Note: This page contains sample records for the topic plutonium metal buttons from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Three dimensional imaging of a molten-salt-extracted plutonium button using both active and passive gamma-ray computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a new technique using both active (A) and passive (P) computed tomography (CT) to overcome problems in the quantitative analysis of plutonium contents in the molten salt extract (MSE) plutonium buttons. Our first three dimensional image of the MSE button using ACT scan has already shown heterogeneous behavior throughout the button as opposed to the model of

T. F. Wang; H. E. Martz; G. P. Roberson; E. A. Henry; W. D. Ruhter; L. O. Hester

1994-01-01

2

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for production of plutonium metal from plutonium oxide by metallic lithium reduction, with regeneration of lithium reactant. It comprises: reacting the plutonium oxide with metallic lithium; oxides and unreacted lithium; subliming the product lithium oxide and unreacted lithium from unreacted plutonium oxide with high heat and low pressure; recapturing the product lithium oxides; reacting the recaptured product lithium oxides with anhydrous hydrochloric acid to produce lithium chloride salt; and decomposing product lithium chloride salt by electrolysis to regenerate lithium metal.

Coops, M.S.

1992-06-02

3

Plutonium metal turnings fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 27, 1954, 965 grams of plutonium alloy contained in three standard quart size ice cream cartons were being removed from the process line by two process operators using the plastic bag technique. Shortly after the plastic bag scaler had been energized a brown spot appeared on the plastic bag. The glowing turnings burned through the containers and plastic

Pierick

1954-01-01

4

Americium extraction from plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single stage process using MgCl2 in CaCl2 has been demonstrated to remove 90% of the americium from plutonium with no transfer of impurities to the product metal except magnesium, which is readily removed in a vacuum casting operation. .

Watson, R. F.

2000-07-01

5

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01

6

METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

1962-11-13

7

Uranium-plutonium metallic spikes for IDMS accountancy measurements: preparation and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloys containing uranium and plutonium have been prepared as candidates for use as metallic spikes for IDMS determinations of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel solutions. Three compositions, U-0.5%Pu-50%Ti, U-0.5%Pu-25%Nb-25%Zr and U-1%Pu-2.3%Nb #1#1 All the percentages indicated in this work are weight percentages. , prepared by crucible-less induction melting, were selected because of good cold formability. The plutonium homogeneity was estimated to be 0.1-0.4% RSD for samples containing 100 mg uranium and 1 mg plutonium by a ?-spectrometric method using 235U in the spike as an internal standard to correct for self-absorption. Metallography was carried out on buttons and foils of each of the alloys and revealed fine, homogeneous structures.

Orea Rocha, J. M.; Ingelbrecht, C. D.; Criado Portal, A. J.

1993-09-01

8

Aging phenomenon in metallic plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, as with weapons science issues, the monitoring of plutonium aging becomes an important issue for surveillance. The reasons for this are many-fold. First, and perhaps most important, plutonium is radioactive, primarily through the process of alpha decay. This process has many consequences. One pragmatic one is that the alpha particles ejected near the surface can be used with an

M. F. Stevens; J. C. Martz

1998-01-01

9

Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

10

Study of Single and Dual Band Wearable Metallic Button Antennas for Personal Area Networks (PANs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small WLAN\\/Bluetooth antenna with the appearance of a metallic button is reported for use with wearable computer systems\\u000a and covert communications. A single band version is discussed in addition to a dual band design that also covers the HiperLAN\\/2\\u000a band. No external matching circuits are required when the antenna is fed with a 50 ? coaxial line. A lumped

Benito Sanz-Izquierdo; Fengxi Huang; John C. Batchelor; Mohammed I. Sobhy

11

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01

12

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01

13

PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-07

14

Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900°C and a strain rate of 10⁻⁴ s⁻¹, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These

D. R. Lesuer; J. B. Bergin; S. A. McInturff; B. A. Kuhn

1980-01-01

15

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT1) packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

Paul T. Mann; Michael L. Caviness; Richard Hiroyuki Yoshimura

2010-01-01

16

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the

Michael L Caviness; Paul T Mann; Richard H Yoshimura

2010-01-01

17

ANION EXCHANGE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM THE HANFORD 234-5 BUILDING BUTTON LINE. TASK I OXALATE FILTRATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resulte of a laboratory investigation undertaken to adapt the Pu anion ;\\u000a exchange process to the direct recovery of the Pu lost to the Task I oxalate ;\\u000a filtrate are reported. It was found that the Button Line Task I Filtrate can be ;\\u000a recovered by HNO anion exchange process, thus isolating the Button Line ;\\u000a from any solvent extraction

Wheelwright

1962-01-01

18

Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

1980-07-01

19

HECTOR Measurements on Plutonium-Uranium Metal Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HECTOR technique for deducing lattice parameters from measurements on single fuel elements has been applied to a range of plutonium-uranium metal rods. Elements containing up to 1/2% of plutonium with Pu240 contents in the range 3 to 24% were used, th...

R. Richmond R. C. Bannerman J. W. W. Fripp B. L. H. Burbidge

1965-01-01

20

Preparation of Pure Plutonium Metal Standards for Nondestructive Assay  

SciTech Connect

To calibrate neutron coincidence and neutron multiplicity counters for passive assay of plutonium, certain detector parameters must be determined. When one is using small plutonium metal samples, biases can be introduced from non-zero multiplication and impurities. This paper describes preparing small, pure plutonium metal standards with well-known geometries to enable accurate multiplication corrections and with acceptably low levels of impurities. To minimize multiplication, these standards are designed as 2-cm-diameter foils with varying thicknesses and masses of 1.4, 3.6, and 7.2 g plutonium. These standards will significantly improve characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters. They can also be equally useful for gamma-ray spectrometry and calorimetry. Five sets will be made: four for other US Department of Energy plutonium facilities, and one set to remain at Los Alamos. We will also describe other nondestructive assay standards that are planned for the next few years.

S. -T. Hsue; J. E. Stewart; M. S. Krick

2000-11-01

21

Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical basis for molten salt extraction separation of americium from plutonium is presented. The extraction factor relationship is used to quantify this liquid-liquid extraction (molten salt-molten metal) unit operation. The amount of salt required ...

J. B. Knighton J. W. Berry R. C. Franchini R. G. Auge

1976-01-01

22

Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification  

SciTech Connect

Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

1996-01-01

23

THE PREPARATION OF HIGH-PURITY PLUTONIUM METAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity alpha -phase plutonium metal was produced by a process ; which consisted of two successive peroxide precipitations, direct ; hydrofluorination with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, and reduction to metal with ; calcium and iodine booster.'' The total detectable impurities in the metal ; produced varied from 94 to 276 ppm. (auth);

K. W. R. Johnson; K. W. R

1959-01-01

24

Plutonium  

MedlinePLUS

... to Plutonium How does plutonium get into the environment? Plutonium was dispersed world wide from atmospheric testing ... of page How does plutonium change in the environment? All isotopes of plutonium undergo radioactive decay. As ...

25

Packaging of plutonium metal and oxide in the ARIES project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay. The packaged weapons plutonium will be converted to mixed oxide reactor fuel or immobilized in ceramic forms suitable for geologic storage. The packaging of the material must therefore be suitable for storage until the material is further processed. A set of containers for plutonium metal and oxide has been developed to meet the needs of the ARIES process and the Department of Energy requirements for long-term storage. The package has been developed and qualified with the participation of private companies.

Rofer, C.K.; Martinez, D.A.; Trujillo, V.L.

1998-12-01

26

Packaging of Plutonium Metal and Oxide in the ARIES Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay. The packaged weapons plutonium will be converted to mixed-oxide reactor fuel or immobilized in ceramic forms suitable for geologic storage. The packaging of the material must therefore be suitable for storage until the material is further processes. A set of containers for plutonium metal and oxide has been developed to meet the needs of the ARIES process and the Department of Energy requirements for long-term storage. The package has been developed and qualified with the participation of private companies.

Rofer, C.K.; Martinez, D.A.; Trujillo, V.L.

1998-11-09

27

A new neutron multiplicity counter for the measurement of impure plutonium metal at Westinghouse Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A new neutron multiplicity counter has been designed, fabricated, characterized, and installed to assay impure plutonium metal buttons from the FB-line at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS). This instrument incorporates the performance characteristics of the Pyrochemical or In-plant Multiplicity Counter with the package size of the Plutonium Scrap Multiplicity Counter. In addition, state-of-the-art features such as the derandomizer circuit and separate ring outputs have been added. The counter consists of 113 71-cm active length {sup 3}He tubes in a polyethylene moderator. Its efficiency for {sup 252}Cf is 57.8%, the highest of any multiplicity counter to date. Its die-away time is 50.4 ms and its deadtime is 50 ns. In this paper, the authors present the characterization data for the counter and the results of preliminary metal measurements at WSRS. They also discuss the new challenges the impure metal buttons from FB-line are presenting to the multiplicity counting technique.

Langner, D.G.; Sweet, M.R.; Salazar, S.D.; Kroncke, K.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baker, L.B.; Faison, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-12-31

28

A New Neutron Multiplicity Counter for the Measurement of Impure Plutonium Metal at Westinghouse Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A new neutron multiplicity counter has been designed, fabricated, characterized, and installed for use in the assay of impure plutonium metal buttons from the FB-Line at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS). This instrument incorporates the performance characteristics of the Pyrochemical or In-plant Multiplicity Counter with the package size of the Plutonium Scrap Multiplicity Counter. In addition, state-of-the art features such as the de-randomizer circuit and separate ring outputs have been added. The counter consists of 113, 71 cm active length 3He tubes in a polyethylene moderator. Its efficiency for 252Cf is 57.8 percent, the highest of any multiplicity counter to date. Its die-away time is 50.4 ms and its deadtime is 50 ns. In this paper we will present the characterization data for the counter and the results of preliminary metal measurements at WSRS. We will also discuss the new challenges the impure metal buttons from FB-Line are presenting to the multiplicity counting technique.

Baker, L.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Faison, D.M.; Langner, D.G.; Sweet, M.R.; Salazar, S.D.; Kroncke, K.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-07-01

29

Criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and oxides  

SciTech Connect

This standard establishes safety criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and plutonium oxides at DOE facilities; materials packaged to meet these criteria should not need subsequent repackaging to ensure safe storage for at least 50 years or until final disposition. The standard applied to Pu metals, selected alloys (eg., Ga and Al alloys), and stabilized oxides containing at least 50 wt % Pu; it does not apply to Pu-bearing liquids, process residues, waste, sealed weapon components, or material containing more than 3 wt % {sup 238}Pu. Requirements for a Pu storage facility and safeguards and security considerations are not stressed as they are addressed in detail by other DOE orders.

Not Available

1994-12-01

30

Lost Buttons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate subtraction, beginning with the easier “take away” mode. They model “take away” subtraction with buttons and write subtraction sentences. They also work with the additive identity (0) as an addend and as a difference and find missing addends.

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-13

31

Button Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elementary teachers of science are at a great advantage because observation--collecting information about the world using our five senses--and classification--sorting things by properties--come so naturally to children. Buttons are ideal objects when teaching children about properties and classification. These familiar and inexpensive objects provide a meaningful teaching tool in the classroom.

Thomas, Annie B.; Carrier, Sarah J.

2008-01-01

32

Molten salt extraction of americium from molten plutonium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical basis for molten salt extraction separation of americium from plutonium is presented. The extraction factor relationship is used to quantify this liquid-liquid extraction (molten salt-molten metal) unit operation. The amount of salt required for an optimum process is an order of magnitude lower than the amount used previously in the production operation of the process.

J. B. Knighton; R. G. Auge; J. W. Berry; R. C. Franchini

1976-01-01

33

Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

Rothe, R.E.

1998-04-01

34

Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

About 5 kg of ingrown /sup 241/Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the /sup 241/Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel.

Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

1980-12-01

35

Rapid dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid followed by conversion to a nitric acid medium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium metal that does not meet product purity specifications and aged plutonium metal into which /sup 241/Am has grown must be recycled through a recovery and purification process. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the initial recycle step is dissolution of the metal. Since about 1962, sulfamic acid has been the accepted dissolvent in the SRP process. This paper dicusses the dissolving of plutonium metal in sulfamic aid. 4 refs.

Gray, L.W.

1981-01-01

36

Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria

R. Fernandez; D. R. Horrell; C. W. Hoth; S. W. Pierce; N. A. Rink; Y. M. Rivera; V. D. Sandoval

1996-01-01

37

Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

Not Available

1984-01-01

38

Accurate Determination of Impurity Concentrations in Plutonium Metals by Statistical Evaluation of Analytical Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical data from a plutonium-metal exchange program conducted by six ERDA laboratories are statistically evaluated. The objective is an accurate determination of five metal impurities (aluminum, chromium, iron, nickel, silicon) in each of three pluton...

C. J. Martell G. L. Tietjen M. M. Horita

1975-01-01

39

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

2011-01-01

40

Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water  

SciTech Connect

Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

NONE

1996-07-01

41

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations.\\u000a After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors\\u000a on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium\\u000a resulted fromthe dual-use scenario

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

42

Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations.\\u000a After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors\\u000a on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium\\u000a resulted from the dual-use

David L. Clark; Siegfried S. Hecker; Gordon D. Jarvinen; Mary P. Neu

43

Button/Plate Yielding  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum button and plate were yielded to compare the experimental and calculated button to plate stress ratios. Using the fact that compressive stress is directly proportional to area and load, the calculated button to plate stress ratio is equal to the plate to button area ratio for a constant load. The loads that caused the button and plate to yield were estimated from a load test cell graph obtained from the materials testing facility. The button was simply compressed, but the plate was compressed with a steel cylinder of the same diameter as the aluminum button. The experimental and calculated stress ratios for the button and plate are the same within experimental error. The equation for the plate bearing area is therefore correct.

Wintercorn, S.; /Fermilab

1987-06-17

44

Atomistic models of point defects in plutonium metal.  

SciTech Connect

The aging properties of plutonium (Pu) metal and alloys are. driven by a combination of materials composit ion, p rocessing history, and self-irradiat ion effects . Understanding these driving forces requires a knowledge of both t h ermodynamic and defect properties of the material . The multiplicity of phases and the small changes in tempe rat u re, pressure, and/or stress that can induce phase changes lie at the heart of these properties . In terms of radiation damage, Pu metal represents a unique situation because of the large volume chan ges that accompany the phase changes . The most workable form of the meta l is the fcc (S-) phase, which in practice is stabi l ized by addit io n of a ll oying el eme n ts s u c h as Ga or Al. The thermodynamically stable phase at ambient conditions is the monoclinic (a-) phase, which, however, is 2 0 % lower i n volume th an the S phase . In stabilized Pu metal, there is an in t er play between th e n atu ral swe l li n g tendencies of fcc metals and the volume-contraction tendency of the u n d erlyin g thermodynamicall y stable phase. This study exp lores the point d efect pr operties that are necessary to model the long-term outcome of this interplay.

Valone, S. M. (Steven M.); Baskes, M. I. (Michael I.); Uberuaga, B. P. (Blas Pedro); Voter, A. F.

2003-01-01

45

Site-selective electronic correlation in ?-plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the phase diagram of elemental plutonium (Pu) must include both, the effects of the strong directional bonding and the high density of states of the Pu 5f electrons, as well as how that bonding weakens under the influence of strong electronic correlations. Here we present electronic-structure calculations of the full 16-atom per unit cell ?-phase structure within the framework of density functional theory together with dynamical mean-field theory. Our calculations demonstrate that Pu atoms sitting on different sites within the ?-Pu crystal structure have a strongly varying site dependence of the localizationdelocalization correlation effects of their 5f electrons and a corresponding effect on the bonding and electronic properties of this complicated metal. In short, ?-Pu has the capacity to simultaneously have multiple degrees of electron localization/delocalization of Pu 5f electrons within a pure single-element material.

Zhu, Jian-Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.; Wills, J. M.

2013-10-01

46

PROCESS OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION WITH GROUP IVB METAL PHOSPHO-SILICATE COMPOSITIONS  

DOEpatents

A process for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions which contain the plutonium in minute concentrations is described. These values can be removed from an aqueous solution by taking an aqueous solution containing a salt of zirconium, titanium, hafnium or thorium, adding an aqueous solution of silicate and phosphoric acid anions to the metal salt solution, and separating, washing and drying the precipitate which forms when the two solutions are mixed. The aqueous plutonium containing solution is then acidified and passed over the above described precipi-tate causing the plutonium values to be adsorbed by the precipitate.

Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

1957-10-29

47

Fabrication of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium metals for fuel research. Review report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The techniques for the fabrication of actinide metals; neptunium, americium and curium called as minor actinides, and plutonium, are surveied in a viewpoint of the preparation of starting materials for fuel property measurements. In this report, the proce...

Y. Suzuki M. Handa

1990-01-01

48

Prompt neutron decay in plutonium metal using Cf as a randomly pulsed neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the applicability of randomly pulsed neutron ; measurements with Cf for the determination of the prompt neutron decay ; in plutonium metal, a series of measurements was performed with plutonium-metal ; assemblies having masses varying from 2.2 to 16 kg and with spontaneous fissions ; from Pu varying from 4.5 x 10 to 8.2 x 10\\/sup

Mihalczo

1973-01-01

49

THE SOLUTION SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF REFRACTORY METALS IN MOLTEN PLUTONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution susceptibilities of molybdenum, titanium, vnnadium, and ; zirconium in molten plutonium iind in some molten plutonium alloys are given. ; Results from tests of over 9000 hr, indicate that vanadium miiv have the ; greiitest resistance to dissolution. (J.E.D.);

Schonfeld

1952-01-01

50

Plutonium metal and alloy preparation by molten chloride reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satisfactory reduction of molten plutonium trichloride (pure and in combination with 20 wt % sodium chloride) by calcium, lanthanum, and cerium has been demonstrated on the 10-g scale. The yields were satisfactory for this scale of operation, and it is indicated that these reductions may be useful for large-scale operations. Significant separations of plutonium from rare earth impurities was demonstrated

Reavis

1984-01-01

51

Dissolution of Plutonium Metal Using a HAN Process  

SciTech Connect

Thermal stability tests were conducted with a nitric acid (HNO3)/hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/potassium fluoride (KF) solution. The solution has great potential for use in plutonium dissolution because of the small quantity of hydrogen and other offgases produced. Tests were carried out in a Reactive Systems Screening Tool (RSST). The RSST is a calorimeter equipped with temperature and pressure probes as well as a heater that can heat a liquid sample at a programmed rate. In most cases, the calorimeter was pressurized with nitrogen to reduce evaporation of the liquid sample during heating. For the proposed solution, an autocatalytic reaction occurred between 113 and 131 degrees Celsius with 300 psig or 50 psig nitrogen inside the RSST vapor space. At ambient pressure, the solution boiled at about 110 degrees Celsius. After extensive boiling, the concentrations of HNO3 and HAN increased and the autocatalytic reaction occurred. Tests were also conducted with 1000 ppm Fe present in the solution. The range of the autocatalytic reaction initiation temperature was reduced to 105-120.5 degrees Celsius. With iron at ambient pressure, boiling still occurred above 100 degrees Celsius prior to the autocatalytic reaction, which occurred at 108-109 degrees Celsius. These results demonstrated the stability of the proposed HAN flowsheet, for which the planned dissolving temperature is 50-60 degrees Celsius. Additional tests were carried out with more concentrated solutions to further characterize the autocatalytic reaction initiation temperature. Increasing the nitric acid concentration to 3M decreased the reaction initiation temperature to 102-103 degrees Celsius. Increasing the HAN concentration increased the temperature rise of the reaction from 10-30 degrees Celsius to greater than 40 degrees Celsius. Increasing both reactants-to 3M nitric acid and 0.9M HAN-yielded a reaction initiation temperature of 91 degrees Celsius (with or without iron), the lowest observed in this study. This study was the first part of a larger flowsheet development / demonstration program for the plutonium metal dissolving process. The results of the study may be useful for similar flowsheets.

CROWDER, MARKL.

2004-06-30

52

Dissolution of Plutonium Metal in 8-10 M Nitric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO(sub 2)) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes ...

R. Pierce T. Rudisill

2012-01-01

53

Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration of plutonium in the subsurface.

Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

2009-12-01

54

Dissolution of Plutonium Scrub Alloy and Anode Heel Materials in H-Canyon  

SciTech Connect

H-Canyon has a ''gap'' in dissolver operations during the last three months of FY03. One group of material to be processed during the gap is pre-existing scrub alloy material. There are 14 cans of material containing approximately 3.8 kilograms of plutonium. Of the 14 cans, it was anticipated that four cans contain salts, two cans contain anode heel materials, and eight cans contain scrub alloy buttons. H-Canyon desires to process the materials using a flowsheet similar to the SS and C (sand, slag and crucible) dissolution flowsheet used in F-Canyon. The materials will be loaded into carbon steel cans and then placed into aluminum metal charging bundles. Samples were sent to Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for characterization and flowsheet testing -- four MSE salts, two anode heels, and seven scrub alloy buttons. SRTC dissolved and characterized each of the samples. Two of them, originally thought to be MSE salts, were found to be graphite mold materials and were unsuitable for processing in H-Canyon. Characterization studies confirmed that the identification of the remaining items as MSE salts, scrub alloy buttons, and anode heel materials was correct. The MSE salts and anode heels solids are comprised primarily of plutonium, potassium, sodium and chloride. Both the MSE salts and anode heels left behind small amounts of residual solids. The scrub alloy buttons are comprised primarily of plutonium and aluminum. The solids dissolve readily with light, effervescent gas generation at the material surface and only trace amounts of NOx generation. Of the seven button samples, four dissolved completely. Two button samples contained small amounts of tantalum that did not dissolve. The last of the seven scrub alloy samples left a trace amount of residual plutonium solids. It is anticipated that the presence of undissolved fissile material is a function of where the sample was located relative to the button surface.

