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  3. Method for calibration of plutonium NDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.

  4. PLUTONIUM SPECIATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND MIGRATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DOE is currently conducting cleanup activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium (Pu) in soils for 50 years. There is scientific uncertainty about the levels of risk to human health posed by this accumulation and whether Pu is ...

  5. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  6. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  7. The 871 keV gamma ray from 17O and the identification of plutonium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peurrung, Anthony; Arthur, Richard; Elovich, Robert; Geelhood, Bruce; Kouzes, Richard; Pratt, Sharon; Scheele, Randy; Sell, Richard

    2001-12-01

    Disarmament agreements and discussions between the United States and the Russian Federation for reducing the number of stockpiled nuclear weapons require verification of the origin of materials as having come from disassembled weapons. This has resulted in the identification of measurable "attributes" that characterize such materials. It has been proposed that the 871 keV gamma ray of 17O can be observed as an indicator of the unexpected presence of plutonium oxide, as opposed to plutonium metal, in such materials. We have shown that the observation of the 871 keV gamma ray is not a specific indicator of the presence of the oxide, but rather indicates the presence of nitrogen.

  8. Determination of the shape of a plutonium deposit from a leaking crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C.W.; Clarksean, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical model was developed which predicts that the leak rate (or drip rate) of molten plutonium onto a substrate must be low in order for plutonium to solidify into a problematical hemispherical shape. The heat transfer to the substrate is the significant factor in how quickly the fuel solidifies. Analysis and experiment show that for a given substrate, the deposit center height is independent of the leakrate. A good conductor, such as copper on the bottom of a fuel casting furnace, will conduct heat away quickly and tend to cause the fuel to form into a hemisphere. A good insulator on the other hand, will keepthe metal molten to allow it to spreads out and solidify as a flat disk. Higher substrate temperatures inhibit the undesirable hemispherical shape. Experiments conducted were in good agreement with the an analytical model.

  9. Determination of the shape of a plutonium deposit from a leaking crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C.W.; Clarksean, R.

    1993-03-01

    An analytical model was developed which predicts that the leak rate (or drip rate) of molten plutonium onto a substrate must be low in order for plutonium to solidify into a problematical hemispherical shape. The heat transfer to the substrate is the significant factor in how quickly the fuel solidifies. Analysis and experiment show that for a given substrate, the deposit center height is independent of the leakrate. A good conductor, such as copper on the bottom of a fuel casting furnace, will conduct heat away quickly and tend to cause the fuel to form into a hemisphere. A good insulator on the other hand, will keepthe metal molten to allow it to spreads out and solidify as a flat disk. Higher substrate temperatures inhibit the undesirable hemispherical shape. Experiments conducted were in good agreement with the an analytical model.

  10. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried

    2010-02-01

    In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months earlier. This visit began a 17-year, 41 journey relationship with the Russian nuclear complex dedicated to working with them in partnership to protect and safeguard their weapons and fissile materials, while addressing the plight of their scientists and engineers. In the process, we solved a forty-year disagreement about the plutonium-gallium phase diagram and began a series of fundamental plutonium science workshops that are now in their tenth year. At the Yonbyon reprocessing facility in January 2004, my North Korean hosts had hoped to convince me that they have a nuclear deterrent. When I expressed skepticism, they asked if I wanted to see their ``product.'' I asked if they meant the plutonium; they replied, ``Well, yes.'' Thus, I wound up holding 200 grams of North Korean plutonium (in a sealed glass jar) to make sure it was heavy and warm. So began the first of my six journeys to North Korea to provide technical input to the continuing North Korean nuclear puzzle. In Trombay and Kalpakkam a few years later I visited the Indian nuclear research centers to try to understand how India's ambitious plans for nuclear power expansion can be accomplished safely and securely. I will describe these and other attempts to deal with the nonproliferation legacy of the cold war and the new challenges ahead. )

  12. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long-term accumulation of radiation damage as a function of the thermal period of a geologic repository. As an example, with a 10 wt.% loading of 239Pu, Gd2Ti2O7 will become amorphous in less than 1,000 years, while Gd2Zr2O7 will persist as a disordered defect fluorite structure. Thus, the radiation stability of different pyrochlores is closely related to the structural distortions that occur for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. This understanding provides the basis for designing materials for the safe, long-term immobilization and sequestration of actinides.

  13. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore »and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  14. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  15. REACTIONS OF SODIUM PEROXIDE WITH COMPONENTS OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Missimer, D.; Crowder, M.

    2011-10-04

    Plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) calcined at >900 C resists dissolution in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3})-potassium fluoride (KF) solutions, a common method for their dissolution. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an alternate method for large samples of PuO{sub 2}-bearing materials using sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fusion as a pretreatment. The products of the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature. As part of the SRNL development effort, additional data about the reaction between Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} were required. Also needed were data concerning the reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} with other components that may be present in the feed materials. Sodium peroxide was reacted with aluminum metal (Al), beryllium metal (Be), graphite, potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The paper reports and discusses the reaction products of these and related compounds with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  16. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W; Burney, G A; Reilly, T A; Wilson, T W; McKibben, J M

    1980-01-01

    After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP.

  17. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  18. A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    1998-05-18

    As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning.

  19. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Jones, Susan A.

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers occurs only if they are physically proximal in solution or the plutonium present in the solid phase is intimately mixed with compounds or solutions of these absorbers. No information on the potential chemical interaction of plutonium with cadmium was found in the technical literature. Definitive evidence of sorption or adsorption of plutonium onto various solid phases from strongly alkaline media is less clear-cut, perhaps owing to fewer studies and to some well-attributed tests run under conditions exceeding the very low solubility of plutonium. The several studies that are well-founded show that only about half of the plutonium is adsorbed from waste solutions onto sludge solid phases. The organic complexants found in many Hanford tank waste solutions seem to decrease plutonium uptake onto solids. A number of studies show plutonium sorbs effectively onto sodium titanate. Finally, this report presents findings describing the behavior of plutonium vis-à-vis other elements during sludge dissolution in nitric acid based on Hanford tank waste experience gained by lab-scale tests, chemical and radiochemical sample characterization, and full-scale processing in preparation for strontium-90 recovery from PUREX sludges.

  20. The plutonium problem: the Royal Society sits on the fence.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    A recent Royal Society report, Management of Separated Plutonium, considers the production and disposal of plutonium from the spent fuel from civil and nuclear power reactors. It accepts the need for dealing with plutonium stocks because of the toxicity of the element and as it can be used to fabricate nuclear weapons, and expresses concern that it might be illicitly acquired by terrorists. It recommends an independent Government commission on the management of plutonium, and considers the various options for this. However, it does not analyse the arguments against plutonium as a reactor fuel, and underestimates the risks of diversion to nuclear weapons and nuclear terrorism. This paper reviews the options, and concludes that separated plutonium should be added to high-level waste, vitrified, and eventually buried in a deep geological repository. PMID:9772826

  1. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  2. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  3. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  4. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  5. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. 71.23 Section...23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a) A...fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form...

  6. Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Weijn, Amrah; Baars, Johan J P; Mes, Jurriaan J; Visser, Richard G F; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2015-04-01

    White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H(2): 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31% phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44% variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54% variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom. PMID:25881912

  7. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  8. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  9. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Jackson, J. W.; Boerigter, S. T.; Averill, W. A.; Fasel, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  10. Plutonium utilisation in future UK PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G. M.; Worrall, A.

    2006-07-01

    Plutonium recycling in the form of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels is already a reality in over 30 reactors in Europe (in Belgium, Switzerland, Germany and France). Japan also plans to use MOX in approximately 30% of its reactors in the near future[1]. This paper describes potential near to mid-term disposition strategies for the United Kingdom's stockpile of plutonium. In order to be confident that MOX fuel can be utilised effectively in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) in the UK, details are given of studies carried out recently at Nexia Solutions on PWR cores loaded with MOX containing typical UK plutonium isotopic compositions. Three dimensional steady state neutronic models of a standard Westinghouse four loop PWR design are constructed using state of the art tools (Studsvik of America's Core Management System[2, 3, 4]). Initially, a standard 18-month equilibrium UO{sub 2} fuel cycle is generated, followed by safety analyses and fuel performance calculations to demonstrate its feasibility. This equilibrium UO{sub 2} core is then gradually transitioned through loading patterns containing increasing MOX core loading fractions. Finally, an equilibrium MOX core loading pattern is determined. Technical safety analyses are also carried out on the transition cores and the final equilibrium scenario to ensure that all of the MOX cores are robust from a technical and safety viewpoint. Once these studies are completed the annual fuel throughputs for each scenario can be determined and used to produce options for managing the UK's plutonium stockpile. This work is part of a wider exercise currently being carried out by Nexia Solutions to explore the options for the safe disposition of the UK civil stockpile of separated PUO{sub 2}. (authors)

  11. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  12. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  13. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  14. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  16. The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, D E; Palmer, P D; Newton, T W

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. New nuclear safe plutonium ceramic compositions with neutron poisons for plutonium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadykto, B. A.; Timofeeva, L. F.

    2000-07-01

    A complex of works is conducted to study the possibility of reprocessing surplus weapon-grade plutonium to a critical-mass-free composition with neutron poison. Nuclear safe ceramic compositions of PuO2 with four most efficient neutron poisons, Hf, Gd, Li, and B, are fabricated in the laboratory. Various methods for fabrication of the compositions with PuO2 depending on neutron poison element are used and studied: a — by sintering initial component powders; b — by impregnation of a porous skeleton made of neutron poison oxide with plutonium sol-gel; c — by sintering microspheres made of plutonium oxide with neutron poison (B4C), with the microspheres having a coating completely absorbing alpha particles.

  18. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public.

  19. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  20. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Bipolar button-electrode plasma vaporization of the prostate: An effective option for patients with post-brachytherapy retention

    PubMed Central

    LIN, YIWEI; LIU, BEN; XIE, LIPING

    2015-01-01

    Urinary retention is a common urinary complication following brachytherapy for prostate cancer. When conservative therapy has failed, surgical intervention, such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), is performed. In the present case, it was found that conventional bipolar TURP was an inappropriate choice of therapy, since the electrical loop could easily rupture and discharge sparks when encountering the seeds intraoperatively; however, bipolar button-electrode plasma vaporization of the prostate was proven to be a much safer technique. The ‘button-type’ electrode, which has a larger contacting surface, was firm enough to tolerate the transient high levels of energy generated by the short circuit and enable the safe completion of the procedure.

