Sample records for plutonium metal buttons

  1. Plutonium metal burning facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Hausburg; R. G. Leebl

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included.

  2. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

  3. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Reavis; J. A. Leary; W. J. Maraman

    1962-01-01

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium ; metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium ; metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the ; desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a ; temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at

  4. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  5. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  6. LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR WITH RECYCLED PLUTONIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Miles; T. V. Sheehan; D. H. Gurinsky; H. J. C. Kouts

    1958-01-01

    A liquid metal reactor (LMFR) fueled with recycled plutonium dissolved ; in bismuth is described. The LMFR plutonium burner discussed was designed to use ; technology developed for a proposed U²³³ breeder. The design is ; conservative in that it attempts to avoid the problem associated with two fluids ; in the reactor core, e.g., the leakage of fluids into

  7. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  8. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  9. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  10. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  11. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L Caviness; Paul T Mann; Richard H Yoshimura

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

  12. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT1) packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T. Mann; Michael L. Caviness; Richard Hiroyuki Yoshimura

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

  13. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jimnez-Hernndez, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. PMID:25933290

  14. Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Lesuer; J. B. Bergin; S. A. McInturff; B. A. Kuhn

    1980-01-01

    Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900°C and a strain rate of 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These

  15. 15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Study of Single and Dual Band Wearable Metallic Button Antennas for Personal Area Networks (PANs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benito Sanz-Izquierdo; Fengxi Huang; John C. Batchelor; Mohammed I. Sobhy

    A small WLAN\\/Bluetooth antenna with the appearance of a metallic button is reported for use with wearable computer systems\\u000a and covert communications. A single band version is discussed in addition to a dual band design that also covers the HiperLAN\\/2\\u000a band. No external matching circuits are required when the antenna is fed with a 50 ? coaxial line. A lumped

  17. Determination of plutonium metal origins

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or material smuggled from existing stockpiles. A list of signature elements and what can be determined from them have been developed. Work needs to be done in converting concentrations of signature species into a quantitative forensic analysis, particularly in regard to reactor performance, but this should require only a small effort. A radiochemical analysis scheme has been developed for measuring these nuclides; more work is needed, particularly for determining fission product concentrations. A sample of Pu metal has been analyzed and several parameters determined that are strong indicators of its point of origin.

  18. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  19. Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

    1980-07-01

    Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

  20. Investigation on the heavy-metal content of zinc-air button cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke; Recknagel, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a German government project (initiated by the Federal Environment Agency) to check the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance concerning their heavy metal contents, 18 different types of commercially available zinc-air button cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. After microwave assisted dissolution with aqua regia, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Hg was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd contents were found to be much lower than the permitted limits; Pb contents were also found to be below the limits. Hg contents were found to be near the limits, and in one case the limit was exceeded. PMID:18280730

  1. CSER 96-023: CSER for PFP glovebox HC-21A with 4.4 kilogram plutonium cans

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-17

    This criticality safety evaluation report addresses the criticality impact of increasing plutonium oxide content from 2.5 kg oxide storage cans to 5.0 kg oxide Pu storage cans. Glovebox HC-21A is used to move plutonium metal buttons from cans into furnace boats prior to transferring them to the muffle furnace gloveboxes. Glovebox HC-21A supports muffle furnace operations where plutonium buttons are burned to form paw, (H/Pu < 2). The paw, is returned to glovebox HC-21A and sieved and packed into the 4.,f kg Pu cans. The plutonium mass limit is set at 7.5 kg plutonium when plutonium metal is present. The plutonium mass limit is set at 15. kg plutonium when no plutonium metal is present. Additionally, there are other requirements to assure criticality safety during this operation.

  2. Criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This standard establishes safety criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and plutonium oxides at DOE facilities; materials packaged to meet these criteria should not need subsequent repackaging to ensure safe storage for at least 50 years or until final disposition. The standard applied to Pu metals, selected alloys (eg., Ga and Al alloys), and stabilized oxides containing at least 50 wt % Pu; it does not apply to Pu-bearing liquids, process residues, waste, sealed weapon components, or material containing more than 3 wt % {sup 238}Pu. Requirements for a Pu storage facility and safeguards and security considerations are not stressed as they are addressed in detail by other DOE orders.

  3. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  4. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide\\/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gong; R. F. Miller

    2010-01-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide\\/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive

  5. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

  6. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10 M HNO{sub 3} with 0.04-0.05 M KF at 112 to 116 C (boiling). The testing also showed that solutions containing 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B achieved acceptable dissolution rates in the same temperature range. To confirm that conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements for solutions containing Gd or B can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of Fe, demonstration experiments were performed using concentrations in the optimal ranges. In two of the demonstration experiments using Gd and in one experiment using B, the offgas generation during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for H{sub 2}. The experimental methods used to perform the dissolution rate measurements and flowsheet demonstrations and a discussion of the results are presented.

  7. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  8. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  9. Plutonium metal and alloy preparation by molten chloride reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Reavis, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Satisfactory reduction of molten plutonium trichloride (pure and in combination with 20 wt % sodium chloride) by calcium, lanthanum, and cerium has been demonstrated on the 10-g scale. The yields were satisfactory for this scale of operation, and it is indicated that these reductions may be useful for large-scale operations. Significant separations of plutonium from rare earth impurities was demonstrated for lanthanum and cerium reductions. Preparation of plutonium-cerium and plutonium-cerium-cobalt alloys during reduction was also demonstrated.

  10. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  11. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized ?-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  12. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  13. Button batteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Litovitz T, Whitaker N, Clark L, White NC, Marsolek M: Emerging battery ingestion hazard: Clinical implications. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6): 1168-1177. epub 24 May 2010. Mahajan PV. Heavy metal intoxication. ...

  14. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, S. A.; Bourne, M. M.; Dolan, J. L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  15. Two Button Buzzer Circuit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore an everyday situation, where either of two or more buttons can ring a buzzer. Learners investigate how this type of circuit is structured, draw a schematic for it, and construct a two button buzzer model out of wires, a battery, buttons (switches), and a buzzer.

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF GALLIUM IN DRIED RESIDUE SAMPLES BY XRF: AN IMPROVED SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR ANALYZING PLUTONIUM METAL.

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

    2001-01-01

    A novel XRF sample preparation method was investigated to quantify the concentration of gallium in plutonium metal and minimize the possibility of contaminating the instrument with radioactive material. To prepare homogenous specimens and to add an internal standard, the plutonium must first be dissolved. The currently established method then entails removing the plutonium by chromatography and analyzing the gallium remaining in solution. In the work presented here, plutonium solution aliquots containing zinc as an internal standard were cast onto Mylar, dried, and analyzed by XRF. Aqueous standards containing gallium and zinc were first cast as dried residues, and these residue standards were analyzed and calibrated. More recently aqueous standards containing plutonium, gallium, and zinc were prepared, cast as dried spots, and calibrated. Very linear calibrations were obtained for both sets of standards when zinc was used as the internal standard (RMS values =1% of the standards concentration range). Hence, this dried residue process appears very promising for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal.

  17. Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

  18. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kolodney

    1959-01-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings ; from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object ; passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an ; electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not ; passive, using as a cathode a metal which does

  19. Virtual button interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  20. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  1. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal to determine compliance with specifications.

  2. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  3. Technical documentation to support the evaluation of handling of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, T.D.

    1999-08-31

    In 1997, a can containing a plutonium metal ingot was opened. The sides of the inner storage can had collapsed. As the inner can was opened, an apparent flame appeared to issue from the opening. Based on the reaction and possible pressurization of the glovebox, a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening was issued. This document contains some of the technical documents to resolve the screening.

  4. Plutonium pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1992-06-02

    A review of the published literature on ignition and burning of plutonium metal was conducted in order to better define the characteristic of pyrophoric plutonium. The major parameter affecting ignition is the surface area/mass ratio of the sample. Based on this parameter, plutonium metal can be classified into four categories: (1) bulk metal, (2) film and foils, (3) chips and turnings, and (4) powder. Other parameters that can alter the ignition of the metal include experimental, chemical, physical, and environmental effects. These effects are reviewed in this report. It was concluded from this review that pyrophoric plutonium can be conservatively defined as: Plutonium metal that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 150{degrees}C or below in the absence of external heat, shock, or friction. The 150{degrees}C temperature was used to compensate for the self-heating of plutonium metal. For a practical definition of whether any given metal is pyrophoric, all of the factors affecting ignition must be considered.

  5. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

  6. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  7. The Button Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Charley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes The Button Project. It started as a dream, a need to educate future generations about the Holocaust, to teach tolerance, and to remember the past. Under the auspices of the Jewish Federation of Peoria, a small band of people joined together with the goal of teaching people about the Holocaust so that it will

  8. Buttons and Beaux (Arts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, David D.

    1997-01-01

    Describes graphical elements--backgrounds, buttons, rules, and enhancements like drop shadows--that can transform Web pages without significantly increasing download time. Used thoughtfully and consistently, such graphical elements can create a unique style that serves as a personal Web page trademark. (AEF)

  9. Point-detect production and migration in plutonium metal at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M. I. (Michael I.); Stan, M. (Marius); Sickafus, K. (Kurt E.); Valone, S. M. (Steven M.)

    2001-01-01

    Modeling thermodynamics and defect production in plutonium (Pu) metal and its alloys, has proven to be singularly difficult. The multiplicity of phases and the small changes in temperature, pressure, and/or stress that can induce phase changes lie at the heart of this difficulty, In terms of radiation damage, Pu metal represents a unique situation because of the large volume changes that accompany the phase changes. The most workable form of the metal is the fcc (6.) phase, which in practice the 6 phase is stabilized by addition of alloying elements such as Ga or AI. The thermodynamically stable phase at ambient conditions is the between monoclinic (a-) phase, which, however, is approximately 20 % lower in volume than the 6 phase. In stabilized Pu metal, there is an interplay between the natural swelling tendencies of fcc metals and the volume-contraction tendency of the underlying phase transformation to the thermodynamically stable phase. This study explores the point defect production and migration properties that are necessary to eventually model the long-term outcome of this interplay.

  10. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  11. An Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Multiplicity Measurements of Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John [North Carolina State University; Miller, Eric [University of Michigan; Solomon, Clell J. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis, Ben [University of Michigan; Meldrum, Amy [University of Michigan; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan

    2012-06-21

    In January 2009, Sandia National Laboratories conducted neutron multiplicity measurements of a polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere. Over the past 3 years, those experiments have been collaboratively analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations conducted by University of Michigan (UM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and North Carolina State University (NCSU). Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments consistently overpredict the mean and variance of the measured neutron multiplicity distribution. This paper presents a sensitivity study conducted to evaluate the potential sources of the observed errors. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements exhibited systematic over-prediction of the neutron multiplicity distribution. The over-prediction tended to increase with increasing multiplication. MCNPX-PoliMi had previously been validated against only very low multiplication benchmarks. We conducted sensitivity studies to try to identify the cause(s) of the simulation errors; we eliminated the potential causes we identified, except for Pu-239 {bar {nu}}. A very small change (-1.1%) in the Pu-239 {bar {nu}} dramatically improved the accuracy of the MCNPX-PoliMi simulation for all 6 measurements. This observation is consistent with the trend observed in the bias exhibited by the MCNPX-PoliMi simulations: a very small error in {bar {nu}} is 'magnified' by increasing multiplication. We applied a scalar adjustment to Pu-239 {bar {nu}} (independent of neutron energy); an adjustment that depends on energy is probably more appropriate.

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-26

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

  13. [Button gastrostomy in children].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Iu A; Novozhilov, V A; Rasputin, A A; Us, G P; Kuznetsova, N N

    2015-01-01

    For the period January 2002 to December 2013 it was performed 84 interventions for introduction of gastrostomy tube. The first group included 24 open operations and the second group had 60 laparoscopic operations by using of button devices MIC-KEY (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, USA) in neonates and infants. Statistically significant difference was not observed during comparison of demographic data of patients. Differences in groups were found in statistical analysis of intra- and postoperative parameters (p<0.05). Mean duration of surgery in the first group was 37.29 min, in the second group - 23.97 min. Time to start of feeding and transition to complete enteral nutrition was less in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery than after open intervention (10.5 and 19.13 hours, 23.79 and 35.88 hours respectively; p<0.05). It was revealed augmentation of hospital stay in the 1st group in comparison with the 2(nd) group (11.71 and 7.09 days respectively; p<0.05). Frequency of postoperative complications was 18.33% in the 2(nd) group and 24% - in the 1st group (p<0.05). The authors consider that button devices are simply and effective technique of gastrostomy establishment in children. It is associated with minimal surgery duration and allows to start early enteral nutrition in comparison with open techniques. PMID:25909552

  14. Dynamic and quasi-static simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal containers subject to 30-foot dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers is in support of the design and testing project The results from the dynamic analysis show some important facts that have not been considered before. The internal bagless transfer can will have higher stress than the primary container. The quasi-static analysis provides a conservative solution. In both vertical upright drop (dynamic) and inclined upside down drop (quasi-static) the containers are structurally sound.

  15. View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches which manually control the indicating pilot lights on the model board. Not all switches are active, some switches were installed for a planned, but never constructed, system expansion. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Plutonium storage safety at major Department of Energy facilities. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.; De La Paz, A.; Fortenberry, K.; Tontodonato, R.; Von Holle, W.

    1994-04-14

    The report reviews the safety of plutonium stored at the Rocky Flats Plant, the Hanford Site, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Site. It considers the inventory of bare (unencapsulated) plutonium metal, plutonium oxides, other plutonium compounds, solid plutonium scrap, and plutonium solutions. The report does not consider irradiated fuel, finished plutonium weapon components (pits), or plutonium-238.

  17. Plutonium air transportable package development using metallic filaments and composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J. D.; Neilsen, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    A new design concept for plutonium air transport packagings has been developed by the Transportation Systems Department and modeled by the Engineering Mechanics and Material Modeling Department at Sandia National laboratories. The new concept resulted from an in-depth review of existing package design philosophies and limitations. This new design concept uses a very robust primary containment vessel with elastomeric seals for protection and confinement of an inner containment vessel with contents. An overpack consisting of multiple layers of plastically-deformable metallic wire mesh and high-tensile strength materials is placed around the containment vessels to provide energy absorption for the primary containment vessel as well as thermal protection. The use of intermittent layers with high-tensile strength results in a limiter which remains in place during accidental impact events and can be relied upon to provide subsequent puncture and fire protection. In addition, an outer shell around the energy absorbing material is provided for handling and weather protection. Scoping tests were performed on material samples, wall sections, and partially modeled prototypes. To evaluate various design features, finite element analyses were performed on the package.

  18. 6.SP Buttons: Statistical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Zeke likes to collect buttons and he keeps them in a jar. Zeke can empty the buttons out of the jar, so he can see all of his buttons at once. Which of...

  19. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  20. Hidden danger of button batteries.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Kiarash; Hobson, Andrew; Borzi, Peter

    2015-06-01

    This case highlights a rare but important presentation of aorto-oesophageal fistula caused by a concealed foreign body. Primary prevention strategies are needed to address the danger associated with button batteries. PMID:25425277

  1. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: dissolution procedure; plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); plutonium by ceric sulfate titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; iron by 2,2'-bipyridyl spectrophotometric method; chloride by the thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; nitrogen by distillation-Nessler reagent spectrophotometric method; carbon by the direct combustion-thermal conductivity method; sulfur by distillation-spectrophotometric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; Americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; Americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium) and tantalum by spectrochemical method; sample preparation for spectrographic analysis for trace impurities. (JMT)

  2. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  3. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  4. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of discrete weapons grade plutonium metal particles originating from the 1960 BOMARC incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James M.

    The goal of this research was to investigate the physicochemical properties of weapons grade plutonium particles originating from the 1960 BOMARC incident for the purpose of predicting their fate in the environment and to address radiation protection and nuclear security concerns. Methods were developed to locate and isolate the particles in order to characterize them. Physical, chemical, and radiological characterization was performed using a variety of techniques. And finally, the particles were subjected to a sequential extraction procedure, a series of increasingly aggressive reagents, to simulate an accelerated environmental exposure. A link between the morphology of the particles and their partitioning amongst environmental mechanisms was established.

  6. ButtonFly 1.20

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ButtonFly is an easy-to-use software for creating professional looking buttons instantly. You can apply graphic effects like natural shadow, dispersion, chromatic effects, and more. You can also establish a button template, define your section headings, and instantly create tens or even hundreds of new buttons for your site. ButtonFly takes care of all of the complex and repetitive operations, allowing graphic artists to focus on their designs. ButtonFly also allows you to generate the files in both .gif and .jpeg formats, including transparent .gifs. Using the Rollover Generator feature, you can automatically create dynamic effects for buttons without having to write the Javascript code. In addition, a multilingual generation utility enables instant translation of Websites.

  7. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Jones, M.M.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.

    1997-12-31

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for {sup 241}Am(III) and {sup 238}Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4.

  8. Some physico-chemical and radiation properties of plutonium-238 metal prepared by electrochemical amalgamation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. Peretrukhin; S. I. Rovny; A. G. Maslennikov; V. V. Ershov; P. P. Chinenov; V. I. Kapitonov; V. L. Kuvaev

    2007-01-01

    Pu-238 metal was prepared by electrolytic amalgamation from Pu(III) acetate aqueous solution and by followed by the thermal decomposition of the Pu amalgam. The density, specific heat power, ?-spectra, neutron flux, and corrosion kinetics in dry air at ambient temperature of the prepared 238Pu metal were measured. The neutron flux and ?-spectra from 238Pu metal have been attributed to spontaneous

  9. Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

  10. Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

    2009-09-01

    Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the Feynman method was equally shared between the uncertainties in fitting the data to the Feynman equations and the neutron multiplicity of 239Pu. Material and geometry uncertainties in the benchmark experiment were generally much smaller than uncertainties in the analysis methods.

  11. Plutonium breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors and light water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vendryes

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities of breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) and light water reactors (LWRs) are compared in two ways. The feasibility of breeding has been demonstrated in the Phenix reactor with a measured gain of 0.14. The gain in Superphenix will amount to about0.20. The studies show that while maintaining the performance of commercial reactors their breeding gain can

  12. Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J. D.; Moya, J. L.; McClure, J. D.; Hohnstreiter, G. F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Golliher, K. G. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A new package was developed for transporting Pu and U quantities that are currently carried in DOT-6M packages. It uses double containment with threaded closures and elastomeric seals. A composite overpack of metallic wire mesh and ceramic or quartz cloth insulation is provided for protection in accidents. Two prototypes were subjected to dynamic crush tests. A thermal computer model was developed and benchmarked by test results to predict package behavior in fires. The material performed isotropically in a global fashion. A Type B Pu transport package can be developed for DOE Pu shipments for less than $5000 if manufactured in quantity. 5 figs, 6 refs. (DLC)

  13. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Elliott; K. A. Jr. Gschneidner

    1962-01-01

    A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids ; and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. ; The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the ; melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 ; deg C, cooling to room

  14. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Elliott; K. A. Jr. Gschneidner

    1962-01-01

    A method is given for making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free ; of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes. The ; steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the ; melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 ; deg C, cooling to room

  15. PLUTONIUM TECHNOLOGY FOR REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Waldron; A. G. Adwick; H. Lloyd; M. J. Notley; D. M. Poole; L. E. Russell; J. B. Sayers

    1959-01-01

    The possibility exists of using plutonium in both thermal and fast ; reactors as solid metal, ceramic, or cermet or as liquid metal solutions or ; suspensions. Technological studies were undertaken to evaluate the ; practicability of the various concepts. For solid metallic fuels, powder ; metallurgy and extrusion experiments are reported; binary alloys with iron, ; thorium, uranium, zirconium;

  16. K.OA Bobbie Bear's Buttons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Pose this question to the students: Bobbie Bear has a box of red and blue buttons. She takes 4 buttons out of the box. How many of each color button mi...