PIERCE, RA

2004-04-12

55

Recent irradiation tests of uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-Plutonium-Zirconium metal fuel irradiation tests to support the ANL Integral Fast Reactor concept are discussed. Satisfactory performance has been demonstrated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup in three alloys having 0, 8, and 19 wt % plutonium. Fuel swelling measurements at low burnup in alloys to 26 wt % plutonium show that fuel deformation is primarily radial in direction. Increasing the plutonium content in the fuel diminishes the rate of fuel-cladding gap closure and axial fuel column growth. Chemical redistribution occurs by 2.1 at.% peak burnup and generally involves the inward migration of zirconium and outward migration of uranium. Fission gas release to the plenum ranges from 46% to 56% in the alloys irradiated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup. No evidence of deleterious fuel-cladding chemical or mechanical interaction was observed.

Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Villarreal, R.; Hofman, G.L.; Beck, W.N.

1986-09-01

56

Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

1998-09-30

57

Use of calorimetric assay for operational and accountability measurements of pure plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium pure metal products (PMP) are high purity plutonium metal items produced by electrorefining. The plutonium metal is produced as an approximately 3-kg ring. Accountability measurements for the electro-refining runs are typically balance/weight factor (incoming impure metal), chemistry (pure metal rings), and calorimetric assay or neutron counting of the crucibles and other wastes. The PMP items are qualified for their end use by extensive chemical assay. After PMP materials are made they are often sent to the vault for storage before being sent to the casting process, the next step in the production chain. The chemical assay of PMP items often takes a few weeks; however, before the metal items are allowed into the vault they must be measured. Non-destructive assay personnel measure the metals either by multiplicity neutron counting or calorimetric assay, depending on which instrument is available, thus generating comparisons between non-destructive assay and chemical assay. The suite of measurements, calorimetric assay, chemical assay, and neutron mUltiplicity counting is compared for a large group of PMP items.

Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

58

CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening  

SciTech Connect

Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

ERICKSON, D.G.

1999-02-25

59

CSER 98-003: Criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening  

SciTech Connect

Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into GloveboxHC-21 A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95. Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

ERICKSON, D.G.

1999-02-23

60

Accurate quantification of radioactive materials by x-ray fluorescence : gallium in plutonium metal /.  

SciTech Connect

Two XRF specimen preparation methods were investigated for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal. Gallium in plutonium was chosen here as an example for demonstrating the efficacy of wavelength dispersive XRF for quantifying radioactive materials. The steps necessary to handle such materials safely will also be discussed. Quantification of plutonium samples by a well-established aqueous specimen preparation method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values of well less than 1%. As an alternative to the aqueous approach, a dried residue method was studied. Quantification of gallium in samples using this method resulted in relative precision and accuracy values an order of magnitude worse, but the method is faster, safer, and generates less waste than the aqueous process. The specimen preparation details and analysis results using each method will be presented here.

Worley, C. G. (Christopher G.)

2002-01-01

61

Buttons and Beaux (Arts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes graphical elements--backgrounds, buttons, rules, and enhancements like drop shadows--that can transform Web pages without significantly increasing download time. Used thoughtfully and consistently, such graphical elements can create a unique style that serves as a personal Web page trademark. (AEF)|

Busch, David D.

1997-01-01

62

Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems  

SciTech Connect

Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

2004-07-02

63

Nickel dermatitis provoked by buttons in blue jeans.  

PubMed

A total of 79 nickel-sensitive patients (65 women, 14 men) were examined with regard to a present or past eczema corresponding to contact with metallic buttons in blue jeans; 63% of the women and 64% of the men had or had had eczema of this kind. Among 40% of the women below 30 years this was the primary site of manifestation. The seriousness of this sensitivity is illustrated by the fact that two-thirds of the nickel sensitive patients with button dermatitis had or had had eczema of the hands. The conclusion is that blue jean buttons should be made of a material which does not contain nickel, for instance zinc alloys which are presently used for some metallic buttons, or they should be designed in such a way that the button does not directly contact the skin. PMID:455961

Brandrup, F; Larsen, F S

1979-05-01

64

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect

According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-10

65

Technical documentation to support the evaluation of handling of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, a can containing a plutonium metal ingot was opened. The sides of the inner storage can had collapsed. As the inner can was opened, an apparent flame appeared to issue from the opening. Based on the reaction and possible pressurization of the glovebox, a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening was issued. This document contains some of the technical documents to resolve the screening.

COOPER, T.D.

1999-08-31

66

Begin With Buttons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 8-lesson unit students use buttons to explore logical and numerical relationships that form the conceptual basis for understanding addition and subtraction operations. Topics include counting, ordinal numbers (and relative position), classification (attributes), relationships between numbers, addition of sets, commutativity of addition, sums to 10, fact families (including subtraction), three models of subtraction ("take away", comparative, missing addend), and bar graphs. Includes student activity sheets and a link to an online graphing applet.

Burton, Grace M.

2000-01-01

67

Export control guide: Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and preparation of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

The international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also referred to as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), states in Article III, paragraph 2(b) that {open_quotes}Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide . . . equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.{close_quotes} This guide was prepared to assist export control officials in the interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws and controls relating to the international Trigger List for irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, components, and materials. The guide also contains information related to the production of plutonium metal. Reprocessing and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle are described briefly; the standard procedure to prepare metallic plutonium is discussed; steps used to prepare Trigger List controls are cited; descriptions of controlled items are given; and special materials of construction are noted. This is followed by a comprehensive description of especially designed or prepared equipment, materials, and components of reprocessing and plutonium metal processes and includes photographs and/or pictorial representations. The nomenclature of the Trigger List has been retained in the numbered sections of this document for clarity.

NONE

1993-10-01

68

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF concentration to 0.175 M, the dissolution of 300 g of Pu metal is expected to be essentially complete in 6 h. The dissolution of larger batch sizes would result in the formation of PuO{sub 2} solids. Incomplete dissolution of the PuO{sub 2} formed from the metal is not a solubility limitation, but can be attributed to a combination of reduced acidity and complexation of fluoride which slows the dissolution kinetics and effectively limits the mass of Pu dissolved.

Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

2007-10-15

69

Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jones, V.D.

1998-07-01

70

Interactions Between Plutonium and Other Metals in Connection with Their Arrangement in Mendeleev's Periodic Table; VZAIMODEISTVIE PLUTONIYA S DRUGIMI METALLAMI V SVYAZI S IKH RASPOLOZHENIEM V PERIODICHESKOI SISTEME D.I. MENDELEEVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some general characteristics deduced from the study of the interaction ; between plutonium and other metals are considered. It is pointed out that ; plutonium does not interact with alkali and alkaline earth elements. Plutonium ; combines with the metals of the Ia and IIa subgroups of the periodic table to ; form a number of compounds. Plutonium and the

A. A. Bochvar; S. T.. Konobeevskii

1959-01-01

71

Opposed button thrust surfaces for earth boring bits  

SciTech Connect

An earth boring bit has thrust surfaces with enhanced cooling features. The bit has a body with three depending bearing pins. A cutter having an axial cavity is mounted on each bearing pin. The bearing pin and the cavity have mating thrust shoulders. Hard metal inserts or buttons are spaced around each of the shoulders and secured interferingly in mating holes. The buttons in one of the shoulders protrude slightly from the shoulder to allow air to flow past.

Mullins, J. M.

1985-10-29

72

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl-KCl-PuCl and CaCl-PuCl salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt

Dodson

1992-01-01

73

Impedance measurements on button electrodes  

SciTech Connect

In the Advanced Light Source, there will be about 400 capacitance button electrodes in the beam position monitor (BPM) system, hence the contribution of each button to the machine beam impedance must be very small. We have measured the impedance of a single button as sensed by a coax connected directly to the button surface. This method is very sensitive and did not require a model of the total beam chamber as would the usual wire method. The measurements covered the range 0.1--20 GHz. The proportionality factor between the button impedance and the beam impedance depends upon geometry and frequency and was obtained from the measured sensitivity of a developmental BPM at low frequency. Discontinuities in the connection of the coax to the face of the button introduce parasitic effects that must be accounted for in interpreting the data. Below 5 GHz the results compare very well with responses computed from mechanical dimensions of the electrode. Above 15 GHz corrections for the parasitic elements become more uncertain, but the accuracy of the method is still adequate. The results show multiple resonances, a prominent example being for one button a beam impedance peak of /approximately/1 ohm with a Q of 500 at 16 GHz. 2 refs., 7 figs.

Jacob, A.; Lambertson, G.R.

1989-03-01

74

The Characterization and Dissolution of Scrub Alloy Buttons in F-Canyon  

SciTech Connect

The second series of scrub alloy material characterization and dissolution studies has been performed on samples collected from scrub alloy buttons now stored at the Savannah River Site. The need for the additional laboratory work became necessary after it was established that two of the original scrub alloy buttons selected for analysis were not representative of the materials present in their respective categories. One of the categories re-examined contained plutonium-aluminum alloys and the other category contained plutonium-gallium alloys.

Gray, J.H.

2001-02-20

75

Evaluation of plutonium oxidation using pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf  

SciTech Connect

The unrecognized oxidation of plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} canisters poses a unique problem for both material control and accountability. A feasibility study was performed to address the use of randomly pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf to determine if plutonium metal in a canister has oxidized without opening the container. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-DSP was used to determine if time-of-flight transmission measurements could be used to determine oxidation of plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} cans. In the Monte Carlo models, a plutonium button in a can was positioned between a {sup 252}Cf source and a scintillation detector, and the time distribution of counts after {sup 252}Cf fission in the detector was calculated. The time distribution of counts after {sup 252}Cf fission differs between plutonium metal and plutonium oxide because resonances in oxygen will affect transmission of certain energy neutrons from {sup 252}Cf sources in ionization chambers. This method could be used to determine the presence of other materials that react with plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} cans.

Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

1997-09-01

76

Experimental studies of radially heterogeneous liquid metal fast breeder reactor critical assemblies at the zero-power plutonium reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental programs to investigate the physics characteristics of heterogeneous liquid metal fast breeder reactor cores have been conducted in the zero-power plutonium reactor critical facility over a period of about5 yr. Previous experiments on conventional homogeneous cores provided appropriate benchmark data against which to judge the heterogeneous core results. For a heterogeneous reactor of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor size,

H. F. McFarlane; S. B. Brumbach; S. G. Carpenter; P. J. Collins; D. N. Olsen

1984-01-01

77

An Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Multiplicity Measurements of Plutonium Metal  

SciTech Connect

In January 2009, Sandia National Laboratories conducted neutron multiplicity measurements of a polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere. Over the past 3 years, those experiments have been collaboratively analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations conducted by University of Michigan (UM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and North Carolina State University (NCSU). Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments consistently overpredict the mean and variance of the measured neutron multiplicity distribution. This paper presents a sensitivity study conducted to evaluate the potential sources of the observed errors. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements exhibited systematic over-prediction of the neutron multiplicity distribution. The over-prediction tended to increase with increasing multiplication. MCNPX-PoliMi had previously been validated against only very low multiplication benchmarks. We conducted sensitivity studies to try to identify the cause(s) of the simulation errors; we eliminated the potential causes we identified, except for Pu-239 {bar {nu}}. A very small change (-1.1%) in the Pu-239 {bar {nu}} dramatically improved the accuracy of the MCNPX-PoliMi simulation for all 6 measurements. This observation is consistent with the trend observed in the bias exhibited by the MCNPX-PoliMi simulations: a very small error in {bar {nu}} is 'magnified' by increasing multiplication. We applied a scalar adjustment to Pu-239 {bar {nu}} (independent of neutron energy); an adjustment that depends on energy is probably more appropriate.

Mattingly, John [North Carolina State University; Miller, Eric [University of Michigan; Solomon, Clell J. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis, Ben [University of Michigan; Meldrum, Amy [University of Michigan; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan

2012-06-21

78

Enzymically accelerated biomineralization of heavy metals: application to the removal of americium and plutonium from aqueous flows.  

PubMed

A biological process for the removal of heavy metals from the aqueous flows is described. Metals are precipitated on the surface of immobilized cells of a Citrobacter sp. as cell-bound metal phosphates. This uses phosphate liberated by the activity of a cell-bound phosphatase. Some radionuclides (e.g. 241americium) form metal phosphates readily; efficient removal of 241Am on a continuous basis is demonstrated. At low phosphatase activities, the efficiency of uranium removal correlates with enzyme activity. High phosphatase activities are not realised as an increase in metal removal, suggesting that chemical events become rate-limiting. Studies have suggested that maximal metal uptake occurs only after nucleation and the formation of precipitation foci. A model is presented to illustrate how nucleation and crystallization processes could enhance the removal of plutonium and neptunium from dilute solutions. PMID:7917422

Macaskie, L E; Jeong, B C; Tolley, M R

1994-08-01

79

Dynamic and quasi-static simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal containers subject to 30-foot dropping  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers is in support of the design and testing project The results from the dynamic analysis show some important facts that have not been considered before. The internal bagless transfer can will have higher stress than the primary container. The quasi-static analysis provides a conservative solution. In both vertical upright drop (dynamic) and inclined upside down drop (quasi-static) the containers are structurally sound.

Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

1995-01-01

80

Plutonium(V\\/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu (a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)) to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI)

Gary A. Icopini; Joe G. Lack; Larry E. Hersman; Mary P. Neu; Hakim Boukhalfa

2009-01-01

81

Spaced button thrust surface for earth boring bit  

SciTech Connect

An earth boring bit has thrust surfaces with enhanced cooling features. The bit has a body with three depending bearing pins. A cutter having an axial cavity is mounted on each bearing pin. The bearing pin and the cavity have one or more mating thrust surfaces that are perpendicular to the axis of the bearing pin. These thrust surfaces absorb outward forces that the cutter imposes on the bearing pin. At least one of the thrust surfaces consists of a series of tungsten carbide buttons spaced in a circular array. These buttons have flat ends for engaging the opposite thrust surfaces. The buttons protrude from the supporting metal, allowing cooling fluid to be circulated past to cool the thrust surfaces.

Shepherd, W.L.

1984-05-29

82

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

Kolodney, M.

1959-07-01

83

METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-02-01

84

Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

Kriikku, E.

1999-01-26

85

Button Component Encasing for Wearable Technology Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel button component encasing for wearable technology applications. The button covers the electronics inside and forms a galvanic contact for communications between the hard electronics and textiles. However, the appearance and usability of the clothing are maintained. A prototype for the encasing has been implemented, in which a temperature sensor is embedded inside the button. The

Jaana Htinnikainen; Jussi Mikkonen; Jukka Vanhala

2005-01-01

86

Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or

S. L. Maxwell; V. D. Jones

1998-01-01

87

Kinetics of the Ambient Temperature Dissolution of Plutonium Metal in Sulfamic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stoichiometry and the kinetics of the ambient temperature dissolution of alpha-phase plutonium in sulfamic acid has been determined. Hydrogen off-gas rates and plutonium concentrations were calculated as functions of time for a variety of dissolving c...

L. W. Gray

1978-01-01

88

Corrosion of plutonium metal when stored in containers having plastic components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conclusions are: (1) The formation of powder or ''oxide'' in the storage container is caused almost entirely by packaging of plutonium in plastic materials. (2) The corrosion of the plutonium follows degradation of the plastic due to the intense radia...

R. H. Bond

1964-01-01

89

ButtonFly 1.20  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ButtonFly is an easy-to-use software for creating professional looking buttons instantly. You can apply graphic effects like natural shadow, dispersion, chromatic effects, and more. You can also establish a button template, define your section headings, and instantly create tens or even hundreds of new buttons for your site. ButtonFly takes care of all of the complex and repetitive operations, allowing graphic artists to focus on their designs. ButtonFly also allows you to generate the files in both .gif and .jpeg formats, including transparent .gifs. Using the Rollover Generator feature, you can automatically create dynamic effects for buttons without having to write the Javascript code. In addition, a multilingual generation utility enables instant translation of Websites.

90

Sutureless button and hole splenopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for fixation of a mobile spleen is described. It offers the advantages of a minimally risky procedure that\\u000a very effectively keeps a mobile spleen in its bed without foreign materials and is feasible even when the gastrosplenic ligament\\u000a is absent and the splenic vessels are uncovered. Our button and hole sutureless splenopexy was performed in six patients

S. M. Zivkovic

1998-01-01

91

Direct analysis of plutonium metal for gallium, iron, and nickel by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray secondary target method for routine determination of gallium, iron, and nickel in plutonium metal is described that has significant advantages over wet chemical analysis. Coupons requiring minimal preparation for analysis are produced as a breakaway tab on the plutonium ingot. All three elements are determined on the same coupon. Gallium is determined using an arsenic secondary target followed by iron and nickel using a zinc target. The analysis times are 5 minutes for gallium and 15 minutes for the combined iron and nickel. The method of analysis was evaluated in the range of from 0.5 to 1.5% gallium. Iron was investigated over the range of 67 to 3000 ppM and nickel from 64 to 110 ppM.

Bramlet, H.L.; Doyle, J.H.

1981-01-01

92

Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

1974-02-26

93

The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

94

The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH2). The heats of solution for PuHS and PuDS are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

Richmond, S.; Bridgewater, J. S.; Ward, J. W.; Allen, T. H.

2010-03-01

95

Electrochemical investigation into the mechanism of plutonium reduction in electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently impure plutonium metal is purified at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a molten salt electrorefining process. Electrorefining is an effective method for producing high-purity plutonium metal (> 99.95%). In general this process involves the oxidation of impure plutonium metal from a molten plutonium anode or a solvent metal\\/plutonium anode, transport of plutonium ions through a molten salt electrolyte, and

L. E. McCurry; G. M. M. Moy

1987-01-01

96

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl[sub 2]-KCl-PuCl[sub 3] and CaCl[sub 2]-PuCl[sub 3] salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt

Dodson

1992-01-01

97

Method of Dissolving Plutonium with Sulfamic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissolution of plutonium metal is required in various nuclear fuel processes, for example, as a preliminary step to solvent extraction. Plutonium metal is contacted with aqueous sulfamic acid in a stainless steel container until dissolution. The conta...

W. J. Jenkins

1965-01-01

98

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium ; metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a ; mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in ; contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture ; consisting of calcium oxide and from

Anicetti

1959-01-01

99

Plutonium oxide dissolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO(sub 2)) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO(sub 2) typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO(sub 2) pro...

J. H. Gray

1992-01-01

100

Magnetic state of plutonium ion in metallic Pu and its compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

By LDA+U method with spin-orbit coupling (LDA+U+SO) the magnetic state and\\u000aelectronic structure have been investigated for plutonium in \\\\delta and \\\\alpha\\u000aphases and for Pu compounds: PuN, PuCoGa5, PuRh2, PuSi2, PuTe, and PuSb. For\\u000ametallic plutonium in both phases in agreement with experiment a nonmagnetic\\u000aground state was found with Pu ions in f^6 configuration with zero values of

A. O. Shorikov; A. V. Lukoyanov; M. A. Korotin; V. I. Anisimov

2004-01-01

101

Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

These analytical procedures are designed to show whether a given material meets the purchaser's specifications as to plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. The following procedures are described in detail: dissolution procedure; plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron(II); plutonium by ceric sulfate titration method; uranium by Arsenazo I spectrophotometric method; thorium by thorin spectrophotometric method; iron by 1,10-phenanthroline spectrophotometric method; iron by 2,2'-bipyridyl spectrophotometric method; chloride by the thiocyanate spectrophotometric method; fluoride by distillation-spectrophotometric method; nitrogen by distillation-Nessler reagent spectrophotometric method; carbon by the direct combustion-thermal conductivity method; sulfur by distillation-spectrophotometric method; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; Americium-241 by extraction and gamma counting; Americium-241 by gamma counting; gamma-emitting fission products, uranium, and thorium by gamma-ray spectroscopy; rare earths by copper spark spectrochemical method; tungsten, niobium (columbium) and tantalum by spectrochemical method; sample preparation for spectrographic analysis for trace impurities. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-01-01

102

Deposition of the Trace Heavy Metals Polonium and Plutonium onto Marine Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium and polonium assays of the giant kelp revealed that most of the Pu and Po was in the surface scrapings. Both nuclides were concentrated to 1000 times their sea water concentrations; there was usually 200 times more Po activity than Pu. Field exp...

V. F. Hodge T. R. Folsom J. P. Cowen G. J. Parks

1974-01-01

103

Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an uranium-plutonium fuel irradiated by fast neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fast-neutron irradiation, uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N is shown to acquire a complex structure consisting of a solid solution that is based on the nitrides of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanides and contains condensed phases U2N3, CeRu2, BaTe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, LaSe, metallic molybdenum, technetium, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallics. The contents and compositions of these phases are calculated at a temperature of 900 K and a burn-up fraction up to 14% (U + Pu). The change in the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied during the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of transformation of U103Ru3, 137CsI, 140Ba3N2, and 241PuN is calculated.

Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

2011-11-01

104

Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect

A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

1997-12-31

105

PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS  

DOEpatents

Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

1963-07-16

106

Mechanism of plutonium metal dissolution in HNO/sub 3/-HF-N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ solution  

SciTech Connect

An oxidation-reduction balance of the products of the dissolution of plutonium metal and alloys in HNO/sub 3/-HF-N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ solution shows that the major reactions during dissolution are the reduction of nitrate to NH/sub 3/, N/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O by the metal, and the oxidation of H free radicals to NH/sub 3/ by N/sub 2/H/sub 4/. Reactions between HNO/sub 3/ and N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ produce varying amounts of HN/sub 3/. The reaction rate is greater for delta-Pu than alpha-Pu, and is increased by higher concentrations of HF and HNO/sub 3/. The low yield of reduced nitrogen species indicates that nitrate is reduced on the metal surface without producing a significant concentration of species that react with N/sub 2/H/sub 4/. It is conjectured that intermediate Pu valences and electron transfer within the metal are involved. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

Karraker, D G

1985-01-01

107

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

108

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

109

Plutonium dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A two-step process is described for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M--1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M--0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45 C and 70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen. 2 figs.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1996-01-09

110

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans,

Kriikku

2000-01-01

111

Prompt Neutron Decay for Delayed Critical Bare and Natural-Uranium-Reflected Metal Spheres of Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Prompt neutron decay at delayed criticality was measured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for uranium-reflected highly enriched uranium (HEU) and Pu metal spheres (FLATTOP), for an unreflected Pu metal (4.5% {sup 240}Pu) sphere (JEZEBEL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and for an unreflected HEU metal sphere at Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility. The average prompt neutron decay constants from hundreds of Rossi-{alpha} and randomly pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf at delayed criticality are as follows: 3.8458 {+-} 0.0016 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 2.2139 {+-} 0.0022 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 6.3126 {+-} 0.0100 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1061 {+-} 0.0009 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively. These values agree with previous measurements by LANL for FLATTOP, JEZEBEL, and GODIVA I as follows: 3.82 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} for a uranium core; 2.14 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} and 2.29 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (uncertainty not reported) for a plutonium core; 6.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively, but have smaller uncertainties because of the larger number of measurements. For the FLATTOP and JEZEBEL assemblies, the measurements agree with calculations. Traditionally, the calculated decay constants for the bare uranium metal sphere GODIVA I and the Oak Ridge Uranium Metal Sphere were higher than experimental by {approx}10%. Other energy-dependent quantities for the bare uranium sphere agree within 1%.

Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2011-01-01

112

Plutonium(IV) reduction by the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1.  

PubMed

The bacterial reduction of actinides has been suggested as a possible remedial strategy for actinide-contaminated environments, and the bacterial reduction of Pu(VI/V) has the potential to produce highly insoluble Pu(IV) solid phases. However, the behavior of plutonium with regard to bacterial reduction is more complex than for other actinides because it is possible for Pu(IV) to be further reduced to Pu(III), which is relatively more soluble than Pu(IV). This work investigates the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1 to enzymatically reduce freshly precipitated amorphous Pu(IV) (OH)(4) [Pu(IV)(OH)(4(am))] and soluble Pu(IV)(EDTA). In cell suspensions without added complexing ligands, minor Pu(III) production was observed in cultures containing S. oneidensis, but little or no Pu(III) production was observed in cultures containing G. metallireducens. In the presence of EDTA, most of the Pu(IV)(OH)(4(am)) present was reduced to Pu(III) and remained soluble in cell suspensions of both S. oneidensis and G. metallireducens. When soluble Pu(IV)(EDTA) was provided as the terminal electron acceptor, cell suspensions of both S. oneidensis and G. metallireducens rapidly reduced Pu(IV)(EDTA) to Pu(III)(EDTA) with nearly complete reduction within 20 to 40 min, depending on the initial concentration. Neither bacterium was able to use Pu(IV) (in any of the forms used) as a terminal electron acceptor to support growth. These results have significant implications for the potential remediation of plutonium and suggest that strongly reducing environments where complexing ligands are present may produce soluble forms of reduced Pu species. PMID:17644643

Boukhalfa, Hakim; Icopini, Gary A; Reilly, Sean D; Neu, Mary P

2007-07-20

113

How many ways can you use one button? Timing data for button presses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern small devices such as phones and watches inevitably rely to a great extent on the input that can be achieved using a small number of simple buttons. To maximize the range of input it is necessary to use the buttons in as many ways as possible: single-clicks, double-clicks and so on. In designing for a mass market, it is

Alistair D N Edwards; Yanyu Li

114

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options

Gray

1992-01-01

115

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation

Gray

1992-01-01

116

Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li2O in LiCl was

T. Usami; M. Kurata; T. Inoue; H. E Sims; S. A Beetham; J. A Jenkins

2002-01-01

117

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

Anicetti, R.J.

1959-08-11

118

Multi-Station Push Button Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 2- and 10-station, mechanical-interlocked and sealed push-button switch assembly is being developed to have illumination and snap action also. Each station is to have as many as 6 double-pole, miniature switch circuits, a front removable lens and lamp u...

J. Weiss

1964-01-01

119

The edible and medicinal button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000 tonnes in 1970 to an expected 300,000 tonnes in the year 2001. This

Griensven van L. J. L. D

2001-01-01

120

Dual Band Button Antennas for Wearable Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel structure for wearable WLAN applications is presented. This antenna is a top loaded monopole and is shaped as a button. The antenna is easily disguised and is less sensitive to the clothing fabric than printed patches. The antenna is dual band at 2400MHz and 5200MHz with the omni-directional radiation patterns required for transmission with other wearable devices located

B. Sanz-Izquierdo; F. Huang; J. C. Batchelor

2006-01-01

121

Button self-retaining drainage catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal\\/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This

James G. Caridi; Irvin F. Hawkins; E. William Akins; Ronald S. Young

1997-01-01

122

The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai

2009-01-01

123

Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new package was developed for transporting Pu and U quantities that are currently carried in DOT-6M packages. It uses double containment with threaded closures and elastomeric seals. A composite overpack of metallic wire mesh and ceramic or quartz cloth insulation is provided for protection in accidents. Two prototypes were subjected to dynamic crush tests. A thermal computer model was

J. D. Pierce; J. L. Moya; J. D. McClure; G. F. Hohnstreiter; K. G. Golliher

1991-01-01

124

Effect of the electron decay of metallic fission products on the chemical and phase compositions of an irradiated uranium-plutonium fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex structure is shown to form in the uranium-plutonium nitride U0.8Pu0.2N irradiated by fast neutrons. It consists of a uranium-based solid solution; plutonium, zirconium, yttrium, and lanthanide nitrides; and individual condensed phases such as U2N3, BaTe, CeRu2, LaSe, Rh3Te2, USe, Ba3N2, CsI, Sr3N2, metallic molybdenum, and U(Ru, Rh, Pd)3 intermetallic compounds. The amount and composition of these phases are calculated at temperatures of 900 and 1900 K in the process of depletion to 18% heavy atoms (U + Pu). The variation of the composition of the irradiated uranium-plutonium nitride is studied upon the electron decay of metallic radionuclides. The kinetics of the transformations of 89Sr3N2 and 90Sr3N2 to 89YN + 89Y and 90ZrN + 90Zr, respectively, is calculated.

Bondarenko, G. G.; Bulatov, G. S.; Gedgovd, K. N.; Lyubimov, D. Yu.; Yakushkin, M. M.

2009-10-01

125

Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere  

SciTech Connect

Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the Feynman method was equally shared between the uncertainties in fitting the data to the Feynman equations and the neutron multiplicity of 239Pu. Material and geometry uncertainties in the benchmark experiment were generally much smaller than uncertainties in the analysis methods.

John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson

2009-09-01

126

Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

1992-01-01

127

Large-diameter, high-plutonium metallic fuel testing in EBR-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept makes use of U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel alloys because of favorable core behavior characteristics and compatibility with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing scheme. Advanced reactor designs use U-x Pu-10 Zr (where 20 x 28). Most of the IFR fuel performance database was obtained with fuel containing 20 wt% Pu having a 0.439-cm diameter irradiated in

D. C. Crawford; S. L. Hayes; R. G. Pahl

1994-01-01

128

Plutonium(V/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.  

PubMed

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu [a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)] to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI) and U(VI) reduction by cell suspensions of S. oneidensis were slightly higher than the rates observed with G. metallireducens. The reduced form of Pu was characterized as aggregates of nanoparticulates of Pu(IV). Transmission electron microscopy images of the solids obtained from the cultures after the reduction of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) by S. oneidensis show that the Pu precipitates have a crystalline structure. The nanoparticulates of Pu(IV) were precipitated on the surface of or within the cell walls of the bacteria. The production of Pu(III) was not observed, which indicates that Pu(IV) was the stable form of reduced Pu under these experimental conditions. Experiments examining the ability of these bacteria to use Pu(VI) as a terminal electron acceptor for growth were inconclusive. A slight increase in cell density was observed for both G. metallireducens and S. oneidensis when Pu(VI) was provided as the sole electron acceptor; however, Pu(VI) concentrations decreased similarly in both the experimental and control cultures. PMID:19363069

Icopini, Gary A; Lack, Joe G; Hersman, Larry E; Neu, Mary P; Boukhalfa, Hakim

2009-04-10

129

Button self-retaining drainage catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help improve patient acceptance of long-term internal\\/external catheter access to the biliary tract in those with benign\\u000a biliary obstruction, a simple design allows the catheter end to remain flush with the skin. It consists of a clothes button\\u000a affixed to the drainage catheter with a wood screw after the catheter has been cut off at the skin exit. This

James G. Caridi; Irvin F. Hawkins; E. William Akins; Ronald S. Young

1997-01-01

130

Preparation of Fused Chloride Salts for Use in Pyrochemical Plutonium Recovery Operations at Los Alamos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation a...

K. W. Fife D. F. Bowersox D. C. Christensen J. D. Williams

1986-01-01

131

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl{sub 2}-KCl-PuCl{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2}-PuCl{sub 3} salt systems  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl{sub 2}{endash}26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl{sub 2}. Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs.

Dodson, K.E.

1992-06-11

132

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOEpatents

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14

133

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOEpatents

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14

134

PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES  

DOEpatents

A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

Wahl, A.C.

1957-11-12

135

Pyrochemical Processing of Plutonium. Technology Review Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either r...

M. S. Coops J. B. Knighton L. J. Mullins

1982-01-01

136

Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

2003-01-01

137

7.SP.7a How Many Buttons?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Look the shirt you are wearing today, and determine how many buttons it has. Then complete the following table for all the members of your class. No Bu...

138

Evaluation of Heat Dissipation in the BPM Buttons  

SciTech Connect

Growth of circulating current in the storage rings drastically increases heating of the beam position monitor (BPM) buttons due to the induced trapped modes is drastically increasing. Excessive heating can lead to the errors in the measuring of beam position or even catastrophic failures of the pick-up assembly. In this paper we present calculations of heat generated in the button for different geometries and materials. The obtained results are used for the optimization of the NSLS-II BPM buttons design.

Pinayev,I.; Blednyhk, A.

2009-05-04

139

Dehydration of plutonium trichloride hydrate  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

1991-12-31

140

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE  

DOEpatents

An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

Watt, G.W.

1958-08-19

141

Radiolytic effects of plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium isotopes, most of them a-emitters, cause radiolytic changes in the matrix, in whic h they are embedded. The internal irradiation of Pu metal or its alloys results in physical changes, largel y as a result of the formation of helium bubbles, well-known to material scientists and weapons specialists . In all other media where plutonium occurs, usually as Pu'+ in an ionic form, the results of irradiation ar e chemical in nature. Homogenous media containing Pu, are often aqueous or non-aqueous solutions o f plutonium compounds, mostly originating during processing of spent nuclear fuel or from Pu processing . Heterogenous matrices containing plutonium are more complex from the point of view of radiolysis; they usually contain a variety of combinations of common materials contaminated with radionuclides . This class of radioactive materials represents a challenge for the management of plutonium waste . One has to consider a range of time scales for radiolytic effects (and consequently a several orders o f magnitude range of the cumulative dose) beginning with waste generation, through packaging, transportation, to the period of final storage . Final storage could be for thousands of years in deep geologic repositories . At every ' stage of that time scale, radiolysis proceeds continuously an d cumulative effects c an complicate operating procedures and final disposition . The results presented here have been obtained from experiments that have irradiated of model materials, which are typically the objects of contamination with plutonium . They were irradiated with linearly accelerated electrons up to very high dose rates, adjusted to simulate any contamination at any point on the time scale .

Zagorski, Z. (Zbigniew); Dziewinski, J. J. (Jacek J.); Conca, James L.

2003-01-01

142

Ability of young children to button and unbutton clothes.  

PubMed

From 2 years of age, children enjoy trying to button and unbutton their jacket. The clothing of the children at this stage should have the form which fits their motor skills so as to develop their interest in buttons and to help their study in manipulating buttons. We observed processes of dressing and actions of buttoning and unbuttoning at the nursery school, for children in the 3.3-5.9 year range. Also, we experimented about dressing mainly for children in 2 year range to observe the process of manipulating buttons. As factors of experiment, we took two buttonhole directions (vertical and across) and three sizes of buttons (1, 2, 3 cm). The direction of buttonholes was significant at the 5% level. We recognized that buttonholes in the vertical direction were easier for children to button. We came to the following conclusion: for an open front of children's clothing, buttons having a 2 cm diameter and buttonholes in the vertical direction were the best. PMID:1842972

Inomata, M; Simizu, K

1991-12-01

143

From Sensors to Miniature Networked SensorButtons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearable computing aims to empower people by providing intelligence embedded within garments. It relies on sensors placed at different locations of the body. To foster user- acceptance sensors should be small, light, and unobtrusive. In this paper we present a wearable platform that addresses those challenges: a miniature networked SensorButton with the form factor of a button, so that it

Daniel Roggen; Nagendra B. Bharatula; Mathias Stager; Paul Lukowicz; Gerhard Tr

144

MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

1962-02-27

145

Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups  

SciTech Connect

A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

Barry, W.C.

1992-10-01

146

Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups  

SciTech Connect

A broad-band theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

Barry, W.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-07-10

147

Investigation of equation of states and electronic properties of Am and Cm metals in their gamma plutonium phase using GGA+SO+U method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-volume equation of state for Am and Cm metals were studied in their gamma plutonium phase using GGA+SO+U method. Non-magnetic density functional theory with GGA exchange-correlation failed to estimate structural parameters and equation of states accurately. As expected, inclusion of onsite Hubbard interaction (U) between 5f electrons shows enormous effect on electronic and bulk properties. Nonmagnetic GGA+SO+U (=4.0 eV for Am and 5.5 eV for Cm) calculated EOS gives very good match with that of experimental data. Equally good match of EOS was found for spin-polarized GGA+SO+U calculations with much smaller Hubbard parameter.

Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Sikka, S. K.

2013-06-01

148

Ir/PuO/sub 2/ compatibility: transfer of impurities from plutonium dioxide to iridium metal during high temperature aging  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium oxide fuel pellets for powering radioisotopic thermoelectric generators for NASA space vehicles are encapsulated in iridium which has been grain-boundary-stabilized with thorium and aluminum. After aging for 6 months at 1310/sup 0/C under vacuum, enhanced grain growth is observed in the near-surface grains of the iridium next to the PuO/sub 2/. Examination of the grain boundaries by AES and SIMS shows a depletion of thorium and aluminum. Iron, chromium, and nickel from the fuel were found to diffuse into the iridium along the grain boundaries. Enhanced grain growth appears to result from thorium depletion in the grain boundaries of the near-surface grains next to the fuel. However, in one instance grain growth was slowed by the formation of thorium oxide by oxygen diffusing up the grain boundaries.

Taylor, D.H.; Christie, W.H.; Pavone, D.

1984-01-01

149

Comparative Study of button BPM Trapped Mode Heating  

SciTech Connect

The combination of short bunches and high currents found in modern light sources and colliders can result in the deposition of tens of watts of power in BPM buttons. The resulting thermal distortion is potentially problematic for maintaining high precision beam position stability, and in the extreme case can result in mechanical damage. We present a simple algorithm that uses the input parameters of beam current, bunch length, button diameter, beampipe aperture, and fill pattern to calculate a relative figure-of-merit for button heating. Data for many of the world's light sources and colliders is compiled in a table. Using the algorithm, the table is sorted in order of the relative magnitude of button heating.

Cameron,P.; Singh, O.

2009-05-04

150

Composite lingual buttons for correction of rotated premolar teeth.  

PubMed

Composite lingual buttons can be an invaluable alternative for bondable stainless steel lingual buttons on the lingual surfaces of rotated premolars as these surfaces are more vulnerable for bond failures due to their varied morphology, inadequate bonding surfaces, aprismatic enamel, salivary contamination and inferior etch pattern. Their use can also be extended to the molars and other teeth as they can be used as attachments for correction of cross-bites. PMID:23941025

Yezdani, A Arif

2013-01-01

151

Moving up in the global value chain in button manufacturing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study traces the transformation of Qiaotou city from a button distribution centre to a composite and advanced button manufacturing cluster accounting for 65% of world button production in 2006. It argues that button sales originated in entrepreneurial initiative that expanded through market-based armslength transactions as hundreds of stalls mushroomed in Qiaotou. The transformation of Qiaotou from the late 1990s

Rajah Rasiah; Xin-Xin Kong; Jebamalai Vinanchiarachi

2011-01-01

152

Phase transformations in uranium, plutonium, and neptunium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actinide metals uranium and neptunium are characterized by three allotropes, and plutonium has six solid phases with two\\u000a of the allotropes having complex, low symmetry, crystal structures. Further, many phase changes in these metals are accompanied\\u000a by a large specific volume change and a large enthalpy change. Phase transformations in uranium and plutonium have been studied\\u000a extensively but very

J. J. Rechtien; R. D. Nelson

1973-01-01

153

Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

1996-01-15

154

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution

1983-01-01

155

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than

Korinko

2009-01-01

156

Plutonium Predominance Region Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four plutonium predominance region diagrams, a technique for estimating the solubility of hydrous plutonium(IV) oxide, and a method for comparing valence state distributions of uranium, neptunium and plutonium are described.

G. L. Silver

1975-01-01

157

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

1993-06-01

158

Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection  

SciTech Connect

A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures.

Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

1980-04-01

159

Welding Plutonium Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

HUDLOW, SL

2004-04-20

160

Plutonium story  

SciTech Connect

The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

Seaborg, G T

1981-09-01

161

Plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

NONE

1996-05-01

162

Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans,

Kriikku

1999-01-01

163

Studies of a Liquid Anode for Plutonium Electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a solvent anode as an alternate method for producing plutonium metal of high purity by an electrorefining process. Our goals are to produce metal of 99.98% purity with an anode residue containing less than 2% of the plutonium in the feed material. If we are successful, we will design and demonstrate a system utilizing semi-continuous and remotely

David F. Bowersox; James A. Mcneese; Dana C. Christensen

1987-01-01

164

The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.  

PubMed

People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory. PMID:23512481

Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

2013-05-01

165

Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

1984-06-01

166

Multiple martensitic transformations, incommensurate/commensurate phases and charge-density-wave states in plutonium metal: Their consequences  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous measurements of electrical resistivity, elongation and temperature have been made on a Pu metal specimen between {approximately}80K and 733K. This temperature range covers part of the {alpha}-phase range and up through a major portion of the {delta}-phase range. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Sandenaw, T.A.; Andrew, J.F.

1989-01-01

167

Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

Wijesinghe, A.M.

1996-08-23

168

Non-Destructive Measurement of Solid Plutonium Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a national defense facility involved in the recovery and processing of plutonium. Wastes and residues are routinely generated here from many stages of plutonium metal fabrication and from pyrochemical and aqueous p...

J. R. Wachter

1989-01-01

169

Removal of Sulfamic Acid from Plutonium Sulfamate--Sulfamic Acid Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium metal can be readily dissolved in aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid. When the plutonium sulfamate--sulfamic acid solutions are added to normal purex process streams, the sulfamate ion is oxidized by addition of sodium nitrite. This generates so...

L. W. Gray

1978-01-01

170

Plutonium and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium and Security discusses the cases for and against the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements to remove the plutonium from them. The relationship between the capability to produce plutonium and the proliferation of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already have them is discussed. America's policy for the civil use of plutonium and its policy to prevent the

Barnaby

1992-01-01

171

Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively\\u000a removing dilute actimide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially\\u000a available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional\\u000a groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic,

B. F. Smith; R. R. Gibson; G. D. Jarvinen; M. M. Jones; M. T. Lu; T. W. Robison; N. C. Schroeder; N. Stalnaker

1998-01-01

172

A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect

Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

1998-12-01

173

Endoscopically placed caecostomy buttons: a trial ACE procedure.  

PubMed

The use of the antegrade continence enema (ACE) is becoming more widespread. Preliminary studies have been promising, but the procedure is not universally successful. A colonoscopic insertion of a caecostomy button is a relatively minor procedure. This allows the ACE to be used for a trial period to assess whether a permanent procedure would be beneficial. If successful, enemas can be continued by the caecostomy, or a formal ACE can be performed. We report a series of five patients who underwent staged endoscopic insertion of a MIC-KEY caecostomy button, and we discuss the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:17432993

Biyani, D; Barrow, E; Hodson, P; Watson, A J M; Maclennan, I

2007-05-01

174

PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT  

DOEpatents

A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

Thompson, S.G.

1958-07-01

175

Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

1986-07-01

176

A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-15

177

Research on diamond-enhanced tungsten carbide composite button bits  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time in China, the cutters used in button bits and rock bits are mainly cobalt tungsten carbide. Because of its low abrasive resistance, the bit service life and drilling efficiency are very low when hard and extremely hard formations are being drilled. Owing to its high abrasive resistance, diamond composite material is widely used in drilling operations.

L. C. Duan; X. Y. Liu; B. S. Mao; K. H. Yang; F. L. Tang

2002-01-01

178

Suture Rupture in Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocations Treated With Flip Buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations (ACDs) may be treated arthroscopically with flip buttons. This extra-articular fixation is easy to implant and is well tolerated. Between 2007 and 2009, 20 ACD patients (2 women and 18 men; mean age, 32 years) had surgery by the arthroscopic TightRope technique (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The main complication of this technique that has been reported is

Pierorazio Motta; Alberto Maderni; Laura Bruno; Umberto Mariotti

2011-01-01

179

Breeding and strain protection in the button mushroom agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushroom species in the world. Being the main species cultivated in the Western hemisphere, its popularity also increases in Eastern Countries such as China and Korea. The world production level for 2009 is estimated at ca. 4 million tons with an economic value of ca. 4.7 \\\\$

A. S. M. Sonnenberg; J. J. P. Baars; P. M. Hendrickx; B. Lavrijssen; W. Gao; A. Weijn; J. J. Mes

2011-01-01

180

SOME STUDIES ON FLUID BED DRYING OF WHITE BUTTON MUSHROOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

mm thick slices of white button mushroom slices were dried in fluid bed dryer at 35, 40 and 50 oC. Drying characteristics were studied and effect of drying air temperature on water diffusivity, colour, ascorbic acid content, water activity and rehydration ratio were analyzed. It was found that water diffusion coefficient increased with drying air temperature while colour index, ascorbic

R. P. Murumkar; S. K. Jain; H K Jain

181

9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS AND STEEL ROPE IN UPPER TROUGH IN CONVEYOR HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE STEEL PLATES LINING WOODEN TROUGH - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

182

Providing dynamically changeable physical buttons on a visual display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical buttons have the unique ability to provide low-attention and vision-free interactions through their intuitive tactile clues. Unfortunately, the physicality of these interfaces makes them static, limiting the number and types of user interfaces they can support. On the other hand, touch screen technologies provide the ultimate interface flexibility, but offer no inherent tactile qualities. In this paper, we describe

Chris Harrison; Scott E. Hudson

2009-01-01

183

PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS  

DOEpatents

A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

Faris, B.F.