  2. Supplementary data for "Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    Supplementary data for "Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium equilibrium geometries of plutonium and americium oxide molecules (standard .xyz files separated by empty

  3. Physiology-based modelling in radiation research: the biokinetics of plutonium.

    PubMed

    Schimmelpfeng, Jutta

    2009-09-01

    For many years, the biokinetics of radioactive substances was calculated on the basis of mathematical criteria only. Biokinetic compartments in most cases did not correspond to anatomically defined distribution areas in an organism but were operational values. However, the quality of the resulting models depends on how accurately their assumptions reflect reality. Ideally, a biokinetic model develops which reproduces reality. In the past few years, this need has resulted increasingly in physiological operational sequences being modelled in realistic anatomical structures of the body along with physicochemical parameters. In this study, an estimate of the biokinetic operational sequence after an incorporation of plutonium is made similar to the pharmacokinetics of a substance showing comparable chemical and physiological behaviours in the body. These behaviours are found for metals, iron and aluminium. Thus, comparison of the biokinetics of plutonium with the pharmacokinetics of aluminium results in some commonalities and some differences. A new model with physiological compartments for plutonium is presented on the basis of the biokinetics of aluminium. PMID:19689951

  4. Melting point determination of uranium nitride and uranium plutonium nitride: A laser heating study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal Nunez, U.; Prieur, D.; Bohler, R.; Manara, D.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding of the behaviour of nuclear material in extreme conditions is essential for the analyses of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reaction accidents. In this context, the high temperature behaviour of uranium nitride and mixed uranium-plutonium nitrides has been studied in the present work by laser heating under controlled atmosphere coupled with fast multi-wavelength pyrometry. Such an approach has allowed performing a thermal arrest analysis and establishing the solid-liquid phase boundaries in the investigated compositions, whereby non-congruent vaporisation was avoided by setting a suitable nitrogen overpressure. In addition, the normal spectral emissivities of the current samples were determined by radiance spectroscopy. Besides revealing a slightly more metallic optical behaviour in plutonium-containing compositions, this latter characterisation led to the determination of the real melting/solidification temperatures of the investigated nitrides. It is confirmed that UN melts congruently at (3120 ± 30) K in a nitrogen pressure of 0.25 MPa (2.5 bar). The melting/solidification temperatures decrease in plutonium containing samples, reaching (3045 ± 25) K for x(PuN) = 0.2, a composition of interest for potential applications of this material as a nuclear fuel. Besides their fundamental importance, the current results are useful for a deeper understanding of the nitride fuel behaviour under accidental conditions, whereby uncontrolled thermal excursions might occur in the nuclear reactor core.

  5. Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2012-01-01

    A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

  6. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

  7. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains. PMID:25892920

  8. Documentation of Short Stack and Button Cell Experiments Performed at INL and Ceramatec during FY07

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. J. Hartvigsen; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report provides documentation of experimental research activities performed at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. during FY07 under the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, High Temperature Electrolysis Program. The activities discussed in this report include tests on single (button) cells, short planar stacks and tubular cells. The objectives of these small-scale tests are to evaluate advanced electrode, electrolyte, and interconnect materials, alternate modes of operation (e.g., coelectrolysis), and alternate cell geometries over a broad range of operating conditions, with the aim of identifying the most promising material et, cell and stack geometry, and operating conditions for the high-temperature electrolysis application. Cell performance is characterized in erms of initial area-specific resistance and long-term stability in the electrolysis mode. Some of the tests were run in the coelectrolysis mode. Research into coelectrolysis was funded by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD). Coelectrolysis simultaneously converts steam to hydrogen and carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. This process is complicated by the reverse shift reaction. An equilibrium model was developed to predict outlet compositions of steam, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide resulting from coelectrolysis. Predicted ompositions were compared to measurements obtained with a precision micro-channel gas chromatograph.

  9. Genome-wide survey of repetitive DNA elements in the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Murat, Claude; Castanera, Raúl; Ramírez, Lucía; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2013-06-01

    Repetitive DNA elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. The biological roles of these repetitive elements, supposed to impact genome organization and evolution, are not completely elucidated yet. The availability of whole genome sequence offers the opportunity to draw a picture of the genome-wide distribution of these elements and provide insights into potential mechanisms of genome plasticity. The present study uses in silico approaches to describe tandem repeats and transposable elements distribution in the genome of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Transposable elements comprised 12.43% of the assembled genome, and 66% of them were found clustered in the centromeric or telomeric regions. Methylation of retrotransposon has been demonstrated. A total of 1996 mini-, 4062 micro-, and 37 satellites motifs were identified. The microsatellites appeared widely and evenly spread over the whole genome sequence, whereas the minisatellites were not randomly distributed. Indeed, minisatellites were found to be associated with transposable elements clusters. Telomeres exhibited a specific sequence with a T(n)AG(n) signature. A comparison between the two available genome sequences of A. bisporus was also performed and sheds light on the genetic divergence between the two varieties. Beyond their role in genome structure, repeats provide a virtually endless source of molecular markers useful for genetic studies in this cultivated species. PMID:23608317

  10. Guidelines for force-travel combinations of push button switches for older populations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Sprigle, S; Sharit, J

    1998-04-01

    Current demographic trends indicating that older persons will comprise an increasingly larger proportion of our population points to the need for paying closer attention to age-related disabilities in designing products and environments capable of accommodating this population. This study addresses the development of design guidelines for push-button switches associated with a variety of consumer products commonly used by older persons. Three groups, each consisting of 12 male and female subjects, participated in the study, with all subjects over the age of 50 and the average age being 70 years. The groups were categorized on the basis of whether subjects were able-bodied, had arthritis affecting their hands or fingers, or had hand tremor; these categories were validated through the use of functional assessment tools. A scheme was developed to categorize commercially available switches based on force-travel combinations, and an experiment was conducted to assess the subject's ability to momentarily and continuously operate the switches, as well as to derive the subjective preferences for these switches. Based on observations from behavioral strategies, and graphical and statistical analysis of preferences, a set of design guidelines was proposed to enable consumer product designers and manufacturers to better accommodate the needs of both able-bodied and functionally impaired older adults. PMID:9763234

  11. Parallel Single Cancer Cell Whole Genome Amplification Using Button-Valve Assisted Mixing in Nanoliter Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonsun; Swennenhuis, Joost F.; Rho, Hoon Suk; Le Gac, Séverine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneity of tumor cells and their alteration during the course of the disease urges the need for real time characterization of individual tumor cells to improve the assessment of treatment options. New generations of therapies are frequently associated with specific genetic alterations driving the need to determine the genetic makeup of tumor cells. Here, we present a microfluidic device for parallel single cell whole genome amplification (pscWGA) to obtain enough copies of a single cell genome to probe for the presence of treatment targets and the frequency of its occurrence among the tumor cells. Individual cells were first captured and loaded into eight parallel amplification units. Next, cells were lysed on a chip and their DNA amplified through successive introduction of dedicated reagents while mixing actively with the help of integrated button-valves. The reaction chamber volume for scWGA 23.85 nl, and starting from 6–7 pg DNA contained in a single cell, around 8 ng of DNA was obtained after WGA, representing over 1000-fold amplification. The amplified products from individual breast cancer cells were collected from the device to either directly investigate the amplification of specific genes by qPCR or for re-amplification of the DNA to obtain sufficient material for whole genome sequencing. Our pscWGA device provides sufficient DNA from individual cells for their genetic characterization, and will undoubtedly allow for automated sample preparation for single cancer cell genomic characterization. PMID:25233459

  12. Relationship between indoor and outdoor bioaerosols collected with a button inhalable aerosol sampler in urban homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Martuzevicius, D.; Adhikari, A.; Crawford, C. M.; Luo, J.; Reponen, T.

    2007-01-01

    This field study investigated the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne actinomycetes, fungal spores, and pollen. Air samples were collected for 24 h with a button inhalable aerosol sampler inside and outside of six single-family homes located in the Cincinnati area (overall, 15 pairs of samples were taken in each home). The measurements were conducted during three seasons – spring and fall 2004, and winter 2005. The concentration of culturable actinomycetes was mostly below the detection limit. The median indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O) for actinomycetes was the highest: 2.857. The indoor of fungal and pollen concentrations followed the outdoor concentrations while indoor levels were mostly lower than the outdoor ones. The I/O ratio of total fungal spores (median = 0.345) in six homes was greater than that of pollen grains (median = 0.025). The low I/O ratios obtained for pollen during the peak ambient pollination season (spring) suggest that only a small fraction penetrated from outdoor to indoor environment. This is attributed to the larger size of pollen grains. Higher indoor concentration levels and variability in the I/O ratio observed for airborne fungi may be associated with indoor sources and/or higher outdoor-to-indoor penetration of fungal spores compared to pollen grains. PMID:16420496

  13. Shielded button electrodes for time-resolved measurements of electron cloud buildup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crittenden, J. A.; Billing, M. G.; Li, Y.; Palmer, M. A.; Sikora, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design, deployment and signal analysis for shielded button electrodes sensitive to electron cloud buildup at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These simple detectors, derived from a beam-position monitor electrode design, have provided detailed information on the physical processes underlying the local production and the lifetime of electron densities in the storage ring. Digitizing oscilloscopes are used to record electron fluxes incident on the vacuum chamber wall in 1024 time steps of 100 ps or more. The fine time steps provide a detailed characterization of the cloud, allowing the independent estimation of processes contributing on differing time scales and providing sensitivity to the characteristic kinetic energies of the electrons making up the cloud. By varying the spacing and population of electron and positron beam bunches, we map the time development of the various cloud production and re-absorption processes. The excellent reproducibility of the measurements also permits the measurement of long-term conditioning of vacuum chamber surfaces.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Tajalli, Faezeh; Malekzadeh, Khalil; Soltanian, Hadi; Janpoor, Javad; Rezaeian, Sharareh; Pourianfar, Hamid R.

    2015-01-01

    The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation. PMID:26413059

  15. Characteristics of a Hydrated, Alginate-Based Delivery System for Cultivation of the Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Romaine, C. P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.

    1992-01-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. Images PMID:16348774

  16. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5log and 0.5log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. PMID:26616972

  17. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural colloid transport in all re-injections. The data will be discussed in terms of natural colloid properties, including size distribution and electrokinetic properties, as well as the reactive transport behavior of Pu and Cs. We will also discuss the implications of the results for colloid-mediated contaminant transport, management of contaminated sites and forensic data interpretation.

  18. CHEMOX: An integrated facility for the conversion of Russian weapon-grade plutonium into oxide for MOX fuel fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagovski, E.; Kolotilov, Y.; Sicard, B.; Josso, F.; Fraize, G.; Herlet, N.; Villa, A.; Brossard, P.

    2000-07-01

    In the frame of the trilateral agreement between Russia, Germany and France, the CHEMOX (chemistry from metal into oxide) facility is proposed for the conversion of the alloyed plutonium coming from the dismantling of nuclear pits into an oxide suitable for MOX fuel fabrication and irradiation in VVER- or BN-type reactors. For the CHEMOX facility an aqueous conversion process has been chosen for its versatility, and compatibility with known technologies and with existing on-site treatment facilities.

  19. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  20. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  1. The Role of Piece Monitors for the Assay of Plutonium Waste in Alpha Plant Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.; Mullarkey, P.; Orr, C.H.H.; Sharpe, J.; Carr, E.