  17. Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

    2003-02-26

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

  18. Inclusion Behavior During the Electron Beam Button Melting Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, J. P.; Defay, B.; Jourdan, J.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2012-10-01

    The high mechanical performance of alloys developed for the manufacture of turbine disks depend upon the size and the number density of the inclusions. The electron beam button method has been practiced since the 1980s as a technique to quantify the cleanliness of the superalloys as well as to identify the nature and the size of the inclusions. The technique involves melting the sample into a hemispherical water-cooled crucible and the low density inclusions (mainly oxides) are concentrated by a combination of Marangoni and buoyancy forces into an area at the top surface of the button referred to as the raft. We have experimentally studied the behavior of oxide inclusions in special steels using both high definition video and infrared cameras. We have observed the inversion of the Marangoni effect due to the presence of sulfur, which leads to a positive temperature coefficient of the surface tension. A mathematical modeling has been carried out to simulate the turbulent fluid flow associated with the temperature field in the metallic pool of the button. The surface temperature profile has been successfully compared with the measured data. A post-processor numerical tool calculates the inclusion trajectories taking into account the turbulent fluctuation velocity by a stochastic approach. Hence, the behavior of a population of inclusions has been statistically studied, and the dependence of the capture efficiency on the inclusion size has been analyzed.

  19. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. PMID:25662210

  20. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  1. Standard test method for the determination of impurities in plutonium metal: acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This Test Method covers the determination of 58 trace elements in plutonium (Pu) metal. The Pu sample is dissolved in acid, and the concentration of the trace impurities are determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 1.2 This Test Method is specific for the determination of trace impurities in Pu metal. It may be applied to other types of Pu materials, such as Pu oxides, if the samples are dissolved and oxidized to the Pu(IV) state. However, it is the responsibility of the user to evaluate the performance of other matrices. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard.

  2. Dehydration of plutonium trichloride hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  3. THE PHYSICAL METALLURGY OF PLUTONIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Waldron; J. Garstone; J. A. Lee; P. G. Mardon; J. A. C. Marples; D. M. Poole; G. K. Williamson

    1959-01-01

    Some physical properties of plutonium were redetermined using high-; purity metal, including transition temperatures by thermal analysis and ; dilatometry, expansion coefficients, and thermo-electric power. Thermal ; properties and the kinetics of the alpha in equilibrium BETA transformation ; were studied on metal of lower purity. The effect of aluminum additions on the ; negative expansion coefficient of the delta-phase

  4. 4.MD, 5.MD Button Diameters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: With a partner or group, gather a handful of round buttons from a diverse collection, and use a ruler to measure the diameter of each button to the nea...

  5. Your T7208 telephone Mute button

    E-print Network

    Your T7208 telephone Mute button Turns the microphone off or on when you are on a call. Headset Write your extension number on this card. F G H I J K L T7208 Telephone User Card 1-800-4 NORTEL www without a telephone stand 1 2 Headset option Connect cord to headset. Connect cord to handset. Insert line

  6. Your T7316 telephone Mute button

    E-print Network

    Your T7316 telephone Mute button Turns the microphone off or on when you are on a call. Headset. Number card Write your extension number on this card. G H I J K L M N T7316 Telephone User Card 1 N J K L G Cord connections Wall mount without a telephone stand 1 Desk mount option Route line cord

  7. Button Battery Ingestion-Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, SV; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper. PMID:25386497

  8. Button battery ingestion-case report and review.

    PubMed

    Kalyanshettar, Ss; Patil, Sv; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper. PMID:25386497

  9. Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Allen; J. M. Haschke

    1998-01-01

    Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H after liquid water is

  10. XPS-AES characterization of plutonium oxides and oxide carbide. The existence of plutonium monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Larson; John M. Haschke

    1981-01-01

    The plutonium-oxygen phase diagrams has been clarified by XPS and AES results which show that three oxygen-containing plutonium phases, PuO, ..cap alpha..-PuO, and PuO\\/sub x\\/C\\/sub y\\/, are successively formed when oxide-coated plutonium metal is heated in vacuo to 500°C. Formation of the oxide carbide is evidenced by the fact that a shift in the Pu(4f) binding energy is coincident with

  11. A Plutonium Storage Container Pressure Measurement Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grim

    2002-01-01

    Plutonium oxide and metal awaiting final disposition are currently stored at the Savannah River Site in crimp sealed food pack cans. Surveillances to ensure continued safe storage of the cans include periodic lid deflection measurements using a mechanical device.

  12. Device for mechanically stabilizing web ribbon buttons during growth initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Paul K. (inventor); Fortier, Edward P. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to a stabilization device for stabilizing dendritic web seed buttons during initiation of crystal growth from a float melt zone. The invention includes angular maintenance means for maintaining a constant angular orientation between the axis of a growth initiation seed and the upper surface of a web button during withdrawal of the web button from the melt. In the preferred embodiment, the angular means includes an adjustable elevation tube which surrounds the seed, the weight of which may be selectively supported by the seed button during web button withdrawal.

  13. Button cell supercapacitors with monolithic carbon aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prbstle, H.; Schmitt, C.; Fricke, J.

    Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials prepared via pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. The density of the aerogels can be varied in a wide range, whereby the major part of the pores is accessible to ionic conductors. Therefore, the application of high surface area aerogels as electrodes in supercapacitor devices is promising. In the present publication, the integration of thin monolithic aerogel composites in button cell casings is presented. The preparation of thin and mechanically stable aerogel electrodes was performed via integration of carbon fibers into the aerogel skeleton. In order to increase the external electrode area in the button cells (volume: 2.1 cm 3) a special folding technique for the electrodes (thickness: 180 ?m) was employed. The aerogel capacitors exhibit an excellent long term stability with no significant degradation after 80,000 charging and discharging cycles. According to a ragone-evaluation of the impedance data, the maximum power output and energy content for the aerogel button cells are 4.6 W and 4.9 mWh, respectively. The influence of CO 2-activation on the capacitive and resistive behavior of the electrodes in different aqueous electrolytes is analyzed using innovative analytical methods for cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy.

  14. Welding Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    HUDLOW, SL

    2004-04-20

    The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

  15. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium-239 based on the spectrum of plutonium(III) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Walker, L.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a spectrophotometric method for determining plutonium-239 (Pu-239) based on the spectrum of Pu(III) chloride. The authors used the sealed-reflux technique for the dissolution of plutonium oxide with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and small amounts of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. To complex the fluoride, they added zirconium, and to reduce plutonium to Pu(III), they added ascorbic acid. They then adjusted the solution to a concentration of 2 M HCl and measured the absorbances at five wavelengths of the Pu(III) chloride spectrum. This spectrophotometric determination can also be applied to samples of plutonium metal dissolved in HCl.

  17. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  18. Seaborg's Plutonium ?

    E-print Network

    Norman, Eric B; Telhami, Kristina E

    2014-01-01

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  19. Seaborg's Plutonium?

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Norman; Keenan J. Thomas; Kristina E. Telhami

    2015-02-17

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  20. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kriikku

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans,

  1. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  2. AnyButton: Unpowered, Modeless and Highly Available Mobile Input Using Unmodified Clothing Buttons

    E-print Network

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    fingernail, on the wrist and elbow. The user tunes up the music volume by pinching up and spinning the second, and the elbow. We interpret which button is under user interaction according to the wrist and elbow orientations of three motion sensors, each placing on the index fingernail, the wrist, and the elbow. Our approach

  3. A newly designed hydroxyapatite ceramic burr-hole button

    PubMed Central

    Kashimura, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Kenji; Sugawara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Conventional burr-hole buttons sometimes do not fit the burr hole well due to the curvature of the surrounding bone. An irregular surface at the border between the button and the surrounding skull may appear unaesthetic. The major problem is the difference between the curvature radius of the skull and the burr-hole button in contact with the skull. To solve this problem, the authors designed a button made of hydroxyapatite ceramic to snugly fit the burr hole. The specifications of this device and its clinical application are described here. PMID:20448795

  4. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  5. Estimation of the Formation Rates of Polyatomic Species of Heavy Metals in Plutonium Analyses using Multicollector ICP-MS with a Desolvating Nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, Linda MP

    2015-01-01

    The analyses of IAEA and environmental samples for Plutonium isotopic content are conducted normally at very low concentrations of Pu ? usually in the range of part per trillion level and even more often at the parts per quadrillion level. To analyze such low concentrations, the interferences in the analytical solution must be reduced as much as possible. Polyatomic interferences (PIs), formed by the heavy metals (HMs) from Hf to Bi are known to create the problems for Pu isotopic analyses, because even the relatively high resolution of a modern multicollector ICP-MS is not enough to separate Pu isotopes from this PIs in most of the cases. Desolvating nebulizers (DSN) (e.g. APEX and AridusII) reduce significantly the formation of PIs compare to the use of wet plasma. The purpose of this work was to investigate the rate of formation of PIs, produced by HMs, when high resolution MC ICP-MS with desolvating nebulizer was used for Pu isotopic analyses and to estimate the influence of the metals present in the sample on the results of analyses. The NU Plasma HR Multicollector and AridusII desolvating nebulizer were used in this investigation. This investigation was done for all Pu isotopes normally analyzed by ICP-MS, including 244Pu, with the exception of 238Pu, which most of the time cant be analyzed by ICP-MS, because of the overwhelming presence of 238U in the solutions. The formation rates were determined and reported for all 12 HMs from Hf to Bi. Selected IAEA samples were scanned for the presence of HMs and the influence of HMs on the results of Pu isotopic analyses was evaluated. It was found that the implemented separation procedure provides sufficient separation of HM from Pu, although the effect of PIs on the measurement of low level isotopes like 241Pu and 242Pu in some cases can still be observed.

  6. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  7. A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

    1998-12-01

    Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

  8. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. F. Smith; R. R. Gibson; G. D. Jarvinen; M. M. Jones; M. T. Lu; T. W. Robison; N. C. Schroeder; N. Stalnaker

    1998-01-01

    Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively\\u000a removing dilute actimide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially\\u000a available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional\\u000a groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic,

  9. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry (Los Alamos, NM); Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Trujillo, Eddie A. (Espanola, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  11. 78 FR 33419 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Co-Design Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...Information Technology. SUMMARY: Blue Button Plus represents the technical standards and...receive clinical data via Blue Button Plus. The Challenge will also uniquely engage...are: Build support for Blue Button Plus by engaging three crucial...

  12. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO{sub 2} typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO{sub 2} produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO{sub 2} in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO{sub 2} With uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO{sub 2} with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO{sub 2} materials may warrant further study.

  13. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

  14. Multiple intermediate valence in plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Mirmelstein; E. S. Clementyev; O. V. Kerbel

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an empirical model is proposed that quantitatively describes\\u000a the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and effective atomic volume of the low-temperature ? phase and the gallium or\\u000a aluminum-stabilized face-centered cubic (fcc) ? phase of plutonium metal. The results of the paper allow one to estimate the\\u000a entropy change associated with

  15. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, Franois; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-09-16

    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota. PMID:25141175

  16. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  17. Theory of the thermal properties of delta -plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. Harrison

    2004-01-01

    The thermal properties of delta -plutonium are studied in terms of the elementary electronic structure, and contrasted to those of aluminum. In both metals the thermal expansion can be understood as from the pressure of the gas of phonons, a negative expansion in the case of plutonium because of negative Grneisen constants for some transverse modes. Thermal expansion in aluminum

  18. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dunn; G. Chandler; C. Gardner; M. Louthan; J. Mcclard

    2009-01-01

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged

  19. View southwest operator's console and button boards within the periphery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest operator's console and button boards within the periphery of the load dispatch model board. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Comparative Study of button BPM Trapped Mode Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron,P.; Singh, O.

    2009-05-04

    The combination of short bunches and high currents found in modern light sources and colliders can result in the deposition of tens of watts of power in BPM buttons. The resulting thermal distortion is potentially problematic for maintaining high precision beam position stability, and in the extreme case can result in mechanical damage. We present a simple algorithm that uses the input parameters of beam current, bunch length, button diameter, beampipe aperture, and fill pattern to calculate a relative figure-of-merit for button heating. Data for many of the world's light sources and colliders is compiled in a table. Using the algorithm, the table is sorted in order of the relative magnitude of button heating.

  1. Alpha-plutonium's Grneisen parameter.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Hassel; Lawson, Andrew; Migliori, Albert

    2010-04-28

    Reported Grneisen parameters ? of alpha-plutonium range from 3.0 to 9.6, which is remarkable because typical Grneisen parameter uncertainty seldom exceeds 0.5. Our six new estimates obtained by different methods range from 3.2 to 9.6. The new estimates arise from Grneisen's rule, from Einstein model and Debye model fits to low-temperature ?V/V, from the bulk modulus temperature dependence, from the zero-point-energy contribution to the bulk modulus, and from another Grneisen relationship whereby ? is estimated from only the bulk modulus and volume changes with temperature (or pressure). We disregard several high estimates because of the itinerant-localized 5f-electron changes during temperature changes and pressure changes. Considering all these estimates, for alpha-plutonium, we recommend ? = 3.7 0.4, slightly high compared with values for all elemental metals. PMID:21386421

  2. Effects of Button Features on Self-Dressing in Young Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Laurie; Whitehurst, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Three button design features (the shape, size, and position of a button on a garment) were evaluated for their effect on buttoning skills performance in four developmentally retarded preschoolers. Results indicated that buttons of large size in the top position on the presentation garment maximally encouraged learning this self-dressing skill.

  3. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  4. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  5. Problems for October 17, 2009 1. An elevator of a 20-floor building has just two buttons. One of the buttons takes the

    E-print Network

    Baranovsky, Vladimir

    Problems for October 17, 2009 1. An elevator of a 20-floor building has just two buttons. One of the buttons takes the elevator 13 floors up, the other 8 floors down. Can you use this elevator to go from

  6. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing (UIUC); (LLNL); (ESRF); (LANL)

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the {Lambda} point are: C{sub 11} = 35.3 {+-} 1.4 GPa, C{sub 12} = 25.5 {+-} 1.5 GPa and C{sub 44} = 30.53 {+-} 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure {delta}-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which {delta}-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T{sub 1}[011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s

  7. Redox speciation of plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Choppin; A. H. Bond; P. M. Hromadka

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation state distribution of plutonium in natural waters is necessary in modeling its behavior in environmental systems. The redox speciation of plutonium is complicated by such effects as hydrolysis, complexation, disproportionation, solubility, and redox interchange reactions. The insolubility of Pu(OH)4 is often the limiting factor of the net solubility of plutonium in oxic natural waters where Pu(V)O

  8. THE CORROSION BEHAVIORS OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waber

    1958-01-01

    The many similarities in the chemical reactivity of plutonium and ; uranium were used to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in ; the corrosion behavior of these metals and their alloys. It may be concluded ; that the reaction in aqueous environment is controlled by the rate of one or more ; reactions occurring at local anodes.

  9. High temperature vapor pressure of pure plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Bradbury; R. W. Ohse

    1979-01-01

    High temperature vapor pressure measurements have been made on pure plutonium metal by the Knudsen effusion technique. The reported experimental results extend into the transition region between molecular and viscous or hydrodynamic flow. Under the conditions used, linearity was observed up to temperatures in excess of 2200 K where pressures approaching 100 Pa were measured. The results over the temperature

  10. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  11. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  12. The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

    2013-05-01

    People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory. PMID:23512481

  13. Button battery injury in children - a primary care issue?

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Michael; Hamill, James K; Barker, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    There is a well-described increase in the incidence of significant injury associated with button batteries in children. Button battery ingestion or insertion (ear/nose) is a time-sensitive injury mechanism, with severe injury occurring within hours. Prevention efforts are being developed that may include changes to packaging, public awareness campaigns, safe disposal mechanisms, changes to battery design and changes to device design. However, there is not a single, simple and effective prevention strategy available. This community hazard has significant implications for primary care. This article presents the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of button battery exposure and subsequent injury. It also describes the clinical recommendations, specifically an emphasis on early diagnosis, including maintaining a high index of suspicion; rapid removal where possible or urgent referral for operative intervention. PMID:24624414

  14. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  16. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Strumi?ska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (?Pu and ????Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout. PMID:21864954

  17. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version. (ATT)

  18. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  19. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  20. Napoleon's Buttons: Teaching the Role of Chemistry in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samet, Cindy; Higgins, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    A course designed on the theme of Napoleon's Buttons, which states that there is a connection between the chemical structure of a compound and its pivotal moments in history affecting the development of society is explained. Students liked the book choice for the course because the focus was not on straight chemistry, but the intersection of

  1. Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility

    E-print Network

    Kane, Shaun K.

    Button Blender: Remixing Input to Improve Video Game Accessibility Abstract Over time, advances in video game system hardware have facilitated the evolution of video game mechanics from simple to complex Interfaces and Presentation: User Interfaces - Input Devices and Strategies Introduction Video games

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF THE CONTROL BUTTONS THAT OPEN AND CLOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE CONTROL BUTTONS THAT OPEN AND CLOSE THE SLIDING PORTIONS OF THE NORTH TRANSFER AISLE DOOR, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Button Heat-Pulse Sensor for Soil Water Content Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Valente; Salviano Soares; R aul Morais; J. M. Baptista; Manuel Cabral

    2010-01-01

    Recent developed button heat pulse probes (BHPP) demonstrated a great potential for soil water content measurements. This new probe compared to conventional heat pulse probes (HPP), does not use needles, and measurement accuracy is significantly improved. This new design, with the possibility to assembly the probe and electronics in the same package, with low-cost, and with less power consumption compared

  4. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  5. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  6. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  7. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

  8. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  9. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Disposition of separated plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans Berkhout; Anatoli Diakov; Harold Feiveson; Helen Hunt; Edwin Lyman; Marvin Miller; Frank von Hippel

    1993-01-01

    In the immediate term, plutonium, recovered from dismantled nuclear warheads and from civil reprocessing plants, will have to be stored securely, and under international safeguards if possible. In the intermediate term, the principal alternatives for disposition of this plutonium are: irradiation in mixed?oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in commercial unmodified light?water reactors or in specially adapted light?water reactors capable of operating

  11. Surface damage on cemented carbide rock-drill buttons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Beste; T Hartzell; H Engqvist; N Axn

    2001-01-01

    Wear phenomena on cemented carbide drill buttons tested in percussive drilling of Kiruna-magnetite under realistic conditions have been studied with scanning electron microscopy, light optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a comprehensive literature study has been performed. The aim has been to chart wear phenomena, such as crack formation, occurrence of reptile skin and various wear mechanisms.It

  12. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO/sub 2/ used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described.

  13. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  14. Chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide is used in mixtures with uranium dioxide as a nuclear-reactor fuel. In order to be suitable for this purpose, the material must meet certain criteria for plutonium content, isotopic composition, and impurity content. The following analytical procedures, which are described in detail, are designed to show whether or not a given material meets specifications: plutonium sample handling; plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by ceric sulfate titration; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); nitrogen by distillation spectrophotometry using Nessler reagents; carbon (total) by direct combustion thermal conductivity; total chlorine and fluorine by pyrohydrolysis; sulfur by distillation spectrophotometry; plutonium isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry; rare earth elements by spectroscopy; trace elements by carrier distillation spectroscopy; impurity elements by spark-source mass spectrography; moisture by the coulometric, electrolytic moisture analyzer; total gas in reactor-grade plutonium dioxide pellets; plutonium-238 isotopic abundance by alpha spectrometry; rare earths by copper spark-spectroscopy; plutonium isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry; oxygen-to-metal atom ratio by gravimetry. (JMT)

  15. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels.