1960-04-01

184

Plutonium oxide dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

Gray, J.H.

1992-09-30

185

Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report  

SciTech Connect

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

1982-09-08

186

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as 'can in canister') combines cans of immobilized p...

E. L. Hamilton

1999-01-01

187

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE  

DOEpatents

A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

1961-07-11

188

PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

1958-05-01

189

Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

Kriikku

2000-01-01

190

PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to ; about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance ; plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. ; Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and ; has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion

F. W. Schonfeld; J. T. Waber

1960-01-01

191

PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES  

DOEpatents

A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1962-07-10

192

Optimization of four-button BPM configuration for small-gap beam chambers.  

SciTech Connect

Configuration of four-button beam position monitors (BPMs) employed in small-gap beam chambers is optimized from 2-D electrostatic calculation of induced charges on the button electrodes. The calculation shows that for a narrow chamber of width/height (2w/2h) >> 1, over 90% of the induced charges are distributed within a distance of 2h from the charged beam position in the direction of the chamber width. The most efficient configuration for a four-button BPM is to have a button diameter of (2-2.5) h with no button offset from the beam. The button sensitivities in this case are maximized and have good linearity with respect to the beam positions in the horizontal and vertical directions. The button sensitivities and beam coefficients are also calculated for the 8-mm and 5-mm chambers used in the insertion device straight sections of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source.

Kim, S. H.

1998-05-27

193

Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO batch size

M. S. Coops; J. B. Knighton; L. J. Mullins

1982-01-01

194

Dasher's One-button Dynamic Mode - Theory and Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arithmetic-coding-based communication system, Dasher, can be driven by a single switch. In MacKay et al. (2004), we proposed two versions of one-button Dasher, 'static' and 'dynamic', aimed at a theoretical model of a user who can click with timing precision g, and who requires a recovery time D between clicks. While developing and testing those two versions we invented

David J. C. MacKay; Chris J. Ball

195

Civil Rights Cases: Some Hot-Button Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Supreme Court's civil rights cases this term might be more notable for the uncertainties they raise than for anything they resolve. The court tackled several political hot-button issues this spring deciding cases involving gun ownership, the War on Terror and voter-identification laws. In each case, the justices managed to answer a small number of important questions yet, at

Sonja R. West

2008-01-01

196

Design, construction and performance tests of atomic emission spectrograph with DCA and ICP excitation systems for plutonium bearing fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the determination of metallic impurity elements in plutonium bearing materials, atomic emission spectrograph with two excitation systems, direct current arc (DCA) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was installed at the Plutonium Fuel Facility of Oar...

S. Fukushima M. Hirata M. Handa K. Shiozawa H. Mizukami

1990-01-01

197

Pediatric button battery injuries: 2013 task force update.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years, there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of severe injuries involving children who ingest button batteries. Injury can occur rapidly and children can be asymptomatic or demonstrate non-specific symptoms until catastrophic injuries develop over a period of hours or days. Smaller size ingested button batteries will often pass without clinical sequellae; however, batteries 20mm and larger can more easily lodge in the esophagus causing significant damage. In some cases, the battery can erode into the aorta resulting in massive hemorrhage and death. To mitigate against the continued rise in life-threatening injuries, a national Button Battery Task Force was assembled to pursue a multi-faceted approach to injury prevention. This task force includes representatives from medicine, public health, industry, poison control, and government. A recent expert panel discussion at the 2013 American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) Meeting provided an update on the activities of the task force and is highlighted in this paper. PMID:23896385

Jatana, Kris R; Litovitz, Toby; Reilly, James S; Koltai, Peter J; Rider, Gene; Jacobs, Ian N

2013-07-27

198

Plutonium-238 in fallout.  

PubMed

The observed variation in the activity ratio of plutonium-238 to plutonium-239 plus plutonium-240 in rainwater in Japan over the period from 1961 through 1968 seems to indicate that the influence of the plutonium-238 released by the burnup of the nuclear auxiliary power generator (SNAP-9A) became noticeable within about 6 months and that variation in the isotope ratio with time is affected by nuclear debris produced in the latest explosions as well as by the plutonium-238 released from the SNAP-9A generator. PMID:4883465

Mamuro, T; Matsunami, T

1969-01-31

199

Microstructure and phase formation in a 17 weight percent plutonium oxide devitrified waste glass  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium containing ceramic waste forms have been prepared by dry mixing and melting glass frit, simulated zirconia high level waste calcine from chemical reprocessing, samarium oxide, titanium metal, and plutonium oxide. Materials were produced using melt times of 4 and 12 hours at 1,450 C followed by a thermal anneal at 500 C. Complex materials with a substantial volume fraction of crystalline phases were the result. The principle plutonium bearing phase was identified as a fluorite structured plutonium-zirconium-samarium phase of variable stoichiometry. This high plutonium phase preferentially segregated to the bottom of the waste form. A waste form was also melted using metallic plutonium in a quantity equivalent to 15 wt% plutonium oxide. XRD results indicate that the metal was completely oxidized on melting.

Meyer, M.K.; Johnson, S.G.; O`Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.

1997-09-01

200

THE PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM-ALUMINUM AND OTHER PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of plutonium-aluminum alloys by the direct reduction of plutonium trifluoride and plutonium dioxide is described. Plutonium trifluoride is reduced more rapidly at 800 deg C than at 1125 deg C with liquid aluminum owing to the evolution of gaseous aluminum monofluoride at the lower temperature. Plutonium dioxide is reduced readily by an excess of liquid aluminum at 1200

Runnalls; O. J. C

1958-01-01

201

The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear

S. Charboneau; B. Klos; R. Heineman; B. Skeels; A. Hopkins

2006-01-01

202

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the global stockpile of nuclear explosive devices, {approximately}50 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium have been declared surplus to national security needs by the US. This surplus, located at six sites within the US Department of Energy complex (the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Pantex Plant, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and the Savannah River Site) must now be rendered unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. The goal is that this drive will be concurrent with similar activities in Russia. One method currently under investigation is the conversion of the plutonium metal into mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. Approximately 35 tonnes of the surplus plutonium is in a form suitable for fabrication into MOX fuel. This fuel would be used in currently operating reactors for power production. Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of the 35 tonnes of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. Because it is envisioned that plutonium disposition will occur concurrently in the United States and Russia, the timely disposition of the plutonium is deemed important to national security. However, the need for quick disposition must be tempered by cost considerations and constraints on the reactors that will ultimately use the fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both the pit conversion and MOX fabrication facilities, whereby the 35 tonnes of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power Proper sizing of the facilities will help avoid unnecessary delays and excessive costs and thus is important in the success of the disposition mission. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3 to 7%, a burnup of 20,000 to 40,000 MWd/tonnes HM, a core fraction from 2 to 6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal plutonium concentration was found to be 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg/yr of plutonium. The data showed minimal costs (based solely on facility size and required manpower) resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3840, 2779, and 3497 kg/yr of plutonium, which resulted in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 yr, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L.; Beard, C.A.

2000-02-01

203

Determination of plutonium metal origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or

Moody

1995-01-01

204

Optimization of four-button beam position monitor configuration for small-gap vacuum chambers  

SciTech Connect

Induced charges on a four-button beam position monitor (BPM) system attached on a beam chamber of narrow rectangular cross sections are calculated as a 2-D electrostatic problem of image charges. The calculation shows that for a narrow chamber of width/height (2w/2h) {much_gt} 1, over 90% of the induced charges are distributed within a distance of 2h from the charged beam position in the direction of the chamber width. Therefore, a four-button system with a button diameter of (2--2.5)h and no button offset from the beam position is the most efficient configuration. The four-button BPMs used for 8-mm and 5-mm chambers in the APS have relatively low sensitivities because the button locations are outside the range where the induced charge densities are low and the button diameters are less than 2h. Using derived formulae, button sensitivities and beam position coefficients are calculated for the buttons of the most efficient case and of the 8-mm and 5-mm chambers. The formulae may be used to validate the method of computer modeling for BPM buttons on a beam chamber of an arbitrary cross section.

Kim, S.H.

1998-03-27

205

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

206

Recovery of Plutonium from Electrorefining Anode Heels at Savannah River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was dem...

J. H. Gray L. W. Gray D. G. Karraker

1987-01-01

207

Plutonium Accident Resistant Container Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air tr...

J. A. Andersen

1978-01-01

208

Purification of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

During the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel by solvent extraction techniques a primary separation to give a uranium containing product stream and a plutonium containing product stream occurs. The plutonium in the plutonium containing stream is separated from neptunium and uranium by bringing a solution containing plutonium, neptunium and uranium in an organic solvent into contact first with an aqueous solution of a hydroxylamine and/or a hydrazine salt at 30/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/ C. To preferentially reduce the neptunium and to extract it into the aqueous phase and then bringing the organic solution containing plutonium and uranium into contact with an aqueous phase containing a hydroxylamine and a hydrazine salt at about 50/sup 0/ C. To preferentially reduce the plutonium and to extract it into the aqueous phase leaving the uranium in the organic solvent.

Chapman, E.S.; Smith, W.

1980-10-21

209

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the

1999-01-01

210

North Korean Plutonium Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non?Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated abut 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt?thermal (MWt) gas?graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby Radiochemical Laboratory. Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100

David Albright

1994-01-01

211

Redox speciation of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the oxidation state distribution of plutonium in natural waters is necessary in modeling its behavior in environmental systems. The redox speciation of plutonium is complicated by such effects as hydrolysis, complexation, disproportionation, solubility, and redox interchange reactions. The insolubility of Pu(OH)4 is often the limiting factor of the net solubility of plutonium in oxic natural waters where Pu(V)O

G. R. Choppin; A. H. Bond; P. M. Hromadka

1997-01-01

212

Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate  

SciTech Connect

Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

2009-11-20

213

Plutonium: The Density-Functional-Theory Point of View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density-functional theory (DFT) is a remarkably successful tool for describing many metals throughout the Periodic Table. Here we present the results of this theory when applied to plutonium metal, the perhaps most complex and difficult-to-model metal of ...

A. Landa P. Soderlind

2008-01-01

214

Modification and miniaturization of Thermochron iButtons for surgical implantation into small animals.  

PubMed

Thermochron iButtons are being used increasingly by animal physiologists to measure long-term patterns of body temperature in reptiles, birds and mammals. Typically, iButtons are surgically implanted into the intraperitoneal cavity where they measure and store body temperature together with the date and time from an onboard real-time clock. In 16-bit resolution, the DS1922L iButton can store a total of 4,096 data points over pre-determined sampling intervals. iButtons have proved invaluable in measuring patterns of torpor and hibernation in animals larger than 70 g. Weighing around 3.5 g after potting with wax, iButtons are too heavy and large to implant into animals smaller than 70 g because their weight exceeds 5% of the animal's total body weight. This paper describes how the stainless steel canister housing the DS 1922L iButton battery and circuit board can be removed to reduce the weight of the components to 1.49 g after waxing (ready for implantation) without compromising the function or battery life of the iButton. The modified iButton can be implanted into animals as small as 20-30 g. Calibration data revealed an offset of ca. 1 degrees C on average, confirming that iButtons must be calibrated prior to implantation. PMID:19115060

Lovegrove, Barry G

2008-12-25

215

Hermetically sealed button-type electrochemical cell and method for making same  

SciTech Connect

An ultra-thin hermetically sealed button-type electrochemical cell is disclosed comprising a pair of mating metallic housing members, at least one of which is generally dish shaped to define an enclosed space therebetween. A peripheral opening defining a fill port is formed in one of the housing members, preferably at the junction formed by the mating surfaces. The interfacing surfaces of the cell housing members are welded together subsequent to the insertion of the internal cell components and prior to the addition of the electrolyte to form a hermetic seal. The electrolyte may then be added and the fill port hermetically sealed by welding. Owing to its relatively small size, the fill port may be quickly sealed so that the heat generated during the weld process is insufficient to volatilize the electrolyte. One of the housing members has a facial hole containing a glass-tometal seal through which an electrically conductive metal terminal structure extends and located such that the heat of welding may be dissipated by the housing members without adversely affecting the glass-to-metal seal.

Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

1980-01-08

216

Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay  

SciTech Connect

Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1986-01-01

217

CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

Steeper, T.

2010-09-15

218

Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

Barney, G.S.

1997-10-22

219

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM PUMP EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Plutonium Pump Experiment was a subcritical mock-up of a ; reactor core in which a plutonium-iron alloy was circulated by means of a sodium ; lift pump. Sodium for the lift pumping was circulated by an E. M. pump in an ; isothermal loop at 500 deg C. The purpose of the test was to study pump ;

J. E. Deverall; G. L. Caldwell

1962-01-01

220

Electrodeposition of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Equipment for electrolytic deposition of plutonium from molten salt solutions was designed and built and was tested with cerium as a stand-in for plutonium. The electrolysis cell is a graphite crucible that serves as the anode; the cathode is a molybdenum rod. This paper discusses results of that test.

Kelley, H.M.

2002-10-30

221

ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

Wolter, F.J.

1957-09-10

222

Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium  

SciTech Connect

A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (..cap alpha..,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the /sup 240/Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride.

Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

1987-01-01

223

Disposing of the world`s excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis.

McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

1998-12-31

224

Plutonium and security  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium and Security discusses the cases for and against the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements to remove the plutonium from them. The relationship between the capability to produce plutonium and the proliferation of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already have them is discussed. America's policy for the civil use of plutonium and its policy to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons are described. European and Japanese plans in the 1990s for plutonium are analyzed as are current nuclear programs in Third World countries. The problems that will be faces by the 1995 conference to discuss for how long to extend the Non-Proliferation Treaty are outlined and the prospects for the conference analyzed. A global program for controlling fissile material is discussed in detail.

Barnaby, F. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

1992-01-01

225

Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading  

SciTech Connect

This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

Hamilton, E.L.

1999-01-26

226

Concentration of vitamin D 2 in white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) exposed to pulsed UV light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of vitamin D2 in Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) using continuous UV light needs a longer exposure time, which can lead to discoloration. Using a Xenon pulsed UV light source, the yield of vitamin D2 was evaluated in freshly harvested button mushrooms and mushroom slices after exposure to 2.5, 3, 6 and 9 pulses of UV light at

Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi; Sang-Chul Jeong; Gerald Pang; Anthony Teal; Tony Biggs

2011-01-01

227

Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts  

SciTech Connect

An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Guenther, C.D. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

228

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

229

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOEpatents

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01

230

THE FLUORINATION OF PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorination of plutonium tetrafluoride by elemental fluorine to ; form plutonium hexafluoride was studied in a flow system at temperatures between ; 100 and 500 deg C. Partial pressures of fluorine from 0.25 to 1.0 atmosphere were ; used. The plutonium tetrafluoride was obtained from several sources, including ; the dissolution of uranium-plutonium alloys in bromine trifluoride. Activation ;

M. J. Steindler; D. V. Steidl; R. K. Steunenberg

1958-01-01

231

Pectoralis Major Muscle Rupture Repair: Technique Using Unicortical Buttons  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, there has been increased awareness of pectoralis major muscle injuries necessitating further evaluation of management options and, in particular, surgical repair. Injury typically occurs when an eccentric load is applied to the muscle, such as with bench pressing, and failure usually occurs through the tendon. Although nonoperative management is sometimes appropriate, given the injury's propensity for young, active male patients, surgical intervention is often warranted. Because the injury typically occurs at the muscle-tendon interface, surgery focuses on repair of the avulsed tendon into its anatomic attachment site. We describe the use of a unicortical suture button to repair the ruptured tendon. This technique achieves the goals of strong fixation and anatomic repair of the tendon back into its native footprint.

Metzger, Paul D.; Bailey, James R.; Filler, Robert D.; Waltz, Robert A.; Provencher, Matthew T.; Dewing, Christopher B.

2012-01-01

232

Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

1993-12-01

233

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-10-01

234

Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement  

DOEpatents

A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01

235

PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

Sutton, J.B.

1958-02-18

236

Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project  

SciTech Connect

The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

1982-01-01

237

Spiked Alloy Production for Accelerated Aging of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The accelerated aging effects on weapons grade plutonium alloys are being studied using {sup 238}Pu-enriched plutonium metal to increase the rate of formation of defect structures. Pyrochemical processing methods have been used to produce two {sup 238}Pu-spiked plutonium alloys with nominal compositions of 7.5 wt% {sup 238}Pu. Processes used in the preparation of the alloys include direct oxide reduction of PuO{sub 2} with calcium and electrorefining. Rolled disks were prepared from the spiked alloys for sampling. Test specimens were cut out of the disks for physical property measurements.

Wilk, P A; McNeese, J A; Dodson, K E; Williams, W L; Krikorian, O H; Blau, M S; Schmitz, J E; Bajao, F G; Mew, D A; Matz, T E; Torres, R A; Holck, D M; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M

2009-07-10

238

Non-destructive measurement of solid plutonium waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a national defense facility involved in the recovery and processing of plutonium. Wastes and residues are routinely generated here from many stages of plutonium metal fabrication and from pyrochemical and aqueous processing of plutonium scrap. Materials which require measurement include plutonium oxide from burned residues, Pu-bearing salts from production/reduction and metal purification processes, impure plutonium metal, metal reduction slags, ash, undissolved oxide heels, ceramics, and auxiliary implements such as HEPA filters, plastics, and cleaning rags. Nondestructive assays (NDA) of transuranic (TRU) waste from these materials are often troublesome and may pose formidable challenges to the measurement specialist. This document discusses these waste measurement issues at LANL. 25 figs., 2 tabs.

Wachter, J.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

239

SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating

M. Crowder; R. Pierce; J. Scogin; G. Daniel; W. King

2012-01-01

240

Recovery of plutonium from molten salt extraction residues  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are jointly developing a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCl, MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved PUCl/sub 3/ and up to 2 wt % AmCl/sub 3/. The objective is to develop a process to convert these residues to plutonium metal product and discardable waste. The first step of the conceptual process is to convert the actinides to a heterogenous scrub alloy with aluminum and magnesium. This step, performed at RFP, effectively separates the actinides from the bulk of the chloride. This scrub alloy will then be dissolved in a HNO/sub 3/-HF solution at SRP. Residual chloride will be removed by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifugation. Plutonium and americium will be separated using the Purex solvent extraction process. The /sup 241/Am will be diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream where it can either be discarded to the waste farm or recovered. The plutonium will be finished via PuF/sub 3/ precipitation, oxidation to a mixture of PUF/sub 4/ and PuO/sub 2/, followed by reduction to plutonium metal with calcium.

Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

1983-01-01

241

Modification and miniaturization of Thermochron iButtons for surgical implantation into small animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochron iButtons are being used increasingly by animal physiologists to measure long-term patterns of body temperature\\u000a in reptiles, birds and mammals. Typically, iButtons are surgically implanted into the intraperitoneal cavity where they measure\\u000a and store body temperature together with the date and time from an onboard real-time clock. In 16-bit resolution, the DS1922L\\u000a iButton can store a total of 4,096

Barry G. Lovegrove

2009-01-01

242

Pyrochemical processes for the recovery of weapons grade plutonium either as a metal or as PuO{sub 2} for use in mixed oxide reactor fuel pellets  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed two processes for the recovery of weapons grade Pu, as either Pu metal or PuO{sub 2}, that are strictly pyrochemical and do not produce any liquid waste. Large amounts of Pu metal (up to 4 kg.), in various geometric shapes, have been recovered by a hydride/dehydride/casting process (HYDEC) to produce metal ingots of any desired shape. The three processing steps are carried out in a single compact apparatus. The experimental technique and results obtained will be described. The authors have prepared PuO{sub 2} powders from weapons grade Pu by a process that hydrides the Pu metal followed by the oxidation of the hydride (HYDOX process). Experimental details of the best way to carry out this process will be presented, as well as the characterization of both hydride and oxide powders produced.

Colmenares, C.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Bronson, M.C.

1995-11-03

243

Activity coefficients of plutonium and cerium in liquid gallium at 1073 K: Application to a molten salt/solvent metal separation concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity coefficients in liquid metal and salt phases are important parameters for predicting the separation efficiency of reductive extraction or electrochemical pyrochemical processes. The electrochemical properties of Ce and Pu in gallium metal and chlorides media CaCl2 and equimolar NaCl KCl have been studied at 1073 K. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry show the thermodynamic feasibility of using gallium as solvent metal for pyrochemical processes involving Pu and Ce. The activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga (log(?Pu,Ga) = -7.3 0.5) is deduced from the results and is a basis of assessing the potential for using liquid metals in pyrochemical separation of actinides and lanthanides. Evaluation of literature data for Al, Bi and Cd suggests that Ga is most favorable for selective separation of Pu from Ce near 1073 K.

Lambertin, David; Ched'Homme, Sverine; Bourges, Gilles; Sanchez, Sylvie; Picard, Grard S.