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium contaminated (TRU) wastes arising during decommissioning and waste retrievals operations at a UK reprocessing facility include small process items, strippable coatings, size-reduced pieces of glove box and metal pipes, etc. These waste materials are generally assayed in a 'Piece Monitor' employing neutron coincidence counting and gamma assay technologies. The major function of the TRU D{sup R} Piece Monitor is to provide an accurate assay of the TRU content of waste pieces/packages, primarily for nuclear safety purposes. The Piece Monitor follows each waste measurement by calculating the cumulative plutonium content of a waste drum as it is filled with this waste, allowing maximum filling of the drum whilst ensuring it remains within fissile content limits. TRU Piece Monitors are deployed at the interface between clean-air (C2) and the active decommissioning (C5) areas by attaching them to the wall of removable modular containment structures (MCSs). In the C5 area, the plant operator uses a variety of cold-cutting processes to size-reduce plant equipment and then places waste items in the monitor chamber for assay, prior to placing the waste in a 200 litre drum. The 're-entrant bulge' design of the assay chamber provides access from the active operations side, whilst the detection equipment remains in the C2 area. This ensures that the Piece Monitor equipment does not become contaminated and remains readily accessible for maintenance or repair. Piece monitors measure and report the plutonium content of each waste item immediately prior to placing in the waste drum, and provides a continuous 'tally' of the drum content. Warnings are shown when a drum is close to exceeding its allowable plutonium content and the waste drum can therefore be changed when either physically full or nearing its nuclear safety limits. (authors)

  2. Destructive analysis capabilities for plutonium and uranium characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Kuhn, Kevin J; Drake, Lawrence R; Decker, Diana L; Walker, Laurie F; Colletti, Lisa M; Spencer, Khalil J; Peterson, Dominic S; Herrera, Jaclyn A; Wong, Amy S

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Actinide Analytical Chemistry (AAC) group has been in existence since the Manhattan Project. It maintains a complete set of analytical capabilities for performing complete characterization (elemental assay, isotopic, metallic and non metallic trace impurities) of uranium and plutonium samples in different forms. For a majority of the customers there are strong quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) objectives including highest accuracy and precision with well defined uncertainties associated with the analytical results. Los Alamos participates in various international and national programs such as the Plutonium Metal Exchange Program, New Brunswick Laboratory's (NBL' s) Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SME) and several other inter-laboratory round robin exercises to monitor and evaluate the data quality generated by AAC. These programs also provide independent verification of analytical measurement capabilities, and allow any technical problems with analytical measurements to be identified and corrected. This presentation will focus on key analytical capabilities for destructive analysis in AAC and also comparative data between LANL and peer groups for Pu assay and isotopic analysis.

  3. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  4. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H; Narlesky, Joshua E; Worl, Laura A; Gillispie, Obie W

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  5. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS FROM SOIL CONTAINING PLUTONIUM-238 DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for ...

  6. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Anthony P. (San Jose, CA); Stachowski, Russell E. (Fremont, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced.

  7. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  8. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium...

  9. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium...

  11. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium...

  12. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... part, and in which the radioactivity is essentially uniformly distributed; or (3) The plutonium...

  13. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  14. 25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  15. 26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. ANNUAL REPORT. PLUTONIUM SPECIATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND MIGRATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work performed in the first year of a three-year project. In this year we are focusing on the following: 1) the interactions between plutonium compounds and redox active iron and manganese minerals, 2) the interactions between plutonium compounds and sedime...

  17. Residue behaviour of six pesticides in button crimini during home canning.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengqiang; Liu, Xingang; Gu, Xiaojun; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuanbo; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of home canning (including washing, boiling, cooling, adding solution and sterilisation) on residue levels of imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin, pyriproxyfen and ?-cypermethrin and chlorothalonilin on button crimini was assessed. Residues of imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin and pyriproxyfen were measured by UPLC-MS/MS; the residues of ?-cypermethrin and chlorothalonil were measured by GC. Results showed that washing resulted in a 3.8% reduction of the initial residue level of imidacloprid (p ? 0.05). From washing to sterilisation the processing effect was significant compared with raw crimini (p ? 0.05), but processing through cooling and adding solution had no effect. For diflubenzuron, from raw crimini to sterilisation the processing effect was significant by comparison with the initial level (p ? 0.05); the processing effect was not obvious between two sequential steps, and the sequential steps have list: washing and boiling, boiling and cooling, boiling and adding of solution, cooling and adding solution. The changes in abamectin levels were also significant from raw crimini to sterilisation compared with raw crimini (p ? 0.05), but the changes were not obvious from boiling to adding solution and amongst them. For pyriproxyfen, washing resulted in a 39% reduction, but changes were not obvious from washing to sterilisation, p ? 0.05 between two consecutive steps. The whole procedure could significantly decrease residues of ?-cypermethrin (p ? 0.05); washing could significantly reduce residues of ?-cypermethrin; the effects of last procedures were complicated, and p ? 0.05 between two consecutive steps. Washing resulted in an 80% reduction of chlorothalonil; after washing there were no detectable residues. After the whole process, the processing factors for imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin, pyriproxyfen, ?-cypermethrin and chlorothalonil were 0.40, 0.22, 0.04, 0.85, 0.28 and 0, respectively. PMID:24761834

  18. SYNTHESIS OF NEW WATER-SOLUBLE METAL-BINDING POLYMERS: COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of metals that require removal and concentration exist in DOE waste, ground, or process waters. These can include, for example, RCRA metals such as mercury in mixed waste, valuable metals such as copper in acid mine drainage, actinides in plutonium processing facilities...

  19. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility implementation support project report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ford, W.; Hsue, S.T.; Marshall, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    During FY 1981 the TA-55 Implementation Support Project provided assistance to the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility in materials accounting and control, including testing and evaluation of a solution mass measurement system, development and testing of a low-level plutonium assay system, holdup measurements, instrument design, and advice and consultation following the observation of semiannual inventories. This report describes the program envisioned for FY 1982, including demonstration of the solution mass measurement system and the associated calibration system, extension of the low-level plutonium assay system to solutions with americium/plutonium ratios of 10: to 20:1, and development and demonstration of a method to calibrate and routinely verify the plutonium oxalate assay instrument performance. The FY 1982 program is subject to changes based on TA-55 reevaluation of facility needs.

  20. Modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

    2003-01-01

    An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) including a plutonium scavenging model as well as an advection-diffusion model has been developed for modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean. Calculated 239, 240Pu water profile concentrations and 239, 240Pu inventories in water and sediment of the Pacific Ocean have showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The presence of local fallout plutonium in central North Pacific waters has been confirmed. The observed 240Pu/239Pu mass ratios confirm that plutonium originating from local fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls is more rapidly removed from surface waters to deeper waters than plutonium originating from global fallout. The developed OGCM can be used for modelling the dispersion of other non-conservative tracers in the ocean as well. PMID:12860091

  1. 23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS 771, 776/777, AND 707. BUILDING 771, IN THE FOREGROUND, WAS BUILT IN 1952 TO HOUSE ALL PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. BY 1956, BUILDING 771 WAS NO LONGER ADEQUATE FOR PRODUCTION DEMANDS. BUILDING 776/777, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 771, WAS CONSTRUCTED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM FABRICATION AND FOUNDRY OPERATIONS. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY REMAINED IN BUILDING 771. BY 1967, CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING 707, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 776/777, BEGAN AS PRODUCTION LEVELS CONTINUED TO EXPAND NECESSITATING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL PLUTONIUM FABRICATION SPACE (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Development of characterization of plutonium storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.; Stevkovski, S.

    1999-02-01

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, at least 11,000 (possibly 20,000 or more) plutonium pits are projected to be stored at Pantex for up to fifty years. The current pit container, the ALR8 was not designed for this length of storage duration. As a result, Pantex officials have searched for alternative container options. The objective of this research is to develop and validate a model to predict the temperature distribution within the stored components and the internal structure of the proposed ALR8(SI) container, and to consider and analyze the safety features of the ALR8(SI) container as seen from the thermal performance view. Due to the time scale involved with the current simulations, the radioactive decay of the plutonium may be assumed to provide a uniform rate of heat generation. This heat is conducted to the surroundings through the solid structures of the assembly. In addition to conduction, the inert gas that fills the volume within the steel container convects a fraction of the generated heat from the plutonium to the colder steel surfaces. Radiation must also be accounted for as natural convection and limited conduction paths are present within the container. The research efforts in this project have been directed into two paths, numerical and experimental. First, the temperature distribution within the stored components are being determined experimentally as a function of fill gases, energy generation rate, and boundary conditions. Second, a finite element model of the ALR8 container has been developed so that the temperature distribution can be predicted as a function of the same experimental parameters. This paper presents the experimental method and data that have been obtained thus far, as well as the finite element model created using SDRC I-DEAS.

  3. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  4. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  5. Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J.; Szaniszlo, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

  6. Short-term irradiation behavior of low-density americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels irradiated in a fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Katsuyama, K.; Ikusawa, Y.; Maeda, S.

    2011-09-01

    A short-term irradiation test (B14) was conducted using the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The objective of the test was to investigate the early thermal behavior of americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am-MOX) fuels such as fuel restructuring and redistribution of actinides. Four fuel pins which contained 2.4 wt.% americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am, Pu, U)O 2-x fuels were supplied for testing. Pellet-cladding gap width and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) molar ratio of oxide fuels were determined as experimental parameters. The respective amounts of plutonium and americium in the fuel pellets were 31 and 2.4 wt.%. The fuel pins were irradiated at the maximum linear heating rate of ˜470 W cm -1 in the B14 test. After the irradiation, post-irradiation examinations were conducted. The influences of both pellet-cladding gap width and O/M molar ratio on the fuel restructuring were confirmed, and no fuel melting was observed. Americium and plutonium were similarly redistributed depending on the O/M molar ratio. In the fuel specimen of the highest O/M molar ratio, the difference in contents between americium and plutonium around the central void was significant. From the examination results, the margins to the criteria in the thermal design of the fuel pin would be suitable under the expected operating conditions of a conventional fast breeder reactor.

  7. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  8. Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

  9. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  10. Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S.

    1998-09-01

    Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity.

  11. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  12. Equation of State of Uranium and Plutonium

    E-print Network

    Barroso, Dalton Ellery Girão

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to define the parameters of the three-term equation of state for uranium and plutonium, appropriate for conditions in which these materials are subjected to strong shock compressions, as in cylindrical and spherical implosions. The three-term equation of state takes into account the three components of the pressure that resist to compression in the solid: the elastic or "cold" pressure (coulombian repulsion between atoms), the thermal pressure due to vibratory motion of atoms in the lattice of the solid and the thermal pressure of electrons thermally excited. The equation of state defined here permits also to take into account the variation of the specific heat with the transition of the solid to the liquid or gaseous state due to continued growth of temperature in strong shock compressions. In the definition of uranium equation of state, experimental data on the uranium compression, available in the open scientific literature, are used. In the plutonium case, this element was co...

  13. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Michael W; Abeyta, Cristy

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  14. A comparison of hybrid density functional theory with photoemission of surface oxides of ?-plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, M. T.; Durakiewicz, T.; Prodan, I. D.; Scuseria, G. E.; Guziewicz, E.; Sordo, J. A.; Kudin, K. N.; Martin, R. L.; Joyce, J. J.; Arko, A. J.; Graham, K. S.; Moore, D. P.; Morales, L. A.