  16. Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

    2002-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

  17. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  18. Plutonium Elastic Moduli, Electron Localization, and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, Albert; Mihut-Stroe, Izabella; Betts, Jon B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS E 536, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In almost all materials, compression is accompanied naturally by stiffening. Even in materials with zero or negative thermal expansion, where warming is accompanied by volume contraction it is the volume change that primarily controls elastic stiffness. Not so in the metal plutonium. In plutonium, alloying with gallium can change the sign of thermal expansion, but for the positive thermal- expansion monoclinic phase as well as the face-centered-cubic phase with either sign of thermal expansion, and the orthorhombic phase, recent measurements of elastic moduli show soften on warming by an order of magnitude more than expected, the shear and compressional moduli track, and volume seems irrelevant. These effects point toward a novel mechanism for electron localization, and have important implication for the pressure dependence of the bulk compressibility. (authors)

  19. Cellular automaton modeling of traffic flow at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a cellular automaton model is presented to depict the traffic flow at such a crosswalk with push button. The characteristics of vehicle flow with various arriving rate of pedestrians are investigated. Flux curves and spatiotemporal diagrams are plotted to show different traffic states and the phase transition features. A parameter, named as button reaction time, is introduced to represent the green time for vehicle flow after the button is pushed by a pedestrian. The effect of button reaction time on saturated flux is investigated. The results show that there is a critical value of button reaction time. The saturated flux increases rapidly when button reaction time is smaller than the critical value, while it increases slowly otherwise. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed and the results coincide with the simulation ones.

  20. Touch Screen User Interfaces for Older Adults: Button Size and Spacing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Xia Jin; Thomas Plocher; Liana M. Kiff

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the optimal button size and spacing for touch screen user interfaces intended for use by older adults.\\u000a Current recommendations in the literature are aimed at general audiences and fail to consider the specific needs of older\\u000a adults. Three independent variables, button size, button spacing, and manual dexterity were studied in two experiments that\\u000a measured reaction time, accuracy

  1. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  2. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu{sub 2}[B{sub 12}O{sub 18}(OH){sub 4}Br{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]0.5H{sub 2}O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium with chlorophosphonazo III in n-pentanol

    SciTech Connect

    Saponara, N.M.; Marsh, S.F.

    1982-03-01

    Microgram amounts of plutonium are measured spectrophotometrically as the plutonium-chlorophosphonazo III complex after extraction into n-pentanol from 1.5 M HCl. The relative standard deviation is 1.5% for the range of 2.5 to 17.5 ..mu..g. The tolerance is excellent for many metals and nonmetals present in nuclear fuel-cycle materials. A preceding anion-exchange-column separation increases tolerance for certain metals and nonmetals.

  4. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  5. Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Pellaud

    2002-01-01

    Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

  6. Welding Plutonium Storage Containers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS)

  7. Plutonium Air Shipments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nuclear Control Institute created a web site in response to a proposed standard for the shipment of radioactive materials. This site presents two world maps showing both sea and air routes that are planned or already in use for the shipment of plutonium. A series of papers by NCI-affiliated scientists and observers on the subject of radioactive materials shipments sets out the NCI position against such shipments.

  8. High Pu240-content plutonium Chemical Processing cost estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. McDonald; R. E. Olson; H. C. Rathvon

    1963-01-01

    In response to an inquiry by Euratom, estimates of the costs for the production of 85 kg of 15% Pu-240 metal and for the production of 15 kg of 25% Pu-240 oxide at HAPO were recently requested by the Atomic Energy Commission. In connection with this inquiry, comments were requested regarding the possibility of establishing and measuring product plutonium oxide

  9. Plutonium utilization in different reactor types in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vergnes

    1989-01-01

    Many liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) penetration studies were carried out in France after the 1973 oil crisis. Since that period, several new facts have modified the possible scenarios. The energy (especially electricity) use increase was lower than anticipated. Consequently, uranium supplying difficulties and uranium cost increases will not occur until later. As a result, pressurized water reactor (PWR) plutonium

  10. Toward a Deeper Understanding of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

    2007-06-21

    Plutonium is a very complex element lying near the middle of the actinide series. On the lower atomic number side of Pu is the element neptunium; its 5f electrons are highly delocalized or itinerant, participating in metallic-like bonding. The electrons in americium, the element to the right of Pu, are localized and do not participant significantly in the bonding. Plutonium is located directly on this rather abrupt transition. In the low-temperature {alpha} phase ground state, the five 5f electrons are mostly delocalized leading to a highly dense monoclinic crystal structure. Increases in temperature take the unalloyed plutonium through a series of five solid-state allotropic phase transformations before melting. One of the high temperature phases, the close-packed face centered cubic {delta} phase, is the least dense of all the phases, including the liquid. Alloying the Pu with Group IIIA elements such as aluminum or gallium retains the {delta} phase in a metastable state at ambient conditions. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to {alpha} + Pu{sub 3}Ga. These low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are also metastable with respect to low temperature excursions or increases in pressure and will transform to a monoclinic crystal structure at low temperatures via an isothermal martensitic phase transformation or at slightly elevated pressure. The delocalized to localized 5f electron bonding transition that occurs in the light actinides surrounding Pu gives rise to a plethora of unique and anomalous properties but also severely complicates the modeling and simulation. The development of theories and models that are sufficiently sensitive to capture the details of this transition and capable of elucidating the fundamental properties of plutonium and plutonium alloys is currently a grand challenge in actinide science. Recent advances in electronic structure theory, semi-empirical interatomic potentials, and raw computing power have enabled remarkable progress in our abilities to model many of the anomalous properties of Pu. This special issue of the Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design highlights a number of these advances in the area of the aging of plutonium. This aging is a long-term process due to the slow radioactive decay with a long half-life of 24400 years for the major isotope of plutonium. The challenge then is to predict the changes in properties of plutonium and its alloys from experimental results of plutonium aged only for a few decades and from theory and computational models that are build on a thorough, first-principle understanding of all the complex phenomena displayed by this material. We hope that progress and success of this enterprise will guide other endeavors in Computer-Aided Materials Design and prediction of materials performance.

  11. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  12. Helping Viewers Press the Right Buttons: Generating Intuitive Labels for Digital Terrestrial TV remote controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Lessiter; Jonathan Freeman; Robert Davis; Andrew Dumbreck

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a four phase research study into the ease of use of DTT (digital terrestrial television) remote controls, focusing on button labelling. The aim was to identify intuitive remote control button labels, thereby enhancing the ease of use of DTT remote controls. In phase 1, a series of brainstorming (discussion) groups was run involving members of the British

  13. Understanding DTT remote control button labelling: a multi-method approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Lessiter; Jonathan Freeman; Robert Davis; Andrew Dumbreck

    This paper describes a four phase research study into the ease of use of DTT (digital terrestrial television) remote controls, focusing on button labelling. The aim was to identify intuitive remote control button labels, thereby enhancing the ease of use of DTT remote controls. In phase 1, a series of brainstorming (discussion) groups was run involving members of the British

  14. 77 FR 60435 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Blue Button Video Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...entertaining video that creates awareness of the ``Blue Button...commercial business whose name, brand name, product or other trademark...marketing a commercial business, brand name, product or other trademark...Potential Impact on Increasing Awareness of Blue Button (Includes...

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two major phases during fiscal years 1999 and 2000.

  16. Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons

    SciTech Connect

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-04-07

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

  17. Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Rusin; Leticia Quintana; James R. Brainard; B. A. Strietelmeler; C. Drew Tait; Scott A. Ekberg; Phillip D. Palmer; Thomas W. Newton; David L. Clark

    1994-01-01

    The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for [alpha]-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO[sub 2](s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and

  18. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waber

    1960-01-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element ; either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful ; as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% ; of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and ; plutonium in the ratio of from 1

  19. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coffinberry

    1959-01-01

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast ; breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium ; with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting ; the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to ; corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic

  20. Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Rabideau, Sherman W. (Los Alamos, NM); Campbell, George M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

  1. Mixed ligand chelate therapy for plutonium and toxic metals from energy power production. Final report, April 15, 1977-October 14, 1980. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, J.

    1980-10-14

    The results of experiments are summarized on the ability of combinations of chelating agents to modify the genotoxicity or tissue distributions. The mutagenicities of Cr and of chelating agents were determined. The metals described in the report are Pu(IV), Cd(II), Cr(III), and Cr(VI). Accurate measurements were made of the ability of CaNa/sub 2/EDTA, CaNa/sub 3/DTPA, and DMPS to reduce mortality in mice given doses (i.p.) of CdCl/sub 2/ well above the 100% lethal level. The efficacy in terms of the mmoles/kg needed to reduce the mortality was: DTPA > EDTA > DMPS. The combination of DTPA + DMPS proved most promising though little evidence for mixed complex formation was noted. Potentiometric titration studies the case of Pu(IV) a few combinations proved effective, but only when given shortly after Pu administration and then only in the liver but not the skeleton. It is recommended that metabolically stable chelating agents be used in combinations, especially for those combinations which may form very stable mixed ligand chelates.

  2. Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g PUO{sub 2}/cm{sup 2} of metal surface per min) and independent of temperature above 500{degrees}C. Total mass and particle distributions are derived for oxide products formed by reactions of plutonium metal and hydride. The mass distributions for products of all metal-gas reactions are remarkably similar with approximately 0.07 mass% of the oxide particles having geometric diameters {le} 10 {mu}m. In comparison, 25 mass% of the oxide formed by the PuH{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction is in this range. Experimental values of mass fractions released during oxidation are evaluated and factors that alter the release fraction are discussed.

  3. Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

    1999-06-18

    Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

  4. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

    2002-07-01

    Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

  5. SELECTION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FOR DISPOSITION TO WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Mcclard, J.; Christopher, J.

    2012-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS). Included in the evaluation are up to 6 metric tons (MT) of plutonium in the form of impure oxides and metals for which a disposition plan has not been decided, among options that include preparation as feed for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; disposing to high-level waste through the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB Line and H Canyon; can-in-canister disposal using the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility; and preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE and SRS have identified at least 0.5 MT of plutonium that, because of high levels of chemical and isotopic impurities, is impractical for disposition by methods other than the WIPP pathway. Characteristics of these items and the disposition strategy are discussed.

  6. APPENDIX G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium

    E-print Network

    APPENDIX G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium #12;Appendix G Partition Coefficients For Plutonium G.1.0 Background A number of studies have focussed on the adsorption behavior of plutonium that Kd values for plutonium typically range over 4 orders of magnitude (Thibault et al., 1990). Also

  7. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M. [ed.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  8. Response of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter in plutonium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, A.W.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V. [and others

    1996-02-01

    This report documents response characteristics and the development of dose algorithms for the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCNO) implemented on January 1, 1995. The HCND was accredited under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) during 1994. The HCND employs two neutron dose components consisting of (1) an albedo thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), and (2) a track-etch dosimeter (TED). Response characteristics of these two dosimeter components were measured under the low-scatter conditions of the Hanford 318 Building Calibration Laboratory, and under the high-scatter conditions in the workplace at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The majority of personnel neutron dose at Hanford (currently and historically) occurs at the PFP. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable sources were used to characterize dosimeter response in the laboratory. At the PFP, neutron spectra and dose-measuring instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters, were used to determine the neutron dose under several configurations from three different plutonium sources: (1) plutonium tetrafluoride, (2) plutonium metal, and (3) plutonium oxide. In addition, measurements were performed at many selected work locations. The HCNDs were included in all measurements. Comparison of dosimeter- and instrument-measured dose equivalents provided the data necessary to develop HCND dose algorithms and to assess the accuracy of estimated neutron dose under actual work conditions.

  9. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

    2010-02-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

  10. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  11. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  12. Plutonium-Based Heavy-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    An effective mass of charge carriers that is significantly larger than the mass of a free electron develops at low temperatures in certain lanthanide- and actinide-based metals, including those formed with plutonium, owing to strong electron-electron interactions. This heavy-fermion mass is reflected in a substantially enhanced electronic coefficient of specific heat γ, which for elemental Pu is much larger than that of normal metals. By our definition, there are twelve Pu-based heavy-fermion compounds, most discovered recently, whose basic properties are known and discussed. Relative to other examples, these Pu-based heavy-fermion systems are particularly complex owing in part to the possible simultaneous presence of multiple, nearly degenerate 5fn configurations. This complexity poses significant opportunities as well as challenges, including understanding the origin of unconventional superconductivity in some of these materials.

  13. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  14. Effects on the long term storage container by thermal cycling alpha plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, B.F.; Prenger, F.C.; Veirs, D.K.; Hill, D.D.; Isom, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the validity of the steady state temperature limit of 100 C established by the DOE-STD-3013-96 for storing alpha plutonium metal. Studies with an alpha plutonium ingot combined with strain gauge measurements indicate that the stainless steel storage container, yields very little (0.005 in.) to the expanding plutonium metal as it undergoes alpha beta phase transformation at temperatures above 112 C. Another experiment using an alpha plutonium rod for point loading of the container wall showed no measured deformation of the container. The results of strain measurements for alpha beta and beta alpha transformations for twenty five thermal cycles are reported. Finite element modeling using the measured data predicts that the compressive yield strength is 3,500 psi versus the literature value of 13,000 psi.

  15. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project, 1978-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

  16. BPM Button Optimization to Minimize Distortion Due to Trapped Mode Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron,P.; Blednyk, A.; Kosciuk, B.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, I.; Singh, O

    2009-05-04

    The outer circumference of a BPM button and the inner circumference of the button housing comprise a transmission line. This transmission line typically presents an impedance of a few tens of ohms to the beam, and couples very weakly to the 50 ohm coaxial transmission line that comprises the signal path out of the button. The modes which are consequently excited and trapped often have quality factors of several hundred, permitting resonant excitation by the beam. The thermal distortion resulting from trapped mode heating is potentially problematic for achieving the high precision beam position measurements needed to provide the sub-micron beam position stability required by light source users. We present a button design that has been optimized via material selection and component geometry to minimize both the trapped mode heating and the resulting thermal distortion.

  17. Behind the Scenes: Leinbach Is Shuttle's 'Button Pusher' - Duration: 5 minutes, 25 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    He's the guy who, figuratively, pushes "the big red button" to send the shuttle into space. Astronaut Mike Massimino takes you inside the firing room at the Kennedy Space Center to meet Shuttle Lau...

  18. ESR Dosimetry for Atomic Bomb Survivors Using Shell Buttons and Tooth Enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoji Ikeya; Junko Miyajima; Shunzo Okajima

    1984-01-01

    Atomic bomb radiation doses to humans at Nagasaki and Hiroshima are investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) from shell buttons and tooth enamel voluntarily supplied by survivors. A shell button gives a dose of 2.1 0.2 Gy with ESR signals at g=2.001 and g=1.997 while the signal at g=1.997 for the tooth enamel of the same person is 1.9 0.5

  19. Modification of shirt buttons for retrospective radiation dosimetry after a radiological event.

    PubMed

    Marino, Stephen A; Johnson, Gary W; Schiff, Peter B; Brenner, David J

    2011-05-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a personal radiation dosimeter in the form of a clothing button to provide gamma-ray dose estimation for clinically-significant external radiation exposures to the general public due to a radiological incident, such as use of a radiological dispersal device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic "buttons," attached to shirts, and subjected to three cycles of home or commercial laundering or dry cleaning, including ironing or pressing. The buttons were subsequently exposed to doses of 137Cs gamma rays ranging from 0.75 to 8.2 Gy. The rods were removed from the buttons and their light output compared to their responses when bare or to the responses of a set of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the comparisons for LiF:Mg,Ti rods, the relative responses of the rods in buttons changed by 2-6% relative to the same rods before cleaning. In both comparisons for LiF:Mg,Cu,P rods, the response of laundered rods was 1-3% lower than for the same rods before cleaning. Both these materials are potential candidates for button dosimeters. PMID:21451325

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  1. Simultaneous determination of americium and plutonium in plutonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Huff, G.A.; Lee, R.S.

    1983-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of americium and plutonium in reprocessing solutions using an automated on-line concentration monitor has been developed and evaluated. The quantitative assays for plutonium were based on the intensities of the characteristic gamma rays of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu in the 120 keV to 210 keV region of the solution spectra. The assay peaks for americium were the 59.5 keV and 125 keV lines of /sup 241/Am. The method is capable of measuring americium (1 to 1500 ppm) in plutonium (5 to 50 g/L) solutions with an accuracy better than + or -5% using the 59.5 keV peak of /sup 241/Am. The observed americium data were compared with those obtained by alpha spectrometry and the values derived from the calculated /sup 241/Am (125 keV)//sup 239/Pu (129 keV) ratios of the test solutions. An overall average deviation of 1% for /sup 239/Pu and 3% each for /sup 238/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu from the mass spectrometry data was noted for the isotopic distribution of plutonium. The elemental plutonium abundances compared very well with those measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry and controlled-potential coulometry.

  2. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  3. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  4. TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING PLUTONIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    E-print Network

    Nero Jr., A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Submitted to Nuclear Safety LBL-6873 Preprint TECHNIQUES FORTechniques for Monitoring Plutonium and Uranium Particulates Released from Nucleartechniques for monitoring plutonium may also be used for monitoring other nuclear

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL BENZOTRIAZOLES AND RELATED POLYMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzotriazole (bta-H) is a well-known corrosion inhibitor for copper, copper-alloy, and other metal surfaces. Typical uses are to deactivate surfaces of computer hard drives and other internal metal computer parts, and for treatment of apparel hardware such as zippers and buttons...

  6. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  7. Design and fabrication of SGS plutonium standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Simmonds, S.M.; Longmire, V.L.; Long, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of fabricating four sets of plutonium segmented gamma scanner (SGS) can standards. The fabrication involves careful planning, meticulous execution in weighing the plutonium oxide while minimizing contamination, chemical analyses by three different national laboratories to get accurate and independent plutonium concentrations, vertical scanning to assure mixing of the plutonium and the diluent, and finally the nondestructive verification measurement. By following these steps, we successfully fabricated 4 sets or 20 SGS can standards. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Actinides: from heavy fermions to plutonium metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Hecker, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The actinide elements mark the emergence of 5f electrons. The f electrons possess sufficiently unusual characteristics that their participation in atomic binding often result in dramatic changes in properties. This provides an excellent opportunity to study the question of localization of electrons; a question that is paramount in predicting the physical and chemical properties of d and f electron transition metals. The transition region between localized (magnetic) and itinerant (often superconducting) behavior provides for many interesting phenomena such as structural instabilities (polymorphism), spin fluctuations, mixed valences, charge density waves, exceptional catalytic activity and hydrogen storage. This region offers most interesting behavior such as that exhibited by the actinide compounds UBe/sub 13/ and UPt/sub 3/. Both compounds are heavy-fermion superconductors in which both magnetic and superconducting behavior exist in the same electrons. The consequences of f-electron bonding (which appears greatest at Plutonium) show dramatic effects on phase stability, alloying behavior, phase transformations and mechanical behavior.

  9. Plutonium recycle in French PWR plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rome; G. Francillon; M. le Bars

    1987-01-01

    A significant amount of plutonium from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel reprocessing will be available in France as soon as 1990. Due to the breeder program delay, this amount will be sufficient to permit plutonium recycle in a large number of French PWR plants. According to the French spent fuel reprocessing policy, plutonium recycling approaches two concerns: (1) economic

  10. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and\\/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The

  11. Plutonium-the element of surprise

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Plutonium-the element of surprise G.R.ChoppinandB.E.Stout This year marked the soth annivrsary ol the original isolation o{ plutonium, making ita relativenewcomerto the PeriodicTable.Ovrthe past 50 years plutonium has become more familiar to tho generslpublic than manyothor,olderelem6nts

  12. PROPRITS MAGNTIQUES ET STRUCTURE LECTRONIQUE DU PLUTONIUM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    699 PROPRITS MAGNTIQUES ET STRUCTURE LECTRONIQUE DU PLUTONIUM J.-M. FOURNIER Centre d obtenus sur la susceptibilit magntique du plutonium-03B1. Nous proposons ensuite un schma de structure de bande que nous utilisons pour expliquer les anomalies d'autres proprits physiques du plutonium

  13. ANALYSIS FOR PLUTONIUM BY CONTROLLED POTENTIAL COULOMETRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Scott; R. M. Peekema

    1958-01-01

    A method for the determination of the plutonium content of reactor fuels ; has been developed using controlled potential coulometry. This method is ; superior to conventionnl procedures because it is independent of the plutonium ; isotopic content, has greater precision and sensitivity, and can be used for ; plant feeds and inprocess solutions as well as the plutonium product.