2005-05-01

244

BPM Button Optimization to Minimize Distortion Due to Trapped Mode Heating  

SciTech Connect

The outer circumference of a BPM button and the inner circumference of the button housing comprise a transmission line. This transmission line typically presents an impedance of a few tens of ohms to the beam, and couples very weakly to the 50 ohm coaxial transmission line that comprises the signal path out of the button. The modes which are consequently excited and trapped often have quality factors of several hundred, permitting resonant excitation by the beam. The thermal distortion resulting from trapped mode heating is potentially problematic for achieving the high precision beam position measurements needed to provide the sub-micron beam position stability required by light source users. We present a button design that has been optimized via material selection and component geometry to minimize both the trapped mode heating and the resulting thermal distortion.

Cameron,P.; Blednyk, A.; Kosciuk, B.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, I.; Singh, O

2009-05-04

245

Plutonium Ceramic Target for MASHA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 degrees C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides ...

P. A. Wilk D. A. Shaughnessy K. J. Moody J. M. Kenneally

2004-01-01

246

INTERCOMPARISON OF PLUTONIUM-239 MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1977 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency distributed calibrated solutions of plutonium-239 to laboratories interested in participating in an intercomparison study of plutonium analysis. Participants were asked to perform a quantitative radioactivity analysis of the soluti...

247

DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

Duffield, R.B.

1959-07-14

248

Opportunities in Plutonium Metallurgical Research  

SciTech Connect

This is an exciting time to be involved in plutonium metallurgical research. Over the past few years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental materials science of this unusual metal, particularly in the areas of self-irradiation induced aging of Pu, the equilibrium phase diagram, the homogenization of {delta}-phase alloys, the crystallography and morphology of the {alpha}'-phase resulting from the isothermal martensitic phase transformation, and the phonon dispersion curves, among many others. In addition, tremendous progress has been made, both experimentally and theoretically, in our understanding of the condensed matter physics and chemistry of the actinides, particularly in the area of electronic structure. Although these communities have made substantial progress, many challenges still remain. This brief overview will address a number of important challenges that we face in fully comprehending the metallurgy of Pu with a specific focus on aging and phase transformations. (author)

Schwartz, Adam J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2007-07-01

249

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOEpatents

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13

250

Comparison of options for plutonium disposal reactors. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has resulted in an excess of plutonium in the weapons stockpiles of the United States and other nations. A number of mostly reactor-based systems have been proposed to denature this plutonium, as opposed to storing and guarding it indefinitely. A Department of Energy task force has been set up to consider this problem, and the National Academy of Sciences is evaluating it as well. In this report, three major reactor types -- the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR), and the Modular High-Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) -- are considered in terms of various qualities applicable to plutonium denaturing. These qualities include safety, management experience, waste disposal, economics, public acceptance, and others. On the basis of these considerations, it appears that the ALWR ranks at or near the top in most categories. This reactor type deserves closer consideration in terms of plutonium denaturing and disposition.

Buckner, M.; Radder, J.A.; Inhaber, H.

1993-01-01

251

Progress in stabilization of plutonium and residues since DNFSB recommendation 94-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 100 metric tons of residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site containing approximately 3 metric tons of plutonium. The residues are byproducts of past plutonium operations incinerator ash; pyrochemical salts; graphite; sand, slag, and crucible; and miscellaneous forms of combustibles, glass, metal, and sludges. In September 1993, a report was released (Reference 1) which identified concerns

J. M. Ball; D. F. Dustin

1998-01-01

252

Fast burner reactor benchmark results from the NEA working party on physics of plutonium recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program proposed by the OECD\\/NEA Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) to evaluate different scenarios for the use of plutonium, fast reactor physics benchmarks were developed; fuel cycle scenarios using either PUREX\\/TRUEX (oxide fuel) or pyrometallurgical (metal fuel) separation technologies were specified. These benchmarks were designed to evaluate the nuclear performance and radiotoxicity impact

R. N. Hill; D. C. Wade; G. Palmiotti

1995-01-01

253

ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM FROM MOLTEN SALT SOLUTIONS OF CsPuCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of molten salt solutions of CsPuCl for ; plutonium electrolyses has been investigated. Plutonium metal has been recovered ; from solutions without the use of Pu anodes. Up to 88% of the Pu dissolved in ; salt solutions has been recovered with Ta cathodes. No net Pu was recovered from ; solution when Pu cathodes were used because

M. B. Brodsky; G. F. Carleson

1961-01-01

254

Evaluation of the neutron self-interrogation approach for assay of plutonium in high materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrochemical scrap recovery processes, designed to extract impurities from plutonium metal and compounds, generate a variety of plutonium-laden residues consisting of high (α,n) matrices of varying chemical composition, and often containing grams to tens of grams of americium. For such materials, multiplication corrections based on real neutron coincidence count rate, R, and total neutron count rate, T, measurements cannot

P. A. Russo; H. O. Menlove; K. W. Fife; M. H. West

1987-01-01

255

Modification of Shirt Buttons for Retrospective Radiation Dosimetry after a Radiological Event  

PubMed Central

Preliminary results are presented for a personal radiation dosimeter in the form of a clothing button to provide gamma-ray dose estimation for clinically significant external radiation exposures to the general public due to a radiological incident, such as a Radiological Dispersal Device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic buttons, attached to shirts, and subjected to three cycles of home or commercial laundering or dry cleaning, including ironing or pressing. The buttons were subsequently exposed to doses of 137Cs gamma rays ranging from 0.75 to 8.2 Gy. The rods were removed from the buttons and their light output compared to their responses when bare or to the responses of a set of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the comparisons for LiF:Mg,Ti rods the relative responses of the rods in buttons changed by 2-6% relative to the same rods before cleaning. In both comparisons for LiF:Mg,Cu,P rods, the response of laundered rods was 1-3% lower than for the same rods before cleaning. Both these materials are potential candidates for button dosimeters.

Marino, Stephen A.; Johnson, Gary W.; Schiff, Peter B.; Brenner, David J.

2010-01-01

256

Modification of shirt buttons for retrospective radiation dosimetry after a radiological event.  

PubMed

Preliminary results are presented for a personal radiation dosimeter in the form of a clothing button to provide gamma-ray dose estimation for clinically-significant external radiation exposures to the general public due to a radiological incident, such as use of a radiological dispersal device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic "buttons," attached to shirts, and subjected to three cycles of home or commercial laundering or dry cleaning, including ironing or pressing. The buttons were subsequently exposed to doses of 137Cs gamma rays ranging from 0.75 to 8.2 Gy. The rods were removed from the buttons and their light output compared to their responses when bare or to the responses of a set of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the comparisons for LiF:Mg,Ti rods, the relative responses of the rods in buttons changed by 2-6% relative to the same rods before cleaning. In both comparisons for LiF:Mg,Cu,P rods, the response of laundered rods was 1-3% lower than for the same rods before cleaning. Both these materials are potential candidates for button dosimeters. PMID:21451325

Marino, Stephen A; Johnson, Gary W; Schiff, Peter B; Brenner, David J

2011-05-01

257

Locking buttons increase fatigue life of locking plates in a segmental bone defect model.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND : Durability of plate fixation is important in delayed union. Although locking plates result in stronger constructs, it is not known if locking affects the fatigue life of a plate. Two locking screws on either side of the nonunion could decrease working length and increase strain in the plate. However, the reinforcing effect of the locking head on the plate may compensate, so that it is unclear whether locking reduces fatigue life. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES : We determined whether locking screws, compression screws, and locking buttons reduce or increase the fatigue life of a plate. METHODS : We tested fatigue life of four constructs using an eight-hole locking plate in a segmental defect model: (1) all locking screws (Locked; n = 5); (2) all compression screws (Unlocked; n = 5); (3) six compression screws with two locking buttons in the central holes (Button; n = 6); and (4) six compression screws with two open central holes (Open; n = 6). RESULTS : The Button group had the longest fatigue life (1.3 million cycles). There was no difference between the Locked and Unlocked groups. All of the constructs failed by fracture of the plates through a screw hole adjacent to the defect. CONCLUSIONS : Locking screws did not improve fatigue life, however a locking button increased the fatigue life of a locking plate in a segmental bone defect model. CLINICAL RELEVANCE : Locking buttons in holes adjacent to a defect may improve durability, which is important when delayed union is a possibility. PMID:23104045

Tompkins, Marc; Paller, David J; Moore, Douglas C; Crisco, Joseph J; Terek, Richard M

2012-10-27

258

Plutonium accident resistant container project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package

1978-01-01

259

Weapons plutonium: Just can it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilemma plaguing the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) in dealing with 50 years of manufacturing nuclear weapons is choosing a way to dispose of surplus warhead plutonium. The Clinton administration pledged in March 1995 to dispose of approximately 200 metric tons of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It was later disclosed that this included 38.2 tons of plutonium, of which

Lyman

1996-01-01

260

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which

1991-01-01

261

Plutonium storage: Requirements and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retirement of large numbers of nuclear weapons will necessitate management of unprecedented quantities of excess plutonium. In addition, surplus material and residues from previous weapon production activities comprise a substantial quantity of concentrated plutonium that exists in a variety of chemical forms. Storage of plutonium for an indefinite period will be necessary until a decision regarding ultimate disposition is

P. T. Cunningham; J. M. Haschke; J. C. Martz

1993-01-01

262

Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride  

SciTech Connect

Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H{sub 2} after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuH{sub x})-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuH{sub x} catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (E{sub a} = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 {+-} 0.03 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed.

Allen, T.H.; Haschke, J.M.

1998-06-01

263

Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2002-08-01

264

SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

Duffield, R.B.

1958-08-12

265

Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

2002-01-01

266

Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01

267

The politics of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first major setback to the development of FBR's occurred in 1971 whe the Scientists' Institute for Public Information brought suit against AEC for its failure to write an environmental impact statement on the FBR development program. The legal and administrative developments that have brought anti-plutonium attitudes from a minority position to widely accepted policy are outlined. Such nuclear accidents

J. Abbotts; H. Wasserman

1978-01-01

268

Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it

Pillay; K. K. S

1996-01-01

269

Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

2000-03-07

270

Plutonium: Facts and Inferences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the knowledge that we have about plutonium from the point of view of the inferences that can be drawn from such knowledge relative to the implications for society of the creation of this element in a nuclear power industry. It represen...

C. L. Comar W. B. Seefeldt W. J. Mecham M. J. Steindler B. L. Cohen

1976-01-01

271

Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.; Karraker, D.G.

1987-03-01

272

Occlusion of large atrial septal defects with a centering buttoned device: early clinical experience.  

PubMed

A feasibility clinical study was conducted for the transcatheter occlusion of large ostium secundum atrial septal defects with the centering buttoned device. The centering buttoned device is a modification of the regular buttoned device in which a centering counter-occluder is sutured at the central 40% portion of the occluder. During centering it is stretched, forming a parachute-shaped structure and pulling the occluder over the center of the defect. During buttoning, the counter-occluder forms a double figure eight, opposing the right atrial side of the atrial septum. Occlusion was performed in 12 patients aged 6 to 56 years. All had been rejected for transcatheter occlusion by the regular buttoned device, because of either their defect size or the lack of adequate septal rim. The defect size varied between 23 and 31 mm, and the device size varied between 45 and 60 mm. Nine had immediate effective occlusions of their defects and three residual shunts. One patient with unbuttoning had hemolysis at 2 weeks and underwent surgery. Early results of the transcatheter occlusion of large atrial septal defects are promising, and larger clinical trials are justified. PMID:8579033

Sideris, E B; Leung, M; Yoon, J H; Chen, C R; Lochan, R; Worms, A M; Rey, C; Meier, B

1996-02-01

273

Results from a Test Fixture for button BPM Trapped Mode Measurements  

SciTech Connect

A variety of measures have been suggested to mitigate the problem of button BPM trapped mode heating. A test fixture, using a combination of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom machined components, was assembled to validate the simulations. We present details of the fixture design, measurement results, and a comparison of the results with the simulations. A brief history of the trapped mode button heating problem and a set of design rules for BPM button optimization are presented elsewhere in these proceedings. Here we present measurements on a test fixture that was assembled to confirm, if possible, a subset of those rules: (1) Minimize the trapped mode impedance and the resulting power deposited in this mode by the beam. (2) Maximize the power re-radiated back into the beampipe. (3) Maximize electrical conductivity of the outer circumference of the button and minimize conductivity of the inner circumference of the shell, to shift power deposition from the button to the shell. The problem is then how to extract useful and relevant information from S-parameter measurements of the test fixture.

Cameron,P.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Pinayev, I.; Singh, O.

2009-05-04

274

Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium with chlorophosphonazo III in n-pentanol  

SciTech Connect

Microgram amounts of plutonium are measured spectrophotometrically as the plutonium-chlorophosphonazo III complex after extraction into n-pentanol from 1.5 M HCl. The relative standard deviation is 1.5% for the range of 2.5 to 17.5 ..mu..g. The tolerance is excellent for many metals and nonmetals present in nuclear fuel-cycle materials. A preceding anion-exchange-column separation increases tolerance for certain metals and nonmetals.

Saponara, N.M.; Marsh, S.F.

1982-03-01

275

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

276

Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.5 in Annular Cylindrical Geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.5. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in annular cylindrical geometry. The measurements were made with a water reflector. The central region included a concrete annular cylinder containing B{sub 4}C. Interior to the concrete insert was a stainless steel bottle containing plutonium-uranium solution. The concentration of the solution in the annular region was varied from 116 to 433 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 52% for all experiments.

Lloyd, RC

1988-04-01

277

Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydro...

P. Bros J. P. Gozlan M. Lecomte J. Bourges

1993-01-01

278

Surface dose from plutonium. [Dose rate during feed processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface dose rate for plutonium metal was studied to provided a basis for estimating what the surface dose rate would be for any relative isotopic composition. The chief practical conclusion of this report is that there is an advantage of smaller total dose rate if Pu is processed immediately after its purification from other radioactive materials. If this is

Roesch

1957-01-01

279

Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.  

PubMed

The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Brje

2004-03-14

280

A jungle in there: bacteria in belly buttons are highly diverse, but predictable.  

PubMed

The belly button is one of the habitats closest to us, and yet it remains relatively unexplored. We analyzed bacteria and arachaea from the belly buttons of humans from two different populations sampled within a nation-wide citizen science project. We examined bacterial and archaeal phylotypes present and their diversity using multiplex pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. We then tested the oligarchy hypothesis borrowed from tropical macroecology, namely that the frequency of phylotypes in one sample of humans predicts its frequency in another independent sample. We also tested the predictions that frequent phylotypes (the oligarchs) tend to be common when present, and tend to be more phylogenetically clustered than rare phylotypes. Once rarefied to four hundred reads per sample, bacterial communities from belly buttons proved to be at least as diverse as communities known from other skin studies (on average 67 bacterial phylotypes per belly button). However, the belly button communities were strongly dominated by a few taxa: only 6 phylotypes occurred on >80% humans. While these frequent bacterial phylotypes (the archaea were all rare) are a tiny part of the total diversity of bacteria in human navels (<0.3% of phylotypes), they constitute a major portion of individual reads (~1/3), and are predictable among independent samples of humans, in terms of both the occurrence and evolutionary relatedness (more closely related than randomly drawn equal sets of phylotypes). Thus, the hypothesis that "oligarchs" dominate diverse assemblages appears to be supported by human-associated bacteria. Although it remains difficult to predict which species of bacteria might be found on a particular human, predicting which species are most frequent (or rare) seems more straightforward, at least for those species living in belly buttons. PMID:23144827

Hulcr, Jiri; Latimer, Andrew M; Henley, Jessica B; Rountree, Nina R; Fierer, Noah; Lucky, Andrea; Lowman, Margaret D; Dunn, Robert R

2012-11-07

281

Plutonium recovery from organic materials  

DOEpatents

A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

1973-12-11

282

Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01

283

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

284

Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil  

SciTech Connect

Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

Rothe, R.E.

1997-05-01

285

CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL BENZOTRIAZOLES AND RELATED POLYMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Benzotriazole (bta-H) is a well-known corrosion inhibitor for copper, copper-alloy, and other metal surfaces. Typical uses are to deactivate surfaces of computer hard drives and other internal metal computer parts, and for treatment of apparel hardware such as zippers and buttons...

286

Plutonium Air Shipments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nuclear Control Institute created a web site in response to a proposed standard for the shipment of radioactive materials. This site presents two world maps showing both sea and air routes that are planned or already in use for the shipment of plutonium. A series of papers by NCI-affiliated scientists and observers on the subject of radioactive materials shipments sets out the NCI position against such shipments.

1996-01-01

287

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

Our Phase II research evaluated health risks associated with inhaled plutonium. Our research objectives were to: (1) extend our stochastic model for deposition of plutonium in the respiratory tract to include additional key variability and uncertainty; (2) generate and analyze risk distributions for deterministic effects in the lung from inhaled plutonium that reflect risk model uncertainty; (3) acquire an improved understanding of key physiological effects of inhaled plutonium, based on evaluations of clinical data (e.g., hematological, respiratory function, chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes) for Mayak workers in Russia who inhaled plutonium-239; (4) develop biological dosimetry for plutonium-239 that was inhaled by some Mayak workers (with unknown intake) based on clinical data for other workers with known plutonium-239 intake; (5) critically evaluate the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to cancer risks from inhaled plutonium-239 (base d on Mayak worker data); and (6) evaluate respirator filter penetration frequencies for airborne plutonium aerosols using surrogate high-density metals.

Scott, Bobby R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.

2003-06-11

288

Four-button BPM coefficients in cylindrical and elliptic beam chambers.  

SciTech Connect

Beam position monitor (BPM) coefficients are calculated from induced charges on four-button BPMs in circular and elliptic beam chambers for {gamma} >>1. Since the beam chamber cross-section for the APS storage ring is different from an exact elliptic geometry, numerical values of the BPM coefficients and their inversions are computed from two-dimensional electrostatic field distributions inside an exact geometry of the beam chamber. Utilizing Green's reciprocation theorem, a potential value is applied to the buttons rather than changing the beam position, and potential distributions corresponding to the beam positions are then computed.

Kim, S.H.

1999-04-08

289

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700 800 C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

290

Toward a Deeper Understanding of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a very complex element lying near the middle of the actinide series. On the lower atomic number side of Pu is the element neptunium; its 5f electrons are highly delocalized or itinerant, participating in metallic-like bonding. The electrons in americium, the element to the right of Pu, are localized and do not participant significantly in the bonding. Plutonium is located directly on this rather abrupt transition. In the low-temperature {alpha} phase ground state, the five 5f electrons are mostly delocalized leading to a highly dense monoclinic crystal structure. Increases in temperature take the unalloyed plutonium through a series of five solid-state allotropic phase transformations before melting. One of the high temperature phases, the close-packed face centered cubic {delta} phase, is the least dense of all the phases, including the liquid. Alloying the Pu with Group IIIA elements such as aluminum or gallium retains the {delta} phase in a metastable state at ambient conditions. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to {alpha} + Pu{sub 3}Ga. These low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are also metastable with respect to low temperature excursions or increases in pressure and will transform to a monoclinic crystal structure at low temperatures via an isothermal martensitic phase transformation or at slightly elevated pressure. The delocalized to localized 5f electron bonding transition that occurs in the light actinides surrounding Pu gives rise to a plethora of unique and anomalous properties but also severely complicates the modeling and simulation. The development of theories and models that are sufficiently sensitive to capture the details of this transition and capable of elucidating the fundamental properties of plutonium and plutonium alloys is currently a grand challenge in actinide science. Recent advances in electronic structure theory, semi-empirical interatomic potentials, and raw computing power have enabled remarkable progress in our abilities to model many of the anomalous properties of Pu. This special issue of the Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design highlights a number of these advances in the area of the aging of plutonium. This aging is a long-term process due to the slow radioactive decay with a long half-life of 24400 years for the major isotope of plutonium. The challenge then is to predict the changes in properties of plutonium and its alloys from experimental results of plutonium aged only for a few decades and from theory and computational models that are build on a thorough, first-principle understanding of all the complex phenomena displayed by this material. We hope that progress and success of this enterprise will guide other endeavors in Computer-Aided Materials Design and prediction of materials performance.

Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

2007-06-21

291

Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-08-11

292

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12

293

Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for [alpha]-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO[sub 2](s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and

Patricia A. Rusin; Leticia Quintana; James R. Brainard; B. A. Strietelmeler; C. Drew Tait; Scott A. Ekberg; Phillip D. Palmer; Thomas W. Newton; David L. Clark

1994-01-01

294

Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two major phases during fiscal years 1999 and 2000.

Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

1999-07-01

295

White Button Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Exhibits Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Properties and Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth in Athymic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a

Lynn S. Adams; Shiuan Chen; Sheryl Phung; Xiwei Wu; Lui Ki

2008-01-01

296

Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization  

SciTech Connect

Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g PUO{sub 2}/cm{sup 2} of metal surface per min) and independent of temperature above 500{degrees}C. Total mass and particle distributions are derived for oxide products formed by reactions of plutonium metal and hydride. The mass distributions for products of all metal-gas reactions are remarkably similar with approximately 0.07 mass% of the oxide particles having geometric diameters {le} 10 {mu}m. In comparison, 25 mass% of the oxide formed by the PuH{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction is in this range. Experimental values of mass fractions released during oxidation are evaluated and factors that alter the release fraction are discussed.

Haschke, J.M.