    2006-04-01

    We carried out high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies on a gallium stabilized ?-phase plutonium sample cleaned by laser ablation and gas dosed with O 2. The measurements were made at a sample temperature of 77 K with an overall instrument resolution of 60 meV. At this temperature the PES strongly favor an idealized model of Pu 2O 3 growth on the metal surface followed by PuO 2 growth on the Pu 2O 3. These experimental results provide an excellent benchmark for a new generation of hybrid density functional calculations that have been used to model a defective plutonium dioxide lattice. The hybrid functional predicts an insulating ground state. This is of paramount importance for the study of actinide oxides because the conventional density functional theory approaches predict them to be metals, when in fact they are insulators with significant band gaps. The calculated density of states for PuO 2 and Pu 2O 3 agree reasonably well with the experimental data.

  15. An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-03-01

    Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

  16. Global estimation of potential unreported plutonium in thermal research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    As of November, 1993, 303 research reactors (research, test, training, prototype, and electricity producing) were operational worldwide; 155 of these were in non-nuclear weapon states. Of these 155 research reactors, 80 are thermal reactors that have a power rating of 1 MW(th) or greater and could be utilized to produce plutonium. A previously published study on the unreported plutonium production of six research reactors indicates that a minimum reactor power of 40 MW (th) is required to make a significant quantity (SQ), 8 kg, of fissile plutonium per year by unreported irradiations. As part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, we determined an upper bound on the maximum possible quantity of plutonium that could be produced by the 80 thermal research reactors in the non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). We estimate that in one year a maximum of roughly one quarter of a metric ton (250 kg) of plutonium could be produced in these 80 NNWS thermal research reactors based on their reported power output. We have calculated the quantity of plutonium and the number of years that would be required to produce an SQ of plutonium in the 80 thermal research reactors and aggregated by NNWS. A safeguards approach for multiple thermal research reactors that can produce less than 1 SQ per year should be conducted in association with further developing a safeguards and design information reverification approach for states that have multiple research reactors.

  17. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F.

    1998-12-31

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

  18. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  19. The MOLGENIS toolkit: rapid prototyping of biosoftware at the push of a button

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a huge demand on bioinformaticians to provide their biologists with user friendly and scalable software infrastructures to capture, exchange, and exploit the unprecedented amounts of new *omics data. We here present MOLGENIS, a generic, open source, software toolkit to quickly produce the bespoke MOLecular GENetics Information Systems needed. Methods The MOLGENIS toolkit provides bioinformaticians with a simple language to model biological data structures and user interfaces. At the push of a button, MOLGENIS’ generator suite automatically translates these models into a feature-rich, ready-to-use web application including database, user interfaces, exchange formats, and scriptable interfaces. Each generator is a template of SQL, JAVA, R, or HTML code that would require much effort to write by hand. This ‘model-driven’ method ensures reuse of best practices and improves quality because the modeling language and generators are shared between all MOLGENIS applications, so that errors are found quickly and improvements are shared easily by a re-generation. A plug-in mechanism ensures that both the generator suite and generated product can be customized just as much as hand-written software. Results In recent years we have successfully evaluated the MOLGENIS toolkit for the rapid prototyping of many types of biomedical applications, including next-generation sequencing, GWAS, QTL, proteomics and biobanking. Writing 500 lines of model XML typically replaces 15,000 lines of hand-written programming code, which allows for quick adaptation if the information system is not yet to the biologist’s satisfaction. Each application generated with MOLGENIS comes with an optimized database back-end, user interfaces for biologists to manage and exploit their data, programming interfaces for bioinformaticians to script analysis tools in R, Java, SOAP, REST/JSON and RDF, a tab-delimited file format to ease upload and exchange of data, and detailed technical documentation. Existing databases can be quickly enhanced with MOLGENIS generated interfaces using the ‘ExtractModel’ procedure. Conclusions The MOLGENIS toolkit provides bioinformaticians with a simple model to quickly generate flexible web platforms for all possible genomic, molecular and phenotypic experiments with a richness of interfaces not provided by other tools. All the software and manuals are available free as LGPLv3 open source at http://www.molgenis.org. PMID:21210979

  20. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  2. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

  3. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

  4. Status of immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L; Mansourov, O A

    1999-02-03

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  5. Gas pycnometry for density determination of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.; Randolph, H.W.

    1997-08-19

    The traditional method for plutonium density determination is by measuring the weight loss of the component when it is immersed in a liquid of known density, Archimedes` Principle. The most commonly used heavy liquids that are compatible for plutonium measurement are freon and monobromobenzene, but these pose serious environmental and health hazards. The contaminated liquid is also a radiological waste concern with difficult disposition. A gaseous medium would eliminate these environmental and health concerns. A collaborative research effort between the Savannah River Technology Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a gaseous density measurement process for plutonium hemishells.

  6. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  7. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-print Network

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  8. Influence of void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surbakti, R.; Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The uncertainty of commercial operation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) claims for another solution to the plutonium produced in light water reactors (LWR). As one option, recently, the plutonium recycling in LWR becomes an important consideration. A study on the impact of changing void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR has been performed. Two types of uranium sources in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, namely the depleted uranium and the natural uranium have been evaluated. The trend is similar for both MOX fuels that BWR can gain its critical condition for the void fraction of less than 42% and it may be operated in critical condition for the void fraction of 42% and 95%.

  9. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the presence of oxalate by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). To use the TGA-MS for carbon or oxalate content, some method development will be required. However, the TGA-MS is already used for moisture measurements. Therefore, SRNL initiated method development for the TGA-MS to allow quantification of oxalate or total carbon. That work continues at this time and is not yet ready for use in this study. However, the collected test data can be reviewed later as those analysis tools are available.

  10. Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO/sub 2/ in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented.

  11. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  12. Bayesian methods for interpreting plutonium urinalysis data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.

    1995-09-01

    The authors discuss an internal dosimetry problem, where measurements of plutonium in urine are used to calculate radiation doses. The authors have developed an algorithm using the MAXENT method. The method gives reasonable results, however the role of the entropy prior distribution is to effectively fit the urine data using intakes occurring close in time to each measured urine result, which is unrealistic. A better approximation for the actual prior is the log-normal distribution; however, with the log-normal distribution another calculational approach must be used. Instead of calculating the most probable values, they turn to calculating expectation values directly from the posterior probability, which is feasible for a small number of intakes.

  13. Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu/sup 3 +/ in LaCl/sub 3/, and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states.

  14. Uranium and plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, Y.; Meason, J.L.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1983-04-20

    Uranium 234 and 235 were found to be highly enriched relative to uranium 238 in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of April and May 1980. The anomalous uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada on January 24, 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The concentration of /sup 238/U in rain increased markedly after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, and it appeared as if a large quantity of natural uranium was injected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption. The pattern of variation of the concentrations of uranium in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

  15. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge.

  16. Thermophysical properties of coexistent phases of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J; Mitchell, Jeremy N; Saleh, Tarik A; Schwartz, Dan S

    2009-01-01

    Plutonium is the element with the greatest number of allotropic phases. Thermally induced transformations between these phases are typically characterized by thermal hysteresis and incomplete phase reversion. With Ga substitutal in the lattice, low symmetry phases are replaced by a higher symmetry phase. However, the low temperature Martensitic phase transformation ({delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime}) in Ga stabilized {delta}-phase Pu is characterized by a region of thermal hysteresis which can reach 200 C in extent. These regions of thermal hysteresis offer a unique opportunity to study thermodynamics in inhomogeneous systems of coexistent phases. The results of thermophysical properties measured for samples of inhomogeneous unalloyed and Ga alloyed Pu will be discussed and compared with similar measurements of their single phase constituents.

  17. Color stability of the artificial iris button in an ocular prosthesis before and after acrylic resin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Amália; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Oliveira, Kamila Freitas; Iyda, Mariana Garib; Haddad, Marcela Filié; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ocular prosthesis fabrication technique and the paint on the color stability of the artificial iris button before and after polymerization of the colorless resin. Sixty samples simulating artificial eyes were made, including 30 samples with blue- and 30 samples with sepia-colored artificial irises. Ten samples were made by each of three techniques (i.e., conventional, prefabricated cap, and inverted painting) for each color. The color of the artificial iris button was measured through reflection spectrophotometry by the CIE L*a* b* system before and after polymerization of the prosthesis (colorless resin). Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey honestly significant different (HSD) tests (?=0.05). All of the samples exhibited color changes. Samples made by the prefabricated cap technique exhibited the highest color change values for both colors (P<.05). The inverted painting technique exhibited the lowest color change values for the sepia-colored artificial irises (P<.05). Sepia-colored artificial irises exhibited lower color change values than blue-colored artificial irises for both techniques (P<.05). In conclusion, the technique used to obtain the ocular prosthesis significantly affected the stability of the artificial iris color for each color tone and the conventional technique and the painting technique inverted were considered clinically acceptable for sepia color. PMID:26066757

  18. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  19. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  20. Plutonium recovery at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    Research programs have led to the adoption of procedures for all phases of plutonium recovery and purification. This report discusses some of the many procedures required to recover and purify the plutonium contained in the residues generated by LASL research, process development, and production activities. The report also discusses general plant facilities, the liquid and gaseous effluents, and solid waste management practices at the New Plutonium Facility, TA-55. Many of the processes or operations are merely steps in preparing the feed for one of the purification systems. For example, the plutonium is currently removed from noncombustibles in the pickling operation with an HNO/sub 3/ leach. The HNO/sub 3/ leach solution is the product of this operation and is sent to one of the nitrate anion-exchange systems for concentration and purification.

  1. Neutronic analysis of a proposed plutonium recycle assembly

    E-print Network

    Solan, George Michael

    1975-01-01

    A method for the neutronic analysis of plutonium recycle assemblies has been developed with emphasis on relative power distribution prediction in the boundary area of vastly different spectral regions. Such regions are ...