  14. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  15. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future.

  16. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  17. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  18. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  19. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  20. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G. (Los Alamos, NM); Blum, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  1. The effect of the composition of plutonium loaded on the reactivity change and the isotopic composition of fuel produced in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blandinskiy, V. Yu., E-mail: blandinsky@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation into burnup and breeding of nuclides in metallic fuel consisting of a mixture of plutonium and depleted uranium in a fast reactor with sodium coolant. The feasibility of using plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from domestic thermal reactors and weapons-grade plutonium is discussed. It is shown that the largest production of secondary fuel and the least change in the reactivity over the reactor lifetime can be achieved when employing plutonium contained in spent nuclear fuel from a reactor of the RBMK-1000 type.

  2. [Septal perforation in children due to button battery lodged in the nose: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrin; Cuestas, Giselle; Rodrguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Vctor

    2012-10-01

    Nasal foreign bodies are common in children. Button batteries deserve particular interest due to the severity and precocity of the injuries they cause. The button battery represents a growing danger. Its small size and brilliant appearance make them attractive to children, often being introduced in the nose, ear or mouth. It is imperative that the community and physicians are aware of the risks it poses. Early diagnosis and immediate removal is essential. Their delay can lead to necrosis of the nasal mucosa and septal perforation. We report 10 cases of septal perforation due to button battery. We emphasize the dangers of nasal impaction and the need for quick removal to avoid long-term complications. PMID:23070186

  3. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO{sub 2} fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle.

  4. Plutonium immobilization form evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L. W., LLNL

    1998-02-13

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

  5. Standard test method for determining plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry in H2SO4 at a platinum working electrode

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of milligram quantities of plutonium in unirradiated uranium-plutonium mixed oxide having a U/Pu ratio range of 0.1 to 10. This test method is also applicable to plutonium metal, plutonium oxide, uranium-plutonium mixed carbide, various plutonium compounds including fluoride and chloride salts, and plutonium solutions. 1.2 The recommended amount of plutonium for each aliquant in the coulometric analysis is 5 to 10 mg. Precision worsens for lower amounts of plutonium, and elapsed time of electrolysis becomes impractical for higher amounts of plutonium. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concens, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precaution...

  6. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAMIRO A. PEREYRA; DARRYL LOVATO

    2007-01-01

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the

  7. Plutonium may fuel advanced unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    Dismantling thousands of nuclear warheads brought on by the end of the Cold War is spurring new interest in nuclear power by utilities and private developers. The Department of Energy is now considering three unsolicited proposals from those suggesting that the agency work down its growing stockpile of excess plutonium by combining the material with spent uranium-oxide powerplant fuel and

  8. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  9. Making plutonium a Soviet monopoly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beckmann

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Beckmann severely criticizes the Ford Foundation report that recommended abandonment of the nuclear breeder reactor program. The arguments in the report ''are largely contradictory, irrelevant, and forcibly recruited to bolster a preconceived and erroneous conclusion that plutonium technology in the electric power industry must result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons,'' he says. He further adds, ''such a strategy

  10. Plutonium from Chernobyl in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy W. Mietelski

    1995-01-01

    Samples of coniferous forest litter collected in POland, of known ?-emitters activity, have been analysed for ? emitting plutonium isotopes. Specific as well as surface activities of the samples have been determined. Chernobyl and global fallout components have been distinguished for each sample. The observed maximum surface activity for Chernobyl fallout is above 25 Bq m?2 (for all ?-emitting Pu

  11. All intramural participants will be required to create an account on IMLeagues.com. ** IMLeagues offers a live support button in the top right corner of all pages, please use this button if you encounter

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    offers a live support button in the top right corner of all pages, please use this button if you page OR Click on the " Clemson University" link to go to your school's homepage on IMLeagues. 3. Captains can invite members to their team by clicking the "Invite Members" link on the team page. Any

  12. Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Fixation: The Trans-Iliotibial Band Endoscopic Portal for Direct Visualization of Ideal Button Placement

    PubMed Central

    Mistovich, R. Justin; O'Toole, Patrick O.J.; Ganley, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a commonly performed procedure that has been increasing in incidence. Multiple techniques for graft fixation have been described. Button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation of the anterior cruciate ligament graft allows for fast, secure fixation with strong load-to-failure biomechanical properties. The biomechanical properties of button-based femoral cortical suspension fixation are especially beneficial with soft-tissue grafts such as hamstring autografts. Confirmation of a successfully flipped button can be achieved with intraoperative fluoroscopy or indirect viewing; however, these techniques do not provide direct visualization of the flipped button. Our trans-iliotibial band endoscopic portal allows the surgeon to safely and directly visualize the flipped button on the lateral femoral cortex and ensure that there is no malpositioning in the form of an incompletely flipped button or from soft-tissue interposition between the button and the lateral femoral cortex. This portal therefore allows for direct visual confirmation that the button is fully flipped and resting flush against the femoral cortex, deep to the iliotibial band and vastus lateralis. PMID:25126498

  13. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  14. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  15. Plutonium-based superconductivity with a transition temperature above 18K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Morales, L. A.; Thompson, J. D.; Scott, B. L.; Stewart, G. R.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Boulet, P.; Colineau, E.; Lander, G. H.

    2002-11-01

    Plutonium is a metal of both technological relevance and fundamental scientific interest. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of plutonium, which directly influences its metallurgical properties, is poorly understood. For example, plutonium's 5f electrons are poised on the border between localized and itinerant, and their theoretical treatment pushes the limits of current electronic structure calculations. Here we extend the range of complexity exhibited by plutonium with the discovery of superconductivity in PuCoGa5. We argue that the observed superconductivity results directly from plutonium's anomalous electronic properties and as such serves as a bridge between two classes of spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductors: the known heavy-fermion superconductors and the high-Tc copper oxides. We suggest that the mechanism of superconductivity is unconventional; seen in that context, the fact that the transition temperature, Tc ~ 18.5K, is an order of magnitude greater than the maximum seen in the U- and Ce-based heavy-fermion systems may be natural. The large critical current displayed by PuCoGa5, which comes from radiation-induced self damage that creates pinning centres, would be of technological importance for applied superconductivity if the hazardous material plutonium were not a constituent.

  16. Development of weld closure stations for plutonium long-term storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, R.; Martinez, D.A.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Ortega, R.E.; Rofer, C.K.; Romero, W.; Stewart, J.; Trujillo, V.L.

    1998-12-31

    Weld closure stations for plutonium long-term storage containers have been designed, fabricated, and tested for the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the TA-55 Plutonium Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. ARIES is a processing system used for the dismantlement of the plutonium pits from nuclear weapons. ARIES prepares the extracted-plutonium in a form which is compatible with long-term storage and disposition options and meets international inspection requirements. The processed plutonium is delivered to the canning module of the ARIES line, where it is packaged in a stainless steel container. This container is then packaged in a secondary container for long-term storage. Each of the containers is hermetically sealed with a full penetration weld closure that meets the requirements of the ASME Section IX Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Welding is performed with a gas tungsten arc process in an inert atmosphere of helium. The encapsulated helium in the nested containers allows for leak testing the weld closure and container. The storage package was designed to meet packaging requirements of DOE Standard 3013-96 for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxides. Development of the process parameters, weld fixture, weld qualification, and the welding chambers is discussed in this paper.

  17. After connecting to the LSUHSC-Secure wireless network, click the Start button -> Computer

    E-print Network

    After connecting to the LSUHSC-Secure wireless network, click the Start button -> Computer #12;On are connected to the LSUHSC-Secure wireless network. #12; the menu bar, select "Map network drive". If it doesn't appear on your menu bar, hit the ALT key and the "T

  18. MODIFICATION OF SHIRT BUTTONS FOR RETROSPECTIVE RADIATION DOSIMETRY AFTER A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    to a radiological incident, such as use of a radiological dispersal device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic "buttons," attached to shirts, and subjected to three of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the compar- isons for LiF:Mg

  19. Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine

    E-print Network

    Boahen, Kwabena

    1 of 14 Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button affinity 2 of 14 Dumping neurotransmitter Spike Q X(t) Axon XQ xmtt Printed from the Mathematica Help Browser 1 1988-2006 Wolfram Research, Inc. All rights reserved. #12;Neurotransmitter concentration

  20. Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine

    E-print Network

    Boahen, Kwabena

    Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine;Dumping neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter concentration in cleft increases rapidly and then decays slowly In[1]:= d X dt Ileak with X 0 Q In[1]:= X t Q Ileak t Neurotransmitter remains in the cleft for some

  1. Evaluation of a Vision Based 2Button Remote Control for Interactive Television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faisal Shafait; Marco Grimm; Rolf-Rainer Grigat

    This contribution presents a new vision based re- mote control for interactive television (ViBReCIT) and DVD players. This device is easily and intuitively used due to its vision based pointing ability in combination with only two push buttons. The purpose of this remote control is to use a pointer based scheme for menu selections on the television screen. For this

  2. Hypermedia User-Interface Design: The Role of Individual Differences in Placement of Icon Buttons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study of students at Purdue University that examined the roles of gender, right- versus left-handedness, and mouse experience in preferences concerning the placement of icon buttons within hypermedia user-interface designs. Response rate is examined, order of presentation is discussed, and further research is suggested. (11 references)

  3. Echocardiographic predictors of success of catheter closure of atrial septal defect with the buttoned device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chandra Bose Reddy; P. Syamasundar Rao; Jan Ewenko; Rebecca Koscik; Allen D. Wilson

    1995-01-01

    Transcatheter occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) with the buttoned device has been shown to be feasible, effective, and safe. The final decision to implant the device is largely based on the balloon sizing of the ASD during cardiac catheterization. Only subjective criteria of ASD size and the septal rims on echocardiography have been used before catheterization, balloon

  4. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  5. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

  6. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

  7. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

  8. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

  9. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

  10. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leventhal

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel.

  11. Plutoniuman Element Never at Equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried S. Hecker

    2008-01-01

    The relentless deposition of energy from the ?-particle decay of plutonium damages its crystal lattice and transmutes plutonium into other elements over time (principally,\\u000a helium, americium, uranium, and neptunium). At cryogenic temperatures (4K), lattice damage causes significant volume expansion\\u000a of pure plutonium and contraction of face-centered-cubic stabilized alloys, and both appear to lose crystallinity at long\\u000a irradiation times. At room

  12. Plutonium may fuel advanced unit

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.

    1994-04-25

    Dismantling thousands of nuclear warheads brought on by the end of the Cold War is spurring new interest in nuclear power by utilities and private developers. The Department of Energy is now considering three unsolicited proposals from those suggesting that the agency work down its growing stockpile of excess plutonium by combining the material with spent uranium-oxide powerplant fuel and using the mix to run nuclear reactors.

  13. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Vienna; D. L. Alexander; Hong Li

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu

  14. Thorium plutonium (TREX) fuel for weapons-grade plutonium disposition in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Comfort; C. Ferguson; S. Klima; D. E. Lilly; F. Rahnema

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to create a pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor assembly (17 x 17) that would burn weapons-grade plutonium (WGP). Current designs of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels combine WGP with uranium as the fuel. MOX fuel assemblies will destroy plutonium, but only 40 to 50% of the plutonium present in the fuel. This percentage is limited by

  15. PLUTONIUM FUELS DEVELOPMENT, PLUTONIUM METALLURGY OPERATION QUARTERLY REPORT-JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH 1958

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wick

    1958-01-01

    The last two of four Zircaloy-clad capsules containing aluminum-; plutonium and aluminum-- silicon--plutonium were discharged from the MTR and are ; undergoing examination. These capsules withstood a fractional bunnout of ; plutonium atoms of 55 to 60% as determined by flux monitoring wires attached to ; the capsule holder. Additional capsules of these fuel alloys containing a higher ; concentration

  16. The Vapor Pressure of Plutonium Halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Phipps; G. W. Sears; R. L. Seifert; O. C. Simpson

    1950-01-01

    Vapor pressure measurements have been made with three halides of plutonium by a modification of the Knudsen effusion method. Measurements with solid plutonium trifluoride from 1200K to 1440K give the vapor pressure-temperature relation log10pmm=12.46821,120\\/T. Measurements with liquid plutonium trifluoride from 1440K to 1770K give log10pmm=11.27319,400\\/T. Measurements with solid plutonium trichloride from 850K to 1007K give log10pmm=12.72615,910\\/T; with liquid trichloride from

  17. Plutoniuman Element Never at Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2008-07-01

    The relentless deposition of energy from the ?-particle decay of plutonium damages its crystal lattice and transmutes plutonium into other elements over time (principally, helium, americium, uranium, and neptunium). At cryogenic temperatures (4 K), lattice damage causes significant volume expansion of pure plutonium and contraction of face-centered-cubic stabilized alloys, and both appear to lose crystallinity at long irradiation times. At room temperature, much of the lattice damage is annealed out because defects produced by self-irradiation are sufficiently mobile. Nevertheless, plutoniums delicate balance of stability with changes in temperature, pressure, or chemistry may be affected by self-irradiation. For example, at room temperature the lattice of fcc plutonium alloys expands and exhibits nanoscale bubbles at irradiation levels <0.1 displacements per atom (dpa). In addition to self-irradiation damage, it is now generally agreed that most fcc alloys previously believed to be thermodynamically stable at room temperature are in fact metastable. They undergo eutectoidal decomposition to ?-plutonium, plus the nearest intermetallic compound. However, for most practical purposes, the kinetics of phase decomposition are too slow to be of concern. So, although plutonium may not be far from equilibrium, it is never at equilibrium because of the very nature of its radioactive decay. Surface reactions in plutonium can be increased catastrophically by the presence of moist air or hydrogen.

  18. Alpha radiation effects on weapons-grade plutonium encapsulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglam, Mehmet

    The scientific understanding of material problems in the long-term storage of plutonium pits is investigated using experimental and theoretical models. The durability of the plutonium pit depends on the integrity of the metal cladding that encapsulates the plutonium. Given sufficient time, the energetic alpha particles (helium nuclei) produced by nuclear decay of the plutonium would degrade the mechanical strength of the metal cladding which could lead to cladding failure and dispersion of plutonium. It is shown that the long-term behavior of the encapsulating materials can be simulated by beam implantation and subsequent analysis using experimental techniques of Electron Microscopy and Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). In addition computer simulations using the TRIM code were made in order to correlate the measurements to cladding damage. The Neutron Depth Profiling measurements done with samples that had 10 16 cm-2 3He beam implant dose showed no helium redistribution, indicating no microcracking between bubbles, for both beryllium and stainless steel, the pit cladding materials of interest. However, helium redistribution and significant helium loss were observed for samples with a beam implant dose of 1018 cm-2 , indicating microstructural damage. The SEM observations were consistent with the NDP measurements. The proper interpretation of the results rests on the realization that (i)the deleterious effects are related to helium concentration, not implant dose, and (ii)a specified maximum concentration of helium is achieved with a much smaller dose when monoenergetic ions are implanted using beam geometry than for the situation where Pu alphas stop in the pit cladding. Helium is distributed over a much smaller depth interval for beam implantation of monoenergetic ions as compared to the pit cladding implanted ions. Taking this effect into account and using the calculated pit implant dose gives a pit storage time for the 1016 cm-2 beam implant dose results equal to ~300 years for SS-316 cladding and ~1800 years for Be cladding. Based on this argument it is concluded from the results of the measurements that there most likely would be no radiation damage or microstructural changes in bulk SS-316 or Be cladding for 100 years of pit storage.

  19. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

  20. Determination of natural actinides and plutonium in marine particulate material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Anderson; Alan P. Fleer

    1982-01-01

    The natural actinides ²²⁷Ac, ²²⁸Th, ²³°Th, ²³²Th, ²³⁴Th, ²³¹Pa, ²³⁸U, and ²³⁴U and the ..cap alpha..-emitting plutonium isotopes are determined in samples of suspended marine particulate material and sediments. Analysis involves total dissolution of the samples to allow equilibration of the natural isotopes with added isotope yield monitors followed by coprecipitation of hydrolyzable metals at pH 7 with natural Fe

  1. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  2. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

  3. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  4. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

  6. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Plutonium Hexafluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Erilov; V. V. Titov; V. F. Serik; V. B. Sokolov

    2002-01-01

    Fluoridation of uranium tetrafluoride by atomic fluorine and radiolytic plutonium tetrafluoride by atomic fluorine and dioxygen difluoride are investigated. The mechanism and the limiting stages of the processes with atomic fluorine are described. It is shown that plutonium tetrafluoride is fluoridated directly by dioxygen difluoride molecules and not by the products of its thermal decomposition.

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

  8. Reactive sintering of plutonium-bearing titanates.

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, M. C.

    1999-06-24

    Titanate ceramics are being developed for the immobilization of weapons-grade plutonium. These multi-phase ceramics are intended to be both corrosion and proliferation resistant. Reactive sintering techniques were refined to reproducibly provide titanate ceramics for further characterization and testing. Plutonium-bearing pyrochlore-rich composites were consolidated to greater than 90% of their theoretical density.

  9. Reliable operant apparatus for fish: audio stimulus generator, response button, and pellet-dispensing nipple.

    PubMed

    Chase, A R; Hill, W

    1999-08-01

    As part of ongoing research into the ability of koi to categorize complex auditory stimuli, we have had to develop novel apparatus. The stimulus generator presents sound from two CD drives under computer control through a new underwater speaker. The operant manipulandum is a horizontal button that eliminates spurious triggering by water turbulence and problematic response topographies. The button's design has also been adapted for use by tilapia in an aquacultural food-preference study. The feeder uses a nipple to dispense food pellets reliably under water. In this paper, the apparatus is described in detail. Also discussed are methodological issues related to its design, as well as its usage in a pilot study in which koi learned to discriminate music from silence by using a single manipulandum with food reinforcement. PMID:10502871

  10. Discharge phenomena in the button electrodes of the beam position monitors of TRISTAN MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejima, M.; Ieiri, T.; Ishii, H.; Shintake, T.; Mori, K.; Mizumachi, Y.

    1991-06-01

    In the TRISTAN Main Ring, when bunch intensity exceeds about 1 mA, abnormal burst signals appear in the position monitor electrodes. The burst pulses appear after about 10 nsec from the bunch signal. The polarity of the pulses are mostly negative. They occur mainly in each position-monitor-electrode of RF cavity regions. We found that we can suppress them by a biasing voltage of about 290 volts. Moreover, we verified that they don't appear in the new button-electrode which has a wide gap between the button and the chamber. We think that the cause of the abonormal signal is ``Multipacting discharge'' excited by higher order modes of the RF cavity.

  11. Technology-Assisted Patient Access to Clinical Information: An Evaluation Framework for Blue Button

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on Blue Button, a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. Objective We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. Methods A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VAs ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Results Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. Conclusions The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations. PMID:24675395

  12. Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Organic Acid-Treated Button Mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporous )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richu Singla; Abhijit Ganguli; Moushumi Ghosh

    An effort was made to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acids to improve the quality and shelf life of button mushroom\\u000a (Agaricus bisporous). Shelf life of malic acid-treated mushrooms was improved to a significant level (p?