1992-07-01

297

Structural properties of plutonium from first-principles theory  

SciTech Connect

First-principles theory is shown to account for the unique low-temperature crystal structure of plutonium metal ({alpha}-Pu). Also the observed, and debated, upturn of the equilibrium volume between neptunium and plutonium is reproduced and found to be a consequence of the different crystal structures for these two metals. Thus it is shown that density-functional theory is able to accurately describe bonding properties of 5f electrons in an outstandingly complex system, where also relativistic effects are large. The electronic structure for {alpha}-Pu and for plutonium in competing close-packed crystal structures are also presented. Moreover, an explanation for the occurrence of the highly complex {alpha}-Pu structure is given. The mechanism is described in terms of a Peierls distortion in conjunction with a narrow 5f-band width. The energy gained from the splitting of the 5f bands outweighs the electrostatic energy which favors the high symmetry structures found for most other metals. At lower volumes we predict that plutonium should become bcc. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Soederlind, P. [Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wills, J.M. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Physics Department, Uppsala University, Box 530 (Sweden)

1997-01-01

298

Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

1999-06-18

299

PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

1958-09-01

300

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages

E. Kriikku; C. Ward; M. Stokes; B. Randall; J. Steed; R. Jones; L. Rogers; J. Fiscus; G. Dyches

1998-01-01

301

Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride  

DOEpatents

The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

Rabideau, Sherman W. (Los Alamos, NM); Campbell, George M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

302

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

1960-02-01

303

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste

K. K. S. Pillay

1995-01-01

304

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste

Pillay; K. K. S

1993-01-01

305

THERMAL EXPANSION OF PLUTONIUM CARBIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of plutonium hydride with carbon produced a mixture of ; plutonium monocarbide and plutcnium sesquicarbide. A wrapped container enabled ; the thin-walled quartz capillary containing the specimen to be handled in a ; gloved box and to be removed without stray alpha-contamination. Welding of the ; specimen rotating msgnet in the powder camera and limitation of the temperature

Pallmer

1962-01-01

306

The effects of button arrangement on evaluations in interactive Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discussed the effects of button arrangement on evaluations in interactive Genetic Algorithms (iGAs). It was reported that the visual interface effects human's subjective. The visual interface systems of iGAs may affect the solutions as humans evaluate the candidate solutions, evaluation of these candidates may be affected by the interface. In this paper, we conduct the two experiments. One of

Tomoyuki HIROYASU; Yuusuke YONEDA; Misato TANAKA; Yasunari SASAKI; Hisatake YOKOUCHI

2010-01-01

307

Dry bubble disease of the white button mushroom. Ecology and control of Lecanicillium fungicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry bubble disease is a persistent problem in the cultivation of the white button mushroom, A. bisporus. There is a pressing need for innovative ways to control spread and development of L. fungicola in mushroom cultivation as currently disease management relies heavily on one chemical (Sporgon) for which a reduced sensitivity of the pathogen has been reported. The research described

R. L. Berendsen

2011-01-01

308

Lecanicillium fungicola: causal agent of dry dubble disease in white-button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in commercially cultivated mushroom. This review summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the pathogen and the interaction between the pathogen and its most important host, the white-button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The ecology of the pathogen is discussed with emphasis on host range, dispersal and primary source of infection. In addition, current knowledge on

R. L. Berendsen; J. J. P. Baars; S. I. Kalkhove; L. G. Lugones; H. A. B. Wsten; P. A. H. M. Bakker

2010-01-01

309

Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are reported to possess antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, a majority of these studies evaluated the effect of administering extracts of exotic mushrooms through parental routes, whereas little is known about the immu- nological effect ofa dietary intake of white button

Dayong Wu; Munkyong Pae; Zhihong Ren; Zhuyan Guo; Donald Smith

310

White button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom; WBM) contains high levels of dietary fibers and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, and B12; folates; and polyphenols that may provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that intake of the fruiting bodies of WBM regulates anticholesterolemic and antiglycemic responses in rats fed a

Sang Chul Jeong; Yong Tae Jeong; Byung Keun Yang; Rezuanul Islam; Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi; Gerald Pang; Kai Yip Cho; Chi Hyun Song

2010-01-01

311

Problems of selecting the buttons in the layered neural network application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied the back-propagation method of a layered neural network into the problem selecting the buttons, which were fit to the cloth or the thread of suits. The problem is thought to be important as the example of the network which has a number of output units in comparison with the number of input units. The effective method for solving

Satoru KISHIDA; Makoto ISHIHARA; H. Tokutaka; K. Fujimura; K. Nishimori; N. Ishihara

1993-01-01

312

One way to save the number of BPM buttons in the arcs that is not recommended  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested as a possibility by the beam dynamic task force that the SLC arcs be provided a beam position monitor at every gap between magnets. In this scenario of orbit correction scheme, the BPM's are used alternately for the horizontal and the vertical orbit measurements. One way to construct these BPM's is therefore in the x and y planes. One problem of this construction, as pointed out by Pellegrin and Rees, is that synchrotron radiation will hit the buttons of the x-BPM's. It was suggested then that the x-BPM's should use four buttons, orthogonal, but rotated 45/sup 0/ from the x and y planes. This construction requires 4 buttons instead of 2, meaning an increase of cost. As an attempt to reduce the number of buttons needed for arc orbit correction, we have studied a variation of the orbit correction scheme. In this scheme, orbits are not corrected in the x and y coordinates but in the coordinates that are tilted by 45/sup 0/ relative to x and y. Let these coordinates be called u and v. The result of the study is that this scheme is not recommended.

Chao, A.; Kheifets, S.

1983-12-01

313

CORR Insights: Locking buttons increase fatigue life of locking plates in a segmental bone defect model.  

PubMed

This CORR Insights is a commentary on the article "Locking Buttons Increase Fatigue Life of Locking Plates in a Segmental Bone Defect Model" by Tompkins et al. available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2664-1 . PMID:23242826

Schnaser, Erik; Vallier, Heather

2012-12-14

314

Revision Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Suspension Button Fixation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction remains a challenging problem. The objective of this study was to biomechanically evaluate an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction technique using a suspension button fixation technique that can be used even in the case of ulnar cortical bone loss.Hypothesis: An ulnar suspension fixation technique for ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction can restore elbow kinematics and demonstrate

Gregory H. Lee; Orr Limpisvasti; Maxwell C. Park; Michelle H. McGarry; Lewis A. Yocum; Thay Q. Lee

2010-01-01

315

SoundButton: Design of a Low Power Wearable Audio Classification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper deals with the design of a sound recognition system focused on an ultra low power hardware implemen- tation in a button like miniature form factor. We present the results of the first design phase focused on selection and experimental evaluation of sound classes and algorithms suitable for low power,realization. We also present the VHDL model of the

Mathias Stger; Paul Lukowicz; Niroshan Perera; T. Von Bren; Gerhard Trster; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

316

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

Hale, S.J.

1991-12-31

317

Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-14

318

A MCNP model of gloveboxes in a plutonium processing facility  

SciTech Connect

A room in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glovebox for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glovebox will be located in a room containing other gloveboxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. A MCNP model of the room and gloveboxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glovebox and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glovebox. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

1998-12-31

319

SELECTION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FOR DISPOSITION TO WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS). Included in the evaluation are up to 6 metric tons (MT) of plutonium in the form of impure oxides and metals for which a disposition plan has not been decided, among options that include preparation as feed for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; disposing to high-level waste through the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB Line and H Canyon; can-in-canister disposal using the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility; and preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE and SRS have identified at least 0.5 MT of plutonium that, because of high levels of chemical and isotopic impurities, is impractical for disposition by methods other than the WIPP pathway. Characteristics of these items and the disposition strategy are discussed.

Allender, J.; Mcclard, J.; Christopher, J.

2012-06-08

320

Plutonium storage thermal analysis (U)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal modeling of plutonium metal ingots stored in food pack cans provides information useful for performing stored material safety evaluations. Four storage can geometries were modeled, and several conclusions can be made from the 14 cases analyzed. The ingot temperature increased from 7 degrees F to 12 degrees F (depending on can configuration) per additional watt of power. Including internal convection lowers computed ingot temperatures by 70 degrees F. Accounting for the heat flow through the bottom of the cans to the storage rack lowered computed ingot temperatures by an additional 70 degrees F to 80 degrees F. In the rimmed can systems storing ingots with a power of 10.35 watts, the ingot temperature varies from 190 degrees F to 213 degrees F. Including a plastic bag between the inner and outer can increases the ingot temperature by 15 degrees F. Adding a label to the outer can side reduces the outer can side temperature by 13 degrees F. Changes in ambient temperature affect the outer can temperatures more than the ingot temperature by a factor of 3. Similarly, a 5 degrees F drop in outer can temperature due to increased convection lowered the ingot temperature by only 2 degrees F

Hensel, S.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Schaade, J.B.

1997-06-01

321

Reaction kinetics relevant to the recycle hydride-dehydride process for plutonium recovery  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project were the expansion of fundamental knowledge of plutonium chemistry and the development of information for enhancing plutonium recovery methods and weapons safety. Results of kinetic studies demonstrate that the monoxide monohydride, PuO(H), formed during corrosion of plutonium by water in pyrophoric when dry and acts as an initiator for hydride-catalyzed reaction of the metal with air. The catalyzed corrosion rate of Pu is 10{sup 8} times faster than that in dry air and transforms plutonium into a readily aerosolized material. A potential application for the catalytic reaction is in the direct recovery of plutonium as oxide. Wet PuO(H) is non-pyrophoric and the safety hazard posed by its formation is reduced if the material is not allowed to dry.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

1997-10-01

322

Surplus weapons plutonium: Technologies for pit disassembly/conversion and MOX fuel fabrication  

SciTech Connect

This paper will provide a description of the technologies involved in the disposition of plutonium from surplus nuclear weapon components (pits), based on pit disassembly and conversion and on fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for disposition through irradiation in nuclear reactors. The MOX/Reactor option is the baseline disposition plan for both the US and russian for plutonium from pits and other clean plutonium metal and oxide. In the US, impure plutonium in various forms will be converted to oxide and immobilized in glass or ceramic, surrounded by vitrified high level waste to provide a radiation barrier. A similar fate is expected for impure material in Russia as well. The immobilization technologies will not be discussed. Following technical descriptions, a discussion of options for monitoring the plutonium during these processes will be provided.

Toevs, J.W.

1997-12-31

323

Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

2002-07-01

324

Probing Phonons in Plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

Wong, Joe

2004-03-01

325

PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

2010-02-01

326

Response of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter in plutonium environments  

SciTech Connect

This report documents response characteristics and the development of dose algorithms for the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCNO) implemented on January 1, 1995. The HCND was accredited under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) during 1994. The HCND employs two neutron dose components consisting of (1) an albedo thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), and (2) a track-etch dosimeter (TED). Response characteristics of these two dosimeter components were measured under the low-scatter conditions of the Hanford 318 Building Calibration Laboratory, and under the high-scatter conditions in the workplace at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The majority of personnel neutron dose at Hanford (currently and historically) occurs at the PFP. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable sources were used to characterize dosimeter response in the laboratory. At the PFP, neutron spectra and dose-measuring instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters, were used to determine the neutron dose under several configurations from three different plutonium sources: (1) plutonium tetrafluoride, (2) plutonium metal, and (3) plutonium oxide. In addition, measurements were performed at many selected work locations. The HCNDs were included in all measurements. Comparison of dosimeter- and instrument-measured dose equivalents provided the data necessary to develop HCND dose algorithms and to assess the accuracy of estimated neutron dose under actual work conditions.

Endres, A.W.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V. [and others

1996-02-01

327

Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

Burgess, M. [ed.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

1998-04-01

328

PROBABLE VOLATILIZATION OF PLUTONIUM DURING A FIRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire hazards involving plutonium are discussed. The available ; experimental information was evaluated and compared with theoretical ; volatilization rates in order to make an estimate of the amount of plutonium ; released to the atmosphere in a fire. It was determined that the probable ; maximum release of plutonium is 0.08%. The most likely mechanism for releasing ; plutonium

1961-01-01

329

Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative

L. L. Martella; M. T. Saba; G. K. Campbell

1984-01-01

330

EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

DiSabatino, A.

1998-06-01

331

History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-18

332

Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES&H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES&H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.; Elam, K.R.; Ferrada, J.J.

1995-11-28

333

LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

Bronson, M.C.

1997-10-01

334

METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

1959-11-01

335

Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project, 1978-1981  

SciTech Connect

The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

1982-09-01

336

Correlated electrons in delta-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the practical importance of metallic plutonium, there is considerable interest in understanding its fundamental properties. Plutonium undergoes a 25 per cent increase in volume when transformed from its alpha-phase (which is stable below 400K) to the delta-phase (stable at around 600K), an effect that is crucial for issues of long-term storage and disposal. It has long been suspected that

S. Y. Savrasov; G. Kotliar; E. Abrahams

2001-01-01

337

Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.4 in Slab and Cylindrical Geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.4. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylinqrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 105 to 436 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 0.4 for all experiments.

Lloyd, RC

1988-04-01

338

Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.5 in slab and cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect

A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.5. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylindrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 112 to 332 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 52% for all experiments.

Lloyd, R.C.

1986-12-01

339

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic materi...

M. L. Meyer

1991-01-01

340

METHOD OF DISSOLVING MASSIVE PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Massive plutonium can be dissolved in a hot mixture of concentrated nitric acid and a small quantity of hydrofluoric acid. A preliminary oxidation with water under superatmospheric pressure at 140 to 150 deg C is advantageous

Facer, J.F.; Lyon, W.L.

1960-06-28

341

Plutonium Diffusivity in Compacted Bentonite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement on plutonium diffusivity in water-saturated compacted bentonite was carried out. Representative specimens of sodium bentonite were taken from Tsukinuno and Kuroishi mines situated in northeast Japan. Tsukinuno bentonite was divided into three ...

K. Idemitsu K. Ishiguro Y. Yusa N. Sasaki N. Tsunoda

1989-01-01

342

TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

Waber, J.T.

1960-02-23

343

Rapid Nondestructive Plutonium Isotopic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for plutonium isotopic measurements have been evaluated for nuclear safeguards inventory verification. A mobile, real-time, nondestructive assay, gamma-ray spectrometric measurement system has been assembled, moved and operated at several nuclear ...

J. E. Fager F. P. Brauer

1978-01-01

344

Interspinous process segmental instrumentation with bone-button-wire for correction of scoliosis.  

PubMed

From May 1985 to May 1988, 55 patients with scoliosis were given interspinous process segmental spinal instrumentation with bone button-wire. The Harrington distraction rod and Luque's rod were placed separately in the concave and convex sides of the curvature fixed with bone button-wire. The fixations were subjected to biomechanical analysis, and the patients were followed up for an average of 18 months with satisfactory results. The curves were corrected from 69.4 degrees to 33.2 degrees, with a corrective rate of 47.8%. The merits of this procedure lie in (1) no injury to the spinal cord and minimal neurological complications, (2) strong fixation for correcting deformities, and (3) minimal blood loss and short time for operation. PMID:2123772

Zhang, G B; Li, Z R; Wei, X R

1990-09-01

345

Suture button suspensionplasty after arthroscopic hemitrapeziectomy for treatment of thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.  

PubMed

A myriad of techniques for reconstruction of the arthritic thumb carpometacarpal joint have been described. In the modern era, there has been a push, driven by both clinicians and patients, for more rapid rehabilitation after these procedures. A majority of the historically described techniques require pinning of the thumb ray for 4 weeks. Suture button placement between the thumb and index ray metacarpals has been shown in biomechanical studies to effectively resist subsidence of the thumb ray. We describe a novel technique of using a suture button for suspensionplasty of the thumb ray after arthroscopic partial trapeziectomy. This technique allows for early mobilization and may offer a potential improvement on current techniques. Early results of use of this technique are encouraging, but well-conducted follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:20887938

Cox, Christopher A; Zlotolow, Dan A; Yao, Jeffrey

2010-10-01

346

[Modified tracheostomy management: a protocol for the application of stoma buttons in difficult decannulations].  

PubMed

Current approaches to decannulation management often fail to account for patients with combined swallowing and respiratory deficits. We expanded our existing weaning and decannulation protocol by adding an optional 3-day decannulation trial to evaluate readiness for decannulation. If a patient meets predefined test-decannulation criteria a tracheostomy button is inserted during a laryngoscopic examination and left in situ for up to 3 days. Before, during and after button insertion the patient's respiratory function and saliva management are closely monitored before the decision for or against permanent decannulation is made. We present evaluation criteria, protocols and flow-charts illustrating the 3-day decannulation trial as well as 2 case studies. PMID:22760596

Frank, U; Czepluch, C; Sticher, H; Mtzener, F; Schlaegel, W; Mder, M

2012-07-03

347

METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOEpatents

C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

1959-11-17

348

Arthroscopic treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation with double flip button  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal treatment for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation is still controversial, both in terms of indications and\\u000a surgical technique. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of 16 patients affected by acute AC joint dislocation (type IIIV)\\u000a and arthroscopically treated with a coracoclavicular double flip button are presented. Despite the excellent clinical results\\u000a both in terms of Constant score (mean 97 points)

L. Murena; Ettore Vulcano; C. Ratti; L. Cecconello; P. R. Rolla; M. F. Surace

2009-01-01

349

Optimization of Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushrooms Using Response-Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous) were dried in a microwave-vacuum dryer up to a final moisture content of around 6% (d.b.). The effect of microwave power level (115 to 285W), system pressure (6.5 to 23.5kPa), and slice thickness (6 to 14mm) on drying efficiency and some quality attributes (color, texture, rehydration ratio, and sensory attributes) of dehydrated mushrooms were analyzed by

S. K. Giri; Suresh Prasad

2007-01-01

350

Anti-Aromatase Activity of Phytochemicals in White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous) are a potential breast cancer chemopreventive agent, as they suppress aromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of mushroom extracts in the estrogen receptor-positive\\/aromatase-positive MCF-7aro cell line in vitro and in vivo. Mushroom extract decreased testosterone-induced cell proliferation in MCF-7aro cells but had no effect on MCF-10A, a nontumorigenic cell line. Most

Shiuan Chen; Sheryl Phung; Jing Jing Ye; Sum Ling Kwok; Gayle E. Shrode; Martha Belury; Lynn S. Adams; Dudley Williams

2006-01-01

351

Dietary intake of Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom accelerates salivary immunoglobulin A secretion in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) acts as the first line of adaptive humoral immune defense at mucosal surfaces. A lack of SIgA or the inability to produce antigen-specific SIgA can lead to an increased risk of infections. Dietary intake may improve mucosal immunity by accelerating SIgA secretion. This study investigates the effect of dietary intake of Agaricus bisporus white button

Sang Chul Jeong; Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi; Gerald Pang

352

Probabilistic shelf life assessment of white button mushrooms through sensorial properties analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory test was carried out on different batches of white button mushrooms stored at various temperatures (5, 10, 15C and 3.5C control) for 57days to find the effect of temperature and storage time on the sensory characteristics. Acceptance or rejection of the mushrooms was used to evaluate the shelf life of the product. Sensory data was modelled using mixed-effects logistic

Debabandya Mohapatra; Zuberi M. Bira; Jesus M. Frias; Joe P. Kerry; Fernanda A. Rodrigues

2011-01-01

353

Modeling Shrinkage and Density Changes During Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrinkage characteristics and apparent density of whole button mushrooms were determined at various moisture content levels (ranging from 5 to 92% wet basis) during microwave-vacuum drying at two different power (150 and 250 W) and pressure (10 and 20 kPa) levels. The above properties during convective hot air drying at 60C were also measured for comparison. In both microwave-vacuum and

S. K. Giri; Suresh Prasad

2006-01-01

354

Comparative linkage mapping in the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus provides foundation for breeding management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the feasibility of marker-assisted selection in mushrooms, a comparative mapping study between two connected populations\\u000a of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus was performed. The first mapping population had been used already for the construction of the A. bisporus reference linkage map. In the present study, a new linkage map based on the segregation analysis of a second

Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Rmi Dufourcq; Cathy Spataro; Christine Devesse; Aurlien Broly; Anne Rodier; Jean-Michel Savoie

2011-01-01

355

Nocardiopsis yanglingensis sp. nov., a thermophilic strain isolated from a compost of button mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain named A18 was recovered from a compost of button mushrooms. It was characterized using a polyphasic approach. On\\u000a the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, it belonged to the genus Nocardiopsis and was most closely related to the type strains of Nocardiopsis flavescens (sequence similarity 98.0%), Nocardiopsis prasina (97.5%), Nocardiopsis metallicus (97.4%), Nocardiopsis alba (97.3%). The combination

Xia YanHua; Hua Yan; Zenan Liu; Xiaodong Liu; Haiping Mo; Liping Zhang

356

Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Organic Acid-Treated Button Mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporous )  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effort was made to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acids to improve the quality and shelf life of button mushroom\\u000a (Agaricus bisporous). Shelf life of malic acid-treated mushrooms was improved to a significant level (p?

Richu Singla; Abhijit Ganguli; Moushumi Ghosh

357

Abnormal meiosis in bisporic strains of white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) imbach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formerly developed method of microspreading of mushroom basidial nuclei was applied to study meiotic prophase I in bisporic\\u000a white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains. Meiotic recombination and assemblage of axial structures (axial elements and synaptonemal complexes) of chromosomes\\u000a in meiotic prophase I are interrelated. It is known that the frequency of meiotic recombination is reduced in the bisporic\\u000a A.