  2. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  3. Overview of Modeling and Simulations of Plutonium Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

    2007-04-24

    Computer-aided materials research is now an integral part of science and technology. It becomes particularly valuable when comprehensive experimental investigations and materials testing are too costly, hazardous, or of excessive duration; then, theoretical and computational studies can supplement and enhance the information gained from limited experimental data. Such is the case for improving our fundamental understanding of the properties of aging plutonium in the nuclear weapons stockpile. The question of the effects of plutonium aging on the safety, security, and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile emerged after the United States closed its plutonium manufacturing facility in 1989 and decided to suspend any further underground testing of nuclear weapons in 1992. To address this, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiated a research program to investigate plutonium aging, i.e., the changes with time of properties of Pu-Ga alloys employed in the nuclear weapons and to develop models describing these changes sufficiently reliable to forecast them for several decades. The November 26, 2006 press release by the NNSA summarizes the conclusions of the investigation, '...there appear to be no serious or sudden changes occurring, or expected to occur, in plutonium that would affect performance of pits beyond the well-understood, gradual degradation of plutonium materials'. Furthermore, 'These studies show that the degradation of plutonium in our nuclear weapons will not affect warhead reliability for decades', then NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said. 'It is now clear that although plutonium aging contributes, other factors control the overall life expectancy of nuclear weapons systems'. The origin of plutonium aging is the natural decay of certain plutonium isotopes. Specifically, it is the process of alpha decay in which a plutonium atom spontaneously splits into a 5 MeV alpha particle and an 85keV uranium recoil. The alpha particle traverses the lattice, slowly loosing energy through electronic excitations, acquiring two electrons to become a helium atom, then finally coming to rest approximately 10 microns away with the generation of a few-hundred Frenkel pairs. The uranium recoil immediately displaces a couple-thousand Pu atoms from their original lattice sites. This process, which occurs at a rate of approximately 41 parts-per-million per year, is the source of potential property changes in aging plutonium. Plutonium aging encompasses many areas of research: radiation damage and radiation effects, diffusion of point defects, impurities and alloying elements, solid state phase transformations, dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties, equations of state under extreme pressures, as well as surface oxidation and corrosion. Theory, modeling, and computer simulations are involved to various degrees in many of these areas. The joint research program carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory encompassed experimental measurements of numerous properties of newly fabricated reference alloys, archival material that have accumulated the effects of several decades of radioactive decay, and accelerated aging alloys in which the isotropic composition was adjusted to increase the rate of self-irradiation damage. In particular, the physical and chemical processes of nuclear materials degradation were to be studied individually and in great depth. Closely coupled to the experimental efforts are theory, modeling, and simulations. These efforts, validated by the experiments, aim to develop predictive models to evaluate the effects of age on the properties of plutonium. The need to obtain a scientific understanding of plutonium aging has revitalized fundamental research on actinides and plutonium in particular. For example, the experimental discovery of superconductivity in Pu-based compounds, the observation of helium bubbles in naturally aged material, and the measurement of phonon dispersion properties in gallium-stabilized delta plu

  4. Radial plutonium redistribution in mixed-oxide fuel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.A.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    Alpha autoradiographs from all HEDL fuel pin metallography samples are evaluated and catalogued according to different plutonium distribution patterns. The data base is analyzed for effects of fabrication and operating parameters on redistribution.

  5. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Xiangdong (Richland, WA); Einziger, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  6. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. Our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials. PMID:26601219

  7. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.

    1997-01-28

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  8. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.

    1997-08-12

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  9. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  11. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors 

    E-print Network

    Alsaed, Abdelhalim Ali

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. We have designed three transition cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. ...

  12. Solubility of plutonium and uranium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubility of plutonium and uranium in alkaline salt solutions, which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process, was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the factors comprising the salt solutions. The factors included in the study were hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, carbonate, and temperature. Over the range of factor concentrations studied, the level of hydroxide in the solution is not sufficient alone to predict the resulting concentration of plutonium and uranium in the solution. Other constituents of the salt solution play an important role in determining the amount of plutonium and uranium in solution. Statistical models predicting the plutonium and uranium concentrations over the range of salt solutions investigated are provided.

  13. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  14. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  15. Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

    1988-04-01

    In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

  16. Stablization and immobilization of excess Russian weapons origin plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Borisov, G.B.; Mansourov, O.A.

    1998-04-10

    This paper summarizes a strategy, logic, and framework for the development of a capability for immobilizing excess Russian weapons origin plutonium by the year 2004. We describe the initial activities underway in Russia and a schedule to implement the strategy. These activities include engineering feasibility studies of the select facilities at the Mayak and Krasnoyarsk industrial sites, and research and development studies on plutonium glass and ceramic immobilization forms at several Russian institutes.

  17. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

    1996-03-01

    In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

  19. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, A.P.; Stachowski, R.E.

    1995-08-08

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced. 10 figs.

  20. Evolving Metallurgical Behaviors in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S

    2009-05-05

    The plutonium alpha-decay leads to the age-related changes in physical properties. We review our experimental approaches including analytical techniques to assess the effects of extended aging on plutonium alloys, together with our recent results on age-related changes in physical and static mechanical properties. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop capabilities to predict metallurgical evolution driven by aging effects.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  2. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  5. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling.

  7. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, L C; Meinhold, C B; Moorthy, A R; Kaplan, E; Baum, J W

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones's plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. PMID:9199223

  8. Plutonium isotope ratios in the Yenisey and Ob estuaries.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, L; Oughton, D H; Fifield, L K; Lind, O C; Tims, S; Brown, J; Sickel, M

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, nuclear weapons' tests and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic plutonium into the environment. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from the atmospheric weapons testing, but previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases can give rise to enhanced local concentrations. The present paper presents results from determination of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios in the sediment samples collected during various expeditions to the Kara Sea, the Ob and Yenisey estuaries and their river systems. The data indicated a clear influence from a low 240Pu:239Pu source in surface sediments collected from the Yenisey estuary, whereas plutonium in Ob estuary sediments is dominated by global fallout. The results also show an increase in plutonium concentration (from 0.003 to 11Bq/kg) and a decrease in 240Pu:239Pu isotope ratio (from 0.16 to 0.05) going upstream from the Yenisey estuary towards the nuclear installation at Krashnoyarsk. PMID:14987709

  9. VARIABILITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF IMPURITIES IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING, LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Charles Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; James Marra, J

    2007-09-26

    This study focuses on the development of a compositional envelope that describes the retention of various impurities in lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass for vitrification and immobilization of excess, defense-related plutonium. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define types and concentrations of impurities in the LaBS glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. Sixty surrogate glass compositions were developed through a statistically designed approach to cover the anticipated ranges of concentrations for several impurity species expected in the plutonium feeds. An additional four glass compositions containing actual plutonium oxide were selected based on their targeted concentrations of metals and anions. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory and shielded cells facility to determine the degree of retention of the impurity components, the impact of the impurities on the durability of each glass, and the degree of crystallization that occurred, both upon quenching and slow cooling. Overall, the LaBS glass system appears to be very tolerant of most of the impurity types and concentrations projected in the plutonium waste stream. For the surrogate glasses, the measured CuO, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, NiO, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations fell very close to their target values across the ranges of concentrations targeted in this study for each of these components. The measured CaO and PbO concentrations were consistently higher than the targeted values. The measured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were very close to the targets except for the one highest targeted value for each of these components. A solubility limit may have been approached in this glass system for K{sub 2}O and MgO. The measured Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations were well below their target values for all of the study glasses. This is likely due to volatilization of these species during melting of the glass batch. Note that the degree of volatilization that occurred in this crucible-scale study may differ from the full-scale melter. The measured HfO{sub 2} concentrations were below their target values for all of the surrogate glasses. It is likely that for HfO{sub 2}, the solubility limit in the glass was exceeded and some of the HfO{sub 2} batch material remained in the bottom of the crucibles after pouring the glasses. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that some crystalline HfO2 remained in some of the surrogate glasses with the lowest concentration of impurities. No other crystalline phases were identified. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all 60 of the surrogate glass compositions tested were very durable, regardless of thermal history, with the highest normalized release for boron being 0.041 g/L. The pH of the leachate solutions was generally lower than that of conventional waste glasses due to the lack of alkali in the LaBS glass, which likely impacted the PCT results. The normalized release rates for the elements measured were generally too small to attempt to correlate the results with the compositions of the test glasses. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure results showed that no hazardous metals were leached from the surrogate glasses in any measurable concentration. A plutonium-containing crystalline phase with a cross-shaped morphology was identified via SEM in the glasses fabricated with plutonium oxide. This phase was identified in a previous study of plutonium-bearing LaBS glasses and may provide an opportunity to intentionally crystallize some of the plutonium oxide into a highly insoluble form with an intrinsic neutron absorber. Additional work is necessary to better characterize the influence that this phase has on durability of the glass. The PCT results for the plutonium-containing LaBS glasses with impurities were si

  10. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution of PuO2 can be achieved with 6 to 8 M nitric acid + 14 M HF or 8 M nitric acid + 4 M HF mixtures. In the latter case, quantitative dissolution of plutonium oxide was demonstrated only with sonication. Overall, the results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration to dissolve refractory plutonium oxide does not offer any substantial advantage over conventional ?heat and mix? treatment. Oxidative treatment by AgO appears to be effective only when very little or no oxidizable materials are present in the digested sample. The catalytic use of Ag(II) in the ''Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution'' technology would probably be more effective than using AgO because the Ag(II) is continually regenerated electrochemically. Reductive treatment with titanium trichloride in HCl solution proves to be less efficient than the previously observed effect based on in situ generation of Ti(III) in phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid media using a dip probe sonication setup. The previous experiments, however, were performed at higher temperature and with non-steady concentration profiles of Ti(III) ion in the process of sonochemical digestion.

  11. An Opportunity to Immobilize 1.6 MT or More of Weapons-Grade Plutonium at the Mayak and Krasnoyarsk-26 Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B; Rovny, S I; Kudinov, K G; Shvedov, A A

    2001-06-29

    The Mayak Production Association (PA Mayak), an industrial site in Russia, will be assigned multiple new plutonium disposition missions in order to implement the ''Agreement Between The Government Of The United States Of America And The Government Of Russian Federation Concerning The Management And Disposition Of Plutonium Designated As No Longer Required For Defense Purposes And Related Cooperation'' signed September 1, 2000, by Gore and Kasyanov, In addition, the mission of industrial-scale mixed-oxide (MOX) fabrication will be assigned to either the Mining Chemical Combine (MCC) industrial site at Krasnoyarsk-26 (K-26) or PA Mayak. Over the next decades, these new missions will generate radioactive wastes containing weapons-grade plutonium. The existing Mayak and K-26 onsite facilities and infrastructures cannot currently treat and immobilize these Pu-containing wastes for storage and disposal. However, the wastes generated under the Agreement must be properly immobilized, treated, and managed. New waste treatment and immobilization missions at Mayak may include operating facilities for plutonium metal-to-oxide conversion processes, industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication, BN-600 PAKET hybrid core MOX fuel fabrication, and a plutonium conversion demonstration process. The MCC K-26 site, if assigned the industrial-scale MOX fuel fabrication mission, would also need to add facilities to treat and immobilize the Pu-containing wastes. This paper explores the approach and cost of treatment and immobilization facilities at both Mayak and K-26. The current work to date at Mayak and MCC K-26 indicates that the direct immobilization of 1.6 MT of weapons-grade plutonium is a viable and cost-effective alternative.

  12. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL); Burris, Leslie (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals, the cell including a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket and the anode basket being extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants, the anode basket containing the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  13. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Steindler, M.J.; Burris, L.

    1985-01-04

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals is claimed. The cell includes a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket. The anode basket is extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants; the anode basket contains the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  14. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

    2011-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter perturbation methods. It was found that uncertainty in the impurities in the polyethylene bottles, reflector position, bottle outer diameter, and critical array spacing had the largest effect. The total uncertainty ranged from 0.00651 to 0.00920 ?keff. Evaluation methods and results will be presented and discussed in greater detail in the full paper.