  13. Optimization of Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushrooms Using Response-Surface Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Giri; Suresh Prasad

    2007-01-01

    Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous) were dried in a microwave-vacuum dryer up to a final moisture content of around 6% (d.b.). The effect of microwave power level (115 to 285W), system pressure (6.5 to 23.5kPa), and slice thickness (6 to 14mm) on drying efficiency and some quality attributes (color, texture, rehydration ratio, and sensory attributes) of dehydrated mushrooms were analyzed by

  14. Spondylodiscitis Complicated by the Ingestion of a Button Battery: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dossary, Jameela; Malik, Neelam

    2008-01-01

    A one-and-a-half year old boy who presented with a cough, irritability, and refusal of food was found to have an impacted foreign body in his upper esophagus. We present the radiologic findings of the foreign body (a button battery) impacted in the upper esophagus and its complications; namely, mediastinitis and spondylodiscitis after endoscopic removal. Further, plain radiograph and MR imaging findings are discussed along with literature review. PMID:19039273

  15. Acquired tracheo-esophageal fistulas caused by button battery lodged in the esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Imamoglu; Ali ay; Polat Kosucu; Ali Ahmetoglu; Haluk Sarihan

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal impacting of button batteries must be distinguished from impacting of other foreign bodies because of their severe complications. We present a 2.5-year-old girl who had an acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) caused by a calculator battery lodged in her esophagus. We also review the literature and assess the applicability of multislice CT and its possible advantages in children with acquired

  16. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRIs Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSAs Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  17. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 0.5C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  18. Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2008-07-31

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  19. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Progress in the studies of the advanced plutonium fuel assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Puill; J. Bergeron; M. Rohart; S. Aniel-Buchheit; A. Bergeron; P. Matheron

    2001-01-01

    A new assembly concept, designated APA (for Advanced Plutonium fuel Assembly), should make it possible to multi-recycle plutonium in pressurized water reactors. The basic idea is founded on the manufacture of a large plutonium thin annular fuel rod with an inert support, cooled on both faces. The absence of plutonium generation, combined with moderate fuel temperature should make it possible

  1. Plutonium weathering on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.E.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Johnston Atoll was contaminated with transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and aborted nuclear devices. Initial cleanup operations and and an extensive soil remediation program were performed. However, many areas contained a low-level continuum of activity, and subsurface contamination has been detected. Discrete hot particles and contaminated soil were characterized to determine whether the spread of activity was caused by weathering. Analytical techniques included gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to determine transuranic elemental and isotopic composition. Ultrafiltration and small-particle handling techniques were employed to isolate individual particles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, analytical transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize individual particles. Analyses of the hot particles showed that they are aborted nuclear warhead fragments that been melted and weathered in the presence of water and CaCO{sub 3}. It was concluded that the formation of aqueous ionic (Pu/Am)-CO{sub 3} coordinated complexes, during environmental exposure to large volumes of rainwater and carbonate-satured seawater, enhanced the solubility of transuranic elements. The (Pu/Am)-CO{sub 3} complexes sorbed onto colloidal CaCO{sub 3} and coral soil surfaces as they were exposed to rain and seawater. This mechanism led to greater dispersal of plutonium and americium than would be expected by physical transport of discrete hot particles alone.

  2. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  3. Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?

    SciTech Connect

    Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

    2002-02-27

    The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

  4. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process and immobilize 17 tonnes of plutonium in ten years. The project schedule for either case is shown in a table.

  5. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length.

  7. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  8. LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities National Security

    E-print Network

    energy. Operations at TA-55 maintain a critical skill base of plutonium expertise across a broad suite and nondestructive analysis laboratories. Additionally, TA-55 can safely and securely ship, receive, handle

  9. Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Jardine; G. B. Borisov

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the

  11. Analysis of plutonium in soil samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Rubio Montero; A. Mart??n Snchez; M. T. Crespo Vzquez; J. L. Gascn Murillo

    2000-01-01

    Procedures for analysis of plutonium in soil samples were developed using anion exchange as a purification technique. Special attention was paid to removing impurities of 228Th which interferes in 238Pu determination by alpha spectrometry. Two anion-exchange methods were compared. The determination of plutonium in soil involves the conversion of soil samples to acid-soluble form. Two methods for the extraction of

  12. Explosive properties of reactor?grade plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carson Marka

    1993-01-01

    The following discussion focuses on the question of whether a terrorist organization or a threshold state could make use of plutonium recovered from light?water?reactor fuel to construct a nuclear explosive device having a significantly damaging yield. Questions persist in some nonproliferation policy circles as to whether a bomb could be made from reactor?grade plutonium of high burn?up, and if so,

  13. Guidelines for international plutonium management: Overview and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fitzgerald, C.P.; Kincaid, C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In September, 1997, nine of the world`s plutonium-using countries agreed to a set of guidelines for international plutonium management, with acceptances to be submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1. Following three years of discussion, the guidelines provide a unified package of accepted rules for the storage, handling, and transportation of civil plutonium as well as military plutonium that has been declared as no longer required for defense purposes. New requirements include a formal declaration of national plutonium strategies, which will recognize the environmental, economic, and proliferation concerns and the consequent importance of balancing plutonium supply and demand. Nations will also make annual declaration of their non-military stockpiles of unirradiated plutonium, together with estimates of the plutonium content in spent reactor fuel. These guidelines represent the first formally accepted recognition of the need for plutonium management of this scope and could thus provide a partial basis for future monitoring and policy regimes.

  14. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  15. Mycobacterium chelonae infection of the hand presenting as a collar-button abscess.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Amy; Ipaktchi, Kyros; Livermore, Meryl; Banegas, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections of the hand are extremely rare, with Mycobacterium chelonae being an especially uncommon source of infection. The following is a report of such an infection presenting as a collar-button abscess. The difficulty of isolating the organism, in addition to a low index of suspicion for it, resulted in a significant delay in appropriate treatment. The patient demonstrated an indolent course of infection and unresponsiveness to traditional treatments, both red flags that should raise concern for a mycobacterial cause. Eventually, repeated irrigation and debridement and a prolonged course of antibiotics resulted in the resolution of the patient's symptoms. PMID:25609291

  16. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-01-14

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The stabilization of the plutonium-bearing materials substantially reduced the radiological risk to the environment and security concerns regarding the potential for terrorists to acquire the non-stabilized plutonium products for nefarious purposes. The work was done In older facilities which were never designed for the long-term storage of plutonium, and required working with materials that were extremely radioactive, hazardous, pyrophoric, and In some cases completely unique. I n some Instances, one-of-a-kind processes and equipment were designed, installed, and started up. The SPP was completed ahead of schedule, substantially beating all Interim progress milestone dates set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) and in the Hanford Site's Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and finished $1-million under budget.

  17. Development of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors. Evaluation of plutonium recycle in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Tomonto; J. S. Tulenko; J. Fiscella; J. Ray

    1969-01-01

    An evaluation of the utilization of plutonium recycle fuel in the ; Obrigheim power reactor was performed in order to study the characteristics of ; typical large PWR's operated with plutonium recycle fuel. The evaluation ; included nuclear characteristics, fuel management, a thermal-hydraulic analysis, ; and an economic analysis. (JWR)

  18. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what

  19. Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1998-12-08

    Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

  20. On-line monitoring of plutonium in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions. [Coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K. J.; Rebagay, T. V.; Huff, G. A.

    1980-03-01

    The measurement of the total and isotopic plutonium concentrations in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions blended with highly radioactive fission product nuclides and other radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137 and Co-60) has been investigated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). An on-line total and isotopic plutonium monitoring system is being tested for its ability to assay the plutonium abundances in solutions as might be found in the process streams of a light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel processing plant. The monitoring system is fully automated and designed to be maintained remotely. It is capable of near real-time inventory of plutonium in process streams and provides the basis for on-line computerized accounting of special nuclear materials.

  1. Introducing equipment and plutonium glove box modifications for monitoring gas generation over plutonium oxide materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, D. D. (Dennis D.); Berg, J. M. (John M.); Carrillo, A. G. (Alejandro G.); Montoya, A. R. (Adam R.); Morris, J. S. (John S.); Veirs, D. K. (Douglas Kirk); Martinez, M. A. (Max A.); Worl, L. A. (Laura A.); Harradine, D. M. (David M.); Hill, D. D. (Dallas D.)

    2002-01-01

    DOE is embarking on a program to store large quantities of Pu-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials for long-term storage are metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard. Experience with PuO, materials has shown that gases generated by catalytic and/or radiolytic processes may accumulate. Of concern are the generation of H, gas from adsorbed water and the generation of HCI or CI, gases from the radiolysis of chloride-containing salts. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the standard. The containers and surveillance equipment are interfaced with a plutonium glovebox and are designed to allow the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time. The surveillance activities and glovebox interfaces include Raman fiber optic probes, a gas analysis sampling port, corrosion monitors, and pressure and temperature feedthrus. Data collection for these containers is automated in order to reduce worker exposure. The equipment design and glovebox modifications are presented.

  2. GPU-Accelerated Framework for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging at the Push of a Button.

    PubMed

    Han, Myounghee; Kim, Kyunghun; Jang, Sun-Joo; Cho, Han Saem; Bouma, Brett E; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Ryu, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has become one of the important clinical tools for intracoronary imaging to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease, which has been one of the leading causes of death. To help more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, many researchers have recently worked on visualization of various coronary microscopic features including stent struts by constructing three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering from series of cross-sectional intracoronary FD-OCT images. In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, "push-of-a-button" graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated framework for intracoronary OCT imaging. Our framework visualizes 3D microstructures of the vessel wall with stent struts from raw binary OCT data acquired by the system digitizer as one seamless process. The framework reports the state-of-the-art performance; from raw OCT data, it takes 4.7 seconds to provide 3D visualization of a 5-cm-long coronary artery (of size 1600 samples x 1024 A-lines x 260 frames) with stent struts and detection of malapposition automatically at the single push of a button. PMID:25880375

  3. Comparison of Drilling Performance of Chisel and Button Bits on the Electro Hydraulic Driller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Okan; Yarali, Olgay; Akcin, Nuri Ali

    2013-11-01

    Electro hydraulic drillers have been widely used in mining for drilling and roof-bolting. In the drilling process, the performance of the machine is predicted by selecting an appropriate bit type prior to drilling operations. In this paper, a series of field drilling studies were conducted in order to examine and compare the performance of chisel and button bits including wear on the bits. The effects of taper angle on chisel bits, which are at angles of 105, 110 and 120, were investigated in terms of rate of penetration, instantaneous drilling rate and specific energy. The results of drilling and abrasivity tests performed in the laboratory supported the outcome of the field studies. Based on laboratory studies and field observations, it was proven that the conglomerate encountered, though it is very abrasive, is easy to drill. The cutter life in the encountered series is also longer in sandstone formation compared to the conglomerate. Additionally, button bits resulted in lower specific energy and higher penetration rates relative to chisel bits, regardless of their taper angles. The results were also supported with statistical analyses.

  4. The Plutonium Transition from Nuclear Weapons to Crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-03-14

    With the end of the ''Cold War'' thousands of nuclear warheads are being dismantled. The National Academy of Sciences termed this growing stockpile of plutonium and highly enriched uranium ''a clear and present danger'' to international security. DOE/MD selected a duel approach to plutonium disposition--burning MOX fuel in existing reactors and immobilization in a ceramic matrix surrounded by HLW glass. MOX material will be pits and clean metal. The challenges come with materials that will be transferred to Immobilization--these range from engineered materials to residues containing < 30% Pu. Impurity knowledge range from guesses to actual data. During packaging, sites will flag ''out of the ordinary'' containers for characterized. If the process history is lost, characterization cost will escalate rapidly. After two step blending and ceramic precursor addition, cold press and sintering will form 0.5-kg ceramic pucks containing {le}50 g Pu. Pucks will be sealed in cans, placed into magazines, then into HLW canisters; these canisters will be filled with HLW glass prior to being transported to the HLW repository. The Immobilization Program must interface with DP, EM, RW, and NN. Overlaid on top of these interfaces are the negotiations with the Russians.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS TEMPLATES AS A PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JASEN; HALVERSON; GODFREY

    2001-01-22

    The mission of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Project is to provide for safe stabilization; interim storage; repackaging; and shipment of the Plutonium Finishing Plant inventory of plutonium-bearing materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other nuclear material for reuse, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. In May 1994 (updated in 2000), the DNFSB issued recommendation 94-1 identifying a number of concerns regarding the storage of fissile materials and other radioactive substances. The DOE decided to implement a group of stabilization alternatives, including thermal stabilization, pyrolysis, calcination, and cementation. Pyrolysis and calcination are not currently planned for implementation at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Integration of the remaining stabilization alternatives across a wide variety of material types and forms and a significant inventory of plutonium, presents numerous technical and management challenges. Integration of these alternatives and various materials are evaluated with the use process templates as means to analyze resource needs and improve project planning. The analysis of resource needs discussed in this paper identified an existing disconnect between the approved baseline plan and the current DNFSB milestones (94-1/2000-1 implementation plan). The existing plan shows the milestones tied to completion of stabilization instead of at full compliance (stabilization and packaging) with DOE-STD-3013, where as the milestone description specifically requires full compliance for metals with the standard. An output of this analysis identified two significant management challenges that must be directly confronted in order for the Plutonium Finishing Plant to continue to succeed. First is completion of metal stabilization by the milestone of 3/31/2001. The second challenge is radiological dose management.

  6. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Distefano; J. H. Devan; J. R. Keiser; R. L. Klueh; W. P. Eatherly

    1995-01-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National

  7. Determination of useful performance parameters for the ALR8(SI) plutonium pit container system

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Mark Alan

    2000-01-01

    on the integrity of the container beyond simple mis- shaping issues. The outer drum, celotex, SI vessel, and steel/beryllium encasetnent around the pit all provide varying levels of shielding lrotn radiation emitted Irom the stored plutonium metal. Therefore... in pit surface temperature by reducing the rate of heat transfer from the pit, through the ALR8(SI) to the outside environinent. The issue of elevated pit teinperatures is a cause for concern. High pit surface temperatures can lead to 1) failure...

  8. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yung-Jin; Schwaiger, Luna Kestrel; Booth, Corwin H.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Cristiano, Elena; Kaplan, Daniel; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-03-09

    Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe1-xMnxOOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, because goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements indicated that essentially all the Mn in the goethite existed as Mn(III), even though Mn was added during mineral synthesis as Mn(II). Importantly, energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that Mn did not exist as discrete phases and that it was homogeneously mixed into the goethite to within the limit of detection of the method. Furthermore, Mssbauer spectra demonstrated that all Fe existed as Fe(III), with no Fe(II) present. Plutonium(VI) sorption experiments were conducted open to air and no attempt was made to exclude carbonate. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows us to directly and unambiguously measure the oxidation state of plutonium in situ at the mineral surface. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. This reduction appears to be strongly correlated with mineral solution pH, coinciding with pH transitions across the point of zero charge of the mineral. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. This combination of extensive mineral characterization and advanced spectroscopy suggests that sorption of the plutonium onto the surface of the mineral was followed by reduction of the plutonium at the surface of the mineral to form an inner-sphere complex. Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with such substituted-mineral phases is important for risk assessment purposes at radioactively contaminated sites and long-term underground radioactive waste repositories.

  10. Equations for plutonium and americium-241 decay corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    We present derivations of equations used in various plutonium accountability measurements to correct for plutonium decay and /sup 241/Am ingrowth and decay. The equations are formulated in terms of the most widely available variables and are derived without approximation.

  11. The design and evaluation of an international plutonium storage system

    E-print Network

    Bae, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    To address the proliferation risk of separated plutonium, a technical and institutional design of an international plutonium storage system (IPSS) is presented. The IPSS is evaluated from two perspectives: its ability to ...

  12. Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

  13. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  14. Safeguards and security requirements for weapons plutonium disposition in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.L.; Strait, R.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program

    1994-10-01

    This paper explores the issues surrounding the safeguarding of the plutonium disposition process in support of the United States nuclear weapons dismantlement program. It focuses on the disposition of the plutonium by burning mixed oxide fuel in light water reactors (LWR) and addresses physical protection, material control and accountability, personnel security and international safeguards. The S and S system needs to meet the requirements of the DOE Orders, NRC Regulations and international safeguards agreements. Experience has shown that incorporating S and S measures into early facility designs and integrating them into operations provides S and S that is more effective, more economical, and less intrusive. The plutonium disposition safeguards requirements with which the US has the least experience are the implementation of international safeguards on plutonium metal; the large scale commercialization of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication; and the transportation to and loading in the LWRs of fresh mixed oxide fuel. It is in these areas where the effort needs to be concentrated if the US is to develop safeguards and security systems that are effective and efficient.

  15. Criticality experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays in plutonium-uranium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Smolen, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1988-08-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having a Pu/(Pu + U) ratio of approximately 0.22 in a boiler tube-type lattice assembly. These experiments were conducted as part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of the experiments and data are included in this report. The experiments were performed with an array of mixed oxide fuel pins in aqueous plutonium-uranium solutions. The fuel pins were contained in a boiler tube-type tank and arranged in a 1.4 cm square pitch array which resembled cylindrical geometry. One experiment was perfomed with the fuel pins removed from the vessel. The experiments were performed with a water reflector. The concentration of the solutions in the boiler tube-type tank was varied from 4 to 468 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was approximately 0.22 for all experiments.

  16. Distribution of Plutonium Isotopes in Cooling Water from a PWR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingjiang CHEN; Sven P. NIELSEN; Asker AARKROG; Henning DAHLGAARD; Simon DUNIEC

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of plutonium isotopes in the primary cooling system of the Ringhals unit 2 (PWR) during normal operation has shown average concentrations of 0.03 Bql of Pu and 0.02 Bql of Pu. A major fraction of plutonium is associated with particles in contrast to dissolved plutonium in ionic form. The observed concentrations of plutonium isotopes in cooling water are

  17. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-12-05

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements.

  18. Gas pressure in sealed sample cans concentrated plutonium nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1953-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish as fact that the predominant gas evolved from concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions is oxygen. Four sample cans containing plutonium nitrate at various concentrations were sealed using plug valves equipped with pressure gages. The results obtained showed that the gas evolved from concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions is predominately oxygen. It is believed that

  19. Preparation of a glovebox for casting enriched plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronquillo, R. D. (Richard D.); Trujillo, C. M. (Chris M.); Trujillo, C. C. (Claudette C.)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Prepare existing glovebox for casting, heat treating and storing enriched plutonium, Upgrade seismic systems to reduce dispersion hazard, Upgrade atmospheric systems to reduce oxidation of plutonium, Upgrade vacuum system to prevent oxidation, InstalI/upgrade induction heating systems to melt plutonium and heat mold

  20. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy...Procedures 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions...applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form, whether for...

  1. SUSCEPTIBILIT MAGNTIQUE DE QUELQUES SULFURES ET OXYDES DE PLUTONIUM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    261. SUSCEPTIBILIT MAGNTIQUE DE QUELQUES SULFURES ET OXYDES DE PLUTONIUM Par GEORGES RAPHAEL et CHARLES DE NOVION, S.E.C.P.E.R., Section d'tudes des Cramiques base de Plutonium, Centre d susceptibilite magntique des sulfures de plutonium : PuS, Pu3S4, PU2S3CXI PuS2. Ces composes non conduc- teurs

  2. Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Savrasov, Sergej Y.

    Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures X. Dai,1 S. Y. Savrasov,2 * G. Kotliar dynamical proper- ties of plutonium using an electronic structure method, which incorporates correlation anharmonic and can be stabilized at high temperatures by its phonon entropy. Plutonium (Pu) is a material

  3. Fabrication of zircon for disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.C.; Huang, J.Y.; Serrano, P.L. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In an effort to address the problems of long term storage and nuclear waste minimization, zircon has been proposed as a host medium for plutonium and other actinides recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of large scale fabrication of Pu-bearing zircon. Since PuO{sub 2} is thermodynamically less stable than ZrO{sub 2}, it is expected that the process parameters determined for synthesizing ZrSiO{sub 4} (zircon) would be applicable to those for PuSiO{sub 4} (Pu-zircon). Furthermore, since the foremost concern in plutonium processing is the potential for contamination release, this work emphasizes the development of process parameters, using zircon first, to anticipate potential material problems in the containment system for reaction mixtures during processing. Stoichiometric mixtures of ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, in hundred-gram batches, have been subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures near 1,500 C and pressures approximately 10,000 psi. The product materials have been analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, and are found to consist of zircon after approximately two hours of reaction time. From this work, it is clear that the fabrication of large quantities of Pu-zircon is feasible. The most notable result of this work is evidence for the existence of container problems. This result, in turn, suggests potential solutions to these problems. Experiments with the quartz inner container, the glass sealant, a sacrificial metal barrier, and a metal outer container are being investigated to mitigate these potential hazards.

  4. Computerized plutonium wound-analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Brake, R.J.; Vasilik, D.G.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    A new plutonium wound monitor has been developed at Los Alamos to upgrade a system which has been in use for about five years. The instrument, called a Computerized Wound Screening System, is designed around a readily available personal computer. It includes a full-function 256-channel pulse height analyzer and software necessary to calculate plutonium and americium activity from a spectrum. This new system provides medical and health physics personnel with considerable flexability in recognizing and recording situations where a wound incurred in a plutonium processing facility might be contaminated. This flexibility includes fast, accurate determination of contaminants in a wound, hard copy printout of results, and full patient logging capabilities via flexible disk storage. Use of a low cost computer greatly simplifies hardware and software design, and makes duplication of the instrument very simple and inexpensive.

  5. Neutron energy measurements for impure plutonium samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rael, C. D. (Carlos D.); Menlove, Howard O.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a technique used to measure the average neutron energy on impure plutonium samples. This measurement is done using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). The measurement of neutron energy is done at the same time as the accountability or safeguards measurement. Neutron totals and coincidence measurements of plutonium have the problem that impurities present in sample add to the observed neutron counts because of alpha particle induced source neutrons and the related multiplication. The primary signal that is needed to measure the {sup 240}Pu effective mass is the spontaneous fission rate; however, induced fissions related to the impurities increase the observed response. In most cases, the (a,n) source neutrons have an energy distribution that is different than for spontaneous fission. Thus, the ability to measure the neutron energy distribution helps in the identification of impure plutonium samples. A description of the ENMC detector components and discussion on the average neutron energy calibration are provided.

  6. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  7. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  8. Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 Step 1a Open a blank Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet by selecting the Microsoft button

    E-print Network

    Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 1 Step 1a Open a blank Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet by selecting the Microsoft button (1) at the upper, left portion the OK button (3). 1 2 3 #12;Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 2 Step 1

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

    2008-07-15

    The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

  10. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium- contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Barth; M. G. White; P. B. Dunaway

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert ; vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine ; gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials ; were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. ; During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility ; accompanied

  11. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Allen; Q. Appert; C. Davis

    1997-01-01

    In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used

  12. Hot-Button Issues for Teachers: What Every Educator Needs to Know About Leadership, Testing, Textbooks, Vouchers, and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vairo, Philip D.; Marcus, Sheldon; Weiner, Max

    2007-01-01

    One of the tragedies of American education is that so many teachers do not understand or are unaware of educational issues and how they impact on their profession. There is a gap between teacher perceptions and reality and this book is a first step in closing that gap. Hot-Button Issues for Teachers is a timely, comprehensive book that addresses

  13. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a

  14. A new view of the deterioration and wear of WC\\/Co cemented carbide rock drill buttons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrik Beste; Staffan Jacobson

    2008-01-01

    WC\\/Co cemented carbide is a material developed for highly demanding applications. The unique combination of hardness and toughness makes it especially suitable for wear resistant parts of tools for rock drilling.The wear of cemented carbide rock drill buttons has been the focus of numerous studies, and a large amount of wear data has been published. However, the broad range of

  15. Maths Skills Click on the and buttons at the bottom of each page to view the next

    E-print Network

    Bandara, Arosha

    or the previous page in this ebook. Click on links within the text to go to the page being referred to, then click on the button to retrace your steps. Click on the to view the ebook in full screen mode or to return to normal mode. Further instructions on using the ebook and information about its purpose are given

  16. 1. Go online to http://ds.oregonstate.edu and click on the button `sign up to be a notetaker'

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    1. Go online to http://ds.oregonstate.edu and click on the button `sign up to be a notetaker' 2 visit our website... http://ds.oregonstate.edu/notetaking Disability Access Services Notetaking Services Notetaking.Services@oregonstate.edu Phone: 541-737-3672 Disability Access Services: http://ds

  17. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

    1992-01-01

    A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  18. Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-07-01

    In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

  19. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Voelz; James N. P. Lawrence; Emily R. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died

  20. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF will fill the canister with a mixture of high-level waste and glass for permanent storage. Because of the radiation, remote equipment will perform PIP operations in a contained environment. The PIP puck packaging includes loading pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, and inspecting the cans. A magnetically coupled elevator will lower a tray of pucks onto a magnetically coupled transport cart. This cart will carry the tray through an air lock into the can-loading glove box. Inside the glove box, a magnetically coupled tray lifter will raise the tray off the cart. A three-axis Cartesian robot will use a vacuum cup on a long pipe to lift the 67.3-mm (2.65-in.)-diam, 25.4-mm (1.0-in.)-tall pucks from the transfer tray and place 20 pucks in a 76.2-mm (3.0-in.)-diam stainless steel can. The Cartesian robot will place a custom hood on the open metal can, and this hood will remove the air from the can, insert helium, and place a hollow plug in the can. The SRS-developed bagless transfer system will weld the plug to the can wall and cut the can in the weld area. The can stub and the upper plug half above the cut line will remain in the sphincter seal to maintain the glove-box seal. The puck can and the lower plug half below the cut line is lowered into the bagless transfer enclosure. A floor-mounted robot in this enclosure will swipe the can exterior for contamination and place the can in a leak-detection chamber. If the can passes the swipe and leak-detection tests, the robot will place it on a transfer cart and send it to a nondestructive assay station. If the can fails either test, it will be sent back to the can-loading glove box and opened, and the pucks will be reloaded into another can. The PIP is in the conceptual design stage, and the facility will begin operation in 2007.

  1. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yung-Jin; Schwaiger, Luna K.; Booth, Corwin H.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Cristiano, Elena; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-10-01

    Plutonium(VI) sorption on the surface of well-characterized synthetic manganese-substituted goethite minerals (Fe1-xMnxOOH) was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We chose to study the influence of manganese as a minor component in goethite, since goethite rarely exists as a pure phase in nature. Manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements indicated that essentially all the Mn in the goethite existed as Mn(III), even though Mn was added during mineral synthesis as Mn(II). Importantly, energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that Mn did not exist as discrete phases and that it was homogeneously mixed into the goethite to within the limit of detection of the method. Furthermore, Mssbauer spectra demonstrated that all Fe existed as Fe(III), with no Fe(II) present. Plutonium(VI) sorption experiments were conducted open to air and no attempt was made to exclude carbonate. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements carried out on these samples showed that Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(IV) upon contact with the mineral. This reduction appears to be strongly correlated with mineral solution pH, coinciding with pH transitions across the point of zero charge of the mineral. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements show evidence of direct plutonium binding to the metal surface as an inner-sphere complex. This combination of extensive mineral characterization and advanced spectroscopy suggests that sorption of the plutonium onto the surface of the mineral was followed by reduction of the plutonium at the surface of the mineral to form an inner-sphere complex. Because manganese is often found in the environment as a minor component associated with major mineral components, such as goethite, understanding the molecular-level interactions of plutonium with such substituted-mineral phases is important for risk assessment purposes at radioactively contaminated sites and long-term underground radioactive waste repositories.

  2. Method for calibration of plutonium NDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.

  3. Plutonium recycling experience in Japanese PWRs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromasa Nishioka; Shigemitsu Suzuki; Kazuya Seki; Toshikazu Ida

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium recycling is an important policy for saving natural uranium resources in Japan. In March 1988, four demonstration mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies were loaded at Mihama Unit 1 and irradiated for three cycles. Mihama Unit 1 is a two-loop type pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant of Kansai Electric Power Company and was loaded with 121 fuel assemblies of the 14

  4. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  5. PLUTONIUM SPECIATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND MIGRATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DOE is currently conducting cleanup activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium (Pu) in soils for 50 years. There is scientific uncertainty about the levels of risk to human health posed by this accumulation and whether Pu is ...

  6. Preparation of Plutonium Hexafluoride. Recovery of Plutonium from Waste Dross; PREPARATION DE L'HEXAFLUORURE DE PLUTONIUM. RECUPERATION DU PLUTONIUM DES SCORIES D'ELABORATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gendre

    1962-01-01

    The influence of various physical factors on the rate of fluorination of ; solid plutonium tetrafluoride by fluorine was studied. In a horizontal oven with ; a circulation for pure fluorine at atmospheric pressure and 520#DEC, at a ; fluorine rate of 9 liters\\/hour, it is possible to transform 3 gm of tetrafluoride ; to hexafluoride with about 100% transformation

  7. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 g Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  8. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant may share the disposition of the 50 tonnes of plutonium with the mixed oxide fuel/reactor disposition alternative. For this case, immobilization will process 18.2 tonnes of plutonium in 10 years.

  9. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Om plutoniums giftighed Inden for de seneste mneder har sagen om

    E-print Network

    1 Om plutoniums giftighed Inden for de seneste mneder har sagen om Thule-arbejderne net sit plutonium-239, der blev spredt p isen ved flystyrtet. Plutonium og krftsygdomme Plutonium er et stof, man tungt oplselig form. Da plutonium kun udsender alfa-strling er det - set fra et helsefysisk synspunkt

  11. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long-term accumulation of radiation damage as a function of the thermal period of a geologic repository. As an example, with a 10 wt.% loading of 239Pu, Gd2Ti2O7 will become amorphous in less than 1,000 years, while Gd2Zr2O7 will persist as a disordered defect fluorite structure. Thus, the radiation stability of different pyrochlores is closely related to the structural distortions that occur for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. This understanding provides the basis for designing materials for the safe, long-term immobilization and sequestration of actinides.

  12. Quantitative trait locus mapping for bruising sensitivity and cap color of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Weijn, Amrah; Baars, Johan J P; Mes, Jurriaan J; Visser, Richard G F; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2015-04-01

    White button mushrooms discolor after mechanical damage of the cap skin. This hampers the development of a mechanical harvest system for the fresh market. To unravel the genetic basis for bruising sensitivity, two haploid populations (single spore cultures) were generated derived from crosses between parental lines differing in discoloration after mechanical damage (bruising sensitivity). The haploids were crossed with different homokaryotic tester lines to generate mushrooms and allow assessment of the bruising sensitivity in different genetic backgrounds. Bruising sensitivity appears to be a polygenic highly heritable trait (H(2): 0.88-0.96) and a significant interaction between genotypes and tester lines and genotypes and flushes was found. Using SNP markers evenly spread over all chromosomes, a very low recombination was found between markers allowing only assignment of QTL for bruising sensitivity to chromosomes and not to sub-regions of chromosomes. The cap color of the two parental lines of population 1 is white and brown respectively. A major QTL for bruising sensitivity was assigned to chromosome 8 in population 1 that also harbors the main determinant for cap color (brown versus white). Splitting offspring in white and non-white mushrooms made minor QTL for bruising sensitivity on other chromosomes (e.g. 3 and 10) more prominent. The one on chromosome 10 explained 31% phenotypic variation of bruising sensitivity in flush 2 in the subpopulations of population 1. The two parental lines of population 2 are both white. Major QTL of bruising sensitivity were detected on chromosome 1 and 2, contributing totally more than 44% variation of the bruising sensitivity in flush 1 and 54% variation of that in flush 2. A considerable consistency was found in QTL for bruising sensitivity in the different populations studied across tester lines and flushes indicating that this study will provide a base for breeding cultivars that are less sensitive for bruising allowing the use of mechanical harvest and automatic postharvest handling for produce for the fresh market. The low recombination between homologous chromosomes, however, underlines the need to introduce a normal recombination pattern found in a subspecies of the button mushroom. PMID:25881912

  13. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-05-10

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the reactor building. The storage life is projected to be ten years to allow the preparation of APSF. DOE has stipulated that there be no credible release during storage, since there are no design features in place to mitigate a release of plutonium (i.e. HEPA filters, facility containment boundaries, etc.). This mandate has presented most of the significant challenges to the safety analysis team. The shipping packages are designed to withstand certain accidents and conditions, but in order to take credit for these the storage environment must be strictly controlled. Damages to the packages from exposure to fire, dropping, crushing and other impact accidents have been analyzed, and appropriate preventative design features have been incorporated. Other efforts include the extension of the shipping life (roughly two years) to a suitable storage life of ten years. These issues include the effects of internal pressure increases, seal degradation and the presence of impurities. A process known as the Container Qualification Program has been conducted to address these issues. The KAMS project will be ready to receive the first shipment from Rocky Flats in January 2000. No credible design basis scenarios resulting in the release of plutonium exist. This work has been useful in the effort to provide a safer disposition of plutonium, but also the lessons learned and techniques established by the team will help with the analysis of future facility modifications.'

  14. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  15. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  16. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  17. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  18. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  19. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains. PMID:25892920

  20. A 'green button' for using aggregate patient data at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Christopher A; Harrington, Robert A; Shah, Nigam H

    2014-07-01

    Randomized controlled trials have traditionally been the gold standard against which all other sources of clinical evidence are measured. However, the cost of conducting these trials can be prohibitive. In addition, evidence from the trials frequently rests on narrow patient-inclusion criteria and thus may not generalize well to real clinical situations. Given the increasing availability of comprehensive clinical data in electronic health records (EHRs), some health system leaders are now advocating for a shift away from traditional trials and toward large-scale retrospective studies, which can use practice-based evidence that is generated as a by-product of clinical processes. Other thought leaders in clinical research suggest that EHRs should be used to lower the cost of trials by integrating point-of-care randomization and data capture into clinical processes. We believe that a successful learning health care system will require both approaches, and we suggest a model that resolves this escalating tension: a "green button" function within EHRs to help clinicians leverage aggregate patient data for decision making at the point of care. Giving clinicians such a tool would support patient care decisions in the absence of gold-standard evidence and would help prioritize clinical questions for which EHR-enabled randomization should be carried out. The privacy rule in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 may require revision to support this novel use of patient data. PMID:25006150

  1. Relationship between indoor and outdoor bioaerosols collected with a button inhalable aerosol sampler in urban homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Martuzevicius, D.; Adhikari, A.; Crawford, C. M.; Luo, J.; Reponen, T.

    2007-01-01

    This field study investigated the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne actinomycetes, fungal spores, and pollen. Air samples were collected for 24 h with a button inhalable aerosol sampler inside and outside of six single-family homes located in the Cincinnati area (overall, 15 pairs of samples were taken in each home). The measurements were conducted during three seasons spring and fall 2004, and winter 2005. The concentration of culturable actinomycetes was mostly below the detection limit. The median indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O) for actinomycetes was the highest: 2.857. The indoor of fungal and pollen concentrations followed the outdoor concentrations while indoor levels were mostly lower than the outdoor ones. The I/O ratio of total fungal spores (median = 0.345) in six homes was greater than that of pollen grains (median = 0.025). The low I/O ratios obtained for pollen during the peak ambient pollination season (spring) suggest that only a small fraction penetrated from outdoor to indoor environment. This is attributed to the larger size of pollen grains. Higher indoor concentration levels and variability in the I/O ratio observed for airborne fungi may be associated with indoor sources and/or higher outdoor-to-indoor penetration of fungal spores compared to pollen grains. PMID:16420496

  2. Parallel Single Cancer Cell Whole Genome Amplification Using Button-Valve Assisted Mixing in Nanoliter Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonsun; Swennenhuis, Joost F.; Rho, Hoon Suk; Le Gac, Sverine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneity of tumor cells and their alteration during the course of the disease urges the need for real time characterization of individual tumor cells to improve the assessment of treatment options. New generations of therapies are frequently associated with specific genetic alterations driving the need to determine the genetic makeup of tumor cells. Here, we present a microfluidic device for parallel single cell whole genome amplification (pscWGA) to obtain enough copies of a single cell genome to probe for the presence of treatment targets and the frequency of its occurrence among the tumor cells. Individual cells were first captured and loaded into eight parallel amplification units. Next, cells were lysed on a chip and their DNA amplified through successive introduction of dedicated reagents while mixing actively with the help of integrated button-valves. The reaction chamber volume for scWGA 23.85 nl, and starting from 67 pg DNA contained in a single cell, around 8 ng of DNA was obtained after WGA, representing over 1000-fold amplification. The amplified products from individual breast cancer cells were collected from the device to either directly investigate the amplification of specific genes by qPCR or for re-amplification of the DNA to obtain sufficient material for whole genome sequencing. Our pscWGA device provides sufficient DNA from individual cells for their genetic characterization, and will undoubtedly allow for automated sample preparation for single cancer cell genomic characterization. PMID:25233459

  3. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (?-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains. PMID:25892920

  4. The plutonium problem: the Royal Society sits on the fence.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    A recent Royal Society report, Management of Separated Plutonium, considers the production and disposal of plutonium from the spent fuel from civil and nuclear power reactors. It accepts the need for dealing with plutonium stocks because of the toxicity of the element and as it can be used to fabricate nuclear weapons, and expresses concern that it might be illicitly acquired by terrorists. It recommends an independent Government commission on the management of plutonium, and considers the various options for this. However, it does not analyse the arguments against plutonium as a reactor fuel, and underestimates the risks of diversion to nuclear weapons and nuclear terrorism. This paper reviews the options, and concludes that separated plutonium should be added to high-level waste, vitrified, and eventually buried in a deep geological repository. PMID:9772826

  5. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  6. A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    1998-05-18

    As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning.

  7. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  8. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  9. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to ...

  10. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  11. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to ...

  12. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to ...

  13. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...Licenses 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material...transport fissile material in the form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be)...

  14. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to ...

  15. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64 Section 71... 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to ...

  16. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Montoya, A.; Wieneke, R.; Wulff, D.; Smith, C.; Gruetzmacher, K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the new computer-based transuranic (TRU) Waste Management System (WMS) being implemented at the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Waste Management System is a distributed computer processing system stored in a Sybase database and accessed by a graphical user interface (GUI) written in Omnis7. It resides on the local area network at the Plutonium Facility and is accessible by authorized TRU waste originators, count room personnel, radiation protection technicians (RPTs), quality assurance personnel, and waste management personnel for data input and verification. Future goals include bringing outside groups like the LANL Waste Management Facility on-line to participate in this streamlined system. The WMS is changing the TRU paper trail into a computer trail, saving time and eliminating errors and inconsistencies in the process.

  17. A Button MultiFunctional Heat Pulse Probe for in-situ Soil Moisture, Thermal Properties and Salinity Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kamai; G. J. Kluitenberg; J. W. Hopmans

    2009-01-01

    Vadoze zone flow and transport processes are highly non-linear, causing changes in state variables at small temporal and spatial scales. While there is high demand for data to better understand and model these processes, only a few available sensors allow for in-situ measurements. This work presents measurements conducted with a button multi-functional heat pulse probe. This contact sensor can measure

  18. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  20. Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.

    2003-10-08

    This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. This DSA was developed in accordance with DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities''. Upon approval and implementation of this document, the current safety basis documents will be retired.

  1. Low-temperature synthesis of plutonium hexafluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Malm; P. G. Eller; L. B. Asprey

    1984-01-01

    The preparation of PuF by the action of dioxygen difluoride (OF) on plutonium fluorides, oxides, and oxyfluorides at room temperature or below is described. Previously, direct synthesis of PuF could only be achieved by high temperature (>300°C) fluorination and by microwave or photolytic generation of fluorine atoms. Six experiments are described that illustrate the potency of OF which is the

  2. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system

    E-print Network

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01

    - Emitting Aerosol Particles. Health Physics: 400-406 (1992). 8. Chan, T. and M. Lippmann: Particle Collection Efficiencies of Air Sampling Cyclones: An Empirical Theory. Environ. Sci. ck Technol. 11:377-382 (1977). 9. John, W. and G. Reiscbl: A Cyclone.... McFarland A fractionation system has been developed to determine the aerodynamic size distribution of ambient plutonium aerosol. This system consists of an inlet section, and a flow splitter to separate the inlet air stream into four separate...

  3. Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Environmental Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-08-24

    This document provides an overview of existing environmental and ecological information at areas identified as potential locations of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) facilities. This information is required to document existing environmental and baseline conditions from which SPD construction and operation impacts can be defined. It will be used in developing the required preoperational monitoring plan to be used at specific SPD facilities construction sites.

  4. Nuclear weapons and power-reactor plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amory B. Lovins

    1980-01-01

    1-10 that for making nuclear bombs, 'reactor-grade' plutonium produced by the normal operation of uranium-fuelled power reactors is necessarily much inferior to specially made 'weapons-grade' Pu: so infe- rior in explosive power or predictability that its potential use by amateurs is not a serious problem and that governments would instead make the higher-performance weapons-grade Pu in special production reactors. Although

  5. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Jackson, J. W. (Joseph W.); Boerigter, S. T. (Stephen T.); Averill, W. A. (William A.); Fasel, J. H. (Joseph H.)

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  6. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work.

  7. Redox speciation of plutonium in natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Choppin

    1991-01-01

    Data on the stability of Pu(V) as the dominant oxidation state of tracer concentrations of plutonium in natural waters is reviewed. Laboratory experiments for solutions of 0.1 and 1.0M (NaCl) ionic strength and pH 310 confirm the dominance of Pu(V) as the state in solution. Humics in the waters can cause reduction to Pu(IV).

  8. Influence of Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on quality and refrigerated storage stability of patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prakash Chandra; Raju, C V; Lakshmisha, I P; Singh, Rajkumar Ratankumar; Sofi, Faisal Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The ability of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in changing physical, chemical, microbial and sensory properties of fish patties prepared from sutchi catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) was investigated. Two batches of fresh patties were prepared, one batch was treated with 15% button mushroom (TP) and other batch was a control (CP) without mushroom. The patties were packed in polythene bags and stored under refrigerated condition (6??2?C) without adding any preservatives for the estimation of storage stability. The analyses of patties were conducted at regular intervals of 3days. The results showed that, Peroxide value, Thiobarbituric acid value, Free fatty acids increased significantly in CP at the end of 12days whereas the TP was within the acceptable limit up to 16days. Total volatile base nitrogen and Trimethylamine nitrogen also showed a similar trend. The Total plate count and Aerobic spore formers showed an increasing trend in CP when compared to TP. The sensory scores showed that the overall acceptability of CP were lower than TP, which was acceptable even after 16days of storage. The present study showed that, the quality and storage stability of TP were observed to be in good condition up to 16days and started deteriorating 20th day onwards, whereas the CP were acceptable only up to 12days. Therefore it can be recommended that, addition of 15% of button mushroom to sutchi catfish patty not only increases the nutritional quality but also increases the shelf life of patties under refrigerated storage. PMID:26028735

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  10. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  11. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  12. Design of the improved plutonium canister assay system (IPCAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.); Baker, M. C. (Michael C.); Bourret, S. C.; Polk, P. J. (Paul J.); Vo, Duc T.

    2001-01-01

    The improved Plutonium Canister Assay System (iPCAS) is designed to detect gross and partial defects in the declared plutonium content of plutonium and MOX storage canisters during transfer to storage and process areas of the MOX fuel fabrication facility in Kokkasho, Japan. In addition, an associated Gamma Isotopics System (GIS) will be used to confirm facility-declared plutonium isotopics with accuracy sufficient to reduce the amount of destructive isotopic analysis needed. The design of the iPCAS instrument and its associated GIS is described and the expected performance of the instrument is discussed.

  13. Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results.

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Program -- Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-18

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results.

  15. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  16. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of plutonium by passive neutron multiplicity counting

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay of plutonium in forms such as metal, oxide, scrap, residue, or waste using passive neutron multiplicity counting. This test method provides results that are usually more accurate than conventional neutron coincidence counting. The method can be applied to a large variety of plutonium items in various containers including cans, 208-L drums, or 1900-L Standard Waste Boxes. It has been used to assay items whose plutonium content ranges from 1 g to 1000s of g. 1.2 There are several electronics or mathematical approaches available for multiplicity analysis, including the multiplicity shift register, the Euratom Time Correlation Analyzer, and the List Mode Module, as described briefly in Ref. (1). 1.3 This test method is primarily intended to address the assay of 240Pu-effective by moments-based multiplicity analysis using shift register electronics (1, 2, 3) and high efficiency neutron counters specifically designed for multiplicity analysis. 1.4 This tes...

  17. Supplementary data for "Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    Supplementary data for "Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium equilibrium geometries of plutonium and americium oxide molecules (standard .xyz files separated by empty

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of a medial knee reconstruction with comparison of bioabsorbable interference screw constructs and optimization with a cortical button.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Coen A; Brand, Emily J; Nuckley, David J; Johansen, Steinar; LaPrade, Robert F; Engebretsen, Lars

    2010-11-01

    Current fixation techniques in medial knee reconstructions predominantly utilize interference screws alone for soft tissue graft fixation. The use of concurrent fixation techniques as part of a hybrid fixation technique has also been suggested to strengthen soft tissue fixation, although these hybrid fixation techniques have not been biomechanically validated. The purpose was to biomechanically evaluate two distal tibial superficial MCL graft fixation techniques that consisted of an interference screw alone and in combination with a cortical button. Furthermore, the aim was to compare interference screws of different constructs. Twenty-four porcine tibias (average bone mineral density of 1.3 0.2 g/cm(2); range, 1.0-1.6 g/cm(2), measured by DEXA scan) were divided into 4 groups of six specimens each. Group Ia consisted of a 7 23-mm poly-L-lactide (PLLA) interference screw. Group Ib utilized a PLLA interference screw in combination with a cortical button. Group IIa consisted of a 7 23-mm composite 70% poly(L-lactide-co-D, L-lactide) and 30% biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) interference screw. Group IIb also utilized a composite interference screw in combination with a cortical button. The specimens were biomechanically tested with cyclic (500 cycles, 50-250 N, 1 Hz) and load-to-failure (20 mm/min) parameters. During cyclic loading, a significant increase in stiffness was seen for the PLLA hybrid 29.6 (6.9) N/mm fixation compared to the PLLA screw-only 21.2 (3.8) N/mm group (P < 0.05). Failure loads were 407.8 (77.9) N for the composite screw, 445 (72.2) N for the PLLA screw-only, 473.9 (69.6) N for the composite hybrid fixation, and 511.0 (78.5) N for the PLLA hybrid fixation. The PLLA screw alone was found to provide adequate fixation for a superficial MCL reconstruction, and the use of a cortical suture button combined with the PLLA screw resulted in a stiffer fixation during cyclic loading. The current reconstruction superficial MCL graft fixation technique utilizing a PLLA interference screw alone serves as an adequate recreation of the native tibial superficial MCL strength. In addition, a hybrid fixation with a cortical button which lends additional cyclic stiffness to its fixation would be advisable for use in suboptimal fixation cases. PMID:20563561

  19. The Role of Piece Monitors for the Assay of Plutonium Waste in Alpha Plant Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.; Mullarkey, P.; Orr, C.H.H.; Sharpe, J.; Carr, E. [BIL Solutions Ltd., Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium contaminated (TRU) wastes arising during decommissioning and waste retrievals operations at a UK reprocessing facility include small process items, strippable coatings, size-reduced pieces of glove box and metal pipes, etc. These waste materials are generally assayed in a 'Piece Monitor' employing neutron coincidence counting and gamma assay technologies. The major function of the TRU D{sup R} Piece Monitor is to provide an accurate assay of the TRU content of waste pieces/packages, primarily for nuclear safety purposes. The Piece Monitor follows each waste measurement by calculating the cumulative plutonium content of a waste drum as it is filled with this waste, allowing maximum filling of the drum whilst ensuring it remains within fissile content limits. TRU Piece Monitors are deployed at the interface between clean-air (C2) and the active decommissioning (C5) areas by attaching them to the wall of removable modular containment structures (MCSs). In the C5 area, the plant operator uses a variety of cold-cutting processes to size-reduce plant equipment and then places waste items in the monitor chamber for assay, prior to placing the waste in a 200 litre drum. The 're-entrant bulge' design of the assay chamber provides access from the active operations side, whilst the detection equipment remains in the C2 area. This ensures that the Piece Monitor equipment does not become contaminated and remains readily accessible for maintenance or repair. Piece monitors measure and report the plutonium content of each waste item immediately prior to placing in the waste drum, and provides a continuous 'tally' of the drum content. Warnings are shown when a drum is close to exceeding its allowable plutonium content and the waste drum can therefore be changed when either physically full or nearing its nuclear safety limits. (authors)

  20. Destructive analysis capabilities for plutonium and uranium characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuhn, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drake, Lawrence R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Decker, Diana L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walker, Laurie F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colletti, Lisa M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spencer, Khalil J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Jaclyn A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wong, Amy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Actinide Analytical Chemistry (AAC) group has been in existence since the Manhattan Project. It maintains a complete set of analytical capabilities for performing complete characterization (elemental assay, isotopic, metallic and non metallic trace impurities) of uranium and plutonium samples in different forms. For a majority of the customers there are strong quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) objectives including highest accuracy and precision with well defined uncertainties associated with the analytical results. Los Alamos participates in various international and national programs such as the Plutonium Metal Exchange Program, New Brunswick Laboratory's (NBL' s) Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SME) and several other inter-laboratory round robin exercises to monitor and evaluate the data quality generated by AAC. These programs also provide independent verification of analytical measurement capabilities, and allow any technical problems with analytical measurements to be identified and corrected. This presentation will focus on key analytical capabilities for destructive analysis in AAC and also comparative data between LANL and peer groups for Pu assay and isotopic analysis.

  1. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillispie, Obie W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  2. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  3. Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    HERZOG, K.R.

    1999-09-01

    A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

  4. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Sterbentz; C. S. Olsen; U. P. Sinha

    1993-01-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature\\/pressure LWR designs that might be developed

  5. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kbel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.20.9?nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]?3?H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements. PMID:25042621

  6. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE BY PLANTS FROM SOIL CONTAINING PLUTONIUM-238 DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for ...

  7. The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt

    E-print Network

    Massey, Thomas N.

    177 The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt T he human plutonium that was pertinent to those and LouisHempelmann #12;similar radiation experi- ments with humans. This article injection experiments carried out during and after the Manhattan Project have received tremendous noto

  8. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  9. Plutonium in the arctic marine environment--a short review.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis

    2004-06-18

    Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers. PMID:15258672

  10. ANNUAL REPORT. PLUTONIUM SPECIATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND MIGRATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work performed in the first year of a three-year project. In this year we are focusing on the following: 1) the interactions between plutonium compounds and redox active iron and manganese minerals, 2) the interactions between plutonium compounds and sedime...

  11. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E Cournoyer; Archie E Nixon; Robert L Dodge; Keith W Fife; Arnold M Sandoval; Vincent E Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure

  12. X-ray diffraction study of pure plutonium under pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Faure; C. Genestier

    2009-01-01

    Atomic volume and bulk modulus represent basic cohesion properties of a material and are therefore linked to many other physical properties. However, large discrepancies are found in the literature regarding values for the bulk modulus of pure plutonium (?-phase). New X-ray diffraction measurements of plutonium in diamond anvil cell are presented and the isothermal bulk modulus is extracted.

  13. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vasile; Ph Dufour; H Golfier; J. P Grouiller; J. L Guillet; Ch Poinot; G Youinou; A Zaetta

    2003-01-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The

  14. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delegard

    1985-01-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended

  15. A plutonium-based single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Magnani, N; Colineau, E; Griveau, J-C; Apostolidis, C; Walter, O; Caciuffo, R

    2014-08-01

    The magnetic properties of the 5f(5) [tris-(tri-1-pyrazolylborato)-plutonium(III)] complex have been investigated by ac susceptibility measurements, showing it to be the first plutonium single-molecule magnet; its magnetic relaxation slows down with decreasing temperature through a thermally activated mechanism followed by a quantum tunnelling regime below 5 K. PMID:24927255

  16. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFPs Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)39H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF NEW WATER-SOLUBLE METAL-BINDING POLYMERS: COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of metals that require removal and concentration exist in DOE waste, ground, or process waters. These can include, for example, RCRA metals such as mercury in mixed waste, valuable metals such as copper in acid mine drainage, actinides in plutonium processing facilities...

  18. Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1999-10-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

  19. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics.

  20. Low-temperature synthesis of plutonium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, J.G.; Eller, P.G.; Asprey, L.B.

    1984-05-02

    The preparation of PuF/sub 6/ by the action of dioxygen difluoride (O/sub 2/F/sub 2/) on plutonium fluorides, oxides, and oxyfluorides at room temperature or below is described. Previously, direct synthesis of PuF/sub 6/ could only be achieved by high temperature (>300/sup 0/C) fluorination and by microwave or photolytic generation of fluorine atoms. Six experiments are described that illustrate the potency of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ which is the property of this compound that indicates potential application in the nuclear industry.

  1. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  2. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  3. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent

  4. Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Szaniszlo, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

  5. Behavior of plutonium and americium at liquid cadmium cathode in molten LiClKCl electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Iizuka; Koich Uozumi; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Osamu Shirai; Yasuo Arai

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the electrochemical conditions on the behavior of plutonium and proper conditions for plutonium recovery at the liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) used in the pyrometallurgical reprocessing were studied by the electrotransport experiments with small, not stirred electrodes. Plutonium was successfully collected up to 7.75 wt% without disturbance by solid phase formation at the surface. Plutonium collected beyond saturation

  6. Glass fabrication and product consistency testing of lanthanide borosilicate glass for plutonium disposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Crawford; J. C. Marra; N. E. Bibler

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE\\/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate

  7. Short-term irradiation behavior of low-density americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels irradiated in a fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Katsuyama, K.; Ikusawa, Y.; Maeda, S.

    2011-09-01

    A short-term irradiation test (B14) was conducted using the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The objective of the test was to investigate the early thermal behavior of americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am-MOX) fuels such as fuel restructuring and redistribution of actinides. Four fuel pins which contained 2.4 wt.% americium-doped uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (Am, Pu, U)O 2-x fuels were supplied for testing. Pellet-cladding gap width and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) molar ratio of oxide fuels were determined as experimental parameters. The respective amounts of plutonium and americium in the fuel pellets were 31 and 2.4 wt.%. The fuel pins were irradiated at the maximum linear heating rate of 470 W cm -1 in the B14 test. After the irradiation, post-irradiation examinations were conducted. The influences of both pellet-cladding gap width and O/M molar ratio on the fuel restructuring were confirmed, and no fuel melting was observed. Americium and plutonium were similarly redistributed depending on the O/M molar ratio. In the fuel specimen of the highest O/M molar ratio, the difference in contents between americium and plutonium around the central void was significant. From the examination results, the margins to the criteria in the thermal design of the fuel pin would be suitable under the expected operating conditions of a conventional fast breeder reactor.

  8. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  9. Measurements of plutonium residues from recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.-T.; Langner, D.G.; Longmire, V.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional methods of nondestructive assay (NDA) have accurately assayed the plutonium content of many forms of relatively pure and homogeneous bulk items. However, physical and chemical heterogeneities and the high and variable impurity levels of many categories of processing scrap bias the conventional NDA results. The materials also present a significant challenge to the assignment of reference values to process materials for purposes of evaluating the NDA methods. A recent study using impure, heterogeneous, pyrochemical residues from americium molten salt extraction (MSE) has been aimed at evaluating NDA assay methods based on conventional gamma-ray and neutron measurement techniques and enhanced with analyses designed to address the problems of heterogeneities and impurities. The study included a significant effort to obtain reference values for the MSE spent salts used in the study. Two of the improved NDA techniques, suitable for in-line assay of plutonium in bulk, show promise for timely in-process assays for one of the most difficult pyrochemical residues generated as well as for other impure heterogeneous scrap categories. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. System for imaging plutonium through heavy shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Moss, C.E.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-04-01

    A single pinhole can be used to image strong self-luminescent gamma-ray sources such as plutonium on gamma scintillation (Anger) cameras. However, if the source is weak or heavily shielded, a poor signal to noise ratio can prevent acquisition of the image. An imaging system designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory uses a coded aperture to image heavily shielded sources. The paper summarizes the mathematical techniques, based on the Fast Delta Hadamard transform, used to decode raw images. Practical design considerations such as the phase of the uniformly redundant aperture and the encoded image sampling are discussed. The imaging system consists of a custom designed m-sequence coded aperture, a Picker International Corporation gamma scintillation camera, a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system, and custom imaging software. The paper considers two sources - 1.5 mCi /sup 57/Co unshielded at a distance of 27 m and 220 g of bulk plutonium (11.8% /sup 240/Pu) with 0.3 cm lead, 2.5 cm steel, and 10 cm of dense plastic material at a distance of 77.5 cm. Results show that the location and geometry of a source hidden in a large sealed package can be determined without having to open the package. 6 references, 4 figures.

  11. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  12. An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-03-01

    Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

  13. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Clementyev, E. S.; Mirmelstein, A. V., E-mail: mirmelstein@mail.r [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-Zababakhin Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, Division of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-15

    On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the {alpha} and {delta} phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a single-site approximation (SSA), the characteristic Kondo interaction energy, the f-electron shell occupation number, the effective degeneracy of the ground-state f multiplet, and the crystal field splitting energy are estimated. The ground state in plutonium is considered as a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with different valences. The temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium is calculated. It is shown that {delta} plutonium satisfies the Wilson and Kadowaki-Woods universal relations, whereby it can be classified as a Kondo system. At the same time, the problem of the position of plutonium in the general classification of solids, as well as the problem of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium, remains open. The concept of multiple intermediate valence (MIV) is put forward as a possible means for solving the above problems. The MIV regime is characterized by fluctuations from the basic configuration 3+ to the states 4+ and 2+, which make a fundamental difference between plutonium and 4f electron systems based, say, on samarium.

  14. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges.

  15. HANFORD PLUTONIUM FINISHG PLAN (PFP) COMPLETES PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION KEY SAFETY ISSUES CLOSED

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-02-24

    A long and intense effort to stabilize and repackage nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium-bearing leftovers from defense production and nuclear experiments concluded successfully in February, bringing universal congratulations to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The victorious stabilization and packaging endeavor at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), managed and operated by prime contractor Fluor Hanford, Inc., finished ahead of all milestones in Hanford's cleanup agreement with regulators, and before deadlines set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), a part of the federal Executive Branch that oversees special nuclear materials. The PFP stabilization and packaging project also completed under budget for its four-year tenure, and has been nominated for a DOE Secretarial Award. It won the Project of the Year Award in the local chapter competition of the Project Management Institute, and is being considered for awards at the regional and national level.

  16. Accelerator-driven assembly for plutonium transformation (ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyle, Greorgy J. Van; Todosow, Michael; Powell, James; Schweitzer, Donald

    1995-01-01

    A particle accelerator-driven spallation target and corresponding blanket region are proposed for the ultimate disposition of weapons-grade plutonium being retired from excess nuclear weapons in the U.S. and Russia. The highly fissle plutonium is contained within .25 to .5 cm diameter silicon-carbide coated graphite beads, which are cooled by helium, within the slightly subcritical blanket region. Major advantages include very high one-pass burnup (over 90%), a high integrity waste form (the coated beads), and operation in a subcritical mode, thereby minimizing the vulnerability to the positive reativity feedbacks often associated with plutonium fuel.

  17. Influence of void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surbakti, R.; Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The uncertainty of commercial operation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) claims for another solution to the plutonium produced in light water reactors (LWR). As one option, recently, the plutonium recycling in LWR becomes an important consideration. A study on the impact of changing void fraction on plutonium recycling in BWR has been performed. Two types of uranium sources in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, namely the depleted uranium and the natural uranium have been evaluated. The trend is similar for both MOX fuels that BWR can gain its critical condition for the void fraction of less than 42% and it may be operated in critical condition for the void fraction of 42% and 95%.

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design for 13 MT Case

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    2001-01-31

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading conceptual design for the 13 Metric Ton (MT) PIP throughput case. This report includes a process block diagram, process description, and preliminary equipment specifications and documents the changes to the original can loading concept documented in previous reports.

  19. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Second stage immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-12-21

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Automated equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the conceptual design stage and the facility will begin operation in 2008. This paper discusses the Plutonium Immobilization Project phase 2 automation equipment conceptual design, equipment design, and work completed.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  1. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  2. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-print Network

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  3. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-print Network

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  4. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the presence of oxalate by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). To use the TGA-MS for carbon or oxalate content, some method development will be required. However, the TGA-MS is already used for moisture measurements. Therefore, SRNL initiated method development for the TGA-MS to allow quantification of oxalate or total carbon. That work continues at this time and is not yet ready for use in this study. However, the collected test data can be reviewed later as those analysis tools are available.

  5. [Missed diagnosis in 1 case of esophageal foreign body of button battery in infant: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Fan, Qijun; Liu, Yupeng; Jia, Huan

    2014-11-01

    To be on the alert on infants with esophageal foreign body, and to pay more attention to the button battery esophageal foreign body, the clinical data of a 12-month-old infant with button battery esophageal foreign body, which was missed diagnosis for up to 4 months, is analyzed. And the related literature is reviewed. An esophagoscopy was carried out to remove the foreign body. A favorable outcome was achieved. When the infants have unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms, we should consider the possibility of an esophageal foreign body. We should pay attention to the button battery due to its highly corrosive to the esophagus. Timely diagnosis, reasonable operation are the keys to cure. PMID:25752125

  6. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ?25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ?70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  7. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  8. Uranium and plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, Y.; Meason, J.L.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1983-04-20

    Uranium 234 and 235 were found to be highly enriched relative to uranium 238 in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of April and May 1980. The anomalous uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada on January 24, 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The concentration of /sup 238/U in rain increased markedly after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, and it appeared as if a large quantity of natural uranium was injected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption. The pattern of variation of the concentrations of uranium in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

  9. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge.

  10. Bayesian methods for interpreting plutonium urinalysis data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.

    1995-09-01

    The authors discuss an internal dosimetry problem, where measurements of plutonium in urine are used to calculate radiation doses. The authors have developed an algorithm using the MAXENT method. The method gives reasonable results, however the role of the entropy prior distribution is to effectively fit the urine data using intakes occurring close in time to each measured urine result, which is unrealistic. A better approximation for the actual prior is the log-normal distribution; however, with the log-normal distribution another calculational approach must be used. Instead of calculating the most probable values, they turn to calculating expectation values directly from the posterior probability, which is feasible for a small number of intakes.

  11. Solubility of plutonium and waste evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    1993-10-22

    Chemical processing of irradiated reactor elements at the Savannah River Site separates uranium, plutonium and fission products; fission products and process-added chemicals are mixed with an excess of NaOH and discharged as a basic slurry into large underground tanks for temporary storage. The slurry is composed of base-insoluble solids that settle to the bottom of the tank; the liquid supemate contains a mixture of base-soluble chemicals--nitrates, nitrites aluminate, sulfate, etc. To conserve space in the waste tanks, the supemate is concentrated by evaporation. As the evaporation proceeds, the solubilities of some components are exceeded, and these species crystallize from solution. Normally, these components are soluble in the hot solution discharged from the waste tank evaporator and do not crystallize until the solution cools. However, concern was aroused at West Valley over the possibility that plutonium would precipitate and accumulate in the evaporator, conceivably to the point that a nuclear accident was possible. There is also a concern at SRS from evaporation of sludge washes, which arise from washing the base-insoluble solids ({open_quote}sludge{close_quote}) with ca. 1M NaOH to reduce the Al and S0{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} content. The sludge washes of necessity extract a low level of Pu from the sludge and are evaporated to reduce their volume, presenting the possibility of precipitating Pu. Measurements of the solubility of Pu in synthetic solutions of similar composition to waste supernate and sludge washes are described in this report.

  12. 70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING WEST INTO STORAGE AREA SHOWING THE FOUR STORAGE ROOM ENTRANCES. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  13. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  14. Automated controlled-potential coulometer for plutonium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The automated controlled-potential coulometer for the determination of plutonium described in this report is the second in a series of automated instruments designed to determine plutonium and uranium contents in nuclear fuel cycle materials. The measurement precision of the instrument is 0.1% relative standard deviation at the 5-mg plutonium level. A highly selective method of analysis was developed, involving reduction of plutonium to Pu(III) in a 5.5 M hydrochloric acid-0.015 M sulfamic acid electrolyte; oxidation of diverse ions, but not Pu(III); addition of phosphate complexant to reduce the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) potential; and oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV) as the measurement step. Construction details of the mechanical and electrical systems of the instrument and control-system software are described, along with instrument preoperational adjustments and tests and sample analysis operations.

  15. Plutonium recovery at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    Research programs have led to the adoption of procedures for all phases of plutonium recovery and purification. This report discusses some of the many procedures required to recover and purify the plutonium contained in the residues generated by LASL research, process development, and production activities. The report also discusses general plant facilities, the liquid and gaseous effluents, and solid waste management practices at the New Plutonium Facility, TA-55. Many of the processes or operations are merely steps in preparing the feed for one of the purification systems. For example, the plutonium is currently removed from noncombustibles in the pickling operation with an HNO/sub 3/ leach. The HNO/sub 3/ leach solution is the product of this operation and is sent to one of the nitrate anion-exchange systems for concentration and purification.

  16. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  17. Detecting low concentrations of plutonium hydride with magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mun, E. D.; Baiardo, J. P.; Smith, A. I.; Richmond, S.; Mitchell, J.; Schwartz, D.; Zapf, V. S.; Mielke, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at. % Ga-stabilized ?-Pu, with 1 at. % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here, we use magnetization, X-ray, and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx on the surface of the sample with x 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  18. Radiation from plutonium 238 used in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. K.; Vallee, R. E.; Powers, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The principal mode of the nuclear decay of plutonium 238 is by alpha particle emission at a rate of 17 curies per gram. Gamma radiation also present in nuclear fuels arises primarily from the nuclear de-excitation of daughter nuclei as a result of the alpha decay of plutonium 238 and reactor-produced impurities. Plutonium 238 has a spontaneous fission half life of 4.8 x 10 to the 10th power years. Neutrons associated with this spontaneous fission are emitted at a rate of 28,000 neutrons per second per gram. Since the space fuel form of plutonium 238 is the oxide pressed into a cermet with molybdenum, a contribution to the neutron emission rate arises from (alpha, n) reactions with 0-17 and 0-18 which occur in natural oxygen.

  19. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  20. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  1. The plutonium\\/hydrogen reaction: The pressure dependence of reaction initiation time and nucleation rate controlled by a plutonium dioxide over-layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon W. McGillivray; John P. Knowles; Ian M. Findlay; Marina J. Dawes

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing programme to quantify those parameters which influence the early stages of the plutonium hydriding reaction, the hydrogen pressure dependence of both plutonium hydriding initiation time (It) and hydriding nucleation rate (Nr) have been determined for plutonium covered in a reproducible dioxide over-layer. The data show that initiation time is inversely proportional to hydrogen pressure, while

  2. Risk analysis of shipping plutonium pits and mixed oxide fuel

    E-print Network

    Caldwell, Amy Baker

    1997-01-01

    led to agreements to reduce nuclear weapon stockpiles. The dismantlement of United States nuclear weapons will produce a surplus of weapons-grade plutonium in excess of fifty metric tons. ' In order to avoid potential proliferation and environmental... hazards, many storage and disposition options are being analyzed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). An option under consideration is the incorporation of weapons-grade plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel that can be utilized in existing...

  3. Decommissioning the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I)

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment (LAMPRE I) was decommissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, in 1980. The LAMPRE I was a sodium-cooled reactor built to develop plutonium fuels for fast breeder applications. It was retired in the mid-1960s. This report describes the decommissioning procedures, the health physics programs, the waste management, and the costs for the operation.

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  5. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

    1994-03-16

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

  6. Evolving Metallurgical Behaviors in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S

    2009-05-05

    The plutonium alpha-decay leads to the age-related changes in physical properties. We review our experimental approaches including analytical techniques to assess the effects of extended aging on plutonium alloys, together with our recent results on age-related changes in physical and static mechanical properties. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop capabilities to predict metallurgical evolution driven by aging effects.

  7. PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPTIMIZATION IN SUPPORT OF THE MOX FUEL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY, DEVIN W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; COSTA, DAVID A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-02

    After Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel completed polishing 125 Kg of plutonium as highly purified PuO{sub 2} from surplus nuclear weapons, Duke, COGEMA, Stone, and Webster (DCS) required as the next process stage, the validation and optimization of all phases of the plutonium polishing flow sheet. Personnel will develop the optimized parameters for use in the upcoming 330 kg production mission.

  8. Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

    1996-03-01

    In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

  9. Weapons-grade plutonium disposition in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Biswas; R. W. Rathbun; S. Y. Lee; M. R. Buckner

    1995-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to demonstrate that weapons-grade plutonium can be readily disposed of by utilizing it as a fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The disposition can be achieved by first fabricating the weapons-grade plutonium into a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel form and then irradiating it in either advanced or existing PWRs to a depleted level similar to commercial spent

  10. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Duffey; R. Livingston

    2010-01-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard.

  11. Supported Extractant Membranes for Americium and Plutonium Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony C. Muscatello; James D. Navratil; Milton E. Killion; Marlene Y. Price

    1987-01-01

    Solid supported liquid membranes(SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium and plutonium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP (d ihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoyImethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel or Celgard polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium and >70% of the plutonium from high nitrate (6.9 M), low acid (0.1 M) feeds into 0.25 M oxalic acid stripping solution.

  12. High absorption efficiency for ingested plutonium in crabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W. Fowler; Jean-Claude Guary

    1977-01-01

    ALTHOUGH marine organisms have been strongly implicated in the biogeochemical cycle of plutonium, there is disagreement as to whether they can assimilate it efficiently1-7. We have examined the fate of plutonium in a single, worm-crab food chain after ingestion of the isotope which had been metabolically incorporated into the predator's food. Contrary to absorption efficiencies of tenths to hundredths of

  13. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  14. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  17. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. VARIABILITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF IMPURITIES IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING, LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Charles Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; James Marra, J

    2007-09-26

    This study focuses on the development of a compositional envelope that describes the retention of various impurities in lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass for vitrification and immobilization of excess, defense-related plutonium. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define types and concentrations of impurities in the LaBS glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. Sixty surrogate glass compositions were developed through a statistically designed approach to cover the anticipated ranges of concentrations for several impurity species expected in the plutonium feeds. An additional four glass compositions containing actual plutonium oxide were selected based on their targeted concentrations of metals and anions. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory and shielded cells facility to determine the degree of retention of the impurity components, the impact of the impurities on the durability of each glass, and the degree of crystallization that occurred, both upon quenching and slow cooling. Overall, the LaBS glass system appears to be very tolerant of most of the impurity types and concentrations projected in the plutonium waste stream. For the surrogate glasses, the measured CuO, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, NiO, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations fell very close to their target values across the ranges of concentrations targeted in this study for each of these components. The measured CaO and PbO concentrations were consistently higher than the targeted values. The measured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were very close to the targets except for the one highest targeted value for each of these components. A solubility limit may have been approached in this glass system for K{sub 2}O and MgO. The measured Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations were well below their target values for all of the study glasses. This is likely due to volatilization of these species during melting of the glass batch. Note that the degree of volatilization that occurred in this crucible-scale study may differ from the full-scale melter. The measured HfO{sub 2} concentrations were below their target values for all of the surrogate glasses. It is likely that for HfO{sub 2}, the solubility limit in the glass was exceeded and some of the HfO{sub 2} batch material remained in the bottom of the crucibles after pouring the glasses. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that some crystalline HfO2 remained in some of the surrogate glasses with the lowest concentration of impurities. No other crystalline phases were identified. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all 60 of the surrogate glass compositions tested were very durable, regardless of thermal history, with the highest normalized release for boron being 0.041 g/L. The pH of the leachate solutions was generally lower than that of conventional waste glasses due to the lack of alkali in the LaBS glass, which likely impacted the PCT results. The normalized release rates for the elements measured were generally too small to attempt to correlate the results with the compositions of the test glasses. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure results showed that no hazardous metals were leached from the surrogate glasses in any measurable concentration. A plutonium-containing crystalline phase with a cross-shaped morphology was identified via SEM in the glasses fabricated with plutonium oxide. This phase was identified in a previous study of plutonium-bearing LaBS glasses and may provide an opportunity to intentionally crystallize some of the plutonium oxide into a highly insoluble form with an intrinsic neutron absorber. Additional work is necessary to better characterize the influence that this phase has on durability of the glass. The PCT results for the plutonium-containing LaBS glasses with impurities were si

  19. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution of PuO2 can be achieved with 6 to 8 M nitric acid + 14 M HF or 8 M nitric acid + 4 M HF mixtures. In the latter case, quantitative dissolution of plutonium oxide was demonstrated only with sonication. Overall, the results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration to dissolve refractory plutonium oxide does not offer any substantial advantage over conventional ?heat and mix? treatment. Oxidative treatment by AgO appears to be effective only when very little or no oxidizable materials are present in the digested sample. The catalytic use of Ag(II) in the ''Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution'' technology would probably be more effective than using AgO because the Ag(II) is continually regenerated electrochemically. Reductive treatment with titanium trichloride in HCl solution proves to be less efficient than the previously observed effect based on in situ generation of Ti(III) in phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid media using a dip probe sonication setup. The previous experiments, however, were performed at higher temperature and with non-steady concentration profiles of Ti(III) ion in the process of sonochemical digestion.

  20. Design study for an advanced liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core with a high burnup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Inagaki; H. Kuga; M. Suzuki; T. Yokoyama; M. Yamaoka; K. Kaneto; M. Ohashi; K. Kurihara

    1989-01-01

    Design studies are performed for a commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core that can achieve a burnup of 200 GWd\\/t. A plutonium-type asymmetric parfait core with two different plutonium-enriched zones in the axial direction as well as in the radial direction is studied. This core concept solves core design problems related to high burnup, and it is possible to achieve

  1. Belly button piercings: a saving grace? A patent urachus presenting in a 17-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Aidan; Black, Patrick; Turner, Joanna; Gray, Sam; Kirk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to the accident and emergency department with dysuria and foul smelling, bloody discharge from her umbilicus. The definitive diagnosis was that of a patent urachus, which is a fistulous communication between the bladder and the umbilicus, usually diagnosed in early infancy. The incidence of a patent urachus is approximately 1 in 70,000 in the general population. It is highly likely that removal of a recent belly button piercing resulted in the acute presentation by completing the fistulous tract to the skin. This case is of clinical relevance as the diagnosis was missed 18?months prior with a milder presentation. The recommended treatment option is surgical excision due to the potential risk of malignant change, with urachal adenocarcinoma accounting for 0.3% of all bladder cancers. PMID:24916980

  2. Complete this form online, then print using the print button. WMU Student Financial Aid | 1903 W. Michigan Ave., Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5337 | (269) 387-6000

    E-print Network

    de Doncker, Elise

    and earn money or go to school. I am aware the federal student loans cannot be cancelled at a later time that would prohibit the student from being able to work and earn money or go to school indefinitelyComplete this form online, then print using the print button. WMU Student Financial Aid | 1903 W

  3. Complete this form online, then print using the print button. WMU Student Financial Aid | 1903 W. Michigan Ave., Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5337 | (269) 387-6000

    E-print Network

    de Doncker, Elise

    prohibit me from being able to work and earn money or go to school. I am aware the federal student loans that would prohibit the student from being able to work and earn money or go to school indefinitelyComplete this form online, then print using the print button. WMU Student Financial Aid | 1903 W

  4. Connecting to the Managed Print Service from a PC Select the Start Menu Button on the bottom left had side of your screen.

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    Connecting to the Managed Print Service from a PC Select the Start Menu Button on the bottom left from any managed print device using your staff or matric card. After 72 hours in the document store any-spooler.campus.gla.ac.uk and hit return/enter. This will display the printers on the sc-spooler print server, like the image below

  5. Problems for October 24, 2009 1. A building with 15 floors has an elevator. There are only two buttons in this

    E-print Network

    Baranovsky, Vladimir

    Problems for October 24, 2009 1. A building with 15 floors has an elevator. There are only two buttons in this elevator, which say ``+7" and ``-9" (i.e. the elevator can go either 7 floors up, or 9 floors down). Can one use this elevator to go from the 3rd floor to the 12th floor? 2. Is it true

  6. Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 Step 1a Launch Microsoft Excel 2007. Open a spreadsheet by selecting the Microsoft button at the

    E-print Network

    Steps to Creating a Basic Epidemic Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 1 Step 1a Launch Microsoft Excel 2007. Open a spreadsheet by selecting the Microsoft button at the upper, left portion Curve Using Microsoft Excel 2007 2 Step 11a To add a title to the chart, under the Layout ribbon

  7. AGU Fall Meeting 2009 You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this

    E-print Network

    Courtier, Anna M.

    associated with thick sedimentary layers at short periods. We investigate 3-D shear-velocity structure using) for 3-D radially anisotropic shear-wave velocity within the crust. Since the sensitivity kernels dependAGU Fall Meeting 2009 You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous

  8. Bone suture anchors versus the pullout button for repair of distal profundus tendon injuries: A comparison of strength in human cadaveric hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall Brustein; James Pellegrini; Jack Choueka; Heather Heminger; Daniel Mass

    2001-01-01

    Avulsion or distal tendon laceration of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) is classically repaired to the base of the distal phalanx via a pullout suture over a button. Bone suture anchors, used extensively in other surgical areas, have recently been proposed for reattachment of the FDP to the distal phalanx. The FDP tendons of the index, long, and ring fingers in

  9. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, J. R.; Devan, J. H.; Keiser, J. R.; Klueh, R. L.; Eatherly, W. P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  10. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  11. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  12. Disposition of transuranic residues from plutonium isentropic compression experiment (Pu-ICE) constucted at Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Kapil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; French, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphrey, Betty J [WESTON SOLUTIONS INC.; Gluth, Jeffry [SNL

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to discontinue above- and below-ground testing of nuclear weapons. Because of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must rely on laboratory experiments and computer-based calculations to verify the reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Z machine was developed to support the science-based approach for mimicking nuclear explosions and stockpile stewardship. Plutonium (Pu) isotopes with greater than ninety-eight percent enrichment were used in the experiments. In May 2006, SNL/NM received authority that the Z Machine Isentropic Compression Experiments could commence. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided the plutonium targets and loaded the target assemblies provided by SNL/NM. Three experiments were conducted from May through July 2006. The residues from each experiment, which weighed up to 913 pounds, were metallic and were packaged into a 55-gallon drum each. SNL/NM conducts the experiments and provides temporary storage for the drums until shipment to LANL for final waste certification for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for documenting generator knowledge for characterization of waste in cooperation with scientists at the two laboratories and addresses a variety of essential topics.

  13. Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

  14. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W. [and others

    1996-01-27

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  15. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  16. Use of automated controlled-potential coulometry system for plutonium product accountancy analysis at Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Abe, K.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP))

    1988-01-01

    The controlled-potential coulometry has been adopted for plutonium product accountancy analysis at the Tokai reprocessing plant since 1985. The reliability of plutonium product analysis has been improved by introducing this method which is capable of better precision than the titration that was previously used. It has been found that the impurities such as neptunium, chromium and americium, which are thought to interfere with AgO-Fe(II)-Cr(VI) titration method, do not affect the controlled-potential coulometry. Iron, which is regarded as an impurity interfering with the coulometry, is corrected with simple measurement procedure using spectrophotometer. The fully automated coulometry system has been developed based on the experience of using manually operated system. The system consists of two symmetric parts. Each has one measurement position and one electrode washing position and is designed to load up to six cells. The system is calibrated with iron standard sample, because no significant difference between calibrations using metallic standard of plutonium and that of iron has been found. Precision of the automated system is within 0.1%.

  17. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A. [LPSC/IN2P3/CNRS, 53, avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  18. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S. (Naperville, IL); Burris, Leslie (Naperville, IL); Steunenberg, Robert K. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  19. Plutonium solution analyzer. Revised February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%--0.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40--240 g/l: and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4--4.0 g/y. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 ml of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 ml per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  20. Control System for the Stacker Unstacker System for the Plutonium Immobilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, T.

    2001-01-31

    The disposition of excess plutonium will incorporate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the picks in cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility canister.