I. S. Mazheika; O. L. Kolomiets; Yu. T. Dyakov; Yu. F. Bogdanov

2006-01-01

358

Prediction of white button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) moisture content using hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imaging is a non-contact, non-destructive technique that combines spectroscopy and imaging to extract information\\u000a from a sample. This technology has recently emerged as a powerful technique for food analysis. In this study, the potential\\u000a of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to predict white button mushroom moisture content (MC) was investigated. Mushrooms were subjected\\u000a to dehydration at 451C for different time periods

Masoud Taghizadeh; Aoife Gowen; Colm P. ODonnell

2009-01-01

359

Determination of state-of-discharge of zinc-silver oxide button cells. I. Galvanostatic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galvanostatic measurements have been performed on numerous types of Zn-Ag2O button cells, including low and high drain versions of multiple sizes with various lot numbers from six manufacturers throughout the world. The aim was to find a fast, reliable, nondestructive state-of-discharge indicator. The passivation time constant,it1\\/2, was found to decrease with increasing state-of-discharge. A linear relationship was usually found between

Jean-Paul Randin

1985-01-01

360

G-shaped wearable cuff button antenna for 2.45 GHZ ISM band applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the study of the radiation performance of a single band wearable cuff button antenna is presented. The radiation element is designed as a G-shaped structure excited by a printed microstrip feeding line placed on a RT\\/duroid microwave material to operate at 2.45 GHz for WLAN\\/Bluetooth applications with omni-directional radiation patterns that are required for data transmission with

Laila K. Hady Salman; Larbi Talbi

2010-01-01

361

Postharvest Hardness and Color Evolution of White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality evaluation of mushrooms was studied by storing fresh white\\u000a button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) for 6 to 8 d, at various\\u000a controlled temperature conditions (3.5 to 15 degrees C) and measuring\\u000a the instrumental textural hardness and color of the mushroom cap for\\u000a different product batches. A nonlinear mixed effect Weibull model was\\u000a used to describe mushroom cap texture and

Debabandya Mohapatra; Zuberi M. Bira; Joseph Kerry; Jesus Maria Frias; Fernanda A. Rodrigues

2010-01-01

362

A risk comparison for startup of plutonium thermal stabilization operations  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium production operations at the Rocky Flats Plant were curtailed in 1989 by the Department of Energy so that a new operating contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats Inc., could assess the safety of resuming plutonium operations and implement a new safety culture consistent with nuclear reactor practices. In 1992, the Plant`s mission was changed to decommissioning, decontamination, and environmental restoration. In order to support this new mission, a safety analysis for Building 707 required rebaselining of the risk of resuming thermal stabilization of pyrophoric forms of plutonium by electrical heating in an air environment, as well as other activities to support the building in a standby and interim storage mode. The general approach was to update the safety analysis that rebaselined risks from fires, explosions, spills, criticalities, and seismic events for the previous production mission. Event tree analyses of the risk dominant scenarios were modified to establish accident sequence frequencies for the new mission. Radiological source terms were revised to reflect the quantities of plutonium at risk for the new mission. While the total amount of plutonium metal is reduced due to the mission change, the amount of plutonium oxide powder is expected to be greater. Radiological consequences and risks were analyzed with the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) computer code for the dose to the maximum offsite individual and the latent cancer fatality risks to the population within 10 and 50 miles. Risk information was presented in terms of mean risk estimates and risk curves. A comparison of risks was then made to the NUREG-1150 risk curves from severe accident analysis of power reactors and to the Department of Energy SEN-35-91 quantitative safety goals. Also, a comparison was made to the expected number of fatalities caused by commercial and residential building collapses due to the seismic event itself in populated areas around the Rocky Flats Plant.

Elia, F. Jr. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States); Foppe, T.L.; Stahlnecker, E. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1993-07-01

363

APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO). The PuO will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the

M. Jones; D. Diprete; B. Wiedenman

2012-01-01

364

LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

Nash, C.

2012-02-03

365

System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

NONE

1996-05-08

366

BIOLOGICALLY-MEDIATED REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

SciTech Connect

An innovative biological treatment technology successfully reduced plutonium concentration in soil from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by over 80%. The final volume of plutonium-contaminated material that required disposal was reduced by over 90%. These results, achieved by an independent testing laboratory, confirm the results reported previously using NTS soil. In the previous test a 2530-gram sample of soil (350 to 400 pCi/g Pu) resulted in production of 131 grams of sludge (6,320 pCi/ g Pu) and a treated soil containing 72 pCi/g of Pu. The technology is based on the biological acidification of the soil and subsequent removal of the plutonium and other dissolved metals by a low volume, low energy water leaching process. The leachate is treated in a sulfate-reducing bioreactor to precipitate the metals as metal sulfides. Water may be recycled as process water or disposed since the treatment process removes over 99% of the dissolved metals including plutonium from the water. The plutonium is contained as a stable sludge that can be containerized for final disposal. Full-scale process costs have been developed which employ widely used treatment technologies such as aerated soil piles (biopiles) and bioreactors. The process costs were less than $10 per cubic foot, which were 40 to 50% lower than the baseline costs for the treatment of the NTS soil. The equipment and materials for water and sludge treatment and soil handling are commercially available.

Jerger, Douglas E., Ph.D.,; Alperin, Edward S., QEP,; Holmes, Robert G., Ph.D.

2003-02-27

367

Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and kinetics of helium in the metal lattice as well as ab initio calculations of the disposition of gallium in the fcc plutonium lattice and its resulting effects on phase stability. Experimentally this project aimed to establish experimental capabilities crucial to the prediction of helium effects in metals, such as transmission electron microscopy, thermal helium effusion, and the development of a laser-driven mini-flyer for understanding the role of helium and associated defects on shock response of plutonium surrogates.

Stevens, M.F.; Zocco, T.; Albers, R.; Becker, J.D.; Walter, K.; Cort, B.; Paisley, D.; Nastasi, M.

1998-12-31

368

Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

NONE

1996-11-01

369

PLUTONIUM PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation of the hexagonal structure of plutomium peroxide is an ; excellent concentration and purification step in plutouium metal preparation. ; Formation of an undesirable cubic structure is avoided by proper control of ; process variables. (auth);

J. A. Leary; A. N. Morgan; W. J. Maraman

1959-01-01

370

New reagent for uranium - plutonium partitioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have investigated the feasibility of achieving uranium-plutonium partition of the Purex Process by using a new reagent: Uranous nitrate - hydroxylamine nitrate. Laboratory test tube studies and uranium-plutonium partitioning runs have shown that pluton...

M. Germain B. Gillet J. Y. Pasquiou

1990-01-01

371

Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates.

Tusler, L.A.

1995-05-31

372

Plutonium focus area  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-08-01

373

A Proteomic Approach to Identification of Plutonium Binding Proteins in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Plutonium can enter the body through different routes and remains there for decades; however its specific biochemical interactions are poorly defined. We, for the first time, have studied plutonium-binding proteins using a metalloproteomic approach with rat PC12 cells. A combination of immobilized metal ion chromatography, 2D gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were employed to analyze potential plutonium-binding proteins. Our results show that several proteins from PC12 cells show affinity towards Pu4+-NTA (plutonium bound to nitrilotriacetic acid). Proteins from seven different spots in the 2D gel were identified. In contrast to the previously known plutonium-binding proteins transferrin and ferritin, which bind ferric ions, most identified proteins in our experiment are known to bind calcium, magnesium, or divalent transition metal ions. The identified plutonium interacting proteins also have functional roles in downregulation of apoptosis and other pro-proliferative processes. MetaCore analysis based on this group of proteins produced a pathway with a statistically significant association with development of neoplastic diseases.

Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E.; He, Chuan; Jensen, Mark P.

2013-01-01

374

SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE  

SciTech Connect

Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

2009-11-10

375

A proteomic approach to identification of plutonium-binding proteins in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Plutonium can enter the body through different routes and remains there for decades; however its specific biochemical interactions are poorly defined. We, for the first time, have studied plutonium-binding proteins using a metalloproteomic approach with rat PC12 cells. A combination of immobilized metal ion chromatography, 2D gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry was employed to analyze potential plutonium-binding proteins. Our results show that several proteins from PC12 cells show affinity towards Pu(4+)-NTA (plutonium bound to nitrilotriacetic acid). Proteins from seven different spots in the 2D gel were identified. In contrast to the previously known plutonium-binding proteins transferrin and ferritin, which bind ferric ions, most identified proteins in our experiment are known to bind calcium, magnesium, or divalent transition metal ions. The identified plutonium interacting proteins also have functional roles in downregulation of apoptosis and other pro-proliferative processes. MetaCore analysis based on this group of proteins produced a pathway with a statistically significant association with development of neoplastic diseases. PMID:22146473

Aryal, Baikuntha P; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E; He, Chuan; Jensen, Mark P

2011-12-03

376

Actinides: from heavy fermions to plutonium metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

The actinide elements mark the emergence of 5f electrons. The f electrons possess sufficiently unusual characteristics that their participation in atomic binding often result in dramatic changes in properties. This provides an excellent opportunity to study the question of localization of electrons; a question that is paramount in predicting the physical and chemical properties of d and f electron transition metals. The transition region between localized (magnetic) and itinerant (often superconducting) behavior provides for many interesting phenomena such as structural instabilities (polymorphism), spin fluctuations, mixed valences, charge density waves, exceptional catalytic activity and hydrogen storage. This region offers most interesting behavior such as that exhibited by the actinide compounds UBe/sub 13/ and UPt/sub 3/. Both compounds are heavy-fermion superconductors in which both magnetic and superconducting behavior exist in the same electrons. The consequences of f-electron bonding (which appears greatest at Plutonium) show dramatic effects on phase stability, alloying behavior, phase transformations and mechanical behavior.

Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Hecker, S.S.

1984-01-01

377

PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-09-01

378

Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)

2001-02-07

379

Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

Kriikku

2000-01-01

380

Production and destination of British civil plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of plutonium produced by the Magnox reactors belonging to the CEGB and SSEB is estimated using three different methods which give similar results for total plutonium production. The difference between this total and the UK civil plutonium inventory is 6.3 +\\/- 0.8 tonne. This balance was apparently sent to the United States in exchange for fissile material for

K. W. J. Barnham; D. Hart; J. Nelson; R. A. Stevens

1985-01-01

381

The biological hazards of plutonium.  

PubMed

The health hazards associated with exposure to low levels of plutonium are reviewed since, though the world may escape a nuclear war, there may be virtually permanent contamination of the biosphere by plutonium from a number of sources. It would seem that it is possible to offer workers in the nuclear industry an acceptable level of protection but that low levels of pollution around such sites may build up until there is a hazard for people in the vicinity. The cases of childhood leukaemia found in the vicinity of the Sellafield facility may or may not be related to contamination in the area; however, plutonium is a potent carcinogen, and the foetus seems to be particularly vulnerable to it. The disposal of nuclear waste must be monitored more closely, and it is suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency should take on this added responsibility. PMID:8047050

Freeman, S E; Ormiston-Smith, H M

382

CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS  

DOEpatents

A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

1960-08-23

383

Historical review of plutonium storage container failures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As part of the DOE Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment, an investigation was made to characterize the can failures at LLNL. Since the LLNL Plutonium Facility was opened for plutonium operations in 1961, there have only been three can failures that could be remembered by plutonium handlers, vault workers, chemical analysts, and material managers. Only one of these can failures was discovered during the processing of more than 606 packages containing plutonium as part of the LLNL Plutonium Inventory Reduction Program. A very low failure rate, especially since some of the 606 cans had been in storage for two to three decades. Two of the three containers that failed were made of aluminum and were packaged with 1.25 inch diameter plutonium metal spheres. The cans were split down their entire length and the plutonium metal was heavily oxidized. The secondary gallon container of the third package failure was found to be imploded in the storage vault. Upon closer examination, the plastic bags around the inner pint can were badly melted and the lid on the can was loose. Like the other two failures, the metal was heavily oxidized. In all three of the can failures, it is theorized that air entered the inner can through incomplete sealing and the oxygen in the air then reacted with the plutonium metal to produce plutonium oxide. Air was supplied to the inner can by permeation through the surrounding plastic bag. The air could have either diffused through the bag or could have been pumped through the twisted and taped ends of the inner most bag. The inner bags and cans were packaged into second bags and cans in an air atmosphere; therefore, trapping air inside the packaging configuration that could have passed through the bags. A failure of the inner can integrity would be necessary for the air to pass into it. In all three LLNL can failure cases, it is believed that the seal of the inner can was not sufficient to prevent a breach of the can environment.

Dodson, K.E.

1994-05-01

384

Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

Erickson, S.

2000-07-19

385

PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

1958-01-01

386

Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions  

SciTech Connect

Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig.

Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

1991-12-31

387

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

SciTech Connect

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO{sub 2} fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle.

Newman, D.F.

1993-06-01

388

Plutonium immobilization form evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

Gray, L. W., LLNL

1998-02-13

389

Reactions of plutonium and uranium with water: Kinetics and potential hazards  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry and kinetics of reactions between water and the metals and hydrides of plutonium and uranium are described in an effort to consolidate information for assessing potential hazards associated with handling and storage. New experimental results and data from literature sources are presented. Kinetic dependencies on pH, salt concentration, temperature and other parameters are reviewed. Corrosion reactions of the metals in near-neutral solutions produce a fine hydridic powder plus hydrogen. The corrosion rate for plutonium in sea water is a thousand-fold faster than for the metal in distilled water and more than a thousand-fold faster than for uranium in sea water. Reaction rates for immersed hydrides of plutonium and uranium are comparable and slower than the corrosion rates for the respective metals. However, uranium trihydride is reported to react violently if a quantity greater than twenty-five grams is rapidly immersed in water. The possibility of a similar autothermic reaction for large quantities of plutonium hydride cannot be excluded. In addition to producing hydrogen, corrosion reactions convert the massive metals into material forms that are readily suspended in water and that are aerosolizable and potentially pyrophoric when dry. Potential hazards associated with criticality, environmental dispersal, spontaneous ignition and explosive gas mixtures are outlined.

Haschke, J.M.

1995-12-01

390

Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)|

Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

1974-01-01

391

Japanese utilities` plutonium utilization program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan`s 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance

Matsuo; Yuichiro

1996-01-01

392

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

Meyer, M.L.

1991-01-01

393

Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

Meyer, M.L.

1991-12-31

394

Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

1974-01-01

395

Haptic stylus and empirical studies on braille, button, and texture display.  

PubMed

This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor. PMID:18317520

Kyung, Ki-Uk; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Junseok

2008-01-01

396

Plutonium flowsheet development in miniature mixer-settlers  

SciTech Connect

Initial runs were completed in a new solvent extraction facility that has been built for testing coprocessing flowsheets with simulated LWR and FBR fuel solutions. The equipment, which is assembled in glove boxes, includes three 16-stage miniature mixer-settler banks with associated in-line monitors, pumping equipment, and sampling apparatus. Following shakedown runs with solutions containing uranium only, two flowsheet test runs were made with a simulated LWR fuel solution (U/Pu = 100). The solution was fed to an extraction-scrub bank, where 30% tributyl phosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent was used to coextract uranium and plutonium. The extract was fed to a second mixer-settler bank, where all of the plutonium was stripped into an aqueous product stream using hydroxylamine nitrate for plutonium reduction; a controlled fraction of the uranium was simultaneously stripped to produce a U/Pu ratio of {similar_to}2. The amount of the uranium stripped with the plutonium was regulated by careful control of an organic backscrub stream. Finally, the residual uranium in the solvent was stripped in the third mixer-settler bank. The success of the experiments depended on precise control of very low liquid flow rates, and on in-line monitors which indicated the uranium or total heavy-metal concentrations. The most useful in-line device was the Mettler-Paar density meter, from which metal concentrations could be determined to within {similar_to}1 g/L. A miniature spectrophotometer also gave promising results for uranium analysis. Preliminary use of a Hewlett-Packard data acquisition system was satisfactory; recorded variables were temperature, solution density, liquid flow rates, and liquid levels.

Hannaford, B.A.; Davis, G.D.

1981-05-01

397

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02

398

EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.

Hallman, D

2003-12-18

399

Laboratory-Scale Evaluations of Alternative Plutonium Precipitation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compare...

L. L. Martella M. T. Saba G. K. Campbell

1984-01-01

400

Vacuum Distillation of Americium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200 exp 0 C and 10 exp -6 torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal we...

J. W. Berry J. B. Knighton C. A. Nannie

1982-01-01

401

Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the de...

R. D. Scheele T. D. Cooper S. A. Jones J. R. Ewalt J. A. Compton D. S. Trent M. K. Edwards A. E. Kozelisky P. A. Scott M. J. Minette

2005-01-01

402

A comparison of the design of Russian and US containers for plutonium oxide storage.  

SciTech Connect

The safe storage of plutonium in the form of plutonium oxide (Pu02) is a major concern in countries with significant plutonium inventories . The goal is to stabilize and package oxide in such a way that the possibility of leaks and failures are unlikely. Currently in Russia, Pu02 is stored 1 at the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC, Zheleznogorsk) and at the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC, former Tomsk-7). (Plutonium metal is stored at PA 'Mayak' and is not addressed here) . Current storage containers for Russian Pu02 do not meet modern safety requirements . Further, every three years the gaskets have to be replaced . The containers can become over pressurized due to radiation processes and this results in possible container failures 1 . In the US, Pu02 is present at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites 2 . US reports of long time storage of Pu02 show a few cases of storage container failures 2 among thousand of intact cases. Major causes of malfunction are metal oxidation in non-airtight packages and gas pressurization from inadequately stabilized oxide . Because of these failures the US DOE adopted a standard 3 for stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing material that addresses these vulnerabilities .

Mason, C. F. V. (Caroline F. V.); Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Wedman, Douglas E.; Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Erickson, R. M. (Randall M.); Hansen, W. J. (Walter J.); Roberson, G. D.

2003-01-01

403

Oxygen Potential of Uranium--Plutonium Oxide as Determined by Controlled-Atmosphere Thermogravimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxygen-to-metal atom ratio, or O/M, of solid solution uranium-plutonium oxide reactor fuel is a measure of the concentration of crystal defects in the oxide which affect many fuel properties, particularly, fuel oxygen potential. Fabrication of a high-...

G. C. Swanson

1975-01-01

404

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE BASIC CHEMISTRY OF PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation-reduction potentials of plutonium in acid solutions were ; determined enabling the estimation of equilbrium relationships among the aqueous ; plutoniumn species from electromotive force, spectrophotomet-ric, and kinetic ; data. Advances in the chemistry of americium and curium included the discovery ; and isolation of new valence states and characterization of the metals and ; compounds. The results of

S. W. Rabideau; L. B. Asprey; T. K. Keenan; T. W. Newton

1958-01-01

405

Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fi...

D. S. Poa L. Burris R. K. Steunenberg Z. Tomczuk

1989-01-01

406

The analysis of plutonium uranium carbide-iron cermets by electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods have been developed for the direct determination of the main metallic constituents of 15 w\\/o (Pu, U) C 10 w\\/o Fe cermets. Samples are dissolved in nitric acid, followed by wet oxidation with a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids to destroy organic matter. Plutonium is determined by a potentiometric titration procedure based upon the reduction of

G. W. C. Milner; A. J. Wood; G. Phillips; G. J. Weldrick

1966-01-01

407

Plutonium Residue Recovery (PuRR) Project: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this quarter, process development activities were concentrated on methods for recycling the salt and alloy reagents used by PuRR. Promising techniques were identified for further investigation, development and refinement. Processes for the recycling of salts, in particular, were also shown to be of potential benefit in reducing waste streams in the current plutonium metal production cycle. At Argonne National

L. C. Pittenger; R. M. Alire; M. S. Coops; J. H. Landrum; R. E. Priest; D. S. Thompson; D. W. Gregg; R. D. Pierce; G. K. Johnson; T. P. Mulcahey

1988-01-01

408

Dropping of an EndoButton into the knee joint 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament repair using proximal fixation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most discussed subjects regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair methods is femoral fixation. One of the materials often used for fixation in recent years is the EndoButton (Acufex Microsurgical, Mansfield, MA), which provides rapid and secure fixation. Although many reports about femoral fixation with EndoButton have been published, insufficient information is available on possible complications. We have

Servet Tunay; Erbil O?uz; Cemil Yildiz; Hseyin zkan; Vecihi Kirdemir

2004-01-01

409

Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.  

PubMed

The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries. PMID:21341700

Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

2011-02-22

410

PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS  

DOEpatents

A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

Thompson, S.G.

1960-04-26

411

10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section 71.63...Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in...

2013-01-01

412

FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} is also likely to be present in deposits and scales that have formed on the steel surfaces of the tank. Over the operational period and after closure of Tank 18, Ostwald ripening has and will continue to transform PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} to a more crystalline form of plutonium dioxide, PuO{sub 2(c)}. After bulk waste removal and heel retrieval operations, the free hydroxide concentration decreased and the carbonate concentration in the free liquid and solids increased. Consequently, a portion of the PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} has likely been converted to a hydroxy-carbonate complex such as Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)}. or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}. Like PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)}, Ostwald ripening of Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)} or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} would be expected to occur to produce a more crystalline form of the plutonium carbonate complex. Due to the high alkalinity and low carbonate concentration in the grout formulation, it is expected that upon interaction with the grout, the plutonium carbonate complexes will transform back into plutonium hydroxide. Although crystalline plutonium dioxide is the more stable thermodynamic state of Pu(IV), the low temperature and high water content of the waste during the operating and heel removal periods in Tank 18 have limited the transformation of the plutonium into crystalline plutonium dioxide. During the tank closure period of thousands of years, transformation of the plutonium into a more crystalline plutonium dioxide form would be expected. However, the continuing presence of water, reaction with water radiolysis products, and low temperatures will limit the transformation, and will likely maintain an amorphous Pu(OH){sub 4} or PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} form on the surface of any crystalline plutonium dioxide produced after tank closure. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) measurements of Tank 18 residues are recommended to confirm coordination environments of the plutonium. If the presence of PuO(CO{sub 3}){sub (am,hyd)} is confirmed by XAS, it is recommended that e

Hobbs, D.

2012-02-24

413

Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

1997-10-01

414

Structures of plutonium coordination compounds: A review of past work, recent single crystal x-ray diffraction results, and what we're learning about plutonium coordination chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compounds we have isolated and characterized include plutonium(III) and plutonium(IV) bound by ligands with a range of donor types and denticity (halide, phosphine oxide, hydroxamate, amine, sulfide) in a variety of coordination geometries. For example, we have obtained the first X-ray structure of Pu(III) complexed by a soft donor ligand. Using a ``one pot'' synthesis beginning with Pu metal strips and iodine in acetonitrile and adding trithiacyclononane we isolated the complex, PuI3(9S3)(MeCN)2 (Figure 1). On the other end of the coordination chemistry spectrum, we have obtained the first single crystal structure of the Pu(IV) hexachloro anion (Figure 2). Although this species has been used in plutonium purification via anion exchange chromatography for decades, the bond distances and exact structure were not known. We have also characterized the first plutonium-biomolecule complex, Pu(IV) bound by the siderophore desferrioxamine E.In this presentation we will review the preparation, structures, and importance of previously known coordination compounds and of those we have recently isolated. We will show the coordination chemistry of plutonium is rich and varied, well worth additional exploration. .

Neu, M. P.; Matonic, J. H.; Smith, D. M.; Scott, B. L.