  15. Detailed Destructive Post-Irradiation Examinations of Mixed Uranium and Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Delashmitt, Jeffrey {Jeff} S; Keever, Tamara {Tammy} Jo; Smith, Rob R; Hexel, Cole R; Ilgner, Ralph H

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is pursuing disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium by reactor irradiation as the fissile constituent of MOX fuel. Lead test assemblies (LTAs) have been irradiated for approximately 36 months in Duke Energy's Catawba-1 nuclear power plant (NPP). Per the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel topical report, approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) are to be performed on second cycle rods (irradiated to an average burnup of approximately 45 GWd/MTHM). The Radiochemical Analysis Group (RAG) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently performing the detailed destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) on four of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuel rods. The analytical process involves dissolution of designated fuel segments in a shielded hot cell for high precision quantification of select fission products and actinide isotopes employing isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) among other analyses. The hot cell dissolution protocol to include the collection and subsequent alkaline fusion digestion of the fuel's acid resistant metallic particulates will be presented. Although the IDMS measurements of the fission products and actinide isotopes will not be completed by the time of the 51st INMM meeting, the setup and testing of the HPLC chromatographic separations in preparation for these measurements will be discussed.

  16. Multisphere neutron spectroscopy measurements at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hajnal, F.

    1993-06-01

    Multisphere neutron spectroscopy methods are applied to measure representative working fields within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility. This facility hosts dynamic processes, which include the fabrication of {sup 238}Pu heat sources for radioisotope generators used to power space equipment and a variety of plutonium research programs that involve recovery, hydrofluorination, and metal production. Neutron fluence per unit lethargy, as a function of neutron energy measured for locations throughout this facility, are described. Dosimeter/remmeter response functions [e.g., determined for a 22.8-cm-diameter neutron rem detector (NRD), an Anderson/Braun-type neutron ``Snoopy`` monitor, track-etch CR-39, BDI-100 bubble detectors, and Kodak type A nuclear track emulsion film, (NTA)] are folded into these spectra to calculate absolute response values of counts, tracks, or bubbles per unit-dose equivalent. The relative response values per unit- dose equivalent for bare and albedo {sup 6}LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are also calculated to estimate response scenarios encountered with use of the LANL-TLD. These results are further compared to more conventional methods of estimating neutron spectral energies such as the ``9-to-3 ratio`` method.

  17. Disposition of transuranic residues from plutonium isentropic compression experiment (Pu-ICE) constucted at Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Kapil K; French, David M; Humphrey, Betty J; Gluth, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to discontinue above- and below-ground testing of nuclear weapons. Because of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must rely on laboratory experiments and computer-based calculations to verify the reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Z machine was developed to support the science-based approach for mimicking nuclear explosions and stockpile stewardship. Plutonium (Pu) isotopes with greater than ninety-eight percent enrichment were used in the experiments. In May 2006, SNL/NM received authority that the Z Machine Isentropic Compression Experiments could commence. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided the plutonium targets and loaded the target assemblies provided by SNL/NM. Three experiments were conducted from May through July 2006. The residues from each experiment, which weighed up to 913 pounds, were metallic and were packaged into a 55-gallon drum each. SNL/NM conducts the experiments and provides temporary storage for the drums until shipment to LANL for final waste certification for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for documenting generator knowledge for characterization of waste in cooperation with scientists at the two laboratories and addresses a variety of essential topics.

  18. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  19. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  20. Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fazzari, Dennis M.; Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H. )

    2003-09-25

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C stabilization temperature mandated for long-term storage under the U.S. Department of Energy plutonium oxide stabilization and storage criteria to plug and corrode process equipment, items found to have these salts qualify for thermal stabilization at 750C. The prompt gamma ray energies characteristic of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and other low atomic weight elements arise from the interaction the light elements with alpha radiation from plutonium and americium radioactive decay. High-resolution gamma ray spectrometers designed to detect energies up to {approx}4.5 MeV are used to gather the high-energy prompt gamma spectra.Observation of the presence of the high-energy gamma peaks representing the natural chlorine-35, sodium-23, and potassium-39 isotopes and the sodium-to-chlorine peak area ratios in the range for plutonium oxide materials known to contain the electrorefining salts give the evidence needed to identify plutonium oxide materials at the PFP that qualify for the lower-temperature processing. Conversely, the absence of these telltale signals in the prompt gamma analysis provides evidence that the materials do not contain the electrorefining salts. Furthermore, based on calibrations using known assayed items, semiquantitative measurement of the quantity of chlorine present in materials containing electrorefining salt also can be performed by using the count rates observed for the chlorine peak, the plutonium quantity present in the measured item, and the plutonium- and chlorine-specific response of the gamma detection system. The origin and characteristics of the impure plutonium oxide, the process impacts of the electrorefining salts, and the background and technical bases of application of prompt gamma-ray analysis to identify electrorefining salt-bearing plutonium oxide at the PFP are described.

  1. Who pressed the pause button on global warming: is the answer in the past?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming

    2014-05-01

    Although there is coverage bias in the HadCRUT4 temperature series (Cotan and Way, 2013) or in other global surface temperature sequences, IPCC-AR5 still claimed that "much interest has focused on the period since 1998 and an apparent flattening ('hiatus') in trends". According to statistical principle, in fact, this flattening trend is unlikely to be changed by adding the missing 16% area-weighed regional data. In addition, if the "warming hiatus" could not be attributed to the solar output, volcanic eruptions and the green house gases when comparing them to the rhythm of the temperature, then the question arise: who pressed the pause button on global warming? However, it would be a golden opportunity to further understand the ocean as a fundamental role in controlling climate change. The current hypothesis attributed this "hiatus" to a La Niña-like decadal cooling occurring in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (Kosaka and Die, 2013). Here we separate the global surface temperature into land surface air temperature (LSAT, adopt from HadCRUT4) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs, adopt from different original data). Obviously, the decadal cooling of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific occurred in 1987, a decade earlier than the beginning of the LSAT flattening (1998), whereas the SSTs of the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), the Indian Ocean (IO, 20S-20N, 40-110E) and the North Atlantic (NA, here its variation is represented by the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation or hereafter referred to as AMO) are exactly in phase with the LSAT. The combined data (SSTs, arithmetic mean) of the three ocean areas has the highest correlation with the LSAT (0.91), but the correlation coefficient is reduced (0.54) if adding the decadal variation in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific (here it is represented by the Pacific decadal oscillation or hereafter referred to as PDO). Therefore, the tree ocean areas (WPWP, IO and NA) could be regarded as the key ocean area for the atmospheric temperature change. The robust evidence comes from the reconstructed long-term time series. A fact that we all know is that the value of the LSAT is lowest in the Little Ice Age (LIA) over the last millennium. However, both reconstructed PDO (MacDonald et al, 2005) and sea surface temperature index of Niño3.4 (Emile-Gay et al, 2013) illustrate high values in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific during the LIA period. So, if we admit that the ocean could determine the land surface temperature, then the key ocean area could not be the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. And meanwhile, we also need reconstructed the SSTs of WPWP, IO or NA over the last millennium to see how the key ocean area changed. The millennial AMO has been reconstructed by Mann et al (2009) with autocorrelation coefficient of 0.99. It really shows a low value during the LIA period. Here we further present a new reconstructed AMO millennial series derived by combining a tree ring width chronology and a stalagmite-lamina thickness chronology with autocorrelation coefficient of 0.67 (Tan et al, 2009). This new sequence lags the observed winter half year (October of last year to February of current year) AMO by 3 years (with correlation coefficient of 0.59), which also shows a low value within the LIA. After removing the impact of millennial-scale solar radiation, the wavelet analysis on the residual composition shows that the decadal oscillation only occurred within the past 200 years. Therefore, it is still difficult to speculate the future trend of the SSTs according to this reconstructed series. Another related important issue is that the instantaneous growth rates for globally averaged atmospheric CO2 (see Figure 2.1b in IPCC AR5) is kept very precisely in phase with the SSTs of IO, WPWP and NA on annual to decadal time scale (but lags Niño3.4 by 1 year). If it is impossible to imagine that the atmospheric CO2 is a dexterous driver for the SSTs, then the reasonable explanation is that the oceanic carbon pool could finely modula

  2. Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 Step 1a Launch Microsoft Excel 2007. Open a spreadsheet by selecting the Microsoft button at the

    E-print Network

    ) labels, select the Design ribbon item, then press the Select data button to bring up the dialog box below series options such as fill and border color. To change the color and type of border around the bars, select Border Color and follow directions for color and type. #12;Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic

  3. Next Engine 3D Scanner Instructions: 1. Click the Start button, go to All Programs, NextEngine, ScanStudioHD, and open

    E-print Network

    Peate, David W.

    a blue cog) --Click on the question mark in the upper right hand corner to bring up the help file. Click on NextWiki/Help/Getting Started and there will be a video walkthrough of how to scan the palm tree. 2Next Engine 3D Scanner Instructions: 1. Click the Start button, go to All Programs, Next

  4. Perfect usability The one-button machine? One of my favourite Dilbert strips (http://www.unitedmedia.com/comics/dilbert/) goes something like

    E-print Network

    Curzon, Paul

    Perfect usability ­ The one-button machine? One of my favourite Dilbert strips (http that I frequently ignore. Somehow a human doesn't induce the same emotions. I want a drink. I use one it starting to move, taking me back to the top feeling very silly...all the way back to the sign way below my

  5. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S. (Naperville, IL); Burris, Leslie (Naperville, IL); Steunenberg, Robert K. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  6. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Guon, J.; Grantham, L.F.; Specht, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes an improved metal alloy reactor fuel consisting essentially of uranium, plutonium, and at least one element from the group consisting of yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium.

  7. Plutonium Isotopic Gamma-Ray Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-08

    The MGA8 (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300 Kev energy region. Themore »second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  8. Helium diffusion in uranium and plutonium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J. P.

    2004-02-01

    Samples of UO 2, (U,Pu)O 2 and PuO 2 containing up to several 100 at. ppm helium were submitted to thermal annealing in a Knudsen-cell provided with a mass spectrometer. Gas release was measured on line with a great accuracy. In the examined materials helium was created by ?-decay of plutonium or laboratory infused at high temperature and high pressure. The selected samples exhibited different types of lattice damage, including reactor burn-up and high ?-radiation doses. Analysis of helium release as a function of temperature enabled the elementary diffusion processes to be investigated and the atomic diffusion coefficient to be deduced for a defined state of helium-in-solid. The helium diffusion coefficient has the expression: D=8×10 -7exp(-46 kcal mol -1/RT) m2 s-1, however, the enthalpy of diffusion increases to 70 kcal mol -1 in high burn-up fuel where helium is apparently stabilised in uranium/oxygen vacancy clusters.

  9. Neutron radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taherzadeh, M.

    1972-01-01

    The major sources of neutrons from plutonium dioxide nuclear fuel are considered in detail. These sources include spontaneous fission of several of the Pu isotopes, (alpha, n) reactions with low Z impurities in the fuel, and (alpha, n) reactions with O-18. For spontaneous fission neutrons a value of (1.95 + or - 0.07) X 1,000 n/s/g PuO2 is obtained. The neutron yield from (alpha, n) reactions with oxygen is calculated by integrating the reaction rate equation over all alpha-particle energies and all center-of-mass angles. The results indicate a neutron emission rate of (1.14 + or - 0.26) X 10,000 n/s/g PuO2. The neutron yield from (alpha, n) reactions with low Z impurities in the fuel is presented in tabular form for one part part per million of each impurity. The total neutron yield due to the combined effects of all the impurities depends upon the fractional weight concentration of each impurity. The total neutron flux emitted from a particular fuel geometry is estimated by adding the neutron yield due to the induced fission to the other neutron sources.

  10. Loading Capacities for Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks Containing Selected Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    OJI, LAWRENCE

    2004-11-16

    In this study the loading capacities of selected actinides onto some of the most common sorbent materials which are present in caustic nuclear waste storage tanks have been determined. Some of these transition metal oxides and activated carbons easily absorb or precipitate plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, which if care is not taken may lead to unwanted accumulation of some of these fissile materials in nuclear waste tanks during waste processing. Based on a caustic synthetic salt solution simulant bearing plutonium, uranium and neptunium and ''real'' nuclear waste supernate solution, the loading capacities of these actinides onto iron oxide (hematite), activated carbon and anhydrous sodium phosphate have been determined. The loading capacities for plutonium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 3.4 0.22 plus or minus and 5.5 plus or minus 0.38 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for plutonium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 2.01 microgram per gram of sludge solids. The loading capacities for neptunium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 7.9 plus or minus 0.52 and greater than 10 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for neptunium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 4.48 microgram per gram of sludge solids. A typical nuclear waste storage tank solid material did not show any significant affinity for uranium. Sodium phosphate showed significant affinity for both neptunium and uranium, with loading capacities of 6.8 and 184.6 plus or minus 18.5 microgram per gram of sorbent, respectively.

  11. Extraction and recovery of plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste solutions by the TRUEX process - continuing development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kalina, D.G.; Fischer, D.F.; Bane, R.W.; Burris, L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarisia, R.; Diamond, H.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work done to date on the application of the TRUEX solvent extraction process for removing and separately recovering plutonium and americium from a nitric acid waste solution containing these elements, uranium, and a complement of inert metal ions. This simulated waste stream is typical of a raffinate from a tributyl phosphate (TBP)-based solvent extraction process for removing uranium and plutonium from dissolved plutonium-containing metallurgical scrap. The TRUEX process solvent in these experiments was a solution of TBP and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A flowsheet was designed on the basis of measured batch distribution ratios to reduce the TRU content of the solidified raffinate to less than or equal to 10 nCi/g and was tested in a countercurrent experiment performed in a 14-stage Argonne-model centrifugal contractor. The process solvent was recycled without cleanup. An unexpectedly high evaporative loss of CCl/sub 4/ resulted in concentration of the active extractant, CMPO, to nearly 0.30M in the solvent. Results are consistent with this higher CMPO concentration. The raffinate contained only 2 nCi/g of TRU, but the higher CMPO concentration resulted in reduced effectiveness in the stripping of americium from the solvent. Conditions can be easily adjusted to give high yields and good separation of americium and plutonium. Experimental studies of the hydrolytic and gamma-radiolytic degradation of the TRUEX-CCl/sub 4/ showed that solvent degradation would be (1) minimal for a year of processing this typical feed, which contained no fission products, and (2) could be explained almost entirely by hydrolytic and radiolytic damage to TBP. Even for gross amounts of solvent damage, scrubbing with aqueous sodium carbonate solution restored the original americium extraction and stripping capability of the solvent. 43 refs., 5 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  14. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 776/777, THE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 776/777, THE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING BUILDING, DURING CONSTRUCTION. (4/10/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  16. A combinatorial chemistry approach to the investigation of cerium oxide and plutonium oxide reactions with small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John T.; Warner, Benjamin P.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Havrilla, George J.; Morris, David E.; Buscher, C. Thomas

    2000-07-01

    We are currently investigating the potential chemistry of the 3013 Standard waste storage containers. These containers are filled with waste that is a mixture of inorganic salts and plutonium oxide that has been calcined to remove water and other volatiles. There has been concern about possible pressure buildup due to the formation of hydrogen or other gases. We are utilizing a combinatorial chemistry approach to investigate a range of possible reactions that may occur in the containers with various concentrations of metal oxides and inorganic salts.

  17. A Novel Methodology for Processing of Plutonium-Bearing Waste as Ammonium Plutonium(III)-Oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Sali, Sanjay Krishnarao; Noronha, Donal Marshal; Mhatre, Hemakant Ramkrishna; Mahajan, Murlidhar Anna; Chander, Keshav; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Venugopal, Venkatarama

    2005-09-15

    A novel methodology has been developed for the recovery of Pu from different types of waste solutions generated during various operations involved in the chemical quality control/assurance of nuclear fuels. The method is based on the precipitation of Pu as ammonium plutonium(III)-oxalate and involves the adjustment of acidity of the Pu solution to 1 N, the addition of ascorbic acid (0.05 M) to reduce Pu to Pu(III), followed by the addition of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.5 M) and a stoichiometric amount of saturated oxalic acid maintaining a 0.2 M excess of oxalic acid concentration in the supernatant. The precipitate was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and thermal and chemical analysis and was found to have the composition NH{sub 4}Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.3H{sub 2}O. This compound can be easily decomposed to PuO{sub 2} on heating in air at 823 K. Decontamination factors of U, Fe, and Cr determined showed quantitative removal of these ions during the precipitation of Pu as ammonium plutonium(III)-oxalate.A semiautomatic assembly based on the transfer of solutions by suction arrangement was designed and fabricated for processing large volumes of Pu solution. This assembly reduced the corrosion of the glove-box material and offered the advantage of lower radiation exposure to the working personnel.

  18. Plutonium chemistry: a synthesis of experimental data and a quantitative model for plutonium oxide solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, J. M.; Oversby, V. M.

    2002-10-01

    The chemistry of plutonium is important for assessing potential behavior of radioactive waste under conditions of geologic disposal. This paper reviews experimental data on dissolution of plutonium oxide solids, describes a hybrid kinetic-equilibrium model for predicting steady-state Pu concentrations, and compares laboratory results with predicted Pu concentrations and oxidation-state distributions. The model is based on oxidation of PuO 2 by water to produce PuO 2+ x, an oxide that can release Pu(V) to solution. Kinetic relationships between formation of PuO 2+ x, dissolution of Pu(V), disproportionation of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and Pu(VI), and reduction of Pu(VI) are given and used in model calculations. Data from tests of pyrochemical salt wastes in brines are discussed and interpreted using the conceptual model. Essential data for quantitative modeling at conditions relevant to nuclear waste repositories are identified and laboratory experiments to determine rate constants for use in the model are discussed.

  19. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  20. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-03-01

    In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used to characterize the oxide at certain points during calcination include surface-area analyses, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, moisture-adsorption measurements, and quantitative supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction of adsorbed water. Significant decreases in the LOI and surface area occurred as the oxide was calcined at progressively increasing temperatures. Studies indicate that supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction is an effective method for removing adsorbed water from oxides. We extracted the water from powdered oxides (high-purity ZrO{sub 2}, pure PuO{sub 2}, and impure plutonium oxide) using CO{sub 2} at 3000 psi pressure and 75{degrees}C, and we quantitatively determined it by using gravimetric and dew-point procedures. The effectiveness of the extraction method is demonstrated by good agreement between the amounts of water extracted from pure zirconium and plutonium dioxides and the mass changes obtained from LOI analyses. However, the amount of moisture (0.025 mass %) extracted from the impure plutonium oxide after it had been calcined at 950{degrees}C and stored for a period of months is much less than the LOI value (0.97 mass %). These results imply that the impure plutonium oxide is free of adsorbed water after calcination at 950{degrees}C, even though the sample does not satisfy the LOI requirement of <0.50 mass % for storage.

  1. Testing New Inert Matrix and Thoria Fuels for Plutonium Incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Vettraino, F.; Padovan, E.; Tverberg, T.

    2002-07-01

    One major issue for nuclear power continues to be the public concern about rad-waste and proliferation risk induced by large plutonium stockpiles accumulated worldwide. In this context, nuclear fuels which exhibit no-plutonium production, and possibly allow for an efficient utilization of the plutonium to get rid of, are of great interest. This is the basic reason for the efforts that many international institutions are devoting to R and D on such new U-free fuel concepts as Inert Matrix (IMF) and Thorium fuels. At the moment the major merit of such innovative fuels is primarily related to the safe closure of the nuclear fuel cycle as especially expected from those new concepts like ADS (Accelerated Driven System) for the transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and LLFP. Both ceramic inert matrix (IM) and thoria (T) fuels have been identified as suitable to the scope of burning weapon and civilian plutonium and to act also as possible carrier for transmutation of minor actinides. For testing the irradiation behaviour of these new materials, three kinds of fuels have been selected: inert matrix (IM) fuel, inert matrix thoria-doped (IMT) fuel, and thoria (T) fuel. A first experiment, IFA-652, 40 MWD/kg burnup target, including high enriched uranium (HEU) as fissile phase, instead of plutonium, is currently underway in the Halden HWBR. The reason for this choice was that manufacturing of Pu containing fuels is more complex and there was no fabrication facility available at the needed time for the Pu fuel. It is expected, however, that the relative behaviour of the different kind of matrices would be only slightly dependent on the adopted fissile material. So, the comparison of the in-pile performance of the three fuels will constitute a significant common database also for plutonium bearing fuels. The primary aim for the IFA-652 experiment is the measurement of basic characteristics under LWR irradiation conditions over a period of 4-5 years. The design of a second experiment, truly based on plutonium bearing fuel with 80 MWd/kg target burnup, is under preparation. Beyond exploitation in the future transmuters (ADS), the selected fuels are also considered promising candidates for a more effective burning of all kind of plutonium in the present commercial LWRs, what may represent their near term application especially for the weapon Pu stockpile reduction. Most likely this latter aspect is of interest for a wider number of countries which do exploit the benefits of nuclear energy. (authors)

  2. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  3. The Effect of Sedimentation on Plutonium Transport in Fourmile Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    2002-02-21

    The major mechanisms of radioactive material transport and fate in surface water are sources, dilution, advection and dispersion of radionuclides by flow and surface waves, radionuclide decay, and interaction between sediment and radionuclides. STREAM II, an aqueous transport module of the Savannah River Site emergency response WIND system, accounts for the source term, and the effects of dilution, advection and dispersion. Although the model has the capability to account for nuclear decay, due to the short time interval of interest for emergency response, the effect of nuclear decay is very small and so it is not employed. The interactions between the sediment and radionuclides are controlled by the flow conditions and physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the sediment constituents. The STREAM II version used in emergency response must provide results relatively quickly; it therefore does not model the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension. This study estimates the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension on aqueous plutonium transport in Fourmile Branch. There are no measured data on plutonium transport through surface water available for direct model calibration. Therefore, a literature search was conducted to find the range of plutonium partition coefficients based on laboratory experiments and field measurements. A sensitivity study of the calculated plutonium peak concentrations as a function of the input parameter of partition coefficient was then performed. Finally, an estimation of the plutonium partition coefficient was made for the Fourmile Branch.

  4. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake. PMID:26606066

  5. Technical and Engineering Feasibility Study of the Vitrification of Plutonium-Bearing Sludges at the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine by Means of Microwave Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Revenko, Y.A.; Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Vassilyev, A.V.; Borisov, G.B.; Nazarov, A.V.; Aloy, A.S.; Shvedov, A.A.; Gusakov, B.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    2000-03-03

    This engineering feasibility study compared three possible technical options and their economic viability of processing plutonium-bearing sludges containing 0.6 MT of weapons-grade Pu accumulated at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC) at Krasnoyarsk. In Option 1, the baseline, the sludges are processed by extraction and purification of plutonium for storage using existing technologies, and the non-soluble radioactive residues generated in these processes undergo subsequent solidification by cementation. Options 2 and 3 involve the direct immobilization of plutonium-bearing sludges into a solid matrix (without any Pu extraction) using a microwave solidification process in a metal crucible to produce a glass, which is boron-silicate in Option 2 and phosphate glass in Option 3. In all three options, the solid radioactive waste end products will be placed in storage for eventual geologic disposal. Immobilization of residual plutonium into glass-like matrices provides both safer storage over the lifetime of the radionuclides and greater security against unauthorized access to stored materials than does the extraction and concentration of PuO{sub 2}, supporting our efforts toward non-proliferation of fissile materials. Although immobilization in boron-silicate glass appears now to be marginally preferable compared to the phosphate glass option, a number of technical issues remain to be assessed by further study to determine the preferable immobilization option.

  6. Thermal conductivity of uranium-plutonium oxide fuel for fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masaki

    2000-12-01

    A new thermal conductivity correlation for fully dense uranium-plutonium oxide fuel for fast reactors was formulated for fuel pin thermal analysis under beginning of irradiation conditions. The data set used in correlating the equation was systematically selected to minimize experimental uncertainty. The electron conduction term for uranium dioxide formulated by Harding and Martin [J. Nucl. Mater. 166 (1989) 223] was adopted to compensate for so few high temperature measurements. The excellent predictability of the new correlation was validated by comparing the calculated with measured fuel center temperatures in an instrumented irradiation test in the experimental fast reactor JOYO for low oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio fuel up to 1850 K.

  7. Study of the potential use of carburized niobium in plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.J. |; Soderquist, S.D.; Axler, K.M.

    1998-12-01

    Carburized refractory metals, especially tantalum, have been shown to possess properties useful for application as hardware in the plutonium-processing environment. These applications are driven in part by a desire to minimize the production of radioactively contaminated waste. The current use of ceramics as containment materials for Pu processing are not ideal due to the short service life of the hardware, placing an additional burden on the contaminated waste stream. Carburized niobium has been examined for use as an improved hardware material. The Nb-C system is analogous to the previously studied Ta-C system. The low density of niobium relative to tantalum will improve the ergonomics of the glovebox environment. The choice of the Nb-C system will be supported by a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Preliminary results of the processing investigation also will be presented.

  8. Options for monitoring the US Russian bilateral cutoff agreement on shutdown of plutonium production reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, J.; Fishbone, L.G.; Lu, Minh-Shih; Stanbro, W.; Libby, R.

    1994-07-01

    Six options are presented for monitoring operating Russian reactors and reprocessing plants under the bilateral cutoff agreement. In order of increasing intrusiveness they are: (A) monitoring of product (oxide or metal) storage only, supplemented with transparency measures at the reactors, (B) monitoring of product storage and reactor operating parameters, to assess reactor plutonium production, (C) monitoring of product storage, reactor operating parameters, and the input accountability tank of the reprocessing plant, (D) monitoring of product storage, the input accountability tank of the reprocessing plant, and application of surveillance to spent fuel, (E) IAEA/NPT-based material accountancy verification without major facility upgrades, and (F) IAEA/NPT-based safeguards, attempting to fulfill IAEA standards for material accountancy accuracy. Each of these options is considered in terms of cost, inspection effort, and effectiveness; however, the paper emphasizes the many uncertainties attendant on such assessments based on our current state of knowledge of these facilities.

  9. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  10. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules Andréi Zaitsevskii,1,2,a) Nikolai S. Mosyagin,2,3 Anatoly V of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two

  11. Quality assurance manual plutonium liquid scintillation methods and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    Nose swipe analysis is a very important tool for Radiation Protection personnel. Nose swipe analysis is a very fast and accurate method for (1) determining if a worker has been exposed to airborne plutonium contamination and (2) Identifying the area where there has been a possible plutonium release. Liquid scintillation analysis techniques have been effectively applied to accurately determine the plutonium alpha activity on nose swipe media. Whatman-40 paper and Q-Tips are the only two media which have been evaluated and can be used for nose swipe analysis. Presently, only Q-Tips are used by Group HSE-1 Radiation Protection Personnel. However, both swipe media will be discussed in this report.

  12. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2000-09-30

    The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.

  13. Stability of plutonium(VI) in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.

    1993-12-01

    The redox stability of plutonium (VI) in WIPP brine was investigated by monitoring the oxidation state as a function of time using a combination of absorption spectrometry, radiochemical counting and filtration. Studies were performed with Pu-239 and Pu-238 in four WIPP brines at concentrations between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}8} M for durations as long as two years. Two synthetic brines, Brine A and ERDA-6, and two underground collected brines, DH-36 and G-Seep, were used. The stability of Pu(VI) depended on the brine composition and the speciation of the plutonium in that brine. When carbonate was present, a Pu(VI)-carbonate complex was observed that was stable. In the absence of carbonate, Pu(VI) hydrolytic species predominated which had a wide range of stability in the brines investigated. The results reported will help define the speciation of plutonium in WIPP brine and hence its potential for migration.

  14. Characterization and storage of the Rocky Flats plutonium oxide legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    Prior to 1989, plutonium oxide storage at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) could generally be considered as short term. Packaging configurations for short-term storage consisted of slip-lid cans and sealed produce cans. Prior to packaging, most of the oxide had been stabilized by heating to {approximately}500{degrees}C. When storage times were relatively short, few problems were attributed to either packaging or storage. However, with projected storage times extended up to 50 yr, most of the old packaging of RFETS plutonium oxide will be in two welded steel containers in compliance with the DOE Standard 3013-96, which defines processing and packaging criteria for safe, long-term storage of plutonium oxide.

  15. Guide to plutonium isotopic measurements using gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Rakel, D.A.

    1982-08-26

    Purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for plutonium isotopic measurements in the application of gamma-ray spectrometry. Objectives are to promote an understanding of the measurement process, including its limitations and applicability, by reviewing the general features of a plutonium spectrum and identifying the quantities which must be extracted from the data; to introduce state-of-the-art analysis techniques by reviewing four isotopic analysis packages and identifying their differences; to establish the basis for measurement control and assurance by discussing means of authenticating the performance of a measurement system; and to prepare for some specific problems encountered in plutonium isotopic analyses by providing solutions from the practical experiences of several laboratories. 29 references, 12 figures, 17 tables.

  16. Isotopic Measurements: Interpretation and Implications of Plutonium Data

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Collins, Brian A.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    One of the fundamental activities within the field of nuclear forensics is the laboratory analysis of nuclear material; one aspect is providing the isotopic composition of the material under investigation. For both plutonium and uranium, this includes a unique suite of isotopes that, individually and collectively (i.e. an isotopic vector), will help characterize these materials, and potentially provide insight into their mode of production, intended utilization, and processing history. A full understanding of how this information is used provides the basis for defining the need for these measurements and helps determine the precision and accuracy requirements for those measurements. This paper provides an overview of this process as it applies to plutonium, discussing how reactor design and operating parameters can impact the resultant plutonium vector, thereby giving us the ability to infer those reactor traits based on isotopic measurements.

  17. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    PubMed

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (?10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ?10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite. PMID:25574607

  18. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D. ); Matthews, R.B. )

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nuclear disarmament, disposal of military plutonium and international security problems

    SciTech Connect

    Slipchenko, V.S.; Rybatchenkov, V.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major issues of the current debate deals with the question: what does real nuclear disarmament actually involve? It becomes more and more obvious for many experts that it can no longer be limited to the reduction or elimination of delivery vehicles alone, but must necessarily cove the warheads and the fissile materials recovered from them, which should totally or partially be committed to peaceful use and placed under appropriate international safeguards, thus precluding their re-use for as weapons. There are various options as to how to solve the problems of disposal of fissile materials released from weapons. The optimal choice can only be made on the basis of a thorough study. This study should treat the disposal of weapon-grade plutonium and weapon-grade uranium as separate problems. The possible options for plutonium disposition currently discussed are as follows: (a) Storage in a form or under conditions not suitable for use in the production of new types of nuclear weapons. This option seems to be most natural and inevitable at the first phase, subject to determination of storage period, volume, and technology. Besides, the requirements of the international nuclear weapons nonproliferation regime could be met easily. Safe, secure, and controlled temporary storage may provide an appropriate solution of disposal of weapon-grade plutonium in the near future. (b) Energy utilization (conversion) of weapon-grade plutonium. The most efficient option of utilization of plutonium appears to be for nuclear power generation. This option does not exclude storage, but considers it as a temporary phase, which can, however, be a prolonged one: its length is determined by the political decisions made and possibilities existing to transfer plutonium for processing.

  20. Biokinetics of plutonium-238 injected in non-human primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, Nino

    Seventeen intravenously injected monkey data were analyzed using PowerBasic and SAAM II softwares. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part SAAM II predictions were compared with those calculated by Birchall algorithm based on the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium. In the second part SAAM II simulations were performed and compared for two representations of systemic model for plutonium: the ICRP 67 model and the Leggett model. In the third part, optimization of transfer rates suggested by ICRP 67 and Leggett models were attempted by solving each monkey case independently. The Birchall algorithm and SAAM II predicted values coincide with each other for all data presented: blood, urine and feces. Unfortunately, these predictions do not coincide with the measurement values. Plutonium activity in liver is about 50% of the injected activity. The uptake of plutonium in liver in primates seems to be close to the assumption of equal distribution of 45% plutonium in liver and skeleton in humans. For longer sacrificed monkeys we have prolonged liver retention compared to plutonium liver retention in humans. Pu retention in urine and blood has been simulated based on the ICRP 67 and Leggett models respectively and plotted against the measured data points to acquire the understanding of the models with respect to reality. Pu activity was also evaluated in liver and skeleton at the time of the sacrifice for both models and compared with the autopsy measurements for individual cases. Optimization of transfer rates suggested in the ICRP 67 and Leggett models was attempted. Default transfer rates were varied to improve the fits to the data and predict activities in the liver and skeleton at the time of death has been carried out in SAAM II. Good fits for the individual cases were obtained successfully, however, consistency among parameters from case to case was not observed.