2000-07-01

415

Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

Kriikku, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

1998-05-01

416

Fabrication of Fuel Pellets from Plutonium Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel based on plutonium dioxide, which is sintered at high temperature and is produced at the Industrial Association Mayak, is supposed to be investigated in an upgraded IBR-2M reactor (Joint Institute of Nuclear Research). Oxalate precipitation of plutonium dioxide powder is done from a nitric-acid solution of plutonium with concentration from 7 to 24 g\\/liter. The oxalate hexahydrate Pu(C 2

A. I. Bobylev; S. N. Elsukov; S. I. Rovnyi; I. V. Manakov; A. V. Kobyakov; M. V. Pechenkina

2004-01-01

417

WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE  

DOEpatents

S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

1958-11-11

418

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

Potratz, H.A.

1958-12-16

419

Plutonium Isotopic Measurements by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nondestructive assay of plutonium is important as a safeguard tool in accounting for stategic nuclear material. Several nondestructive assay techniques, e.g., calorimetry and spontaneous fission assay detectors, require a knowledge of plutonium and americium isotopic ratios to convert their raw data to total grams of plutonium. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241

Francis X. Haas; John F. Lemming

1976-01-01

420

Nocardiopsis yanglingensis sp. nov., a thermophilic strain isolated from a compost of button mushrooms.  

PubMed

A strain named A18 was recovered from a compost of button mushrooms. It was characterized using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, it belonged to the genus Nocardiopsis and was most closely related to the type strains of Nocardiopsis flavescens (sequence similarity 98.0%), Nocardiopsis prasina (97.5%), Nocardiopsis metallicus (97.4%), Nocardiopsis alba (97.3%). The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the proposal that strain A18 represents a new species of the genus Nocardiopsis, for which the name Nocardiopsis yanglingensis sp. nov. was proposed (type strain A18(T)=KCTC 19723(T)=CCTCC 209063(T)). PMID:21671196

Yan, Xia; Yan, Hua; Liu, Zenan; Liu, Xiaodong; Mo, Haiping; Zhang, Liping

2011-06-14

421

The chlorination of plutonium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the conversion of PuO to PuCl with a number of chlorinating agents, sources of PuO, and reaction conditions, including temperature. We examined Cl, HCl, CCl, Cl-CCl, and HCl-CCl as potential chlorinating agents. Our study showed tyhat Cl-CCl was the superior chlorinating agent. Using this agent, low-fired PuO--formed by calcining plutonium (III) oxalate at temperatures below 500\\/degree\\/C--is more reactive

C. Snyder; M. H. West; M. D. Ferran; K. W. Fife

1988-01-01

422

Plutonium transmutation in thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The HELIOS spectral code was used to study the application of the thorium fuel cycle with plutonium as a supporting fissile material in a once-through scenario of the light water reactors PWR and VVER-440 (Russian design). Our analysis was focused on the plutonium transmutation potential and the plutonium radiotoxicity course of hypothetical thorium-based cycles for current nuclear power reactors. The paper shows a possibility to transmute about 50% of plutonium in analysed reactors. Positive influence on radiotoxicity after 300 years and later was pointed out. (authors)

Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Breza, Juraj [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)]|[VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Darilek, Petr [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

423

METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

1959-10-01

424

Assay of low-level plutonium effluents  

SciTech Connect

In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L.

Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

1981-01-01

425

OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

1958-06-10

426

Study and Analysis of the Stress State in a Ceramic, Button-Head, Tensile Specimen  

SciTech Connect

The final results are reported for a study to identify and correct the causes of nongage-section failures (notably button-head failures) in ceramic tensile specimens observed in several laboratories. Numerical modeling of several candidate specimen gripping systems has shown inherent stress concentrations near the specimen button head at which the maximum stress may approach 75 to 100% of the gage-section stress for certain grip conditions. Empirical comparisons of both tapered- and straight-collet gripping systems revealed compromises in both systems. The straight-collet system, with deformable collets, is simpler to use but produces statistically significant greater average percent bending for all tests than those produced for the tapered-collet system, which is slightly more difficult to use. Empirical tensile tests of {approx}50 aluminium oxide and {approx}50 silicon nitride specimens were conducted to evaluate the loading capability of both gripping systems, the percent bending in each system, and the potential of consistently producing successful test results. These tests revealed that, due to variations in individual specimens or the individual specimen/grip interfaces, neither of the gripping systems can consistently produce bending of less than 3 to 4% at failure although occasional values of {approx}0.5% bending were attained. Refinements of grinding procedures and dimensional measurement techniques have shown critical details in both the practices and consistency of machining necessary for achieving the dimensional tolerances while minimizing subsurface damage. Numerical integration techniques indicate that up to a consistent 5.0% bending during fast-fracture tests can be tolerated before large influences are detected in the determination of the Weibull modulus and the Weibull characteristic strength.

Jenkins, M.G.

1991-01-01

427

Quantitative genetics to dissect the fungalfungal interaction between Lecanicillium verticillium and the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecanicillium fungicola (formerly Verticillium fungicola) is responsible for dry bubble disease in the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Selection for resistance to this pathogen raises an important challenge for mushroom breeders. We have investigated the inheritance of resistance to dry bubble under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments, using a progeny of 89 hybrids derived from an intervarietal A. bisporus

Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Anne Rodier; Thierry Rousseau; Michle Largeteau; Jean-Michel Savoie

2011-01-01

428

Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a

Bucholtz, Kevin M.

2011-01-01

429

Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushrooms on host resistance to influenza infection and immune function in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously we showed that mice fed white button mushrooms (WBM) had enhanced immune functions known to help the bodys antiviral defense. In this study, we tested if WBM could afford protection against viral infection. Young (4-mo) and old (22-mo) C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0, 2 per cen...

430

Comparison of Four-Cursor Buttons vs Joystick to Access Computerized Technical Information from an Integrated Maintenance Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the use of four-cursor buttons versus a joystick device to present technical order information on a portable maintenance aid computer for aircraft technicians in a maintenance environment. Studies to date have ve...

G. E. Streff R. H. Gundel

1992-01-01

431

Hot-Button Issues for Teachers: What Every Educator Needs to Know About Leadership, Testing, Textbooks, Vouchers, and More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the tragedies of American education is that so many teachers do not understand or are unaware of educational issues and how they impact on their profession. There is a gap between teacher perceptions and reality and this book is a first step in closing that gap. Hot-Button Issues for Teachers is a timely, comprehensive book that addresses

Vairo, Philip D.; Marcus, Sheldon; Weiner, Max

2007-01-01

432

Plutonium: The density-functional-theory point of view  

SciTech Connect

Density-functional theory (DFT) is a remarkably successful tool for describing many metals throughout the Periodic Table. Here we present the results of this theory when applied to plutonium metal, the perhaps most complex and difficult-to-model metal of all. The fundamental product of DFT is the ground-state total energy. In the case of Pu, we show that DFT produces total energies that can predict the complex phase diagram accurately. Focusing on the {delta} phase, we show that DFT electronic structure is consistent with measured photoemission spectra. The observed non-magnetic state of {delta}-Pu could possibly be explained in DFT by spin moments, likely disordered, that are magnetically neutralized by anti-parallel aligned orbital moments. As an alternative to this non-magnetic model an extension of DFT with enhanced orbital polarization is presented in which magnetism can be suppressed.

Soderlind, P; Landa, A

2008-10-30

433

Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes  

SciTech Connect

Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

Enriquez, A. E. (Alejandro E.); Matonic, J. H. (John H.); Scott, B. L. (Brian L.); Neu, M. P. (Mary P.)

2002-01-01

434

Fabrication of aluminum nitride crucibles for molten salt and plutonium compatibility studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this research was to fabricate a calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride crucible and determine the compatibility of this crucible with molten chloride salts and plutonium metal in the DOR process. Calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride was preferred over yttrium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride because of (1) the presence of calcium chloride, calcium oxide, and calcium metal

1991-01-01

435

Expected behavior of plutonium in the IFR fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled reactor that will consist initially of a U-Zr alloy core in which the enriched uranium will be replaced gradually by plutonium bred in a uranium blanket. The plutonium is concentrated to the required level by extraction from the molten blanket material with a CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing MgCl2 as an oxidant (halide slagging). The CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing dissolved PuCl3 and UCl3 is added to the core process where fission products are removed by electrorefining, using a liquid cadmium anode, a metal cathode, and a LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2-BaCl2 molten salt electrolyte. The product is recovered as a metallic deposit on the cathode. The Halide slagging step is operated at about 1250 deg and the electrorefining step at about 450 C. These processes are expected to give low fission-product decontamination factors of the order of 100.

Steunenberg, R. K.; Johnson, I.

436

Delta to alpha prime transformation of plutonium during microhardness testing  

SciTech Connect

Metallic plutonium is a complex material that can exist in six allotropic phases at ambient pressures; and under stress, it can transform martensitically from the ductile face centered cubic delta phase to the brittle monoclinic alpha prime phase. This investigation found that the pressures generated during microhardness indentation are sufficient for the transformation to occur. Micrographs showing the transformation as well as pressure calculations are presented in support for this finding. Also, based upon the amount of material displaced by the indenter, it was determined that there is at least a 16% error in published hardness values of the delta phase that can be attributed to the delta to alpha prime transformation.

Pereyra, Ramiro A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-16, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: rpereyra@lanl.gov

2008-11-15

437

Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

1983-12-01

438

Determination of natural actinides and plutonium in marine particulate material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural actinides ²²⁷Ac, ²²⁸Th, ²³°Th, ²³²Th, ²³⁴Th, ²³¹Pa, ²³⁸U, and ²³⁴U and the ..cap alpha..-emitting plutonium isotopes are determined in samples of suspended marine particulate material and sediments. Analysis involves total dissolution of the samples to allow equilibration of the natural isotopes with added isotope yield monitors followed by coprecipitation of hydrolyzable metals at pH 7 with natural Fe

Robert F. Anderson; Alan P. Fleer

1982-01-01

439

Assessment of plutonium storage safety issues at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) mission for utilization and storage of nuclear materials has recently changed as a result of the end of the ``Cold War`` era. Past and current plutonium storage practices largely reflect a temporary, in-process, or in-use storage condition which must now be changed to accommodate longer-term storage. This report summarizes information concerning current plutonium metal and oxide storage practices which was presented at the Office of Defense programs (DP) workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 26-27, 1993 and contained in responses to questions by DP-62 from the field organizations.

Not Available

1994-01-01

440

Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a postulated plutonium hydride burn  

SciTech Connect

A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a postulated chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures.

Crea, B.A.

1998-05-21

441

Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

2003-01-01

442

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

DOEpatents

The production of alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium are described. A halide salt of the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at 1300 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter to alloy directly with the beryllium. Although the heavy metal halides are more stable, thermodynamically, than the beryllium halides, the reducing reaction proceeds to completion if the beryllium halide product is continuously removed by vacuum distillation.

Runnals, O.J.C.

1959-02-24

443

METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE  

DOEpatents

The production or alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium is described. A halide salt or the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at l3O0 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter to alloy directly with the beryllium. Although the heavy metal halides are more stable, thermodynamically, than the beryllium halides, the reducing reaction proceeds to completion if the beryllium halide product is continuously removed by vacuum distillation.

Runnals, O.J.C.

1959-02-24

444

Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)  

SciTech Connect

The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

1995-10-30

445

Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.4 in slab geometry  

SciTech Connect

R. C. Lloyd of PNL has completed and published a series of critical experiments with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solutions (Reference 1). This series of critical experiments was part of an extensive program jointly sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and was carried out in the mid-1980`s. The experiments evaluated here (published as Report PNL-6327) were performed with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solution in a variable thickness slab tank with two 106.7 cm square sides and a width that could be varied from 7.6 to 22.8 cm. The objective of these experiments was to obtain experimental data to permit the validation of computer codes for criticality calculations and of cross-section data to minimize the uncertainties inherent therein, so that facility safety, efficiency, and reliability could be enhanced. The concentrations of the solution were about 105, 293, and 435 g(Pu+U)/liter with a ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) of about 0. 40 for all eight experiments. Four measurements were made with a water reflector, and four with no reflector. Following the publication of the initial PNL reports, considerable effort was devoted to an extensive reevaluation of this series of experiments by a collaboration of researchers from ORNL, PNL, and PNC (Reference 2). Their work resulted in a more accurate description of the ``as built`` hardware configuration and the materials specifications. For the evaluations in this report, the data published in Reference 2 by Smolen et al. is selected to supersede the original PNL report. Eight experiments have been evaluated and seven (063, 064, 071, 072, 074, 075, and 076) provide benchmark criticality data. Experiment 073 could not achieve criticality within vessel height limitations.

Pohl, B.A.; Keeton, S.C.

1997-09-01

446

Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D&D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D&D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

Crow, Stephen H.; Kyle, Richard N.; Minette, Michael J.

2008-09-01

447

The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

448

Radiochemical studies on the isotope plutonium-241  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of plutonium isotopes have been prepared and studied during the course of the Manhattan project and subsequent operations. Plutonium isotopes from mass 232 to 243 have been characterized and their radiations measured. Of these isotopes, the group of mass 238 to 242 are of particular importance due to their production in appreciable quantities by neutron irradiation of

Chetham-Brode

1953-01-01

449

The Electrochromatography of Seawater Containing Dissolved Plutonium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochromatographic techniques were used to determine the chemical form of plutonium in seawater. If either Pu (III), Pu (IV) or PuO2(++) was added to a 0.7M NaCl-0.0023 M Na2CO3 solution, it was found that in each case about 30% of the plutonium would...

W. E. Lingren

1966-01-01

450

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since

2000-01-01

451

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOEpatents

A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

Goeckermann, R.H.

1961-04-01

452

Corrosion of delta Plutonium by Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion of delta-stabilized (1 wt % Ga) WR plutonium was studied in water, synthetic sea water, tap water, and distilled water. The product is a dark blue-green residue, suggesting a mixture of hydrated trivalent and tetravalent plutonium hydroxides. Th...

A. E. Hodges J. M. Haschke

1979-01-01

453

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding

1993-01-01

454

Plutonium Immobilization Program: Can-in-Canister  

SciTech Connect

'The end of the cold war brought about a potential new danger, the existence of surplus weapons grade plutonium in the U.S. and Russia. Bilateral disposition programs provide the preferred long-term solution. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. approach to plutonium immobilization using the Can-in-Canister technology.'

Rankin, D.T.

1999-07-14

455

Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

In December 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Storage and Disposition PEIS)'' (DOE 1996a). That PEIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternative strategies for the long-term storage of weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) and the disposition of weapons-usable plutonium that has been or may be declared surplus to national security needs. The Record of Decision (ROD) for the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', issued on January 14, 1997 (DOE 1997a), outlines DOE's decision to pursue an approach to plutonium disposition that would make surplus weapons-usable plutonium inaccessible and unattractive for weapons use. DOE's disposition strategy, consistent with the Preferred Alternative analyzed in the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', allows for both the immobilization of some (and potentially all) of the surplus plutonium and use of some of the surplus plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of both the immobilized plutonium and the MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a potential geologic repository.

N /A

1999-11-19

456

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid ; zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding ; fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg\\/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of ; hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

Goeckermann

1961-01-01

457

49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...aboard the aircraft on the main deck or the lower cargo compartment in the aft-most location that is possible for cargo of its size and weight, and no other cargo may be stowed aft of packages containing plutonium. (c) A package of plutonium...

2012-10-01

458

49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...aboard the aircraft on the main deck or the lower cargo compartment in the aft-most location that is possible for cargo of its size and weight, and no other cargo may be stowed aft of packages containing plutonium. (c) A package of plutonium...

2011-10-01

459

The hydrofluorination of uranium and plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of uranium and plutonium deposits by vacuum deposition of their fluorides has a number of advantages over other methods, but requires anhydrous fluorides, which are preferably prepared using the dry hydrofluorination process. However this process depends on the way the starting materials have been prepared. Both for uranium and plutonium oxides preparation via the oxalate way is recommended.

Eykens, R.; Pauwels, J.; van Audenhove, J.

1985-06-01

460

MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten ; plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by ; circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative ; temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for ; criticality control. (AEC)

R. M. Kiehn; L. D. P. King; R. E. Peterson; E. O. Jr. Swickard

1962-01-01

461

Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

Hamilton, L.

2000-04-28

462

Accelerator mass spectrometry of plutonium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of measuring plutonium isotope ratios by accelerator mass spectrometry has been demonstrated. Measurements on a test sample of known composition and on a blank showed that isotope ratios could be determined quantitatively, and that the present limit of detection by AMS is ? 106 atoms of plutonium. For 239Pu, this limit is at least two orders of magnitude

L. K. Fifield; R. G. Cresswell; M. L. di Tada; T. R. Ophel; J. P. Day; A. P. Clacher; S. J. King; N. D. Priest

1996-01-01

463

Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other  

SciTech Connect

This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

Condit, R.H.

1994-05-01

464

Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

2008-07-31

465

Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium  

SciTech Connect

A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Foley, E.S.

1989-10-09

466

An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

467

Adaptation of the IBM ECR (electric cantilever robot) robot to plutonium processing applications  

SciTech Connect

The changing regulatory climate in the US is adding increasing incentive to reduce operator dose and TRU waste for DOE plutonium processing operations. To help achieve that goal the authors have begun adapting a small commercial overhead gantry robot, the IBM electric cantilever robot (ECR), to plutonium processing applications. Steps are being taken to harden this robot to withstand the dry, often abrasive, environment within a plutonium glove box and to protect the electronic components against alpha radiation. A mock-up processing system for the reduction of the oxide to a metal was prepared and successfully demonstrated. Design of a working prototype is now underway using the results of this mock-up study. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Armantrout, G.A.; Pedrotti, L.R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Halter, E.A.; Crossfield, M. (International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY (USA))

1990-12-01

468

Simulation of moderated plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to improve detection methods that can reliably identify special nuclear material (SNM). One method that can be used to identify special nuclear material is neutron multiplicity analysis. This method detects multiple time-correlated neutrons released from a fission event in the SNM. This work investigates the ability of the software code MCNP-PoliMi to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements from a highly moderated SNM source. A measurement of a 4.5-kg alpha-phase metal plutonium sphere surrounded by up to 6 inches of polyethylene shells has recently been performed by Sandia National Laboratories personnel at the Nevada Test Site. A post-processing code was developed to account for dead-time effects within the detector and to determine the neutron multiplicity distributions for various time intervals. With the distributions calculated, the Feynman-Y can be determined. The Feynman-Y is a metric that measures the level of correlation present in a sample. At this time MCNP-PoliMi is able predict the Feynman-Y within 10% of the measured value.

Mattingly, John K.; Pozzi, S. A. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Clarke, S. D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Dennis, B. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Miller, E. C. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

2010-03-01

469

New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-27

470

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

Ritter, D.M.

1959-01-13

471

Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

1987-02-01

472

The benefits of an advanced fast reactor fuel cycle for plutonium management  

SciTech Connect

The United States has no program to investigate advanced nuclear fuel cycles for the large-scale consumption of plutonium from military and civilian sources. The official U.S. position has been to focus on means to bury spent nuclear fuel from civilian reactors and to achieve the spent fuel standard for excess separated plutonium, which is considered by policy makers to be an urgent international priority. Recently, the National Research Council published a long awaited report on its study of potential separation and transmutation technologies (STATS), which concluded that in the nuclear energy phase-out scenario that they evaluated, transmutation of plutonium and long-lived radioisotopes would not be worth the cost. However, at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting in June, 1996, the STATS panelists endorsed further study of partitioning to achieve superior waste forms for burial, and suggested that any further consideration of transmutation should be in the context of energy production, not of waste management. 2048 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program for the short-term disposition of excess fissile material and a `focus area` for safe, secure stabilization, storage and disposition of plutonium, but has no current programs for fast reactor development. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to identify the potential advantages of an advanced fast reactor metallic fuel cycle for the long-term management of plutonium. Advantages are discussed.

Hannum, W.H.; McFarlane, H.F.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

1996-12-31

473

An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( XSD); (Univ. of Chicago); (Northwestern Univ.)

2011-08-01

474

Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus mushrooms contain an abundance of ergosterol, which on exposure to UV irradiation is converted to vitamin D2. The present study evaluated the effects UV-C irradiation on vitamin D2 formation and its bioavailability in rats. Fresh button mushrooms were exposed to UV-C irradiation at mean intensities of 0.403, 0.316, and 0.256 mW/cm(2) from respective distances of 30, 40, and 50 cm for periods ranging from 2.5 to 60 min. Vitamin D2 and ergosterol were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. The stability and retention of vitamin D2 were assessed including the extent of discoloration during storage at 4 degrees C or at room temperature. Exposure to UV-C irradiation at 0.403 mW/cm(2) intensity from 30 cm distance resulted in a time-dependent increase in vitamin D2 concentrations that was significantly higher than those produced at intensities of 0.316 and 0.256 mW/cm(2) from distances of 40 and 50 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of vitamin D2 produced after exposure to UV-C irradiation doses of 0.125 and 0.25 J/cm(2) for, 2.5, 5, and 10 min were 6.6, 15.6, and 23.1 microg/g solids, equivalent to 40.6, 95.4, and 141 microg/serving, respectively. The data showed a high rate of conversion from ergosterol to vitamin D2 at short treatment time, which is required by the mushroom industry. The stability of vitamin D2 remained unchanged during storage at 4 degrees C and at room temperature over 8 days (P = 0.36), indicating no degradation of vitamin D2. By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed when stored at 4 degrees C compared to that observed with mushrooms stored at room temperature over an 8 day period (P < 0.007). Vitamin D2 was well absorbed and metabolized as evidenced by the serum response of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in rats fed the irradiated mushrooms. Taken together, the data suggest that commercial production of button mushrooms enriched with vitamin D2 for improving consumer health may be practical. PMID:19281276

Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Song, Chi-Hyun; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

2009-04-22

475

The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

Allen, T.H.

1991-01-01

476

ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

1960-06-28

477

Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying