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Sample records for plutonium oxide inhalation

  1. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p < 0.05) frequently associated with lung fibrosis. Malignant tumor incidence increased linearly with dose (up to 60 Gy) with a risk of 1-1.6% Gy for MOX, similar to results for industrial plutonium oxide alone (1.9% Gy). Staining with antibodies against Surfactant Protein-C, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, or Oct-4 showed differential labeling of tumor types. In conclusion, late effects following MOX inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide. PMID:20699696

  2. Interspecies comparison of the metabolism and dosimetry of inhaled mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1997-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to provide information on the biological fate, distribution of radiation doses among tissues, and implications for potential health consequences of an inhalation exposure to mixed-oxide nuclear fuel materials. In each study, Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys inhaled one of three aerosols: 750{degrees}C calcined mixed oxides of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}, 1750{degrees}C sintered (U,Pu)O{sub 2}, or 850{degrees}C calcined {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} PuO{sub 2}. These materials were collected from glove-box enclosures immediately after industrial processing of mixed-oxide fuel materials. Lung retention, tissue distribution, and mode of excretion of {sup 238-240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and uranium (when present) were quantified by radiochemical analysis of tissue and excreta samples from animals sacrificed at selected times to 6.5 yr after inhalation exposure.

  3. The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A., Griffith, W.C.; Hickman, A.W.

    1991-12-31

    Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y {sup 238}Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y {sup 239}Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically.

  4. PROCESS OF OXIDIZING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Coryell, C.D.

    1959-08-25

    The oxidation of plutonium to the plus six valence state is described. The oxidation is accomplished by treating the plutonium in aqueous solution with a solution above 0.01 molar in argentic ion, above 1.1 molar in nitric acid, and above 0.02 molar in argentous ion.

  5. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Börje

    2004-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

  6. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

  7. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO{sub 2} typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO{sub 2} produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO{sub 2} in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO{sub 2} With uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO{sub 2} with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO{sub 2} materials may warrant further study.

  8. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  9. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  10. Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

  11. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  12. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  13. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  14. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  15. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  16. Nitrous Oxide and the Inhalation Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably, but it may be combined with other inhalation and/or intravenous agents in deep sedative/general anesthestic techniques. However, as a single agent, it has impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive dental patients. To gain a full appreciation of the pharmacology, physiologic influences, and proper use of nitrous oxide, one must compare it with other inhalation anesthetics. The purpose of this CE article is to provide an overview of inhalation anesthetics in general and to address nitrous oxide more specifically in comparison. PMID:19108597

  17. RISK ESTIMATES FOR DETERMINISTIC HEALTH EFFECTS OF INHALED WEAPONS GRADE PLUTONIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk estimates for deterministic effects of inhaled weapons-grade plutonium (WG Pu) are needed to evaluate potential serious harm to: (1) U. S. Department of Energy nuclear workers from accidental or other work-place releases of WG Pu; and (2) the public from terrorist actions re...

  18. COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

  19. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.; Watson, C.R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors.

  20. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors.

  1. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3. PMID:26740812

  2. Extrapulmonary organ distribution of plutonium in healthy workers exposed by chronic inhalation at the Mayak production association.

    PubMed

    Suslova, K G; Khokhryakov, V F; Tokarskaya, Z B; Nifatov, A P; Krahenbuhl, M P; Miller, S C

    2002-04-01

    The systemic distribution of plutonium was determined for "healthy" workers who chronically inhaled plutonium at the radiochemical plants of the Mayak Production Association. The data were obtained by radiochemical analysis of soft tissues and bones samples collected upon autopsy of 120 workers who died from acute coronary diseases and accidents. The soft tissue samples were wet-ashed using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Bone samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees C. Plutonium was extracted on anionite and coprecipitated with bismuth phosphate. The precipitation was blended with ZnS powder, and the alpha-activity was measured by ZnS solid scintillation counting in a low-background alpha radiometer. Twenty-five years after the beginning of inhalation exposures, the average percentage of plutonium in the skeleton and liver was 50% and 42% of systemic burden, respectively. A multivariate regression was used to quantify the effects of exposure time, "transportability" of the various compounds, plutonium body content, and age on systemic plutonium distribution. The early retention of plutonium in the liver is assumed to be greater than that in the skeleton. The initial distribution of plutonium between the liver and the skeleton, immediately after entering the circulatory system, was 50:38%, respectively. With time, the fraction of plutonium found in the liver decreased, while the fraction in the skeleton increased at a rate of 0.5% y(-1) of systemic deposition. Exposure time had a greater effect on the relative retention of plutonium in the main organs when compared to age. The statistical estimates that characterized the relative plutonium distribution were less stable for the liver than for the skeleton, likely due to the slower turnover of skeletal tissues and the retention of plutonium in bone. PMID:11906132

  3. Characterization and stability of thin oxide films on plutonium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, H. G. García; Roussel, P.; Moore, D. P.; Pugmire, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were employed to study oxide films on plutonium metal surfaces. Measurements of the relative concentrations of oxygen and plutonium, as well as the resulting oxidation states of the plutonium (Pu) species in the near-surface region are presented. The oxide product of the auto-reduction (AR) of plutonium dioxide films is evaluated and found to be an oxide species which is reduced further than what is expected. The results of this study show a much greater than anticipated extent of auto-reduction and challenge the commonly held notion of the stoichiometric stability of Pu 2O 3 thin-films. The data indicates that a sub-stoichiometric plutonium oxide (Pu 2O 3 - y ) exists at the metal-oxide interface. The level of sub-stoichiometry is shown to depend, in part, on the carbidic contamination of the metal surface.

  4. [Inhaled nitric oxide: one modality in the treatment of ARDS].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, R; Ramírez-Hernández, J M; Gargallo-Hernández, J J; Hernández-Vásquez, R; Domínguez-Rodríguez, M I; Alemán-Alarcón, C E; Gallegos-Rodríguez, G

    1999-01-01

    We describe a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), refractory to treatment with conventional mechanical ventilation. The hemodynamic parameters showed severe pulmonary hypertension with increased intrapulmonary shunt. Inhaled nitric oxide was administered and we observed a diminishing in pulmonary hypertension and intrapulmonary shunt with an important increase of oxygen exchange. We reviewed the literature and make a suggestion concerning use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with ARDS. PMID:10491897

  5. PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM ITS OXIDES

    DOEpatents

    Weissman, S.I.; Perlman, M.L.; Lipkin, D.

    1959-10-13

    A method is described for obtaining a carbide of plutonium and two methods for obtaining plutonium metal from its oxides. One of the latter involves heating the oxide, in particular PuO/sub 2/, to a temperature of 1200 to 1500 deg C with the stoichiometrical amount of carbon to fornn CO in a hard vacuum (3 to 10 microns Hg), the reduced and vaporized plutonium being collected on a condensing surface above the reaction crucible. When an excess of carbon is used with the PuO/sub 2/, a carbide of plutonium is formed at a crucible temperature of 1400 to 1500 deg C. The process may be halted and the carbide removed, or the reaction temperature can be increased to 1900 to 2100 deg C at the same low pressure to dissociate the carbide, in which case the plutonium is distilled out and collected on the same condensing surface.

  6. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  7. Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

  8. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  9. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-03-01

    In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used to characterize the oxide at certain points during calcination include surface-area analyses, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, moisture-adsorption measurements, and quantitative supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction of adsorbed water. Significant decreases in the LOI and surface area occurred as the oxide was calcined at progressively increasing temperatures. Studies indicate that supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction is an effective method for removing adsorbed water from oxides. We extracted the water from powdered oxides (high-purity ZrO{sub 2}, pure PuO{sub 2}, and impure plutonium oxide) using CO{sub 2} at 3000 psi pressure and 75{degrees}C, and we quantitatively determined it by using gravimetric and dew-point procedures. The effectiveness of the extraction method is demonstrated by good agreement between the amounts of water extracted from pure zirconium and plutonium dioxides and the mass changes obtained from LOI analyses. However, the amount of moisture (0.025 mass %) extracted from the impure plutonium oxide after it had been calcined at 950{degrees}C and stored for a period of months is much less than the LOI value (0.97 mass %). These results imply that the impure plutonium oxide is free of adsorbed water after calcination at 950{degrees}C, even though the sample does not satisfy the LOI requirement of <0.50 mass % for storage.

  10. Risk estimates for deterministic health effects of inhaled weapons grade plutonium.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bobby R; Peterson, Vern L

    2003-09-01

    Risk estimates for deterministic effects of inhaled weapons-grade plutonium (WG Pu) are needed to evaluate potential serious harm to (1) U.S. Department of Energy nuclear workers from accidental or other work-place releases of WG Pu; and (2) the public from terrorist actions resulting in the release of WG Pu to the environment. Deterministic health effects (the most serious radiobiological consequences to humans) can arise when large amounts of WG Pu are taken into the body. Inhalation is considered the most likely route of intake during work-place accidents or during a nuclear terrorism incident releasing WG Pu to the environment. Our current knowledge about radiation-related harm is insufficient for generating precise estimates of risk for a given WG Pu exposure scenario. This relates largely to uncertainties associated with currently available risk and dosimetry models. Thus, rather than generating point estimates of risk, distributions that account for variability/uncertainty are needed to properly characterize potential harm to humans from a given WG Pu exposure scenario. In this manuscript, we generate and summarize risk distributions for deterministic radiation effects in the lungs of nuclear workers from inhaled WG Pu particles (standard isotopic mix). These distributions were developed using NUREG/CR-4214 risk models and time-dependent, dose conversion factor data based on Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Dose conversion factors based on ICRP Publication 30 are more relevant to deterministic effects than are the dose conversion factors based on ICRP Publication 66, which relate to targets for stochastic effects. Risk distributions that account for NUREG/CR-4214 parameter and model uncertainties were generated using the Monte Carlo method. Risks were evaluated for both lethality (from radiation pneumonitis) and morbidity (due to radiation-induced respiratory dysfunction) and were found to depend strongly on absorbed

  11. Conversion of mixed plutonium-uranium oxides. [COPRECAL

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.L.

    1980-04-01

    Coprocessing is among the several reprocessing schemes being considered to improve the proliferation resistance of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Coconversion of mixed oxides has been developed but not demonstrated on a production scale. AGNS developed a preliminary conceptual design for a production scale facility to convert mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate to the mixed oxide.

  12. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  13. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Varble, J.; Jordan, J.

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  14. Plutonium Speciation in Support of Oxidative-Leaching Demonstration Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2007-10-31

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the plutonium speciation in caustic solutions that reasonably represent the process streams from the oxidative-leaching demonstration test. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to develop a spectrophotometric method to measure plutonium speciation at submicromolar (< 10-6 M) concentrations in alkaline solutions in the presence of chromate and carbonate. Data obtained from the testing will be used to identify the oxidation state of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) species, which potentially could exist in caustic leachates. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan TSS A-219 to evaluate the speciation of chromium, plutonium, and manganese before and after oxidative leaching. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract MOA: 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001.

  15. 1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233S), ReductionOxidation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233-S), Reduction-Oxidation Building (REDOX-202-S) to the right. Looking east. - Reduction-Oxidation Complex, Plutonium Concentration Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  17. Plutonium release from pressed plutonium oxide fuel pellets in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.; Heaton, R.C.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1983-12-01

    Plutonium oxide pellets (80% /sup 238/Pu, 40 g each) were exposed to fresh water and sea water at two temperatures for 3 y in enclosed glass chambers. The concentrations of plutonium observed in the waters increased linearly with time throughout the experiment. However, the observed release rates were inversely dependent on temperature and salinity, ranging from 160 ..mu..Ci/day for cold fresh water to 1.4 ..mu..Ci/day for warm sea water. The total releases, including the chamber residues, showed similar dependencies. A major portion (typically greater than 50%) of the released plutonium passed through a 0.1-..mu..m filter, with even larger fractions (greater than 80%) for the fresh water systems.

  18. ALTERATIONS IN LUNG STRUCTURE CAUSED BY INHALATION OF OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphometric and morphologic methods have been used to evaluate changes in rat lungs caused by the inhalation of a variety of oxidants. Exposure to 100% oxygen causes diffuse pulmonary injury and leads to death after 66-72 h of exposure. The primary insult leading to death in rat...

  19. Pulmonary carcinogenesis in the F344 and Wistar rat after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L. |

    1995-11-01

    Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher in control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for F344 rats but about 210 lung tumors per 10{sup 4} Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more {open_quotes}sensitive{close_quotes} than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. 31 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. Behavior of plutonium oxide particulates in a simulated Florida environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Coffelt, K.P.

    1985-08-01

    The behavior of /sup 238/Pu oxide particles (20 to 74 ..mu..m in diameter) deposited on a soil surface was studied by using an environmental test chamber. The soil was obtained from Florida orange groves, and the chamber was set up to simulate a Florida climate. After more than 9 months and more than 60 simulated rainfalls, the plutonium oxide particles remained on top of the soil and showed no evidence of having moved down into the soil column. Plutonium was released into the soil drainages at the rate of 18 ng/m/sup 2//L. This release, which represents a minute portion of the source, appears to correlate with the volume of the drainage rather than with time and probably consists of plutonium attached to very fine soil particles. The average concentration of plutonium observed in the air was 7 fCi/L, which on an absolute basis, represents 8 x 10/sup -12/% of the source material. Thus the generation of airborne plutonium constitutes an insignificant release pathway in terms of the original source. However, the air concentration during, and especially at the beginning of, a rainfall was typically much higher (1400 fCi/L). This concentration decayed rapidly after the end of the rainfall. These results are compared with those from past experiments, and their implications are discussed.

  1. CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relativelylow numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale adifferent number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

  2. Inhaled nitric oxide to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Olivier, Paul; Loron, Gauthier; Fontaine, Romain; Maury, Laure; Baud, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease that affects premature infants and contributes to their morbidity and mortality. With the advent of prenatal steroids and postnatal exogenous surfactant and less aggressive respiratory support, premature infants can develop chronic oxygen dependency without even acute respiratory distress. This 'new bronchopulmonary dysplasia' could be the result of impaired postnatal growth. Several experimental studies have suggested a possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/nitric oxide (VEGF/NO) pathway in restoring pulmonary angiogenesis and enhancing distal lung growth. The results of the clinical studies are, however, inconclusive, and it is currently unclear which subsets of premature infants might benefit from inhaled nitric oxide. Besides, severe intracranial haemorrhage and/or cystic periventricular leucomalacia may affect the most immature babies, many of whom are spared from severe initial respiratory disease. Recently, inhaled nitric oxide was shown to significantly decrease the incidence of these neurological events, and to improve the long-term outcome in a few clinical trials. At times neuroprotective, at times neurotoxic, nitric oxide is capable of divergent effects depending upon the extent of cerebral damage, the redox state of the cell, and the experimental model used. Recently, our group found that inhaled nitric oxide had remote effects including angiogenesis and maturation on the developing brain in rodent pups. Thus, we await the results of the recently completed randomised clinical trial of inhaled nitric oxide to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (the European Nitric Oxide or 'EUNO' trial) where, besides the primary endpoint of chronic oxygen dependency reduction at 36 weeks' postconceptional age, long-term lung and brain will be followed-up until 7 years of age. PMID:18986855

  3. Pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide after endothelial injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rimar, S.; Gillis, C.N. )

    1992-11-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide gas (NO) has recently been shown to reverse experimentally induced pulmonary vasoconstriction. To examine the effect of free radical injury and methylene blue exposure on inhaled NO-induced pulmonary vasodilation the authors studied ventilated rabbit lungs perfused with Krebs solution containing 3% dextran and indomethacin. When NO gas (120 ppm) was added to the inhaled mixture for 3 min, the elevated pulmonary arterial perfusion pressure (Ppa) induced by the thromboxane analogue U-46619 was significantly reduced [8 [+-] 2 (SE) mmHg]. Acetylcholine similarly reduced Ppa (9 [+-] 1 mmHg). After free radical injury and methylene blue exposure, inhaled NO again produced significant vasodilation (5 [+-] 1 and 9 [+-] 2 mmHg, respectively), but acetylcholine resulted in an increase in Ppa ([minus]9 [+-] 3 and [minus]4 [+-] 1 mmHg, respectively). These data demonstrate that pulmonary vasodilation produced by inhaled NO is unaffected by free radical injury or methylene blue in the intact lung despite concomitant reversal of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  4. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  5. Antineutrino monitoring of burning mixed oxide plutonium fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.; Trellue, H. R.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Wilson, W. B.

    2012-02-01

    Background: Antineutrino monitoring of reactors is an enhanced nuclear safeguard that is being explored by several international groups. A key question is whether such a scheme could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium loaded in a reactor as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.Purpose: To explore the effectiveness of antineutrino monitoring for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguarding of MOX plutonium, we examine the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different loadings of MOX fuels.Methods: Reactor burn simulations are carried out for four different MOX fuel loadings and the antineutrino signals as a function of fuel burnup are computed and compared.Results: The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium, and this signal difference increases as the MOX plutonium fraction of the reactor core increases.Conclusion: Antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, although verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  6. A comparison of long-term retention of plutonium oxide in lung based on excretion data with observed lung burdens at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, K.R.; Jech, J.J.; Kathren, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Experience in the nuclear industry has shown that the most frequent route for significant plutonium deposition in man is by inhalation. After an accidental inhalation exposure to plutonium oxide has occurred, an attempt is usually made to determine the lung burden using in-vivo measurement techniques. However, this will not be possible if the amount deposited is less than the detection capability of the counter. Likewise, it may not be possible for even larger intakes if they are first discovered as a results of a routine examination after much of the plutonium has transferred out of the lungs. Under these conditions, the initial lung burden and dose assessment may, of necessity, be based entirely on excretion date. This paper discusses three plutonium inhalation cases for which autopsy data are available to demonstrate the difficulties and uncertainties of such assessments and to emphasize the need for enhanced routine surveillance of the worker and work place to assure that intakes are detected at the time they occur. An in-depth review of the findings for these three cases suggests that the use of urine excretion data applied to ICRP lung model assumption will result in large uncertainties in estimates of the pulmonary burden and lung dose. These estimates will be improved if the material inhaled can be better characterized and by using clearance half times developed for the individual rather than the default values for Class Y material recommended by the ICRP.

  7. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  8. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  9. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  10. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  11. Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.

  12. METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

  13. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen . Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  14. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  15. Redox state of plutonium in irradiated mixed oxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Pin, S.; Poonoosamy, J.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, MOX fuels are used in about 20 nuclear power plants around the world. After irradiation, plutonium co-exists with uranium oxide. Due to the redox sensitive nature of UO2 other plutonium oxides than PuO2 potentially present in the fuel may interact with the matrix. The aim of this study is to determine which plutonium species are present in heterogeneous and homogeneous MOX. The results provided by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) for non-irradiated as well as irradiated (center and periphery) homogeneous MOX fuel were published earlier and are completed by Extended X-ray Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis in this work. The EXAFS signals have been extracted using the ATHENA code and the analyses were carried using EXCURE98 as performed earlier for an analogous element. EXAFS shows that plutonium redox state remains tetravalent in the solid solution and that the minor fraction of trivalent Pu must be below 10%. Independently, the study of homogeneous MOX was also approached by thermodynamics of solid solution of (U,Pu)O2. Such solid solutions were modeled using the Gibbs Energy Minimisation (GEM)-Selektor code (developed at LES, NES, PSI) supported by the literature data on such solid solutions. A comparative study was performed showing which plutonium oxides in their respective mole fractions are more likely to occur in (U,Pu)O2. In the modeling, these oxides were set as ideal and non-ideal solid solutions, as well as separate pure phases. Pu exists mainly as PuO2 in the case of separate phases, but can exist under its reduced forms, PuO1.61 and PuO1.5 in minor fraction i.e. ~15% in ideal solid solution (unlikely) and ~10% in non-ideal solid solution (likely) and at temperature around 1300 K. This combined thermodynamic and EXAFS studies confirm independently the results obtained so far by Pu XANES for the same MOX samples.

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  17. The In-Vitro Transport of (238)PLUTONIUM Oxide and (239)PLUTONIUM Oxide Through a Membrane Filter and its Importance for Internal Radiation Dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael Terrance

    These experiments were designed to determine if ('238)PuO(,2), due to its higher specific activity and attendant aggregate recoil, undergoes higher transfer through a membrane filter into an interstitial human alveolar lung fluid simulant than ('239)PuO(,2). The rate at which such transfer occurs was determined in an in-vitro chamber designed to simulate residence characteristics of particles of insoluble plutonium oxides in human alveolar interstitium. The ratio of the rate of ('238)Pu/('239)Pu transfer was 138 (+OR -) 76%. Calculations were performed to assess the importance of this finding in terms of the internal dosimetry of insoluble ('238)Pu using methods and models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Three cases were evaluated, namely integral 50-year dose commitment, urinary excretion after single acute intake and urinary excretion rate during chronic constant intake. It was found that integral 50-year dose commitments were not influenced by the rate of plutonium transfer from the pulmonary compartment to blood. The evaluation of calculated urinary excretion data after a single acute inhalation intake showed that in the early period, up to about 30 days post exposure, urinary excretion of ('238)PuO(,2) may be 2 to 10 times higher than the urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) predicted by the ICRP reference model. From about 50 days to approximately 1000 days the calculated urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) may be lower than that predicted by the reference model by a factor of 2 to 10. In the case of chronic constant intake the calculated urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) may be up to a factor of 2 higher than that predicted by the reference ICRP Model.

  18. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  19. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  20. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-03-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to (239)Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. PMID:22112595

  1. Direct determination of the intracellular oxidation state of plutonium.

    PubMed

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E; Jensen, Mark P

    2011-08-15

    Microprobe X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were used to determine directly, for the first time, the oxidation state of intracellular plutonium in individual 0.1-μm(2) areas within single rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). The living cells were incubated in vitro for 3 h in the presence of Pu added to the media in different oxidation states (Pu(III), Pu(IV), and Pu(VI)) and in different chemical forms. Regardless of the initial oxidation state or chemical form of Pu presented to the cells, the XANES spectra of the intracellular Pu deposits were always consistent with tetravalent Pu even though the intracellular milieu is generally reducing. PMID:21755934

  2. Direct Determination of the Intracellular Oxidation State of Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Microprobe X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were used to determine directly, for the first time, the oxidation state of intracellular plutonium in individual 0.1 μm2 areas within single rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). The living cells were incubated in vitro for 3 hours in the presence of Pu added to the media in different oxidation states (Pu(III), Pu(IV), and Pu(VI)) and in different chemical forms. Regardless of the initial oxidation state or chemical form of Pu presented to the cells, the XANES spectra of the intracellular Pu deposits was always consistent with tetravalent Pu even though the intracellular milieu is generally reducing. PMID:21755934

  3. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  4. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... week of pregnancy) with respiratory failure. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy is typically administered in...-term infants, use of this therapy may shorten the length of time respiratory support is required... receive respiratory support? Are there short-term risks of inhaled nitric oxide therapy among...

  5. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  6. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  7. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3142267

  8. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.

  9. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gillett, N A; Muggenburg, B A; Mewhinney, J A; Hahn, F F; Seiler, F A; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. PMID:3142267

  10. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  11. The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-02-14

    The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation. PMID:23175453

  12. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  13. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  14. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  15. CONCENTRATION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM IONS, IN AN OXIDATION STATE NOT GREATER THAN +4, IN AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-06-14

    A process for concentrating plutonium is given in which plutonium is first precipitated with bismuth phosphate and then, after redissolution, precipitated with a different carrier such as lanthanum fluoride, uranium acetate, bismuth hydroxide, or niobic oxide.

  16. Inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin and nitric oxide as selective pulmonary vasodilators in ARDS--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, P V; Blythe, D; Webb, S A

    1996-10-01

    Nitric oxide 10 ppm and inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin 50 ng/kg/min were compared as selective pulmonary vasodilators in five patients with hypoxaemia secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neither agent resulted in systemic haemodynamic changes, indicating true pulmonary selectivity. Inhaled aerolized prostacyclin improved oxygenation to a degree comparable to nitric oxide, as measured by the arterial alveolar oxygen partial pressure gradient and shunt fraction. PMID:8909667

  17. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  18. CONVERSION OF RUSSIAN WEAPON-GRADE PLUTONIUM INTO OXIDE FOR MIXED OXIDE (MOX) FUEL FABRICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Glagovski, E.; Kolotilov, Y.; Glagolenko, Y.; Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Mason, C. F. V.; Hahn, W. K.; Durrer, R. E.; Thomas, S.; Sicard, B.; Herlet, N.; Fraize, G.; Villa, A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress has been made in the Russian Federation towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program is funded both by French Commissariat x 1'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The French program was started as a way to make available their expertise gained from manufacturing MOX fuel. The US program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease available w-Pu. Russia has selected both the conversion process and the manufacturing site. This paper discusses the present state of development towards fulfilling this mission: the demonstration plant designed to process small amounts of Pu and validate all process stages and the industrial plant that will process up to 5 metric tons of Pu per year.

  19. Production of microspheres of thorium oxide, uranium oxide and plutonium oxide and their mixtures containing carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzi, G.; Facchini, A.; Martignani, G.; Pastore, M.

    1980-05-13

    A process is desclosed for the production of microspheres of thorium oxide, uranium oxide or plutonium oxide and mixtures thereof, containing carbon. The microspheres are prepared by first forming an aqueous alkaline solution of a salt of said metals which will precipitate to a solid form in a concentrated alkaline medium together with an alkaline polymerizable organic monomer and carbon, thereafter dripping this solution into a concentrated alkaline medium wherein metal hydroxide is precipitated out and said monomers polymerized to thereby form said microspheres. The precipitated metal compounds with polymerized monomer and carbon are washed to remove unwanted ions and dried by various methods such as air currents, infrared lamps, high frequency microwaves or preferably by azeotropic distillation whereby the washed particles are dispersed in an organic liquid immiscible with water which is then boiled off. Simple liquids include 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbontetrachloride and xylene. The particles are then subjected to thermal treatments which vary according to the particular composition and the properties required in the final product. The microspheres obtained according to the process of the invention possess excellent properties of high density, good homogeneity, and high tensile strength and are useful as fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. In a preferred embodiment, uranyl nitrate is mixed with acrolein in dilute ammonia solution to which carbon is added and the solution dripped into a concentrated alkaline medium, and the microspheres thereby formed washed with water, dried by azeotropic distillation with an organic liquid, and thermally cycled.

  20. METHOD OF PREPARING URANIUM, THORIUM, OR PLUTONIUM OXIDES IN LIQUID BISMUTH

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J.K.; Robb, W.L.; Salmon, O.N.

    1960-11-22

    A method is given for forming compositions, as well as the compositions themselves, employing uranium hydride in a liquid bismuth composition to increase the solubility of uranium, plutonium and thorium oxides in the liquid bismuth. The finely divided oxide of uranium, plutonium. or thorium is mixed with the liquid bismuth and uranium hydride, the hydride being present in an amount equal to about 3 at. %, heated to about 5OO deg C, agitated and thereafter cooled and excess resultant hydrogen removed therefrom.

  1. Evaluation of plutonium oxidation using pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1997-09-01

    The unrecognized oxidation of plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} canisters poses a unique problem for both material control and accountability. A feasibility study was performed to address the use of randomly pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf to determine if plutonium metal in a canister has oxidized without opening the container. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-DSP was used to determine if time-of-flight transmission measurements could be used to determine oxidation of plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} cans. In the Monte Carlo models, a plutonium button in a can was positioned between a {sup 252}Cf source and a scintillation detector, and the time distribution of counts after {sup 252}Cf fission in the detector was calculated. The time distribution of counts after {sup 252}Cf fission differs between plutonium metal and plutonium oxide because resonances in oxygen will affect transmission of certain energy neutrons from {sup 252}Cf sources in ionization chambers. This method could be used to determine the presence of other materials that react with plutonium in {open_quotes}sealed{close_quotes} cans.

  2. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Tariq; Neuman, Adi; Tantary, Mohmad; Bhat, Hilal; Glass, Daniel; Mannino, William; Akhtar, Muhammad; Bhat, Alina; Teli, Sumaya; Lafferty, James

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually a complication secondary to migration of a deep venous clot or thrombi to lungs, but other significant etiologies include air, amniotic fluid, fat, and bone marrow. Regardless of the underlying etiology, little progress has been made in finding an effective pharmacologic intervention for this serious complication. Among the wide spectrum of PE, massive PE is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, primarily due to severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure, hypoxemia, and cardiogenic shock. We currently have limited therapeutic options at our disposal. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent in cases of acute PE in which hemodynamic compromise secondary to increased pulmonary vascular resistance is present, based on iNO's selective dilation of the pulmonary vasculature and antiplatelet activity. A systematic search of studies using the PubMed database was undertaken in order to assess the available literature. Although there are currently no published randomized controlled trials on the subject, except a recently publish phase I trial involving eight patients, several case reports and case series describe and document the use of iNO in acute PE. The majority of published reports have documented improvements in oxygenation and hemodynamic variables, often within minutes of administration of iNO. These reports, when taken together, raise the possibility that iNO may be a potential therapeutic agent in acute PE. However, based on the current literature, it is not possible to conclude definitively whether iNO is safe and effective. These case reports underscore the need for randomized controlled trials to establish the safety and efficacy of iNO in the treatment of massive acute PE. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature in the use of iNO in the setting of PE given how acute PE causes acute onset of pulmonary

  3. Reversibility of heme-nitric oxide reactions for use in an inhaled nitric oxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Bhairavi R.; Soller, Babs R.; Rencus, Tal

    1997-06-01

    Nitric Oxide is a simple gaseous compound which serves as a regulatory molecule in a number of physiological processes. Due to its biological role as a potent local vasodilator,there has been widespread interest in the therapeutic use of gaseous nitric oxide a selective pulmonary vasodilator. Our goal is the development of a sensor for the direct and continuous measurement of inhaled nitric oxide concentrations. This study evaluated the reversibility of potential sensing compounds upon reaction with nitric oxide. Previously, absorption spectroscopy was used to study the sensitivity of the Fe II, Fe III and oxygenated forms of three biologically active hemes known to rapidly react with NO: hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome-c. This study focused on the photo-reversibility of the hem's reaction with nitric oxide. Hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochrome-c in the Fe III state reversibly reacted with nitric oxide. Hemoglobin and myoglobin in the Fe II state non-reversibly reacted with nitric oxide to form an unstable product. Cytochrome-c (FeII) does not react with nitric oxide. The oxy forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin react with nitric oxide to form their respective met forms, unreversible via photolysis. For all reversible reactions, photolysis was gradual and complete within five minutes.

  4. Site of pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide in the perfused lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rimar, S.; Gillis, C.N.

    1995-05-01

    Site of pulmonary vasodilation by inhaled nitric oxide in the perfused lung. To determine the site of inhaled nitric oxide (NO)-induced pulmonary vasodilation, a double vascular occlusion technique was used with rabbit lungs ventilated and perfused at 20 ml/min with Krebs solution containing 3% dextran and 30 {mu}M indomethacin. Inhaled NO (120 ppm for 3% min) reduced pulmonary vasoconstriction produced by U-46619 infusion (0.5 -1.2 nmol/min), significantly decreasing total resistance (RT) [1,080 {plus_minus} 51 (SE) vs. 1,545 {plus_minus} 109 mmHg-min/l; P < 0.01]. Acetylcholine infusion (ACh; 2-5 nmol/min) and nitroglycerin (NTG; 0.35 {mu}mol) likewise decreased RT. Arterial resistance (Ra) was also significantly less with inhaled NO, ACh, and NTG compared with U-46619 alone. Venous resistance (Rv), however, was unchanged. When the direction of perfusion was reversed in the lung, inhaled NO, ACh, and NTG significantly decreased RT compared with U-46619 alone, and Rv was also reduced by all three agents. After electrolysis-induced acute lung injury, inhaled NO significantly reduced both RT and Ra compared with U-46619 alone, whereas Rv was unaffected. Our results demonstrate that inhaled NO gas affects primarily the arterial (precapillary) component of the pulmonary circulation but, under conditions of extreme venous constriction, may dilate the postcapillary component as well. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable. PMID:23883027

  6. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  7. Radial plutonium redistribution in mixed-oxide fuel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.A.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    Alpha autoradiographs from all HEDL fuel pin metallography samples are evaluated and catalogued according to different plutonium distribution patterns. The data base is analyzed for effects of fabrication and operating parameters on redistribution.

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide in cardiac surgery: Evidence or tradition?

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Maria; Romano, Rosalba; Baca, Georgiana; Sarridou, Despoina; Fischer, Andreas; Simon, Andre; Marczin, Nandor

    2015-09-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy as a selective pulmonary vasodilator in cardiac surgery has been one of the most significant pharmacological advances in managing pulmonary hemodynamics and life threatening right ventricular dysfunction and failure. However, this remarkable story has experienced a roller-coaster ride with high hopes and nearly universal demonstration of physiological benefits but disappointing translation of these benefits to harder clinical outcomes. Most of our understanding on the iNO field in cardiac surgery stems from small observational or single centre randomised trials and even the very few multicentre trials fail to ascertain strong evidence base. As a consequence, there are only weak clinical practice guidelines on the field and only European expert opinion for the use of iNO in routine and more specialised cardiac surgery such as heart and lung transplantation and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) insertion. In this review the authors from a specialised cardiac centre in the UK with a very high volume of iNO usage provide detailed information on the early observations leading to the European expert recommendations and reflect on the nature and background of these recommendations. We also provide a summary of the progress in each of the cardiac subspecialties for the last decade and initial survey data on the views of senior anaesthetic and intensive care colleagues on these recommendations. We conclude that the combination of high price tag associated with iNO therapy and lack of substantial clinical evidence is not sustainable on the current field and we are risking loosing this promising therapy from our daily practice. Overcoming the status quo will not be easy as there is not much room for controlled trials in heart transplantation or in the current atmosphere of LVAD implantation. However, we call for international cooperation to conduct definite studies to determine the place of iNO therapy in lung transplantation and high

  9. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  10. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale

  11. ISOTOPIC STUDY OF THE INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of these studies was to develop novel methods to investigate the biological fate of inhaled ozone and other oxygen-containing pollutants in animal and human tissues using the heavy isotope of oxygen, oxygen-18 (18O). Methods were developed which facilitated the conver...

  12. [Clinical application and experimental studies of the pulsed inhaled nitric oxide flow controlling instrument].

    PubMed

    Mo, Xu-ming; Zhao, En-chun; Wang, Min-sheng; Gu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhenxi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2002-01-01

    A flow controlling system for pulsed inhaled nitric oxide has been developed and tested, and here its features and initial animal experiments and clinical applications are described. The physical characteristic test indicates that the practical released dose of NO gas is very close to the theoretical flow of NO gas at variant pressures. Animal experiments demonstrate that inhaled NO gas concentration is lower than the concentration of theoretical inhalation, but the variance is not remarkable (p>0.05). When sixteen cases with CHD and PH were chosen to inhale NO gas (15 ppm, 15 min) PAP and PVR of all cases were reduced after inhalation of NO gas from 617 +/-51.3 dyn x s x cm(-5), 54.4+/-13.1 mmHg to 417+/-36.9 dym x s x cm(-5), 33.8+/-12.3 mmHg (PVR, p<0.01; PAP, p<0.01) respectively. When gas inhalation was stopped, these values returned to their base lines after a short period of time. All these show that the pulsed inhaled NO flow controlling instrument in accordance with the requirements of the designing, can be widely used in clinical diagnoses and treatments and will be a new tool offered for the treatments of the patients with PH. PMID:16104155

  13. Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration

  14. Complexation and redox interactions between aqueous plutonium and manganese oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Nitsche, Heino; Booth, Corwin H.; Shuh, David K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Wilson, Richard E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2001-11-01

    The sorption of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) onto manganite (MnOOH) and Hausmannite (Mn3O4) was studied at pH 5. Manganite sorbed 21-24% from a 1x10-4 M plutonium solution and the hausmannite removed between 43-66% of the plutonium. The increased sorption by hausmannite results from its larger surface area (about twice that of manganite) plus a larger number of active surface sites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra taken at the Pu LIII edge were compared to standard spectra of plutonium in single oxidation states. Based on these spectra, it appears that both manganite and hausmannite reduce the higher valent plutonium species to Pu(IV). Between 53-59% of the plutonium was present as Pu(IV) in the manganite samples while 55-61% of the plutonium complexed to the hausmannite had also been reduced to Pu(IV). The exact mechanism behind this redox interaction between the plutonium and the manganese needs to be identified.

  15. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics after acute lung injury in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Romand, J.A.; Pinsky, M.R.; Firestone, L.; Zar, H.A.; Lancaster, J.R. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mismatch in ventilation-to-perfusion ratio characterize acute lung injury (ALI). Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) decreases when nitric oxide (NO) is inhaled during hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV); thus NO inhalation may reduce PVR and improve gas exchange in ALI. The authors studied the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of NO inhalation during HPV and then ALI in eight anesthetized open-chest mechanically ventilated dogs. Right atrial pressure, Ppa, and left ventricular and arterial pressures were measured, and cardiac output was estimated by an aortic flow probe. Shunt and dead space were also estimated. The effect of 5-min exposures to 0, 17, 28, 47, and 0 ppm inhaled NO was recorded during hyperoxia, hypoxia, and oleic acid-induced ALI. During ALI, partial [beta]-adrenergic blockage (propanolol, 0.15 mg/kg iv) was induced and 74 ppm NO was inhaled. Nitrosylhemoglobin (NO-Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) levels were measured. During hyperoxia, NO inhalation had no measurable effects. Hypoxia increased Ppa and calculated PVR, both of which decreased with 17 ppm NO. ALI decreased arterial Po[sub 2] and increased airway pressure, shunt, and dead space ventilation. Ppa and PVR were greater during ALI than during hyperoxia. NO inhalation had no measurable effect during ALI before or after [beta]-adrenergic blockage. MetHb remained low, and NO-Hb was unmeasurable. Bolus infusion of nitroglycerin (15 [mu]g) induced an immediate decrease in Ppa and PVR during ALI. Short-term NO inhalation does not affect PVR or gas exchange in dogs with oleic acid-induced ALI, nor does it increase NO-Hb or MetHb. In contrast, NO can diminish hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary vascular tone. These data suggest that NO inhalation selectively dilates the pulmonary circulation and specifically reduces HPV but not oleic acid-induced increases in pulmonary vasomotor tone. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, S. A.; Bourne, M. M.; Dolan, J. L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S. D.; Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P.

    2014-12-01

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  17. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Flores, Harry G; Pugmire, David L

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  18. Organ weight changes in mice after long-term inhalation exposure to manganese oxides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, T.; Buchtová, M.; Dočekal, B.; Míšek, I.; Navrátil, J.; Mikuška, P.; Šerý, O.; Večeřa, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it has been proven that manganese from inhaled particles of manganese compounds can accumulate in the internal organs of laboratory animals. Nevertheless, there were only a few researches dealing with changes in body morphology induced by inhalation of these particles, even though results of some studies indicate existence of such changes. The aim of our research was to assess the effect of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on weight of internal organs. For this purpose a long-term inhalation experiment on laboratory mice was performed, during which the mice were exposed to MnO.Mn2O3 nanoparticles in concentration 2 × 106 particles/cm3 for 17 weeks, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Manganese oxides nanoparticles were synthesized continuously via aerosol route in a hot wall tube flow reactor using thermal decomposition of metal organic precursor manganese(II)acetylacetonate in the flow tube reactor at temperature 750 °C in the presence of 30 vol% of oxygen. It was proven that inhaled nanoparticles can influence the weight of internal organs of mice. Moreover, it was discovered that the resulting change in weight of selected organs is disproportional. The mice from the experimental group had statistically significantly lighter kidneys, liver and spleen and heavier pancreas compared to the mice from the control group.

  19. Long-term exposure of pressed plutonium oxide heat sources to aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Matlack, G.M.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Nelson, G.B.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1984-11-01

    Plutonium-238 oxide fuel pellets were exposed to water for 2.5 to 6.4 yr, and the concentration of plutonium in the water was monitored. Water composition and temperature were found to be important factors in determining the rate of plutonium release into the water. Typical release rates ranged from 10 to 40 ng/m/sup 2//s in cold fresh water and from 0.3 to 11 ng/m/sup 2//s in cold sea water. Release rates in sea water varied over time and sometimes were erratic. The plutonium release per unit area did not depend on the size of the PuO/sub 2/ source. The released plutonium was in an extremely fine form, able to pass through 10,000 molecular weight cutoff filters. Apparent differences in the fuel pellet surfaces after exposure suggest that plutonium release is controlled by physical and chemical processes occurring at the solid-liquid interface. Release mechanisms and their implications are discussed.

  20. Resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing thermal stabilization to enhance the safe storage of plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant until decisions are made on long-term storage and disposition of the material. The proposed action is to resume thermal stabilization of pyrophoric plutonium in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Plant. Thermal stabilization would heat the pyrophoric plutonium under controlled conditions in a glovebox furnace to promote full oxidation and convert the material into stable plutonium oxide in the form of PuO{sub 2}. Other activities associated with thermal stabilization would include post-stabilization characterization of non-pyrophoric plutonium and on-site movement of pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric plutonium. This report covers; purpose and need; proposed action; alternatives to the proposed action; affected environment; environmental effects of proposed action and no action alternative; agencies and person consulted; and public participation.

  1. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Orton, Robert D.; Rapko, Brian M.; Smart, John E.

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  2. Inhalable microparticles of nitric oxide donors induce phagosome maturation and kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rahul Kumar; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Misra, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro, but gaseous NO is difficult to administer to patients. We evaluated the consequences of intracellular delivery of NO using inhalable microparticles (MP) containing NO donors. MP containing 10% w/w of NO donors alone, or in addition to 25% each of isoniazid (INH) and rifabutin (RFB) in a polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix were prepared by spray drying. THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Mtb H37Rv were exposed to MP or soluble NO donors. Phagosome-lysosome fusion (PLF) and bacterial killing were monitored. Colony forming units (cfu) in lungs and spleen of mice infected with a low-dose aerosol and administered inhalations of MP were enumerated. Bacterial DNA in these tissues was estimated by real-time PCR. In vitro studies indicated a bacteriostatic effect of NO donors despite significant enhancement of PLF. Daily inhalation of MP containing 10% diethylenetriamine nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO) alone reduced log10 cfu in the lungs from 6.1 to 4.4 at the highest dose in four weeks, but did not significantly affect cfu in the spleen. Inhalations of MP containing DETA/NO in combination with INH and RFB significantly (P < 10(-5), ANOVA) reduced cfu in lungs and spleens by 4 log. Gross morphology and histology of the lungs and spleen indicated that inhaled particles were well-tolerated. Inhalable MP containing NO donors need further investigation as an adjunct to standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:23562366

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO. PMID:14643171

  4. Inhalation of nitric oxide inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation and alpha-granule release.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, I A; Sølvik, U Ø; Opdahl, H; Roald, H E; Lyberg, T

    1999-01-01

    To gather further information about the effects on blood platelet activation of in vivo exposure to nitric oxide (NO), platelet reactivity was studied in blood from healthy, non-smoking male volunteers before and after 30 min inhalation of 40 ppm NO. Whole blood was stimulated in vitro with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin receptor activation peptide (TRAP-6). In an ex vivo perfusion model, non-anticoagulated blood was exposed to immobilised collagen at arterial blood flow conditions (2600 s(-1)). Blood samples from both the in vitro and ex vivo experiments were stained with fluorochrome-labelled Annexin-V and antibodies against CD42a, CD45, CD49b, CD61, CD62P and fibrinogen, and analysed with a three-colour flow cytometry technique. NO inhalation reduced the platelet activation response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulation by decreasing platelet-platelet aggregation, alpha-granule release and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation. TRAP-stimulated platelet activation, collagen-induced platelet activation and thrombus growth was unaffected by NO inhalation. We therefore suggest an ADP receptor inhibitor mode of action of inhaled NO, selective on the newly suggested G protein- and phospholipase C-coupled P2Y1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that blood platelet activation in healthy subjects is modulated by inhalation of NO in therapeutically relevant doses, although the clinical impact of our findings remains unclear. PMID:16801117

  5. Plutonium oxidation and subsequent reduction by Mn(IV) minerals in Yucca Mountain tuff.

    PubMed

    Powell, Brian A; Duff, Martine C; Kaplan, Daniel I; Fjeld, Robert A; Newville, Matthew; Hunter, Douglas B; Bertsch, Paul M; Coates, John T; Eng, Peter; Rivers, Mark L; Serkiz, Steven M; Sutton, Stephen R; Triay, Ines R; Vaniman, David T

    2006-06-01

    Plutonium oxidation state distribution on Yucca Mountain tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (beta-MnO2) suspensions was measured using synchrotron X-ray micro-spectroscopy and microimaging techniques as well as ultrafiltration/solventextraction techniques. Plutonium sorbed to the tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. For both Yucca Mountain tuff and synthetic pyrolusite, Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized to more mobile Pu(V/VI), but over time, the less mobile Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of the sorbed Pu. The observed stability of Pu(IV) on oxidizing surfaces (e.g., pyrolusite), is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. These findings have important implications in estimating the risk associated with the geological burial of radiological waste in areas containing Mn-bearing minerals, such as at the Yucca Mountain or the Hanford Sites, because plutonium will be predominantly in a much less mobile oxidation state (i.e., Pu(IV)) than previously suggested (i.e., Pu(V/VI). PMID:16786687

  6. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland.

    PubMed

    McMahon, C A; León Vintró, L L; Mitchell, P I; Dahlgaard, H

    2000-03-01

    The speciation of plutonium in Arctic waters sampled on the northwest Greenland shelf in August 1997 is discussed in this paper. Specifically, we report the results of analyses carried out on seawater sampled (a) close to the Thule air base where, in 1968, a US military aircraft carrying four nuclear weapons crashed on sea ice, releasing kilogram quantities of plutonium to the snow pack and underlying seabed sediments, and (b) at a reference station (Upernavik) located approximately 400 km to the south. The data show that most of the plutonium in the dissolved phase at Thule is in the form of Pu(V, VI) (mean: 68+/-6%; n = 6), with little if any distinction apparent between surface and bottom waters. Further, the oxidation state distribution at stations close to the accident site is similar to that measured at Upernavik, remote from this site. It is also similar to the distribution observed in shelf waters at mid-latitudes, suggesting that the underlying processes controlling plutonium speciation are insensitive to temperature over the range 0-25 degrees C. Measurements using tangential-flow ultrafiltration indicate that virtually all of the plutonium (including the fraction in a reduced chemical form) is present as fully dissolved species. Most of this plutonium would seem to be of weapons fallout origin, as the mean 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in the water column (dissolved phase) at Thule (0.06+/-0.02; n = 10) is similar to the global fallout ratio at this latitude (approximately 0.04). Thus, there is little evidence of weapons-grade plutonium in the water column at Thule at the present time. PMID:10724428

  7. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  9. Vasoreactivity to inhaled nitric oxide with oxygen predicts long-term survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Hess, Dean; Lewis, Gregory D; Bloch, Kenneth D; Waxman, Aaron B; Semigran, Marc J

    2011-04-01

    Pulmonary vasodilator testing is currently used to guide management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the utility of the pulmonary vascular response to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen in predicting survival has not been established. Eighty patients with WHO Group I PAH underwent vasodilator testing with inhaled NO (80 ppm with 90% O(2) for 10 minutes) at the time of diagnosis. Changes in right atrial (RA) pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, Fick cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were tested for associations to long-term survival (median follow-up 2.4 years). Five-year survival was 56%. Baseline PVR (mean±SD 850±580 dyne-sec/cm(5)) and mPAP (49±14 mmHg) did not predict survival, whereas the change in either PVR or mPAP while breathing NO and O(2) was predictive. Patients with a ≥30% reduction in PVR with inhaled NO and O(2) had a 53% relative reduction in mortality (Cox hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.99, P=0.047), and those with a ≥12% reduction in mPAP with inhaled NO and O(2) had a 55% relative reduction in mortality (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.96, P=0.038). The same vasoreactive thresholds predicted survival in the subset of patients who never were treated with calcium channel antagonists (n=66). Multivariate analysis showed that decreases in PVR and mPAP with inhaled NO and O(2) were independent predictors of survival. Reduction in PVR or mPAP during short-term administration of inhaled NO and O(2) predicts survival in PAH patients. PMID:22020367

  10. Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, J O; Settergren, G; Gelinder, S; Lundberg, J M; Alving, K; Weitzberg, E

    1996-12-01

    The vasodilator gas nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the paranasal sinuses and is excreted continuously into the nasal airways of humans. This NO will normally reach the lungs with inspiration, especially during nasal breathing. We wanted to investigate the possible effects of low-dose inhalation of NO from the nasal airways on pulmonary function. The effects of nasal and oral breathing on transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) were studied in healthy subjects. Furthermore, we also investigated whether restoring low-dose NO inhalation would influence pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and arterial oxygenation (PaO2) in intubated patients who are deprived of NO produced in the nasal airways. Thus, air derived from the patient's own nose was aspirated and led into the inhalation limb of the ventilator. In six out of eight healthy subjects tcPO2 was 10% higher during periods of nasal breathing when compared with periods of oral breathing. In six out of six long-term intubated patients PaO2 increased by 18% in response to the addition of nasal air samples. PVRI was reduced by 11% in four of 12 short-term intubated patients when nasal air was added to the inhaled air. The present study demonstrates that tcPO2 increases during nasal breathing compared with oral breathing in healthy subjects. Furthermore, in intubated patients, who are deprived of self-inhalation of endogenous NO. PaO2 increases and pulmonary vascular resistance may decrease by adding NO-containing air, derived from the patient's own nose, to the inspired air. The involvement of self-inhaled NO in the regulation of pulmonary function may represent a novel physiological principle, namely that of an enzymatically produced airborne messenger. Furthermore, our findings may help to explain one biological role of the human paranasal sinuses. PMID:8971255

  11. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  12. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  13. Recreational nitrous oxide inhalation as a rare cause of spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Rory; Tsang, Karwai; Hamilton, Natasha; Belton, Moerida

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented to the A&E department with significant neck swelling with associated chest, neck and throat pain. She reported recreational inhalation of nitrous oxide and ingestion of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) in the preceding hours. There was no history of trauma or vomiting. Clinical examination revealed extensive subcutaneous emphysema. There was no airway compromise. A chest X-ray suggested the presence of a pneumomediastinum. Subsequent CT of the thorax confirmed an anterior pneumothorax and a pneumopericardium. The patient was admitted for observation and intravenous antibiotics. Further investigations ruled out an oesophageal perforation. The patient was discharged following a period of clinical stability and has since made an uneventful recovery. MDMA ingestion has been cited as a rare cause of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a series of case reports. In this case, it is likely that the inhalation of nitrous oxide contributed to the development and expansion of a pneumomediastinum. PMID:26392441

  14. Comparison of bone cancer risks in beagle dogs for inhaled plutonium-238 dioxide, inhaled strontium-90 chloride, and injected strontium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    There is a continuing need to understand dose-response relationships for ionizing radiation in order to protect the health of the public and nuclear workers from undue exposures. However, relatively few human populations have been exposed to doses of radiation high enough to cause observable, long-term health effects from which to derive dose-response relationships. This is particularly true for internally deposited radionuclides, although much effort has been devoted to epidemiological studies of the few types of exposures available, including lung cancers in uranium miners form the inhalation of the radioactive decay products of Ra, liver cancers in patients injected with Thorotrast X-ray contrast medium containing Th, bone cancers in radium dial painters who ingested Ra, and bone cancers in patients who received therapeutic doses of Ra. These four types of exposures to internally deposited radionuclides provide a basis for understanding the health effects of many other radionuclides for which a potential for exposure exists. However, potential exposures to internally deposited radionuclides may differ in many modifying factors, such as route of exposure, population differences, and physical, chemical, and elemental forms of radionuclides. The only means available to study many of these modifying factors has been in laboratory animals, and to then extrapolate the results to humans. Three conclusions can be drawn from this example.

  15. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    PubMed Central

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level. PMID:27271611

  16. Effect of nitric oxide inhalation on gas exchange in acute severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Federico P; Amado, Veronica M; Roca, Josep; Torres, Antoni; Nicolas, Josep M; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Barberà, Joan A

    2013-06-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) causes selective pulmonary vasodilatation and may improve gas exchange. The study was aimed to evaluate the acute effects of inhaled NO on pulmonary gas exchange in severe unilateral pneumonia, where hypoxemia results from increased intrapulmonary shunt. We studied 8 patients without preexisting lung disease (59±18 yr; 4M/4F) with early unilateral severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange, including ventilation-perfusion (V;A/Q;) distributions, were measured at baseline and while breathing 5 and 40 parts per million (ppm) of NO. Inhaled NO caused a dose-dependent fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (by 12% and 21%, with 5 and 40ppm, respectively; p<0.01, each) and improvement of PaO2 (by 25% and 23%; p<0.05, each), owing to the reduction of intrapulmonary shunt (by 23% and 27%; p<0.05, each), without changes in the amount of perfusion to low V;A/Q; ratio alveolar units. Patients with greater baseline intrapulmonary shunt exhibited greater improvement in arterial oxygenation (r(2)=0.55, p<0.05). We conclude that low doses of inhaled NO improve pulmonary gas exchange in acute severe pneumonia. PMID:23537586

  17. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs.

    PubMed

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level. PMID:27271611

  18. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  19. Oxidative stress markers in Thoroughbred horses after castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    TSUZUKI, Nao; SASAKI, Naoki; KUSANO, Kanichi; ENDO, Yoshiro; TORISU, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress has been reported to occur during surgery. It is important to reduce intraoperative oxidative stress to improve the postoperative prognosis. However, there are no reports regarding oxidative stress related to surgery in horses. In the present study, we measured pre and postsurgical diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP); the oxidative stress index (OSI) was then calculated (OSI=d-ROMs/BAP × 100). d-ROMs were not significantly different between the pre and postsurgical periods. However, BAP significantly decreased after surgery (P=0.02), and OSI significantly increased after surgery (P=0.02). Based on these results, it suggested that castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia decreases the antioxidant potential and causes oxidative stress in horses. PMID:27330401

  20. In vitro dissolution of respirable aerosols of industrial uranium and plutonium mixed-oxide nuclear fuels.

    PubMed

    Eidson, A F; Mewhinney, J A

    1983-12-01

    Dissolution characteristics of mixed-oxide nuclear fuels are important considerations for prediction of biological behavior of inhaled particles. Four representative industrial mixed-oxide powders were obtained from fuel fabrication enclosures. Studies of the dissolution of Pu, Am and U from aerosol particles of these materials in a serum simulant solution and in 0.1M HCl showed: (1) dissolution occurred at a rapid rate initially and slowed at longer times, (2) greater percentages of U dissolved than Pu or Am: with the dissolution rates of U and Pu generally reflecting the physical nature of the UO2-PuO2 matrix, (3) the temperature history of industrial mixed-oxides could not be reliably related to Pu dissolution except for a 3-5% increase when incorporated into a solid solution by sintering at 1750 degrees C, and (4) dissolution in the serum simulant agreed with the in vivo UO2 dissolution rate and suggested the dominant role of mechanical processes in PuO2 clearance from the lung. The rapid initial dissolution rate was shown to be related, in part, to an altered surface layer. The advantages and uses of in vitro solubility data for estimation of biological behavior of inhaled industrial mixed oxides, such as assessing the use of chelation therapy and interpretation of urinary excretion data, are discussed. It was concluded that in vitro solubility tests were useful, simple and easily applied to individual materials potentially inhaled by humans. PMID:6643070

  1. Criticality experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays in plutonium-uranium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C. ); Smolen, G.R. )

    1988-08-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having a Pu/(Pu + U) ratio of approximately 0.22 in a boiler tube-type lattice assembly. These experiments were conducted as part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of the experiments and data are included in this report. The experiments were performed with an array of mixed oxide fuel pins in aqueous plutonium-uranium solutions. The fuel pins were contained in a boiler tube-type tank and arranged in a 1.4 cm square pitch array which resembled cylindrical geometry. One experiment was perfomed with the fuel pins removed from the vessel. The experiments were performed with a water reflector. The concentration of the solutions in the boiler tube-type tank was varied from 4 to 468 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was approximately 0.22 for all experiments.

  2. The Biological Chemistry of Nitric Oxide as It Pertains to the Extrapulmonary Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects. PMID:16565423

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide: Dose response and the effects of blood in the isolated rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, G.F.; Roos, C.M.; Anderson, S.M.; Urich, D.C.; Daugherty, M.O.; Johns, R.A. )

    1993-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator selective to the pulmonary circulation. Using isolated rat lungs, the authors determined the dose-response relationship of NO and the role of blood in mediating pulmonary vasodilation and selectivity. Inhaled 20, 50, 100, and 1,000 ppm NO attenuated (P < 0.001) hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by 16.1 [+-] 4.9, 22.6 [+-] 6.8, 28.4 [+-] 3.5, and 69.3 [+-] 4.2%, respectively. Inhaled 13, 34, 67, and 670 ppm NO attenuated the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure secondary to angiotensin II more (P < 0.001) in Greenberg-Bohr buffer- (GB) than in blood-perfused lungs (51.7 [+-] 0.0, 71.9 [+-] 8.9, 78.2 [+-] 5.3, and 91.9 [+-] 2.1% vs. 14.3 [+-] 4.2, 23.8 [+-] 4.6, 28.4 [+-] 3.8, and 55.5 [+-] 5.9%, respectively). Samples from GB- but not blood-perfused lungs contained NO (93.0 [+-] 26.3 nM). Intravascular NO attenuated the response to angiotensin II more (P < 0.001) in GB- (with and without plasma) than in blood- (hematocrit = 41 and 5%) perfused lungs (75.6 [+-] 6.4 and 70.9 [+-] 4.8% vs. 22.2 [+-] 2.4 and 39.4 [+-] 7.6%). In conclusion, inhaled NO produces reversible dose-dependent pulmonary vasodilation over a large range of concentrations. Inhaled NO enters the circulation, but red blood cells prevent systematic vasodilation and also a significant amount of pulmonary vasodilation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  5. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m³) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. PMID:27490535

  6. Toxicologic evaluation of tungsten: 28-day inhalation study of tungsten blue oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narayanan; Hu, Shu-Chieh; Sullivan, Dennis; Muzzio, Miguel; Detrisac, Carol J; Venezia, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity and toxicokinetics of tungsten blue oxide (TBO) were examined. TBO is an intermediate in the production of tungsten powder, and has shown the potential to cause cellular damage in in vitro studies. However, in vivo evidence seems to indicate a lack of adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to address the dearth of longer-term inhalation toxicity studies of tungsten oxides by investigating the biological responses induced by TBO when administered via nose-only inhalation to rats at levels of 0.08, 0.325, and 0.65 mg TBO/L of air for 6 h/day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. Inhaled TBO was absorbed systemically and blood levels of tungsten increased as inhaled concentration increased. Among the tissues analyzed for tungsten levels, lung, femur and kidney showed increased levels, with lung at least an order of magnitude greater than kidney or femur. By exposure day 14, tungsten concentration in tissues had reached steady-state. Increased lung weight was noted for both terminal and recovery animals and was attributed to deposition of TBO in the lungs, inducing a macrophage influx. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed a dose-related increase in alveolar pigmented macrophages, alveolar foreign material and individual alveolar foamy macrophages in lung. After a recovery period there was a slight reduction in the incidence and severity of histopathological findings. Based on the absence of other adverse effects, the increased lung weights and the microscopic findings were interpreted as nonadverse response to exposure and were not considered a specific reaction to TBO. PMID:23216159

  7. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m3) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. PMID:27490535

  8. Inhaled anaesthetics and nitrous oxide: Complexities overlooked: things may not be what they seem.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Jan; Peyton, Philip; Carette, Rik; De Wolf, Andre

    2016-09-01

    This review re-examines existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts of inhaled anaesthetics. After showing where uptake is hidden in the classic FA/FI curve, it is argued that target-controlled delivery of inhaled agents warrants a different interpretation of the factors affecting this curve (cardiac output, ventilation and blood/gas partition coefficient). Blood/gas partition coefficients of modern agents may be less important clinically than generally assumed. The partial pressure cascade from delivered to inspired to end-expired is re-examined to better understand the effect of rebreathing during low-flow anaesthesia, including the possibility of developing a hypoxic inspired mixture despite existing machine standards. Inhaled agents are easy to administer because they are transferred according to partial pressure gradients. In addition, the narrow dose-response curves for the three end points of general anaesthesia (loss of response to verbal command, immobility and autonomic reflex control) allow the clinical use of MACawake, MAC and MACBAR to determine depth of anaesthesia. Opioids differentially affect these clinical effects of inhaled agents. The effect of ventilation-perfusion relationships on gas uptake is discussed, and it is shown how moving beyond Riley's useful but simplistic model allows us to better understand both the concept and the magnitude of the second gas effect of nitrous oxide. It is argued that nitrous oxide remains a clinically useful drug. We hope to bring old (but ignored) and new (but potentially overlooked) information into the educational and clinical arenas to stimulate discussion among clinicians and researchers. We should not let technology pass by our all too engrained older concepts. PMID:27164016

  9. Spectroscopic investigations of neptunium`s and plutonium`s oxidation states in sol-gel glasses as a function of initial valance and thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, N.A.; Haire, R.G.; Dai, S.

    1996-12-01

    Several oxidation states of neptunium and plutonium, Pu(III),Pu (IV), PU(VI), Np(IV), Np(V) and Np (VI), were studied in glasses prepared by a sol-gel technology. The oxidation state of these actinides was determined primarily by absorption spectrometry and followed as a function of the solidification process, subsequent aging and thermal treatments. It was determined that the initial oxidation state of the actinides in the starting solutions was essentially maintained through the solidification process to form the glasses. However, during densification and removal of residual solvents at elevated temperatures, both actinides in the different sol-gel products converted completely to their tetravalent states. These results are discussed in terms of our findings in comparable studies that only the tetravalent states of plutonium and neptunium are formed in glasses prepared by dissolving their dioxides in different molten- glass formulations.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PLUTONIUM-URANIUM OXIDE FUEL FABRICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To develop accurate monitoring techniques for the radioactive emissions from new types of nuclear facilities, it is necessary to characterize those emissions as completely as possible. The first facility selected was a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant. In-stack, standard hi-vol...

  11. Effect of Inhaled β2-Agonist on Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mostafa; Cowan, Jan; Gray, Andrew; Brockway, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at an expiratory flow of 50mL/s (FENO50) is a marker of airway inflammation, and high levels are associated with greater response to steroid treatment. In asthma, FENO50 increases with bronchodilation and decreases with bronchoconstriction, the latter potentially causing an underestimate of the degree of airway inflammation when asthma worsens. It is unknown whether the same effect occurs in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Likewise, it is not known whether changes in airway calibre in COPD patients alter flow-independent parameters describing pulmonary nitric oxide exchange, such as the maximal flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the proximal airway compartment (J’awNO) and the distal airway/alveolar concentration of NO (CANO). We recruited 24 patients with COPD and performed FENO analysis at multiple expiratory flows before and after treatment with inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator therapy. For the 21 patients analysed, FENO50 rose from 17.1 (1.4) ppb (geometric mean (geometric SD)) at baseline, to 19.3 (1.3) ppb after bronchodilator therapy, an increase of 2.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.7–3.6; P = 0.005). There were non-significant changes in flow-independent NO parameters. The change in FENO50 correlated positively with the change in J’awNO (rs = 0.67, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P = 0.002 before and after correction for axial back-diffusion respectively) following bronchodilation. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy can increase exhaled nitric oxide measurements in COPD. The standardisation of inhaled bronchodilator therapy before FENO analysis in COPD patients should therefore be considered in both research and clinical settings. PMID:27258087

  12. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide 10 ppm in spontaneously breathing horses anaesthetized with halothane.

    PubMed

    Young, L E; Marlin, D J; McMurphy, R M; Walsh, K; Dixon, P M

    1999-08-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, is known to improve arterial oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass and during acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. During general anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, healthy adult horses develop large alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences. In this study, we have determined the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (10 parts per million (ppm)) on venous admixture and pulmonary haemodynamics in horses anaesthetized with halothane. Seven adult horses were studied twice in random sequence. After premedication with romifidine 100 micrograms kg-1, anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 2.2 mg kg-1 and maintained with 1.1 MAC (0.95%) of halothane in oxygen. Horses breathed spontaneously. After 65 min, each horse had nitric oxide 10 ppm added to the inspired gas for 20 min (procedure HA + NO) or anaesthesia was continued with halothane in oxygen (procedure HA). Cardiac output, minute ventilation, arterial and mixed venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, and mean pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures were measured for 100 min. Shunt fraction and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were calculated. Shunt fraction (SF) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (PPA mean) were not different between the two groups after 65 min of general anaesthesia (HA: SF 0.20 (SD 0.06), PPA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA + NO: SF 0.21 (0.04), PPA mean 44 (7) mm Hg) or after 85 min (HA: SF 0.22 (0.07), PPA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA + NO: SF 0.20 (0.03), PPA mean 43 (7) mm Hg). There were no significant effects of time or nitric oxide inhalation on any other variable. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.80, P < 0.05) between calculated shunt fraction 65 min after induction of anaesthesia and body weight. PMID:10618949

  13. Pulmonary Responses of Sprague-Dawley Rats in Single Inhalation Exposure to Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Gu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Heon Sang; Song, Nam Woong; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is receiving increased attention due to its potential widespread applications in future. However, the health effects of graphene have not yet been well studied. Therefore, this study examined the pulmonary effects of graphene oxide using male Sprague-Dawley rats and a single 6-hour nose-only inhalation technique. Following the exposure, the rats were allowed to recover for 1 day, 7 days, or 14 days. A total of three groups were compared: control (fresh air), low concentration (0.46 ± 0.06 mg/m3), and high concentration (3.76 ± 0.24 mg/m3). The exposure to graphene oxide did not induce significant changes in the body weights, organ weights, and food consumption during the 14 days of recovery time. The microalbumin and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were not significantly changed due to the exposure. Similarly, total cell count, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and lymphocytes were not significantly altered in the BAL fluid. Plus, the histopathological examination of the rat lungs only showed an uptake of graphene oxide in the alveolar macrophages of the high-concentration group. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the single inhalation exposure to graphene oxide induce minimal toxic responses in rat lungs at the concentrations and time points used in the present study. PMID:26295037

  14. The underwater coincidence counter for plutonium measurements in mixed-oxide fuel assemblies manual

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Eccleston; H. O. Menlove; M. Abhold; M. Baker; J. Pecos

    1999-05-01

    This manual describes the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) that has been designed for the measurement of plutonium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to irradiation. The UWCC uses high-efficiency {sup 3}He neutron detectors to measure the spontaneous-fission and induced-fission rates in the fuel assembly. Measurements can be made on MOX fuel assemblies in air or underwater. The neutron counting rate is analyzed for singles, doubles, and triples time correlations to determine the {sup 240}Pu effective mass per unit length of the fuel assembly. The system can verify the plutonium loading per unit length to a precision of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. System design, components, performance tests, and operational characteristics are described in this manual.

  15. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

  16. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  17. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  18. Echocardiographic investigation of inhaled nitric oxide in newborn babies with severe hypoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Rozé, J C; Storme, L; Zupan, V; Morville, P; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Mercier, J C

    1994-07-30

    Nitric oxide inhalation can benefit newborn babies with right-to-left extrapulmonary shunt (EPS). Using doppler ultrasound, we compared the effects of nitric oxide on systemic oxygenation and mean pulmonary-blood-flow velocity (MPBFV) in severely hypoxic babies with or without EPS. With a median (interquartile range) dose of 20 (32) parts per million, oxygenation index decreased significantly in both groups (EPS, 49 [19] vs 11 [9]; non-EPS, 40 [11] vs 20 [13]). The decrease was significantly greater in the EPS group. MPBFV increased significantly in the EPS group (18 [4] vs 29 [8] m/s) only. Nitric oxide may improve systemic oxygenation in neonates with severe hypoxaemia secondary to EPS by increasing pulmonary blood flow, and in those without EPS by improving ventilation-perfusion matching. PMID:7914264

  19. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-10

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. {sup 234}U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of {sup 238}Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup

  20. Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide characterization by coupling micro-X-ray diffraction and absorption investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Martin, M.; Kuri, G.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.

    2011-09-01

    Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The potential differences of metal redox state and microstructural developments of the matrix before and after irradiation are commonly analysed by electron probe microanalysis. In this work the structure and next-neighbor atomic environments of Pu and U oxide features within unirradiated homogeneous MOX and irradiated (60 MW d kg -1) MOX samples was analysed by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The grain properties, chemical bonding, valences and stoichiometry of Pu and U are determined from the experimental data gained for the unirradiated as well as for irradiated fuel material examined in the center of the fuel as well as in its peripheral zone (rim). The formation of sub-grains is observed as well as their development from the center to the rim (polygonization). In the irradiated sample Pu remains tetravalent (>95%) and no (<5%) Pu(V) or Pu(VI) can be detected while the fuel could undergo slight oxidation in the rim zone. Any slight potential plutonium oxidation is buffered by the uranium dioxide matrix while locally fuel cladding interaction could also affect the redox of the fuel.

  1. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  2. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  3. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2003-04-16

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization.

  4. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  5. SO(2) inhalation induces protein oxidation, DNA-protein crosslinks and apoptosis in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sang, Nan; Hou, Li; Yun, Yang; Li, Guangke

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies provide evidence for the possible neurotoxicity of SO(2), but little information is available about its mechanisms. In the present study, SO(2) inhalation-induced effects on the protein oxidation, DNA-protein crosslinks and apoptosis in rat hippocampus were studied, by exposing Wistar rats to SO(2) at 14, 28 and 56mg/m(3). The results indicate that the protein carbonyl content, an indicator of protein oxidation, and DNA-protein crosslink coefficient were significantly augmented with concentration-dependent properties. In addition, SO(2) inhalation at all concentrations tested caused the increases of caspase-3 activity and number of TUNEL positive staining neuron and the statistical difference was observed after 28 and 56mg/m(3) exposure, suggesting the occurrence of apoptosis. The results imply that attacking protein, nucleic acids and lipids by free radicals, generated via SO(2) derivatives in vivo, is one of the main mechanisms for SO(2)-induced injuries in central neuronal system. PMID:18722661

  6. An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-03-01

    Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

  7. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  8. High temperature X-ray diffraction study of the oxidation products and kinetics of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Strach, Michal; Belin, Renaud C; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Rogez, Jacques

    2014-12-15

    The oxidation products and kinetics of two sets of mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides containing 14%, 24%, 35%, 46%, 54%, and 62% plutonium treated in air were studied by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) from 300 to 1773 K every 100 K. The first set consisted of samples annealed 2 weeks before performing the experiments. The second one consisted of powdered samples that sustained self-irradiation damage. Results were compared with chosen literature data and kinetic models established for UO2. The obtained diffraction patterns were used to determine the temperature of the hexagonal M3O8 (M for metal) phase formation, which was found to increase with Pu content. The maximum observed amount of the hexagonal phase in wt % was found to decrease with Pu addition. We conclude that plutonium stabilizes the cubic phases during oxidation, but the hexagonal phase was observed even for the compositions with 62 mol % Pu. The results indicate that self-irradiation defects have a slight impact on the kinetics of oxidation and the lattice parameter even after the phase transformation. It was concluded that the lattice constant of the high oxygen phase was unaffected by the changes in the overall O/M when it was in equilibrium with small quantities of M3O8. We propose that the observed changes in the high oxygen cubic phase lattice parameter are a result of either cation migration or an increase in the miscibility of oxygen in this phase. The solubility of Pu in the hexagonal phase was estimated to be below 14 mol % even at elevated temperatures. PMID:25412433

  9. Dissolution of Neptunium and Plutonium Oxides Using a Catalyzed Electrolytic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, TD

    2004-10-25

    This report discusses the scoping study performed to evaluate the use of a catalyzed electrolytic process for dissolving {sup 237}Np oxide targets that had been irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu oxide. Historically, these compounds have been difficult to dissolve, and complete dissolution was obtained only by adding hydrofluoric acid to the nitric acid solvent. The presence of fluoride in the mixture is undesired because the fluoride ions are corrosive to tank and piping systems and the fluoride ions cause interferences in the spectrophotometric analyses. The goal is to find a dissolution method that will eliminate these issues and that can be incorporated into a processing system to support the domestic production and purification of {sup 238}Pu. This study evaluated the potential of cerium(IV) ions, a strong oxidant, to attack and dissolve the oxide compounds. In the dissolution process, the cerium(IV) ions are reduced to cerium(III) ions, which are not oxidants. Therefore, an electrolytic process was incorporated to continuously convert cerium(III) ions back to cerium(IV) ions so that they can dissolve more of the oxide compounds. This study showed that the neptunium and plutonium oxides were successfully dissolved and that more development work should be performed to optimize the procedure.

  10. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  11. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    DOEpatents

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  12. Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidatiodreduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation shows that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LO1 stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Si&icant bias also requires that UO1 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U30s clsning LO1 testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on wellestablished literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LO1 weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confum these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LO1 oxidatiodreduction biases. LO1 bias evaluation is more difficult

  13. Structure Determination of Plutonium Oxide Precipitates Formed from Aqueous Plutonium IV and V Solutions and in the Presence of Goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Begg, J.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    A series of aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) batch sorption experiments with goethite (α-FeOOH) in a pH 8 ± 0.5 buffer solution (5mM NaCl + 0.7 mM NaHCO3) at room temperature (25 °C) were performed. Intrinsic Pu colloids were synthesized in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) and acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3, ~80 °C for 10-20 min), respectively, for comparison. Morphology, distribution and crystal structure of Pu oxide precipitates, as well as interaction between the Pu precipitates and goethite, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Pu oxide precipitates formed from the sorption experiments consist of 3-5 nm primary crystalline particles (nanocrystals) irrespective of the initial form of Pu. The Pu oxide nanocrystals adopt two different crystal structures, either fcc PuO2 or bcc Pu4O7. The relative abundance of one form over the other depends on the initial form of Pu, Pu concentration, and the presence of goethite. For the high Pu concentration sorption cases (>9,000 nmol/m2 goethite), fcc PuO2 is the predominant phase occurring in both aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples. In the Pu(IV) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form mainly as a product of hydrolysis in solution. In the Pu(V) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form by redox reactions dominantly occurring on goethite surface following the sorption of Pu(V). At lower Pu concentrations, the bcc Pu4O7 becomes dominant in the presence of goethite. The bcc Pu4O7 forms directly on the goethite surface as a 3-5 nm isolated nanocrystal in both Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples and has specific crystallographic orientation relationships to goethite. Nucleation of the bcc Pu4O7 may occur by substitution of Pu(III) at the Fe(III) position on the goethite surface. In the absence of goethite, the intrinsic Pu colloids formed in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) are also comprised of 3-5 nm fcc PuO2 nanocrystals. As for the intrinsic Pu colloids precipitated from the acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3) at an elevated

  14. Pulmonary vascular effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Ferreira, Francisca; Quinn, Deborah A; Hufkens, Annemie; Claes, Rita; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received “pulsed” iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood vessels and associated lobes were quantified. Oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored and patients were asked about their subjective feelings. Results Pulmonary blood vessel volume increased by 7.06%±5.37% after iNO. A strong correlation (Ω20=0.32, P=0.002) was obtained between ventilation and observed vasodilation, suggesting that using the pulsed system, iNO is directed toward the ventilated zones, which consequently experience more vasodilation. Patients did not develop oxygen desaturation, remained normotensive, and perceived an improvement in their dyspnea sensation. Conclusion Inhalation of pulsed NO with oxygen causes vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation of COPD patients, mainly in the well-ventilated areas. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in the level of vasodilation. Patients tend to feel better after the treatment. Chronic use trials are warranted. PMID:27462149

  15. Transgenic overexpression of neuroglobin attenuates formation of smoke-inhalation-induced oxidative DNA damage, in vivo, in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung Man; Greeley, George H; Englander, Ella W

    2011-12-15

    Acute inhalation of combustion smoke causes neurological deficits in survivors. Inhaled smoke includes carbon monoxide, noxious gases, and a hypoxic environment, which disrupt oxygenation and generate free radicals. To replicate a smoke-inhalation scenario, we developed an experimental model of acute exposure to smoke for the awake mouse/rat and detected induction of biomarkers of oxidative stress. These include inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and formation of oxidative DNA damage in the brain. DNA damage is likely to contribute to neuronal dysfunction and progression of brain injury. In the search for strategies to attenuate the smoke-initiated brain injury, we produced a transgenic mouse overexpressing the neuronal globin protein neuroglobin. Neuroglobin was neuroprotective in diverse models of ischemic/hypoxic/toxic brain injuries. Here, we report lesser inhibition of respiratory complex I and reduced formation of smoke-induced DNA damage in neuroglobin transgenic compared to wild-type mouse brain. DNA damage was assessed using the standard comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay done in conjunction with an enzyme that excises oxidized guanines that form readily under conditions of oxidative stress. Both comet assays revealed that overexpressed neuroglobin attenuates the formation of oxidative DNA damage, in vivo, in the brain. These findings suggest that elevated neuroglobin exerts neuroprotection, in part, by decreasing the impact of acute smoke inhalation on the integrity of neuronal DNA. PMID:22001746

  16. Bone Marrow Injury Induced via Oxidative Stress in Mice by Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona; Li, Rui; Zhang, Luoping; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Shumao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant has been classified as a human leukemogen. However, toxicity of formaldehyde in bone marrow, the target site of leukemia induction, is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate bone marrow toxicity (bone marrow pathology, hematotoxicity) and underlying mechanisms (oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis) in formaldehyde-exposed mice. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to formaldehyde (0, 0.5, and 3.0 mg/m3) by nose-only inhalation for 8 hours/day, over a two week period designed to simulate a factory work schedule, with an exposure-free “weekend” on days 6 and 7, and were sacrificed on the morning of day 13. Counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 0.5 mg/m3 (43%, 7%, and 39%, respectively) and 3.0 mg/m3 (52%, 27%, and 43%, respectively) formaldehyde exposure, while platelet counts were significantly increased by 109% (0.5 mg/m3) and 67% (3.0 mg/m3). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione s-transferase theta 1 expression), inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B, tomour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta), and apoptosis (activity of cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in bone marrow tissues were induced at one or both formaldehyde doses mentioned above. Conclusions/Significance Exposure of mice to formaldehyde by inhalation induced bone marrow toxicity, and that oxidative stress, inflammation and the consequential apoptosis jointly constitute potential mechanisms of such induced toxicity. PMID:24040369

  17. Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Manganese Oxide Particles to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Alison; Gelein, Robert; Silva, Vanessa; Feikert, Tessa; Opanashuk, Lisa; Carter, Janet; Potter, Russell; Maynard, Andrew; Ito, Yasuo; Finkelstein, Jacob; Oberdörster, Günter

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies in monkeys with intranasally instilled gold ultrafine particles (UFPs; < 100 nm) and in rats with inhaled carbon UFPs suggested that solid UFPs deposited in the nose travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. Methods To determine if olfactory translocation occurs for other solid metal UFPs and assess potential health effects, we exposed groups of rats to manganese (Mn) oxide UFPs (30 nm; ~ 500 μg/m3) with either both nostrils patent or the right nostril occluded. We analyzed Mn in lung, liver, olfactory bulb, and other brain regions, and we performed gene and protein analyses. Results After 12 days of exposure with both nostrils patent, Mn concentrations in the olfactory bulb increased 3.5-fold, whereas lung Mn concentrations doubled; there were also increases in striatum, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. Lung lavage analysis showed no indications of lung inflammation, whereas increases in olfactory bulb tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA (~ 8-fold) and protein (~ 30-fold) were found after 11 days of exposure and, to a lesser degree, in other brain regions with increased Mn levels. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule mRNA were also increased in olfactory bulb. With the right nostril occluded for a 2-day exposure, Mn accumulated only in the left olfactory bulb. Solubilization of the Mn oxide UFPs was < 1.5% per day. Conclusions We conclude that the olfactory neuronal pathway is efficient for translocating inhaled Mn oxide as solid UFPs to the central nervous system and that this can result in inflammatory changes. We suggest that despite differences between human and rodent olfactory systems, this pathway is relevant in humans. PMID:16882521

  18. Analysis of plutonium oxide surrogate residue using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Yueh, Fang Yu; Miller, Tracy; Singh, Jagdish P.; Zeigler, Kristine E.; Marra, James C.

    2008-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental composition of a CeO 2 composite powder for process control verification during lanthanide borosilicate glass fabrication. Cerium oxide is used as a surrogate for plutonium oxide, which along with other canister contents will be combined with frit to make glass. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the composition of the CeO 2 batch containing concentrations of Ce, Cr, Si, Fe, Ta, Ni, Zn, Al Mg, Gd, and W were quantitatively determined from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of both pellet and powder samples. The results of both forms were compared and it was determined that the pellet data gave slightly better precision than the powder sample.

  19. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  20. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay. PMID:27323801

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-26

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

  2. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  3. Co-spray dried resveratrol and budesonide inhalation formulation for reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Valentina; Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo

    2016-04-30

    Oxidative stress is instrumental in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Novel therapeutic strategies that target macrophages, based on the use of antioxidant compounds, could be explored to improve corticosteroid responses in COPD patients. In this study, inhalable microparticles containing budesonide (BD) and resveratrol (RES) were prepared and characterized. This approach was undertaken to develop a multi-drug inhalable formulation with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities for treatment of chronic lung diseases. The inhalable microparticles containing different ratios of BD and RES were prepared by spray drying. The physico-chemical properties of the formulations were characterized in terms of surface morphology, particle size, physical and thermal stability. Additionally, in vitro aerosol performances of these formulations were evaluated with the multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI) at 60 and 90 l/min, respectively. The cytotoxicity effect of the formulations was evaluated using rat alveolar macrophages. The biological responses of alveolar macrophages in terms of cytokine expressions, nitric oxide (NO) production and free radical scavenging activities were also tested. The co-spray dried (Co-SD) microparticles of all formulations exhibited morphologies appropriate for inhalation administration. Analysis of the deposition profiles showed an increase in aerosol performance proportional to BD concentration. Cell viability assay demonstrated that alveolar macrophages could tolerate a wide range of RES and BD concentrations. In addition, RES and BD were able to decrease the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced alveolar macrophages. This study has successfully established the manufacture of Co-SD formulations of RES and BD with morphology and aerosol properties suitable for inhalation drug delivery, negligible in vitro toxicity and enhanced

  4. Producing nitric oxide by pulsed electrical discharge in air for portable inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binglan; Muenster, Stefan; Blaesi, Aron H; Bloch, Donald B; Zapol, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation and is an effective therapy for treating pulmonary hypertension in adults and children. In the United States, the average cost of 5 days of inhaled NO for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is about $14,000. NO therapy involves gas cylinders and distribution, a complex delivery device, gas monitoring and calibration equipment, and a trained respiratory therapy staff. The objective of this study was to develop a lightweight, portable device to serve as a simple and economical method of producing pure NO from air for bedside or portable use. Two NO generators were designed and tested: an offline NO generator and an inline NO generator placed directly within the inspiratory line. Both generators use pulsed electrical discharges to produce therapeutic range NO (5 to 80 parts per million) at gas flow rates of 0.5 to 5 liters/min. NO was produced from air, as well as gas mixtures containing up to 90% O2 and 10% N2. Potentially toxic gases produced in the plasma, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), were removed using a calcium hydroxide scavenger. An iridium spark electrode produced the lowest ratio of NO2/NO. In lambs with acute pulmonary hypertension, breathing electrically generated NO produced pulmonary vasodilation and reduced pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index. In conclusion, electrical plasma NO generation produces therapeutic levels of NO from air. After scavenging to remove NO2 and O3 and filtration to remove particles, electrically produced NO can provide safe and effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26136478

  5. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Su, W.Y.; Kimmel, T.A.; Amdur, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3 hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.

  6. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  7. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P < 0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P < 0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  8. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy Fails to Improve Outcome in Experimental Severe Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Ilyse; Miller, Chris; Kain, Kevin C.; Liles, W. Conrad

    2012-01-01

    In vitro, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against a wide range of viruses, including influenza A virus. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) would increase survival in vivo by reducing the viral load in C57Bl/6 mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1; WSN/33) virus. NO was delivered to influenza-infected mice either continuously or intermittently at 80 or 160 ppm, respectively, using both prophylactic and post-infection treatment strategies. Murine survival and weight loss were assessed, and lung viral load was quantified via plaque assay. Here, we report that iNO administered prophylactically or post-influenza infection failed to improve survival of infected mice. No difference in lung viral load was observed between experimental groups. Although NO has antiviral activity against influenza A virus in vitro, iNO therapy provided no apparent benefit when used for treatment of influenza A virus infection in vivo. PMID:22253563

  9. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Burris, Leslie; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  10. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium

  11. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  12. [The effect of subchronic inhalations of nitric oxide on metabolic processes in blood of experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Soloveva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic processes were investigated in plasma and erythrocytes of Wistar rats exposed to daily 10-min sessions of NO inhalation for 30 days. These included determination of glucose and lactate, catalase activity, and activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and catalase. NO inhalation in a concentration of 20 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm caused an increase in glucose and lactate. Inhalation of 100 ppm NO also increased catalase activity. Inhalation of all NO concentrations resulted in a decrease of ALDH activity, while the decrease in LDH activity was observed at NO concentrations of 50-100 ppm. PMID:27143382

  13. Mixed oxide fuels testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    An intense worldwide effort is now under way to find means of reducing the stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium. One of the most attractive solutions would be to use WGPu as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PUO{sub 2}) mixed with urania (UO{sub 2}). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification, (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania, (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition, (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight, (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu, (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu, (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure, (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity, (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products, (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies, and (11) Fuel performance code validation. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified.

  14. Nanoparticle Inhalation Increases Microvascular Oxidative Stress and Compromises Nitric Oxide Bioavailability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of oxidative stress an...

  15. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  16. Enhanced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production and damage after inhalation of silica.

    PubMed

    Porter, Dale W; Millecchia, Lyndell; Robinson, Victor A; Hubbs, Ann; Willard, Patsy; Pack, Donna; Ramsey, Dawn; McLaurin, Jeff; Khan, Amir; Landsittel, Douglas; Teass, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent

    2002-08-01

    In previous reports from this study, measurements of pulmonary inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage cell cytokine production and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, cytotoxic damage, and fibrosis were detailed. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between silica inhalation, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and damage mediated by these radicals in the rat. Rats were exposed to a silica aerosol (15 mg/m(3) silica, 6 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 116 days. We report time-dependent changes in 1) activation of alveolar macrophages and concomitant production of NO and ROS, 2) immunohistochemical localization of inducible NO synthase and the NO-induced damage product nitrotyrosine, 3) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid NO(x) and superoxide dismutase concentrations, and 4) lung lipid peroxidation levels. The major observations made in this study are as follows: 1) NO and ROS production and resultant damage increased during silica exposure, and 2) the sites of inducible NO synthase activation and NO-mediated damage are associated anatomically with pathological lesions in the lungs. PMID:12114212

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide and neonatal brain damage: experimental and clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo

    2012-04-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been used not only for pulmonary vasodilation in term neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure, but also in preterm ones at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) with variable results in prevention and treatment of CLD and/or brain injury. However, meta analysis of clinical trials does not support that iNO should be used routinely in preterm infants with hypoxic respiratory failure as it has no convincing long-term follow-up data to show its advantages in neurodevelopment. Investigation of extra-pulmonary effects of iNO through nitrosothiol hemoglobin-associated hypoxic vasodilation, as well as its intra- and extra-pulmonary anti-inflammation effect, would have biological and physiological potential in the management of the lung and brain injury of prematurity. The eligibility and safety of iNO in these premature infants at high risk of neurodevelopmental disability require more clinical and follow-up effort to test its pharmacological benefit over harm. PMID:22348510

  18. Inhaled nitric oxide protects males but not females from neonatal mouse hypoxia-ischemia brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changlian; Sun, Yanyan; Gao, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Blomgren, Klas

    2013-04-01

    It was recently discovered that while under normal conditions inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) does not affect cerebral blood flow, it selectively dilates arterioles in the ischemic penumbra during experimental cerebral ischemia, thereby increasing collateral blood flow and reducing ischemic brain damage. The mechanism was verified in multiple models, but only in male animals. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of iNO on brain injury in neonatal males and females. Nine-day-old mice were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), using 10% oxygen balanced with nitrogen, with or without 50 ppm NO. Brain injury 72 h after HI was reduced by iNO as judged by percentage of injury (-21.7%), atrophy (-23.7%), and total pathological score (-29%). The injury was significantly reduced in males (-32.4%, p<0.05) but not in females (-7.1%, n.s.). Neither the numbers nor the proliferation rates of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus were affected by iNO. In summary, intraischemic iNO reduced neonatal HI brain injury in a gender-related manner. PMID:24323275

  19. Low-dose inhaled nitric oxide in term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure: a Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Goh, A Y; Lum, L C; Roziah, M

    2001-09-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) improves oxygenation in term and near-term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and decreases the need for treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This mode of treatment is currently being introduced in Malaysia. We report our preliminary experience using low dose inhaled nitric oxide (20 parts per million) in three newborn infants (meconium aspiration syndrome, primary PPHN and congenital diaphragmatic hernia) with severe PPHN who fulfilled criteria for ECMO with a mean oxygenation index (OI) of 40. Two of the infants showed rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation with a reduction in oxygenation index (OI) over 24 hours. The infant with diaphragmatic hernia showed an initial improvement in OI, which was unsustained and subsequently died. All three infants did not show significant elevation of methemoglobin or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Inhaled nitric oxide is an effective and safe treatment for severe PPHN that can be used in a developing country like Malaysia. PMID:11732080

  20. Investigation Of In-Line Monitoring Options At H Canyon/HB Line For Plutonium Oxide Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2015-10-14

    H Canyon and HB Line have a production goal of 1 MT per year of plutonium oxide feedstock for the MOX facility by FY17 (AFS-2 mission). In order to meet this goal, steps will need to be taken to improve processing efficiency. One concept for achieving this goal is to implement in-line process monitoring at key measurement points within the facilities. In-line monitoring during operations has the potential to increase throughput and efficiency while reducing costs associated with laboratory sample analysis. In the work reported here, we mapped the plutonium oxide process, identified key measurement points, investigated alternate technologies that could be used for in-line analysis, and initiated a throughput benefit analysis.

  1. Analysis of pulmonary surfactant in rat lungs after inhalation of nanomaterials: Fullerenes, nickel oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Chikara; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Ogami, Akira; Oyabu, Takako; Nishi, Ken-ichiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Todoroki, Motoi; Morimoto, Yasuo; Tanaka, Isamu; Myojo, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The health risks of inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace are a major concern in recent years, and hazard assessments of these materials are being conducted. The pulmonary surfactant of lung alveoli is the first biological entity to have contact with airborne nanomaterials in inhaled air. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the pulmonary surfactant components of rat lungs after a 4-week inhalation exposure to three different nanomaterials: fullerenes, nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), with similar levels of average aerosol concentration (0.13-0.37 mg/m(3)). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the rat lungs stored after previous inhalation studies was analyzed, focusing on total protein and the surfactant components, such as phospholipids and surfactant-specific SP-D (surfactant protein D) and the BALF surface tension, which is affected by SP-B and SP-C. Compared with a control group, significant changes in the BALF surface tension and the concentrations of phospholipids, total protein and SP-D were observed in rats exposed to NiO nanoparticles, but not in those exposed to fullerenes. Surface tension and the levels of surfactant phospholipids and proteins were also significantly different in rats exposed to MWCNTs. The concentrations of phospholipids, total protein and SP-D and BALF surface tension were correlated significantly with the polymorphonuclear neutrophil counts in the BALF. These results suggest that pulmonary surfactant components can be used as measures of lung inflammation. PMID:25950198

  2. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  3. Dynamic and quasi-static simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal containers subject to 30-foot dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers is in support of the design and testing project The results from the dynamic analysis show some important facts that have not been considered before. The internal bagless transfer can will have higher stress than the primary container. The quasi-static analysis provides a conservative solution. In both vertical upright drop (dynamic) and inclined upside down drop (quasi-static) the containers are structurally sound.

  4. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2003-07-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium oxide fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in 233U. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in the reduction of plutonium inventories. While uranium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium in discharged fuel, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the 238U. Here, we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed-oxide fuel in a light water reactor. Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2, where >70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnups of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels for similar plutonium enrichments. For equal specific burnups of ~60 MWd/kg (i.e., using variable plutonium weight percentages to give the desired burnup), the thorium-based fuels still outperform the uranium-based fuels by more than a factor of 2, where the total plutonium consumption in a three-batch, 18-month cycle was 60 to 70%. This is fairly significant considering that 10 to 15% (by weight) more plutonium is needed in the thorium-based fuels as compared to the uranium

  5. Plutonium disproportionation: the ambiguity phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-05-01

    Plutonium oxidation-state studies may yield ambiguous results if the parameters are not carefully chosen. The effect can be related to environmental plutonium as illustrated by an example. PMID:12735968

  6. Echocardiographic evidence of improved hemodynamics during inhaled nitric oxide therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Ochikubo, C G; Waffarn, F; Turbow, R; Kanakriyeh, M

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the systemic and pulmonary circulations, 25 consecutive infants with severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) underwent serial echocardiographic evaluations before and during inhaled NO therapy. Estimation of the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) was derived from measurement of a tricuspid regurgitant jet using Bernoulli's equation. We also derived a pulmonary/systemic pressure ratio to evaluate overall cardiopulmonary effects. Paired measurements of estimated SPAP decreased from 62.0 +/- 3.8 mmHg to 44.7 +/- 4.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) during inhaled NO therapy. The pulmonary/systemic pressure ratio decreased from 0.98 +/- 0.06 to 0.59 +/- 0.04 during NO therapy (p < 0.01), indicating a significant decline in the vascular resistance between the two circulations. These changes also correlated with changes in the extrapulmonary shunt patterns at the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale seen during inhaled NO therapy. The decreased right-to-left shunting was accompanied by a parallel (64%) improvement in systemic oxygenation, with the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2) falling from 591 +/- 14 mmHg to 380 +/- 33 mmHg (p < 0.01). We found echocardiography to be a useful clinical tool for evaluating and monitoring pulmonary artery pressure in infants with PPHN. Measurement of the SPAP and the pulmonary/systemic pressure ratio gave a quantitative estimation of the severity of PPHN, and the extrapulmonary shunt flow patterns at the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale gave qualitative estimates of its severity. Inhaled NO increased pulmonary blood flow and oxygenation and improved the systemic cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in this group of infants. PMID:9175525

  7. Oxidation state and local structure of plutonium reacted with magnetite, mackinawite, and chukanovite.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Regina; Fellhauer, David; Altmaier, Marcus; Neck, Volker; Rossberg, Andre; Fanghänel, Thomas; Charlet, Laurent; Scheinost, Andreas C

    2011-09-01

    Due to their redox reactivity, surface sorption characteristics, and ubiquity as corrosion products or as minerals in natural sediments, iron(II)-bearing minerals control to a large extent the environmental fate of actinides. Pu-L(III)-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra were used to investigate reaction products of aqueous (242)Pu(III) and (242)Pu(V) reacted with magnetite, mackinawite, and chukanovite under anoxic conditions. As Pu concentrations in the liquid phase were rapidly below detection limit, oxidation state and local structure of Pu were determined for Pu associated with the solid mineral phase. Pu(V) was reduced in the presence of all three minerals. A newly identified, highly specific Pu(III)-sorption complex formed with magnetite. Solid PuO(2) phases formed in the presence of mackinawite and chukanovite; in the case of chukanovite, up to one-third of plutonium was also present as Pu(III). This highlights the necessity to consider, under reducing anoxic conditions, Pu(III) species in addition to tetravalent PuO(2) for environmental risk assessment. Our results also demonstrate the necessity to support thermodynamic calculations with spectroscopic data. PMID:21755920

  8. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  9. LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

    2008-11-21

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

  10. Pulmonary effects of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide in the pig: relation to cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Alving, K.; Fornhem, C.; Lundberg, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    1. Pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pigs were challenged with cigarette smoke (unfiltered or filtered through a Cambridge glass fibre filter to remove the particulate phase including nicotine), as well as nicotine aerosol and the gas phase components nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO); the effects on the bronchial and pulmonary circulations, and pulmonary airway mechanics, were examined. The relative importance of endogenous NO mechanisms in the pig lung was also studied by giving the NO synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 50 mg kg-1) intravenously. Mean arterial pressure and blood flow in the bronchial, pulmonary and femoral circulations were measured, the latter with ultrasonic flow probes around the supplying arteries, and vascular resistance (VR) was calculated. Changes in pulmonary airways resistance (Rpulm) and lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were also determined. Finally, the concentration of NO in inhaled air during cigarette smoke and NO gas challenges was continuously monitored by a chemiluminescence method and the relative contribution of NO in cigarette smoke-induced vascular effects in the pig lung was calculated. 2. Cigarette smoke challenge, with or without a Cambridge filter, caused a rapid vasodilator response in the bronchial circulation and the major part (75%) of this response was probably caused by NO present in smoke. NO challenge caused profound bronchial vasodilation with dose-response characteristics between 10 and 100 p.p.m. The small part of the cigarette smoke-induced response not explained by the NO content may be caused by CO, showing weak vasodilator effect in the bronchial circulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242246

  11. Mean airway pressure and response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonatal and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, George M; Nelin, Leif D

    2005-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can improve oxygenation and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) matching by reduction of shunt (Qs/Qt) in patients with hypoxemic lung disease. Because the improvement in V/Q matching must occur by redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, and because high airway pressure (Paw) increases physiologic dead space (Vd/Vt), we hypothesized that high Paw may limit the improvement in V/Q matching during iNO treatment. iNO 0-50 ppm was administered during mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilator settings were at the discretion of the attending physician. Qs/Qt and Vd/Vt were derived from a tripartite lung model with correction for shunt-induced dead space. Data from 62 patients during 153 trials were analyzed for effects of Paw and iNO on Qs/Qt and Vd/Vt. Baseline Qs/Qt was slightly increased at Paw 16-23 cmH2O (p < 0.05), while Vd/Vt increased progressively with higher Paw (p < 0.002). Therapy with iNO significantly reduced Qs/Qt (p < 0.001) at all levels of mean Paw, reaching a maximum reduction at 16-23 cmH2O (p < 0.05), such that Qs/Qt during iNO treatment was similar at all levels of Paw. During iNO treatment, a reduction in Vd/Vt occurred only at Paw of 8-15 cmH2O (p < 0.05), and the positive relationship between Vd/Vt and Paw was maintained. These differential effects on Qs/Qt and Vd/Vt suggest that both high and low Paw may limit improvement in gas exchange with iNO. Analysis of gas exchange using this corrected tripartite lung model may help optimize ventilatory strategies during iNO therapy. PMID:16465603

  12. Distribution and genotoxic effects after successive exposure to different uranium oxide particles inhaled by rats.

    PubMed

    Monleau, Marjorie; De Méo, Michel; Frelon, Sandrine; Paquet, François; Donnadieu-Claraz, Marie; Duménil, Gérard; Chazel, Valérie

    2006-10-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facilities, workers may inhale airborne uranium compounds that lead to internal contamination, with various exposure scenarios depending on the workplace. These exposures can be chronic, repeated, or acute, and can involve many different compounds. The effect of uranium after multiple scenarios of exposure is unknown. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the genotoxic and biokinetics consequences of exposure to depleted insoluble uranium dioxide (UO2) by repeated or acute inhalation on subsequent acute inhalation of moderately soluble uranium peroxide (UO4) in rats. The results show that UO2 repeated preexposure by inhalation increases the genotoxic effects of UO4 inhalation, assessed by comet assay, in different cell types, when UO4 exposure alone has no effect. At the same time, the study of UO4 bioaccumulation showed that the UO4 biokinetics in the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and excreta, but not in the lungs, were slightly modified by previous UO2 exposures. All these results show that both genotoxic and biokinetics effects of uranium may depend on preexposure and that repeated exposure induces a potentiation effect compared with acute exposure. PMID:16864406

  13. Influence of sources on plutonium mobility and oxidation state transformations in vadose zone sediments.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Powell, Brian A; Duff, Martine C; Demirkanli, Deniz I; Denham, Miles; Fjeld, Robert A; Molz, Fred J

    2007-11-01

    Well-defined solid sources of Pu(III) (PuCl3), Pu(IV) (Pu (NO3)4 and Pu (C2O4)2), and Pu(VI) (Pu02(NO3)2) were placed in lysimeters containing vadose zone sediments and exposed to natural weather conditions for 2 or 11 years. The objective of this study was to measure the release rate of Pu and the changes in the Pu oxidation states from these Pu sources with the intent to develop a reactive transport model source-term. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) sources had identical Pu concentration depth profiles and similar Pu release rates. Source release data indicate that PuIV(C2O4)2 was the least mobile, whereas Pu(VI)O2(NO3)2 was the most mobile. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) revealed that Pu was very unevenly distributed on the sediment and Mn concentrations were too low (630 mg kg(-1)) and perhaps of the wrong mineralogy to influence Pu distribution. The high stability of sorbed Pu(IV) is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis conducted on sediment recovered at the end of the studyfrom the Pu(IV)(NO3)4- and Pu(III)(III)Cl3-amended lysimeters contained essentially identical Pu distributions: approximately 37% Pu(III), 67% Pu(IV), 0% Pu(V), and 0% Pu(VI). These results were similar to those using a wet chemistry Pu oxidation state assay, except the latter method did not detect any Pu(III) present on the sediment but instead indicated that 93-98% of the Pu existed as Pu(IV). This discrepancy was likely attributable to incomplete extraction of sediment Pu(III) by the wet chemistry method. Although Pu has been known to exist in the +3 oxidation state under microbially induced reducing conditions for decades, to our knowledge, this is the first observation of steady-state Pu(III) in association with natural sediments. On the basis of thermodynamic considerations, Pu(III) has a wide potential distribution, especially in acidic environments, and as such may warrant

  14. Influence of Sources on Plutonium Mobility and Oxidation State Transformations in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan,D.; Powell, B.; Duff, M.; Demirkanli, D.; Denham, M.; Fjeld, R.; Molz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-defined solid sources of Pu(III) (PuCl3), Pu(IV) (Pu (NO3)4 and Pu (C2O4)2), and Pu(VI) (PuO2(NO3)2) were placed in lysimeters containing vadose zone sediments and exposed to natural weather conditions for 2 or 11 years. The objective of this study was to measure the release rate of Pu and the changes in the Pu oxidation states from these Pu sources with the intent to develop a reactive transport model source-term. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) sources had identical Pu concentration depth profiles and similar Pu release rates. Source release data indicate that PuIV(C2O4)2 was the least mobile, whereas PuVIO2(NO3)2 was the most mobile. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) revealed that Pu was very unevenly distributed on the sediment and Mn concentrations were too low (630 mg kg-1) and perhaps of the wrong mineralogy to influence Pu distribution. The high stability of sorbed Pu(IV) is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis conducted on sediment recovered at the end of the study from the PuIV(NO3)4- and PuIIICl3-amended lysimeters contained essentially identical Pu distributions: approximately 37% Pu(III), 67% Pu(IV), 0% Pu(V), and 0% Pu(VI). These results were similar to those using a wet chemistry Pu oxidation state assay, except the latter method did not detect any Pu(III) present on the sediment but instead indicated that 93-98% of the Pu existed as Pu(IV). This discrepancy was likely attributable to incomplete extraction of sediment Pu(III) by the wet chemistry method. Although Pu has been known to exist in the +3 oxidation state under microbially induced reducing conditions for decades, to our knowledge, this is the first observation of steady-state Pu(III) in association with natural sediments. On the basis of thermodynamic considerations, Pu(III) has a wide potential distribution, especially in acidic environments, and as such may warrant further

  15. Effects of short-term inhaled fluticasone on oxidative burst of sputum cells in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Dauletbaev, N; Viel, K; Behr, J; Loitsch, S; Buhl, R; Wagner, T O; Bargon, J

    1999-11-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids have been proposed to decrease pulmonary inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study the effects of therapy with inhaled fluticasone on clinical and sputum outcomes (leukocyte count, activity of myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion release) in adult CF patients were investigated in an open label design. Twenty-six stable patients (median+/-SD forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 58.1+/-19.9% pred.) were randomly assigned to the study group (500 microg b.i.d., for three weeks) or the control group (n=14; nonsteroid medication). Sputum samples were obtained during inhalation of hypertonic saline (3%, 20 min), which was found not to alter the investigated sputum parameters. No significant changes in clinical parameters, sputum leukocyte count, activity of myeloperoxidase, and baseline superoxide anion release where observed following therapy. Surprisingly, stimulated superoxide anion release increased significantly after therapy (34.1+/-17.7 versus 25.2+/-17.4 nmol x hr(-1) x 10(6) cells, p<0.03) and exceeded spontaneous variability of this parameter (p=0.02 versus control group). In conclusion, in adult cystic fibrosis patients short-term fluticasone therapy had no evident effect on clinical and sputum parameters. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate whether the observed up-regulation of oxidative capacity of inflammatory cells is of concern or benefit in these patients. PMID:10596705

  16. Fluorescence imaging microscopy of leukocytes-endothelium interaction in rat mesenteric microcirculation after endotoxin injection: role of inhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Neviere, Remi; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Buys, Bruno; Dhelin, Guy; Lesage, Jean C.; Mathieu, D.; Guery, Benoit; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to microvascular endothelium has been recognized as an important factor in the development of multiple organ dysfunction after a septic insult. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled NO would reduce leukocyte rolling and / or leukocyte adhesion in the mesenteric venule preparation in endotoxemic rats. This study was performed with fluorescence imaging microscopy using a closed chamber for in vivo mesentery visualization. Leukocytes were selectively stained with acridine red. Compared to saline, endotoxemia was associated with increases in the flux of rolling leukocytes and in adherent and emigrated leukocytes. Inhaled nitric oxide treatment had no effects on leukocyte behavior in saline treated rats, whereas it reduced adherent and emigrated leukocytes in endotoxin-treated rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated that endotoxemia-induced leukocyte infiltration was related to an increase in the number of rolling leukocytes and subsequent adhesion and emigration in the mesenteric venule. Our results clearly showed that inhaled NO reduces leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in mesenteric venule of endotoxemic rats presumably by interfering with specific cell adhesion molecules.

  17. Dose-dependent onset and cessation of action of inhaled budesonide on exhaled nitric oxide and symptoms in mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kharitonov, S; Donnelly, L; Montuschi, P; Corradi, M; Collins, J; Barnes, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dose dependent anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma are difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice. The anti-inflammatory effect of low dose inhaled budesonide on non-invasive exhaled markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed in patients with mild asthma. Methods: 28 patients entered a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study and were randomly given either 100 or 400 µg budesonide or placebo once daily, inhaled from a dry powder inhaler (Turbohaler), for 3 weeks followed by 1 week without treatment. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), nitrite/nitrate, S-nitrosothiols, and 8-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate were measured four times during weeks 1 and 4, and once a week during weeks 2 and 3. Results: A dose-dependent speed of onset and cessation of action of budesonide was seen on exhaled NO and asthma symptoms. Treatment with 400 µg/day reduced exhaled NO faster (–2.06 (0.37) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (–0.51 (0.35) ppb/day; p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was –1.55 ppb/day (95% CI –2.50 to –0.60). Pretreatment NO levels were positively related to the subsequent speed of reduction during the first 3–5 days of treatment. Faster recovery of exhaled NO was seen after stopping treatment with budesonide 400 µg/day (1.89 (1.43) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (0.49 (0.34) ppb/day, p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was 1.40 ppb/day (95% CI –0.49 to 2.31). Symptom improvement was dose-dependent, although symptoms returned faster in patients treated with 400 µg/day. A significant reduction in exhaled nitrite/nitrate and S-nitrosothiols after budesonide treatment was not dose-dependent. There were no significant changes in exhaled CO or 8-isoprostanes in breath condensate. Conclusion: Measurement of exhaled NO levels can indicate a dose-dependent onset and cessation of anti

  18. Effect of Inhaling Cymbopogon martinii Essential Oil and Geraniol on Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Braga, Camila Pereira; dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO. PMID:25574396

  19. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  20. Association among fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide, bronchodilator response and inhaled corticosteroid type

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan W; Downey, Kim; Snow, Nadia; Dell, Sharon; Smith, W Gary

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide (FeNO) is a known marker of airway inflammation and a topic of recent investigation for asthma control in children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among FeNO and bronchodilator response measured by spirometry and types of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: A one-year review of children tested with spirometry and FeNO in a regional pediatric asthma centre was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 183 children were included (mean [± SD] age 12.8±2.8 years). Fluticasone was used most commonly (n=66 [36.1%]), followed by ciclesonide (n=50 [27.3%]). Most children (n=73 [39.9%]) had moderate persistent asthma. Increased FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after bronchodilator adjusted for allergic rhinitis, parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.08 [95% CI 0.04 to 0.12]; P<0.001). Similarly, FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25–75) after bronchodilator adjusted for parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.13 [95% CI 0.01 to 0.24]; P=0.03). FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean-adjusted FeNO was lowest in fluticasone users compared with no ICS (mean difference 18.6 parts per billion [ppb] [95% CI 1.0 to 36.2]) and there was no difference in adjusted FeNO level between ciclesonide and no ICS (5.9 ppb [95% CI −9.0 to 20.8]). CONCLUSION: FeNO levels correlated with bronchodilator response in a regional pediatric asthma centre. However, FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean adjusted FeNO varied according to ICS type, suggesting a difference in relative efficacy between ICS beyond their dose equivalents. PMID:25874734

  1. Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Management of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Juliette Lucinda; Bronicki, Ronald A.; Anas, Nick

    2016-01-01

    To date, there have been several systematic reviews with meta-analysis that have shown no reduction in mortality with the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Importantly, these reports fail to make a distinction between the pediatric and adult patient. The number of adult patients in these reviews are far greater than the number of pediatric patients, which makes it difficult to interpret the data regarding the role of iNO on the pediatric population. Extrapolating data from the adult population to the pediatric population is complicated as we know that physiology and the body’s response to disease can be different between adult and pediatric patients. iNO has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, Bronicki et al. published a prospective randomized control trial investigating the impact of iNO on the pediatric patient population with acute respiratory failure. In this study, a benefit of decreased duration of mechanical ventilation and an increased rate of ECMO-free survival was demonstrated in patients who were randomized to receiving iNO, suggesting that there may be benefit to the use of iNO in pediatric ARDS (PARDS) that has not been demonstrated in adults. iNO has repeatedly been shown to transiently improve oxygenation in all age groups, and yet neonates and pediatric patients have shown improvement in other outcomes that have not been seen in adults. The mechanism that explains improvement with the use of iNO in these patient populations are not well understood but does not appear to be solely a result of sustained improvement in oxygenation. There are physiologic studies that suggest alternative mechanisms for explaining the positive effects of iNO, such as platelet aggregation inhibition and reduction in systemic inflammation. Hence, the role of iNO by various mechanisms and in various

  2. Is there a place for inhaled nitric oxide in the therapy of acute pulmonary embolism?

    PubMed

    Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Theodorakis, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious complication resulting from the migration of emboli to the lungs. Although deep venous thrombi are the most common source of emboli to the lungs, other important sources include air, amniotic fluid, fat and bone marrow. Regardless of the specific source of the emboli, very little progress has been made in the pharmacological management of this high mortality condition. Because the prognosis is linked to the degree of elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, any therapeutic intervention to improve the hemodynamics would probably increase the low survival rate of this critical condition. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been widely tested and used in cases of pulmonary hypertension of different causes. In the last few years some authors have described beneficial effects of iNO in animal models of acute PE and in anecdotal cases of massive PE. The primary cause of death in massive PE that is caused by deep venous thrombi, gas or amniotic fluid, is acute right heart failure and circulatory shock. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance following acute PE is the cumulative result of mechanical obstruction of pulmonary vessels and pulmonary arteriolar constriction (attributable to a neurogenic reflex and to the release of vasoconstrictors). As such, the vasodilator effects of iNO could actively oppose the pulmonary hypertension following PE. This hypothesis is consistently supported by experimental studies in different animal models of PE, which demonstrated that iNO decreased (by 10 to 20%) the pulmonary artery pressure without improving pulmonary gas exchange. Although maximal vasodilatory effects are probably achieved by less than 5 parts per million iNO, which is a relatively low concentration, no dose-response study has been published so far. In addition to the animal studies, a few anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that iNO may improve the hemodynamics during acute PE. However, no prospective, controlled

  3. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  4. COMPARATIVE HEPATOTOXICITY OF INHALED CADMIUM CHLORIDE AND CADMIUM OXIDE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine the toxicity of inhaled cadmium (Cd) on hepatic biochemical function. Male rats and rabbits were exposed for 2 hr to concentrations of 0.25, 0.45, and 4.5 mg Cd/cu m. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, serum and liver enzymes, and histologi...

  5. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, primarily due to insufficient information about human exposure and unreliable animal models. A sub-chronic inhalation study with multiple endpoints was c...

  6. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  7. Continuous low dose inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery in paediatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Beghetti, M.; Habre, W.; Friedli, B.; Berner, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on severe postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after surgical repair of a congenital heart defect. DESIGN--A pilot study of NO administration to 7 consecutive children who required adrenergic support and in whom postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was more than two thirds of mean systemic pressure and persisted despite alkalotic hyperventilation. SETTING--Routine care after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS--Continuous inhalation of NO, initially at 15 ppm. Therefore, daily attempts at complete weaning or at reducing NO to the lowest effective dose. RESULTS--In 6 of the 7 children NO inhalation selectively decreased mean (SD) pulmonary artery pressure from 51 (12) to 31 (9) mm Hg (P < 0.05) while mean systemic arterial pressure was unchanged (68 (10) v 71 (7) mm Hg) (NS) and the arteriovenous difference in oxygen content decreased from 6.7 (0.9) to 4.8 (0.8) vol% (P < 0.05). Concomitantly PaO2 increased from 158 (98) to 231 (79) mm Hg) (P < 0.05). The seventh child showed no response to NO up to 80 ppm, could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, and died in the operating room. In responders, attempts at early weaning from NO inhalation always failed and NO at concentrations of less than 10 ppm was continuously administered for a median of 9.5 days (range 4 to 16 days) until complete weaning was possible from a mean dose of 3.9 (2.9) ppm. Methaemoglobinaemia remained below 2% and nitrogen dioxide concentrations usually ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 ppm. One child later died and five were discharged. A few months after surgery Doppler echocardiography (and catheterisation in one) showed evidence of regression of pulmonary hypertension in all 5. CONCLUSIONS--Inhalation of NO reduced pulmonary artery pressure in children with severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery and this effect was maintained over

  8. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  9. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  10. Room-temperature oxidation of hypostoichiometric uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x - A depth-selective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Belin, Renaud C.; Martin, Philippe M.; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, TGA, XAS and XRD were used to evidence the spontaneous oxidation of biphasic U1-yPuyO2-x samples, with y = 0.28 and 0.45, at room temperature and upon exposure to low moisture and oxygen contents. The oxidation occurs within very short timescales (e.g. O/M ratio increasing from 1.94 to 1.98 within ∼1 μm surface layer in ∼50 h). The combined use of these three complementary methods offered a depth-selective approach from the sample's bulk to its surface and allowed a thorough understanding of the underlying processes involved during the formation of the oxidized layer and of its thickening with time. We believe our results to be of interest in the prospect of fabricating hypo-stoichiometric uranium-plutonium mixed oxides since mastering the oxygen content is a crucial point for many of the fuel properties.

  11. 30-y follow-up of a Pu/Am inhalation case.

    PubMed

    Wernli, Christian; Eikenberg, Jost; Marzocchi, Olaf; Breustedt, Bastian; Oestreicher, Ursula; Romm, Horst; Gregoratto, Demetrio; Marsh, James

    2015-04-01

    In 1983, a young man inhaled accidentally a large amount of plutonium and americium. This case was carefully followed until 2013. Since no decorporation measures had been taken, the undisturbed metabolism of Pu and Am can be derived from the data. First objective was to determine the amount of inhaled radionuclides and to estimate committed effective dose. In vivo and excretion measurements started immediately after the inhalation, and for quality assurance, all types of measurements were performed by different labs in Europe and the USA. After dose assessment by various international groups were completed, the measurements were continued to produce scientific data for model validation. The data have been analysed here to estimate lung absorption parameter values for the inhaled plutonium and americium oxide using the proposed new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model. As supplement to the biokinetic modelling, biological data from three different cytogenetic markers have been added. The estimated committed effective dose is in the order of 1 Sv. The subject is 30 y after the inhalation, of good health, according to a recent medical check-up. PMID:25527180

  12. Beneficial effects of concomitant neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition in ovine burn and inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2011-06-01

    Different isoforms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal NO synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured and untreated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with simultaneous infusion of selective inducible and neuronal NO synthase inhibitors (n = 5). The injury was induced by 48 breaths of cotton smoke and a third-degree burn of 40% total body surface area. All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated. The injury induced severe pulmonary dysfunction as indicated by decreases in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and increases in pulmonary shunt fraction, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. The treatment fully prevented the elevations in lymph and plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, pulmonary shunting, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and wet/dry weight ratio and significantly attenuated the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio. In conclusion, simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal NO synthase exerts beneficial pulmonary effects in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. This novel treatment strategy may represent a useful therapeutic adjunct for patients with these injuries. PMID:21263377

  13. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  14. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  15. Conscious sedation with inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix in photodynamic therapy sessions for vulvar lichen sclerosus treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Cabete, Joana; Campos, Sara; Lestre, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been described as an effective therapeutic option in selected cases of anogenital lichen sclerosus that are refractory to first-line treatments. However, procedure-related pain is a limiting factor in patient adherence to treatment. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old woman with highly symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus, successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. An inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix was administered during sessions, producing a pain-relieving, anxiolytic, and sedative effect without loss of consciousness. This ready-to-use gas mixture may be a well-tolerated and accepted alternative to classical anesthetics in Photodynamic therapy, facilitating patients' adherence to illumination of pain-prone areas. PMID:25672311

  16. The feasibility of using molten carbonate corrosion for separating a nuclear surrogate for plutonium oxide from silicon carbide inert matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ting; Baney, Ronald H.; Tulenko, James

    2010-10-01

    Silicon carbide is one of the prime candidates as a matrix material in inert matrix fuels (IMF) being designed to reduce the plutonium inventories. Since complete fission and transmutation is not practical in a single in-core run, it is necessary to separate the non-transmuted actinide materials from the silicon carbide matrix for recycling. In this work, SiC was corroded in sodium carbonate (Na 2CO 3) and potassium carbonate (K 2CO 3), to form water soluble sodium or potassium silicate. Separation of the transuranics was achieved by dissolving the SiC corrosion product in boiling water. Ceria (CeO 2), which was used as a surrogate for plutonium oxide (PuO 2), was not corroded in these molten salt environments. The molten salt depth, which is a distance between the salt/air interface to the upper surface of SiC pellets, significantly affected the rate of corrosion. The corrosion was faster in K 2CO 3 than in Na 2CO 3 molten salt at 1050 °C, when the initial molten salt depths were kept the same for both salts.

  17. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  18. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  19. Evaluation of existing United States` facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications.

  20. Comparison of the Pulmonary Oxidative Stress Caused by Intratracheal Instillation and Inhalation of NiO Nanoparticles when Equivalent Amounts of NiO Are Retained in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masanori; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Izumi, Hiroto; Oyabu, Takako; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Okada, Takami; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kubo, Masaru; Shimada, Manabu; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles were administered to rat lungs via intratracheal instillation or inhalation. During pulmonary toxicity caused by NiO nanoparticles, the induction of oxidative stress is a major factor. Both intratracheal instillation and inhalation of NiO nanoparticles induced pulmonary oxidative stress. The oxidative stress response protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was induced by the administration of NiO nanoparticles at both the protein and gene expression level. Additionally, certain oxidative-stress markers in the lung, such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, thioredoxin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the lung was also increased by the administration of NiO nanoparticles. When the amount of NiO in the lung is similar, the responses against pulmonary oxidative stress of intratracheal instillation and inhalation are also similar. However, the state of pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase was different between intratracheal instillation and inhalation, even if the amount of NiO in the lung was similar. Inhalation causes milder oxidative stress than that caused by intratracheal instillation. On evaluation of the nanoparticle-induced pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase, we should understand the different states of oxidative stress induced by intratracheal instillation and inhalation. PMID:26797643

  1. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production causes progressive damage in rats after cessation of silica inhalation.

    PubMed

    Porter, Dale W; Millecchia, Lyndell L; Willard, Patsy; Robinson, Victor A; Ramsey, Dawn; McLaurin, Jeffery; Khan, Amir; Brumbaugh, Kurt; Beighley, Christoper M; Teass, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent

    2006-03-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported results from a rat silica inhalation study which determined that, even after silica exposure ended, pulmonary inflammation and damage progressed with subsequent fibrosis development. In the present study, the relationship between silica exposure, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the resultant pulmonary damage is investigated in this model. Rats were exposed to silica (15 mg/m3, 6 h/day) for either 20, 40, or 60 days. A portion of the rats from each exposure were sacrificed at 0 days postexposure, while another portion was maintained without further exposure for 36 days to examine recovery or progression. The major findings of this study are: (1) silica-exposed rat lungs were in a state of oxidative stress, the severity of which increased during the postexposure period, (2) silica-exposed rats had significant increase in lung NO production which increased in magnitude during the postexposure period, and (3) the presence of silica particle(s) in an alveolar macrophage (AM) was highly associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein. These data indicate that, even after silica exposure has ended, and despite declining silica lung burden, silica-induced pulmonary NO and ROS production increases, thus producing a more severe oxidative stress. A quantitative association between silica and expression of iNOS protein in AMs was also determined, which adds to our previous observation that iNOS and NO-mediated damage are associated anatomically with silica-induced pathological lesions. Future studies will be needed to determine whether the progressive oxidative stress, and iNOS activation and NO production, is a direct result of silica lung burden or a consequence of silica-induced biochemical mediators. PMID:16339787

  2. Ozone Inhalation Impairs Coronary Artery Dilation via Intracellular Oxidative Stress: Evidence for Serum-Borne Factors as Drivers of Systemic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paffett, Michael L.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sheppard, Lianne; Robertson, Sarah; Weaver, John M.; Lucas, Selita N.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving extrapulmonary toxicity remain unclear. This study examined the coronary vascular bed of rats in terms of constrictive and dilatory responses to known agonists following a single O3 inhalation exposure. In addition, serum from exposed rats was used in ex vivo preparations to examine whether bioactivity and toxic effects of inhaled O3 could be conveyed to extrapulmonary systems via the circulation. We found that 24 h following inhalation of 1 ppm O3, isolated coronary vessels exhibited greater basal tone and constricted to a greater degree to serotonin stimulation. Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was markedly diminished in coronary arteries from O3-exposed rats, compared with filtered air-exposed controls. Dilation to ACh was restored by combined superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment, and also by NADPH oxidase inhibition. When dilute (10%) serum from exposed rats was perfused into the lumen of coronary arteries from unexposed, naïve rats, the O3-induced reduction in vasodilatory response to ACh was partially recapitulated. Furthermore, following O3 inhalation, serum exhibited a nitric oxide scavenging capacity, which may partially explain blunted ACh-mediated vasodilatory responses. Thus, bioactivity from inhalation exposures may be due to compositional changes of the circulation. These studies shed light on possible mechanisms of action that may explain O3-associated cardiac morbidity and mortality in humans. PMID:25962394

  3. Organ burden and pulmonary toxicity of nano-sized copper (II) oxide particles after short-term inhalation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gosens, Ilse; Cassee, Flemming R.; Zanella, Michela; Manodori, Laura; Brunelli, Andrea; Costa, Anna Luisa; Bokkers, Bas G. H.; de Jong, Wim H.; Brown, David; Hristozov, Danail; Stone, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. Methods: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m3 CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2–14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. Results: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung starting at 2.4 mg/m3. After a recovery period of 22 d, limited inflammation was still observed, but only at the highest dose of 13.2 mg/m3. The olfactory epithelium in the nose degenerated 24 h after exposure to 6.3 and 13.2 mg/m3, but this was restored after 22 d. No histopathological changes were detected in the brain, olfactory bulb, spleen, kidney and liver. Conclusion: A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period. PMID:27132941

  4. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  5. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  6. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  7. [Significance of nitric oxide inhalation (NO) in preterm infants< 34 weeks of gestation].

    PubMed

    Wirbelauer, J; Speer, C P

    2010-03-01

    In 2001, NO was approved as a therapeutic agent in Europe for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension in late preterm infants >34 weeks of gestational age and term newborns. Recent observational studies suggest, that preterm infants <34 weeks of gestation with acute hypoxic lung failure could benefit from inhaled NO (iNO) by improved oxygenation. To date, 21 randomised-controlled trials have enrolled 3 336 preterm infants <34 weeks of gestation for iNO treatment. Overall, iNO treatment does not reduce the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death compared to controls. In addition, iNO treatment of preterm infants with hypoxic respiratory failure or increased risk of BPD does not affect the combined incidence of death and BPD. However, early prophylactic use of iNO in preterm infants with respiratory distress seems to improve survival without BPD or severe cerebral damage. Current data of long term neurological outcome of iNO-treated preterm infants do not seem to justify iNO administration. Outside of well designed clinical trials iNO-treatment of preterm infants can currently not be recommended. PMID:20175046

  8. The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates vascular effects of inhaled vehicle emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: To determine vascular signaling pathways involved in air pollution (vehicular engine emission) exposure -induced exacerbation of atherosclerosis, associated with onset of clinical cardiovascular events. Objective: To elucidate the role of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and its ...

  9. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Revised Aug 2014 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is seeking peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  10. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Revised July 2013 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  11. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  12. Purification and neutron emission reduction of 238Plutonium oxide by nitrate anion exchange processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Brock, J.; Nixon, J. Z.; Moniz, P.; Silver, G.; Ramsey, K. B.

    2001-02-01

    The use of ion exchange during the aqueous purification of 238Pu oxide results in low levels of uranium, thorium, and americium in the product oxide. Neutron emission rates are also reduced in the product oxide. Fluorine introduced during the dissolution of impure fuel increases the neutron emission rate of the product oxide due to the 238Pu-19F alpha/n reaction. Treating the 238Pu solution with aluminum nitrate prior to ion exchange reduces the neutron emission rate in the product oxide. Data are presented to show that neutron emission rates and concentrations of uranium, thorium, and americium are reduced by ion exchange processing. .

  13. Study on Equilibrium Characteristics of Thorium-Plutonium-Minor Actinides Mixed Oxides Fuel in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Waris, A.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    A study on characteristics of thorium-plutonium-minor actinides utilization in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the equilibrium burnup model has been conducted. For a comprehensive evaluation, several fuel cycles scenario have been included in the present study with the variation of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) of PWR core design. The results obviously exhibit that the neutron spectra grow to be harder with decreasing of the MFR. Moreover, the neutron spectra also turn into harder with the rising number of confined heavy nuclides. The required {sup 233}U concentration for criticality of reactor augments with the increasing of MFR for all heavy nuclides confinement and thorium and uranium confinement in PWR.

  14. Study on Equilibrium Characteristics of Thorium-Plutonium-Minor Actinides Mixed Oxides Fuel in PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waris, A.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    A study on characteristics of thorium-plutonium-minor actinides utilization in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the equilibrium burnup model has been conducted. For a comprehensive evaluation, several fuel cycles scenario have been included in the present study with the variation of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) of PWR core design. The results obviously exhibit that the neutron spectra grow to be harder with decreasing of the MFR. Moreover, the neutron spectra also turn into harder with the rising number of confined heavy nuclides. The required 233U concentration for criticality of reactor augments with the increasing of MFR for all heavy nuclides confinement and thorium & uranium confinement in PWR.

  15. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  16. Curium analysis in plutonium uranium mixed oxide by x-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Borca, C; Cozzo, C

    2013-10-15

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are being used in commercial nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regards to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the local occurrence, speciation and next-neighbour environment of curium (Cm) in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice within an irradiated (60 MW d kg(-1) average burn-up) MOX sample was performed employing micro-x-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-x-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Cm (≈ 0.7 wt% in the rim and ≈ 0.03 wt% in the centre) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its centre and peripheral (rim) zones of the fuel. Curium occurrence is also reduced from the centre (hot) to the periphery (colder) because of the condensation of these volatile oxides. In the irradiated sample Cm builds up as Cm(3+) species (>90%) within a [CmO8](13-) or [CmO7](11-) coordination environment and no (<10%) Cm(IV) can be detected in the rim zone. Curium dioxide is reduced because of the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix and of its thermodynamic instability. PMID:24054692

  17. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  19. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 22, 2006, the draft Evaluation of the Carinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (EPA/635/R-06/003) and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. This draft was reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB)...

  20. No redistribution of lung blood flow by inhaled nitric oxide in endotoxemic piglets pretreated with an endothelin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Sebastien; Hambraeus-Jonzon, Kristina; Bergquist, Maria; Martijn, Cecile; Chen, Luni; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2015-03-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) improves ventilation-perfusion matching and alleviates pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, outcome has not yet been shown to improve, and nonresponse is common. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which INO acts may guide in improving treatment with INO in patients with severe respiratory failure. We hypothesized that INO may act not only by vasodilation in ventilated lung regions, but also by causing vasoconstriction via endothelin (ET-1) in atelectatic, nonventilated lung regions. This was studied in 30 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets. The fall in oxygenation and rise in pulmonary artery pressure during a sepsislike condition (infusion of endotoxin) were blunted by INO 40 ppm. Endotoxin infusion increased serum ET-1, and INO almost doubled the ratio between mRNA expression of endothelin receptor A (mediating vasoconstriction) and B (mediating vasodilation and clearance of ET-1) (ET-A/ET-B) in atelectatic lung regions. INO caused a shift in blood flow away from atelectatic lung regions in the endotoxemic piglets, but not during ET receptor antagonism. We conclude that INO in short-term experiments, in addition to causing selective pulmonary vasodilation in ventilated lung regions, increases the ET-A/ET-B mRNA expression ratio in lung tissue. This might augment the vasoconstriction in atelectatic lung regions, enhancing the redistribution of pulmonary blood flow to ventilated lung regions which are reached by INO. Such vasoconstriction may be an important additional factor explaining the effect of INO. PMID:25549764

  1. Impact of inhaled nitric oxide on the sulfatide profile of neonatal rat brain studied by TOF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Hanane; Pham, Hoa; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Baud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal intensive care leading to an increased survival rate in preterm infants, brain lesions and subsequent neurological handicaps following preterm birth remain a critical issue. To prevent brain injury and/or enhance repair, one of the most promising therapies investigated in preclinical models is inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We have assessed the effect of this therapy on brain lipid content in air- and iNO-exposed rat pups by mass spectrometry imaging using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) method. This technique was used to map the variations in lipid composition of the rat brain and, particularly, of the white matter. Triplicate analysis showed a significant increase of sulfatides (25%-50%) in the white matter on Day 10 of life in iNO-exposed animals from Day 0-7 of life. These robust, repeatable and semi-quantitative data demonstrate a potent effect of iNO at the molecular level. PMID:24670476

  2. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-01

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process. PMID:26907589

  3. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  4. Physics and thermal hydraulics design of a small water cooled reactor fuelled with plutonium in rock-like oxide (ROX) form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Perry, A.; Williams, A.; Brushwood, J.; Thompson, A.; Beeley, P. A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the Physics and Thermal Hydraulics areas of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor. The aim was to design a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) of maximum power 80 MWt, using a dispersed layout, capable of maximising primary natural circulation flow. The reactor fuel consists of plutonium contained in granular form within a Rock-like Oxide (ROX) pellet structure. (authors)

  5. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m3, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results Addition of CeO2 to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6–8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions These results imply that addition of CeO2 nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects. PMID:22507957

  6. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m{sup 3}, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO{sub 2} to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  7. USING POLYMERIC HYDROGEN GETTERS TO PREVENT COMBUSTIBLE ATMOSPHERES DURING INTERIM SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Woodsmall, T

    2007-05-24

    Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) of WSRC has recently installed the capability to perform both non-destructive and destructive examination of 3013 containers of Pu oxide in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. The containers will be opened and the oxide will be sampled for analysis. The remaining bulk oxide must then be safely stored in a non-3013-compliant configuration. Available processing equipment and controls cannot prevent the oxide from adsorbing moisture during this process. Subsequent radiolysis of moisture during storage may generate combustible quantities of gases while waiting final processing, and satisfying DOE Interim Safe Storage Criteria (ISSC) would require that storage containers be vented at impractical frequencies. With support from an independent National Laboratory, WSRC/NMM has demonstrated that a commercial hydrogen getter material will effectively prevent the accumulation of combustible gas concentrations. A project overview, including storage requirements and strategies, as well as getter technology, current test results, and anticipated future developments will be addressed.

  8. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  9. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  10. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

  11. Thermal-mechanical performance modeling of thorium-plutonium oxide fuel and comparison with on-line irradiation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insulander Björk, Klara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Thorium-plutonium Mixed OXide (Th-MOX) fuel is considered for use in light water reactors fuel due to some inherent benefits over conventional fuel types in terms of neutronic properties. The good material properties of ThO2 also suggest benefits in terms of thermal-mechanical fuel performance, but the use of Th-MOX fuel for commercial power production demands that its thermal-mechanical behavior can be accurately predicted using a well validated fuel performance code. Given the scant operational experience with Th-MOX fuel, no such code is available today. This article describes the first phase of the development of such a code, based on the well-established code FRAPCON 3.4, and in particular the correlations reviewed and chosen for the fuel material properties. The results of fuel temperature calculations with the code in its current state of development are shown and compared with data from a Th-MOX test irradiation campaign which is underway in the Halden research reactor. The results are good for fresh fuel, whereas experimental complications make it difficult to judge the adequacy of the code for simulations of irradiated fuel.

  12. A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward; Kelly, Elizabeth J.

    2015-09-10

    This report documents the new PG calibration regression equation. These calibration equations incorporate new data that have become available since revision 1 of “A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis” was issued [3] The calibration equations are based on a weighted least squares (WLS) approach for the regression. The WLS method gives each data point its proper amount of influence over the parameter estimates. This gives two big advantages, more precise parameter estimates and better and more defensible estimates of uncertainties. The WLS approach makes sense both statistically and experimentally because the variances increase with concentration, and there are physical reasons that the higher measurements are less reliable and should be less influential. The new magnesium calibration includes a correction for sodium and separate calibration equation for items with and without chlorine. These additional calibration equations allow for better predictions and smaller uncertainties for sodium in materials with and without chlorine. Chlorine and sodium have separate equations for RICH materials. Again, these equations give better predictions and smaller uncertainties chlorine and sodium for RICH materials.

  13. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  14. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  15. Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing plutonium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Nozaki, Takahiro; Arima, Tatsumi; Idemitsu, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing 50 vol.% PuO2-x were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1473 K. It was shown that the oxygen potential and oxidation rate of the Mo-cermet were the same as those of pure PuO2-x below the oxygen potential of Mo/MoO2 oxidation reaction. The same features of the Mo-cermet sample containing 50 vol.% PuO2-x with those of pure PuO2-x were discussed in terms of the microstructure.

  16. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  17. Source-dependent and source-independent controls on plutonium oxidation state and colloid associations in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, Ken O; Kaplan, Daniel I; Dai, Minhan; Pike, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Plutonium (Pu) was characterized for its isotopic composition, oxidation states, and association with colloids in groundwater samples near disposal basins in F-Area of the Savannah River Site and compared to similar samples collected six years earlier. Two sources of Pu were identified, the disposal basins, which contained a 24Pu/l39Pu isotopic signature consistent with weapons grade Pu, and 244Cm, a cocontaminant that is a progenitor radionuclide of 24Pu. 24Pu that originated primarily from 244Cm tended to be appreciably more oxidized (Pu(V/VI)), less associated with colloids (approximately 1 kDa - 0.2 microm), and more mobile than 239Pu, as suggested by our prior studies at this site. This is not evidence of isotope fractionation but rather "source-dependent" controls on 240Pu speciation which are processes that are not at equilibrium, i.e., processes that appear kinetically hindered. There were also "source-independent" controls on 239Pu speciation, which are those processes that follow thermodynamic equilibrium with their surroundings. For example, a groundwater pH increase in one well from 4.1 in 1998 to 6.1 in 2004 resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in groundwater 239Pu concentrations. Similarly, the fraction of 239Pu in the reduced Pu(III/IV) and colloidal forms increased systematically with decreases in redox condition in 2004 vs 1998. This research demonstrates the importance of source-dependent and source-independent controls on Pu speciation which would impact Pu mobility during changes in hydrological, chemical, or biological conditions on both seasonal and decadal time scales, and over short spatial scales. This implies more dynamic shifts in Pu speciation, colloids association, and transport in groundwater than commonly believed. PMID:19350898

  18. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  19. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  20. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  1. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  2. Methods to improve routine bioassay monitoring for freshly separated, poorly transported plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; Lynch, T.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several human cases involving inhalation of plutonium oxide at Hanford have shown clearance half-times from the lung that are much longer than the 500-day half-time recommended for class Y plutonium in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). The more tenaciously retained material is referred to as super class Y plutonium. The ability to detect super class Y plutonium by current routine bioassay measurements is shown to be poor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff involved in the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program investigated four methods to se if improvements in routine monitoring of workers for fresh super class Y plutonium are feasible. The methods were lung counting, urine sampling, fecal sampling, and use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) to enhance urinary excretion. Use of DTPA was determined to be not feasible. Routine fecal sampling was found to be feasible but not recommended. Recommendations were made to improve the detection level for routine annual urinalysis and routine annual lung counting. 12 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  4. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  5. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  6. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  7. MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES STORED IN STAINLESS STEEL CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.; Bridges, N.; Bronikowski, M.; Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Mcelwee, M.; Missimer, D.; Scogin, J.; Summer, M.; Jurgensen, A.

    2010-02-01

    The destructive examination (DE) of 3013 containers after storage is part of the Surveillance and Monitoring Program based on the Department of Energy's standard for long-term storage of Pu (DOE-STD-3013). The stored, Pu-bearing materials may contain alkali halide contamination that varies from trace amounts of salt to about 50 weight percent, with smaller fractions of other compounds and oxides. These materials were characterized prior to packaging, and surveillance characterizations are conducted to determine the behavior of the materials during long term storage. The surveillance characterization results are generally in agreement with the pre-surveillance data. The predominant phases identified by X-ray diffraction are in agreement with the expected phase assemblages of the as-received materials. The measured densities are in reasonable agreement with the expected densities of materials containing the fraction of salts and actinide oxide specified by the pre-surveillance data. The radiochemical results are generally in good agreement with the pre-surveillance data for mixtures containing 'weapons grade' Pu (nominally 94% {sup 239}Pu and 6% {sup 240}Pu); however, the ICP-MS results from the present investigation generally produce lower concentrations of Pu than the pre-surveillance analyses. For mixtures containing 'fuel grade' Pu (nominally 81-93% {sup 239}Pu and 7-19% {sup 240}Pu), the ICP-MS results from the present investigation appear to be in better agreement with the pre-surveillance data than the radiochemistry results.

  8. Work and disproportionation for aqueous plutonium.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-10-01

    The relation of two plutonium work integrals has recently been illustrated. One of the integrals applies to the work of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in 1 M acid and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper generalizes the disproportionation work integral so that it can be applied to tetravalent plutonium at any acid concentration. An equation is provided that can be used to verify work estimations obtained by integration. It applies to oxidation and disproportionation processes and it is easy to use. PMID:14522227

  9. Americium and plutonium release behavior from irradiated mixed oxide fuel during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, I.; Suto, M.; Miwa, S.; Hirosawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2013-06-01

    The release behavior of Pu and Am was investigated under the reducing atmosphere expected in sodium cooled fast reactor severe accidents. Irradiated Pu and U mixed oxide fuels were heated at maximum temperatures of 2773 K and 3273 K. EPMA, γ-ray spectrometry and α-ray spectrometry for released and residual materials revealed that Pu and Am can be released more easily than U under the reducing atmosphere. The respective release rate coefficients for Pu and Am were obtained as 3.11 × 10-4 min-1 and 1.60 × 10-4 min-1 at 2773 K under the reducing atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure less than 0.02 Pa. Results of thermochemical calculations indicated that the main released chemical forms would likely be PuO for Pu and Am for Am under quite low oxygen partial pressure.

  10. The hydriding resistance of plutonium oxides and mononitride: A view from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Haifeng; Song, Haifeng

    2015-06-01

    Based on the non-local van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)+ U scheme, we carry out the ab initio molecular dynamics study of the interaction dynamics for H2 molecules impingement against Pu-oxides and mononitride surfaces. We show that except for the weak physisorption, both PuO2 and PuN surfaces are so difficult of access that almost all of H2 molecules will bounce back to the vacuum when their initial kinetic energies are not sufficient. Although the dissociative adsorption of H2 on PuO2 surfaces is found to be exothermic, the collision-induced dissociation barriers of H2 are very high (up to 2.2 eV). However, PuO2 overlayer on Pu-metal can be reduced to α-Pu2O3 drived by oxygen-lean conditions, and H2 can penetrate and diffuse in α-Pu2O3 easily. As a result, α-Pu2O3 can promote the hydriding process of Pu. Unlike PuO2, PuN is found to be one kind of stable and uniform passivation layer against Pu-hydriding. Specifically, the incorporation of PuN and H-atom is proven to be thermodynamically unstable. Overall, our current study reveals the mechanical and chemical resistances of Pu-oxide and Pu-nitride to hydrogen corrosion, which have strong implications to the understanding of the surface corrosion and passivation of Pu metal. This work was supported by the FDST of CAEP under Grant No. 9090707.

  11. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  12. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T.; Caviness, Michael L.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  13. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium and Minor Actinides in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2002-06-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup and improved wasteform characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in U-233. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle; particularly in the reduction of plutonium. While uranium-based mixedoxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the U-238. Here we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed oxide fuel in a light water reactor (LWR). Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2; where more than 70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnup of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels. Furthermore, use of a thorium-based fuel could also be used as a strategy for reducing the amount of long-lived nuclides (including the minor actinides), and thus the radiotoxicity in spent nuclear fuel. Although the breeding of U-233 is a concern, the presence of U-232 and its daughter products can aid in making this fuel self-protecting, and/or enough U-238 can be added to denature the fissile uranium. From these calculations, it appears that thorium-based fuel for plutonium incineration is superior as

  14. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  15. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  16. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  17. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold relative

  18. First-principles local density approximation + U and generalized gradient approximation + U study of plutonium oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2008-02-28

    The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible. PMID:18315070

  19. Understanding the interactions of neptunium and plutonium ions with graphene oxide: scalar-relativistic DFT investigations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun-Yan; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Due to the vast application potential of graphene oxide (GO)-based materials in nuclear waste processing, it is of pivotal importance to investigate the interaction mechanisms between actinide cations such as Np(V) and Pu(IV, VI) ions and GO. In this work, we have considered four types of GOs modified by hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups at the edge and epoxy group on the surface, respectively. The structures, bonding nature, and binding energies of Np(V) and Pu(IV, VI) complexes with GOs have been investigated systematically using scalar-relativistic density functional theory (DFT). Geometries and harmonic frequencies suggest that Pu(IV) ions coordinate more easily with GOs compared to Np(V) and Pu(VI) ions. NBO and electron density analyses reveal that the coordination bond between Pu(IV) ions and GO possesses more covalency, whereas for Np(V) and Pu(VI) ions electrostatic interaction dominates the An-OG bond. The binding energies in aqueous solution reveal that the adsorption abilities of all GOs for actinide ions follow the order of Pu(IV) > Pu(VI) > Np(V), which is in excellent agreement with experimental observations. It is expected that this study can provide useful information for developing more efficient GO-based materials for radioactive wastewater treatment. PMID:25302669

  20. Plutonium disproportionation: the relation of work integrals.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-04-01

    Two plutonium work integrals have been demonstrated in recent years. One of them applies to the work of disproportionation and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper illustrates the connection of the integrals by an example and a diagram. PMID:12672623

  1. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  2. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  3. Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

  4. EVALUATING THE TOXICITY OF URBAN PATTERNS OF OXIDANT GASES. 1. AN AUTOMATED CHRONIC GASEOUS ANIMAL INHALATION EXPOSURE FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated animal inhalation exposure facility was designed to conduct chronic exposures of rodents to gaseous pollutants. The facility consisted of 3 walk-in chambers with modular cages to allow for exposure of up to a maximum of 480 mice or 240 adult rats. Critical parameters...

  5. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  6. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  7. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  8. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  9. Plutonium pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1992-06-02

    A review of the published literature on ignition and burning of plutonium metal was conducted in order to better define the characteristic of pyrophoric plutonium. The major parameter affecting ignition is the surface area/mass ratio of the sample. Based on this parameter, plutonium metal can be classified into four categories: (1) bulk metal, (2) film and foils, (3) chips and turnings, and (4) powder. Other parameters that can alter the ignition of the metal include experimental, chemical, physical, and environmental effects. These effects are reviewed in this report. It was concluded from this review that pyrophoric plutonium can be conservatively defined as: Plutonium metal that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 150{degrees}C or below in the absence of external heat, shock, or friction. The 150{degrees}C temperature was used to compensate for the self-heating of plutonium metal. For a practical definition of whether any given metal is pyrophoric, all of the factors affecting ignition must be considered.

  10. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process

  11. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  13. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  14. Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates brain injury in mice with cecal ligation and puncture via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingling; Xie, Keliang; Chen, Hongguang; Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Yuan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Yonghao

    2014-11-17

    During the development of sepsis, the complication in central nervous system (CNS), appearing early and frequently relative to other systems, can obviously increase the mortality of sepsis. Moreover, sepsis survivors also accompany long-term cognitive dysfunction, while the ultimate causes and effective therapeutic strategies of brain injury in sepsis are still not fully clear. We designed this study to investigate the effects of 2% hydrogen gas (H2) on brain injury in a mouse model of sepsis. Male ICR mice were underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. 2% H2 was inhaled for 60min beginning at both 1 and 6h after sham or CLP operation, respectively. H2 concentration in arterial blood, venous blood and brain tissue was detected after H2 inhalation separately. The survival rate was observed and recorded within 7 days after sham or CLP operation. The histopathologic changes and neuronal apoptosis were observed in hippocampus by Nissl staining and TUNEL assay. The permeability of brain-blood barrier (BBB), brain water content, inflammatory cytokines, activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and oxidative products (MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α) in serum and hippocampus were detected at 24h after sham or CLP operation. The expressions of nucleus and total nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and cytoplasmic heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) in hippocampus were measured at 24h after sham or CLP operation. We assessed their cognitive function via Y-maze and Fear Conditioning test on day 3, 5, 7 and 14 after operation. H2 treatment markedly improved the survival rate and cognitive dysfunction of septic mice. CLP mice showed obvious brain injury characterized by aggravated pathological damage, BBB disruption and brain edema at 24h after CLP operation, which was markedly alleviated by 2% H2 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the beneficial effects of H2 on brain injury in septic mice were linked to the decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines and

  15. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  16. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  17. Oxygen self-diffusion in polycrystalline uranium-plutonium mixed oxide U0.55Pu0.45O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Bienvenu, Philippe; Roure, Ingrid; Hodaj, Fiqiri; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Atomic transport properties in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2 are of essential concern because they impact numerous aspects of their physicochemical behavior at all stages of the fuel cycle. In this paper, we report oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients in homogeneous U0.55Pu0.45O2 mixed oxide. The study is based on tracer diffusion coefficient measurements obtained using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) following diffusion annealing involving gas-solid 18O/16O isotopic exchange. As for other fundamental material properties governed by the nature and behavior of point defects, we show that a careful study of tracer diffusion coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature is liable to provide insight into prevailing diffusion mechanisms. Under the conditions studied in this work, it appears that oxygen diffusion is vacancy mediated.

  18. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  19. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ethylene oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) in B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). Technical report series (Final). [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Two-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ethylene oxide were conducted by exposing groups of 50 B6C3F(1) mice of each sex to air containing 0, 50, or 100 ppm ethylene oxide 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 102 weeks. Under the conditions of these 2-year inhalation studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity for B6C3F(1) mice as indicated by dose-related increased incidences of benign or malignant neoplasms of the lung and benign neoplasms of the harderian gland in both male and female B6C3F(1) mice following exposure to ethylene oxide vapors at 50 and 100 ppm. In female mice, ethylene oxide caused additional malignant neoplasms of the uterus, mammary gland, and hematopoietic system (lymphoma).

  20. Inhalation of particulate lead oxide disrupts pulmonary macrophage-mediated functions important for host defense and tumor surveillance in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikoff, J.T.; Parsons, E.; Schlesinger, R.B. )

    1993-08-01

    Lead, an immunomodulator and potential human carcinogen, is a major airborne pollutant in industrial environments which poses a serious threat to human health. Despite the wide-spread occurrence of respirable lead particles in the air, and the potential human health risks, effects associated with inhalation of particulate lead on the the lung have been poorly studied. This study was performed to determine whether inhalation of particulate lead oxide (PbO), at a concentration below the currently acceptable air lead standard for occupational exposure, disrupts macrophage (M phi) functions important for maintaining pulmonary immunocompetence. These functions include phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen intermediates, and the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Rabbits exposed to PbO at 30 micrograms/m3 for 4 days (3 hr/day) were sacrificed and their lungs lavaged immediately, 24 hr, and 72 hr after the final exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (a marker of lung cell damage) and lysozyme activity (a marker of lysosome permeability), measured in the lavage fluid, were significantly increased 24 and 72 hr after exposure. PbO produced neutrophil infiltration nor effects on M phi viability or total numbers. Effects on M phi functions were as follows. Phagocytic uptake of latex particles was reduced with increasing post-exposure time reaching a maximum inhibition at 72 hr. Inhalation of PbO enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2-) production in a time-dependent manner; effects on H2O2 began at 24 hr and were persistent up to 72 hr. Effects on TNF-alpha release/activity appeared earliest and were persistent up to 72 hr. Immediately and 24 hr after exposure, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activity of TNF-alpha was depressed by 62 and 50%, respectively; after 72 hr, TNF-alpha release was significantly enhanced compared to control levels.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  2. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  3. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  4. Inhalation of coriander volatile oil increased anxiolytic-antidepressant-like behaviors and decreased oxidative status in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cioanca, Oana; Hritcu, Lucian; Mihasan, Marius; Trifan, Adriana; Hancianu, Monica

    2014-05-28

    The present study analyzed the possible anxiolytic, antidepressant and antioxidant proprieties of inhaled coriander volatile oil extracted from Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of inhaled coriander volatile oil were studied by means of in vivo (elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using catalase specific activity and the total content of the reduced glutathione. The beta-amyloid (1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of the locomotor activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming and immobility times within forced swimming test. Exposure to coriander volatile oil significantly improved these parameters, suggesting anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects. Moreover, coriander volatile oil decreased catalase activity and increased glutathione level in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that multiple exposures to coriander volatile oil can be useful as a mean to counteract anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease conditions. PMID:24747275

  5. Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Ritchie, D.; Williams, A.; Thompson, A.; Brushwood, J.; Beeley, P.A.; Greenlees, L.; Perry, A.

    2006-07-01

    The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the fuel module is studied using the WIMS suite of deterministic codes with selected computations checked with the Monte-Carlo code MONK. Whole core calculations are undertaken with the WIMS/SNAP code. Essential parameters are provided to the other study areas including reactivity feedback coefficients for the Dynamics. The Thermal Hydraulic design aims to remove the required maximum power using pumped flow and also to provide significant power removal using natural circulation. The major components of the primary circuit are sized and flow rates in pumped and natural circulation calculated by hand and by using the TRACPFQ code. This information is also used in the dynamics study. Further details of the Physics and Thermal hydraulics studies will be given at PHYSOR 2006. The materials study is being published elsewhere, but a brief description of the temperature and stress calculations for the fuel pellet performed with the ABACUS finite element code is given. Navalisation and dynamics of the plant are examined. The power requirements for the plant are estimated and a suitable electric propulsion system is proposed and sized. A whole plant model is built using the AcslXtreme computer package in which a block diagram of the system is constructed via a graphical interface and simulations of the system transients are produced. The block diagram for the whole system is described followed by the describing equations for the major blocks representing neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, thermal hydraulics of the primary circuit and of the steam generators. Also included are describing equations for

  6. Sildenafil to facilitate weaning from inhaled nitric oxide and mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomo; Sviri, Sigal; Orenbuch-Harroch, Efrat; Fellig, Yakov; Ben-Yehuda, Arie; Fridlender, Zvi G; Gilon, Dan; Bayya, Abed

    2011-10-01

    We describe the case of a woman who presented to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation. She had severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease, and her history included sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. She was dependent on inhaled nitric oxide (INO) to maintain safe arterial oxygen saturation and could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale with substantial right-to-left shunt, which probably contributed to her hypoxemia. Sildenafil enabled weaning from INO and substantially reduced the flow through the patent foramen ovale. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. To our knowledge, this is the first report of weaning from INO and mechanical ventilation in a patient with both severe secondary pulmonary hypertension and a right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale. PMID:21513610

  7. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  8. Inhaled Nitric Oxide as an Adjunctive Treatment for Cerebral Malaria in Children: A Phase II Randomized Open-Label Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga-Amumpaire, Juliet; Carroll, Ryan W.; Baudin, Elisabeth; Kemigisha, Elisabeth; Nampijja, Dorah; Mworozi, Kenneth; Santorino, Data; Nyehangane, Dan; Nathan, Daniel I.; De Beaudrap, Pierre; Etard, Jean-François; Feelisch, Martin; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Berssenbrugge, Annie; Bangsberg, David; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Boum, Yap; Zapol, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children with cerebral malaria (CM) have high rates of mortality and neurologic sequelae. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolite levels in plasma and urine are reduced in CM. Methods. This randomized trial assessed the efficacy of inhaled NO versus nitrogen (N2) as an adjunctive treatment for CM patients receiving intravenous artesunate. We hypothesized that patients treated with NO would have a greater increase of the malaria biomarker, plasma angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) after 48 hours of treatment. Results. Ninety-two children with CM were randomized to receive either inhaled 80 part per million NO or N2 for 48 or more hours. Plasma Ang-1 levels increased in both treatment groups, but there was no difference between the groups at 48 hours (P = not significant [NS]). Plasma Ang-2 and cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) decreased between inclusion and 48 hours in both treatment groups, but there was no difference between the groups (P = NS). Nitric oxide metabolite levels—blood methemoglobin and plasma nitrate—increased in patients treated with NO (both P < .05). Seven patients in the N2 group and 4 patients in the NO group died. Five patients in the N2 group and 6 in the NO group had neurological sequelae at hospital discharge. Conclusions. Breathing NO as an adjunctive treatment for CM for a minimum of 48 hours was safe, increased blood methemoglobin and plasma nitrate levels, but did not result in a greater increase of plasma Ang-1 levels at 48 hours. PMID:26309894

  9. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  10. Inhaled and systemic corticosteroid response in severe asthma assessed by alveolar nitric oxide: a randomized crossover pilot study of add-on therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Peter A; Short, Philip M; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Lipworth, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Alveolar nitric oxide (CANO) is a potential biomarker of small airway inflammation. We investigated effects on CANO of the addition of coarse and fine particle inhaled corticosteroids to standard therapy in severe asthma. METHODS Severe asthmatics taking ≥1600 µg day−1 budesonide or equivalent performed a randomized open-label crossover study. Subjects with FEV1 < 80%, gas trapping and CANO≥2 ppb entered a 6 week dose-ramp run-in of fluticasone/salmeterol(FPSM) 250/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks, then 500/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks. Patients then received additional HFA-beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) 200 µg twice daily or FP 250 µg twice daily for 3 weeks in a crossover. Participants then received prednisolone(PRED) 25 mg day−1 for 1 week. Nitric oxide, lung function, mannitol challenge, systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol were measured. RESULTS Fifteen completed per protocol: mean (SD) age 51 (12) years, FEV1 58 (13)% predicted, residual volume 193 (100)% predicted and mannitolPD10 177 (2.8) µg. There was no significant difference between FPSM and add-on therapy for CANO. FPSM/BDP and FPSM/PRED suppressed broncial flux (JawNO) and FENO compared with FPSM alone, but there was no significant difference between FPSM/BDP and FPSM/FP. ECP, e-selectin and ICAM-1 were suppressed by FPSM/PRED compared with FPSM and FPSM/FP but not FPSM/BDP. Plasma cortisol was significantly suppressed by FPSM/PRED. CONCLUSION In severe asthma, CANO is insensitive to changes in dose and delivery of inhaled corticosteroids and is not suppressed by systemic corticosteroids. Additional inhaled HFA-BDP reduced FENO and JawNO without adrenal suppression. There was a trend to reduction in FENO and JawNO with additional FP but this did not reach statistical significance. PRED reduced FENO and JawNO with suppression of systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol. PMID:22568828

  11. Removal of Uranium from Plutonium Solutions by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-22

    The anion exchange capacity in the HB-Line Phase II Facility will be used to purify plutonium solutions potentially containing significant quantities of depleted uranium. Following purification, the plutonium will be precipitated as an oxalate and calcined to plutonium oxide (PuO2) for storage until final disposition.

  12. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities of Inhaled Juniper Oil on Amyloid Beta (1-42)-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2015-05-01

    Juniper volatile oil is extracted from Juniperus communis L., of the Cupressaceae family, also known as common juniper. Also, in aromatherapy the juniper volatile oil is used against anxiety, nervous tension and stress-related conditions. In the present study, we identified the effects of the juniper volatile oil on amyloid beta (1-42)-induced oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Rats received a single intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta (1-42) (400 pmol/rat) and then were exposed to juniper volatile oil (200 μl, either 1 or 3 %) for controlled 60 min period, daily, for 21 continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase specific activities, the total content of the reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus was assessed. The amyloid beta (1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: increase of the acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase and catalase specific activities, decrease of glutathione peroxidase specific activity and the total content of the reduced glutathione along with an elevation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels. Inhalation of the juniper volatile oil significantly decreases the acetylcholinesterase activity and exhibited antioxidant potential. These findings suggest that the juniper volatile oil may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic agents to manage oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer's disease through decreasing the activity of acetylcholinesterase and anti-oxidative mechanism. PMID:25743585

  13. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  14. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  15. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  16. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  17. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  18. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  19. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  20. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  1. ANNUAL REPORT. IMPROVED RADIATION DOSIMETRY/RISK ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our phase-II research relates to evaluating health risks associated with inhaled plutonium (Pu). Our current research objectives are as follows: (1) to extend our stochastic model for deposition of plutonium in the respiratory tract to include additional key variability and uncer...

  2. PROGRESS REPORT. IMPROVED RADIATION DOSIMETRY/RISK ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this project is to improve capabilities for evaluating health risks to humans associated with inhaling plutonium (Pu). Two key DOE issues are being addressed: (1) the need to improve capabilities for evaluating plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-associated health risk...

  3. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  4. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  5. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  6. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  7. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  8. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  9. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  10. Oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers, and toxicity in mouse lung and liver after inhalation exposure to 100% biodiesel or petroleum diesel emissions.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, Anna A; Yanamala, Naveena; Murray, Ashley R; Kisin, Elena R; Khaliullin, Timur; Hatfield, Meghan K; Tkach, Alexey V; Krantz, Q T; Nash, David; King, Charly; Ian Gilmour, M; Gavett, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, soy biodiesel (BD) has become a first alternative energy source that is economically viable and meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. Due to lower mass emissions and reduced hazardous compounds compared to diesel combustion emissions (CE), BD exposure is proposed to produce fewer adverse health effects. However, considering the broad use of BD and its blends in different industries, this assertion needs to be supported and validated by mechanistic and toxicological data. Here, adverse effects were compared in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation exposure (0, 50, 150, or 500 μg/m3; 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 wk) to CE from 100% biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100). Compared to D100, B100 CE produced a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins (carbonyls), an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reduction of protein thiols, a depletion of antioxidant gluthatione (GSH), a dose-related rise in the levels of biomarkers of tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) in lungs, and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in both lungs and liver. Significant differences in the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN) γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in lungs and liver upon B100 and D100 CE exposures. Overall, the tissue damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokine response were more pronounced in mice exposed to BD CE. Further studies are required to understand what combustion products in BD CE accelerate oxidative and inflammatory responses. PMID:24156694

  11. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Toxicity in Mouse Lung and Liver After Inhalation Exposure to 100% Biodiesel or Petroleum Diesel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Murray, Ashley R.; Kisin, Elena R.; Khaliullin, Timur; Hatfield, Meghan K.; Tkach, Alexey V.; Krantz, Q. T.; Nash, David; King, Charly; Gilmour, M. Ian; Gavett, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, soy biodiesel (BD) has become a first alternative energy source that is economically viable and meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. Due to lower mass emissions and reduced hazardous compounds compared to diesel combustion emissions (CE), BD exposure is proposed to produce fewer adverse health effects. However, considering the broad use of BD and its blends in different industries, this assertion needs to be supported and validated by mechanistic and toxicological data. Here, adverse effects were compared in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation exposure (0, 50, 150, or 500 μg/m3; 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 wk) to CE from 100% biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100). Compared to D100, B100 CE produced a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins (carbonyls), an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reduction of protein thiols, a depletion of antioxidant gluthatione (GSH), a dose-related rise in the levels of biomarkers of tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) in lungs, and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in both lungs and liver. Significant differences in the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN) γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in lungs and liver upon B100 and D100 CE exposures. Overall, the tissue damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokine response were more pronounced in mice exposed to BD CE. Further studies are required to understand what combustion products in BD CE accelerate oxidative and inflammatory responses. PMID:24156694

  12. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  13. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m(3) as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  14. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  15. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  16. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  17. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome with and without septic shock requiring norepinephrine administration: a dose–response study

    PubMed Central

    Mourgeon, Eric; Puybasset, Louis; Law-Koune, Jean-Dominique; Lu, Qin; Abdennour, Lamine; Gallart, Lluis; Malassine, Patrick; Rao, GS Umamaheswara; Cluzel, Philippe; Bennani, Abdelhai; Coriat, Pierre; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether the presence of septic shock could influence the dose response to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in NO-responding patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results: Eight patients with ARDS and without septic shock (PaO2 = 95 ± 16 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0), and eight patients with ARDS and septic shock (PaO2 = 88 ± 11 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0) receiving exclusively norepinephrine were studied. All responded to 15 ppm inhaled NO with an increase in PaO2 of at least 40 mmHg, at FiO2 1.0 and PEEP 10 cmH2O. Inspiratory intratracheal NO concentrations were recorded continuously using a fast response time chemiluminescence apparatus. Seven inspiratory NO concentrations were randomly administered: 0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, 15, 45 and 150 ppm. In both groups, NO induced a dose-dependent decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), and venous admixture (QVA/QT), and a dose-dependent increase in PaO2/FiO2 (P ≤ 0.012). Dose-response of MPAP and PVRI were similar in both groups with a plateau effect at 4.5 ppm. Dose-response of PaO2/FiO2 was influenced by the presence of septic shock. No plateau effect was observed in patients with septic shock and PaO2/FiO2 increased by 173 ± 37% at 150 ppm. In patients without septic shock, an 82 ± 26% increase in PaO2/FiO2 was observed with a plateau effect obtained at 15 ppm. In both groups, dose-response curves demonstrated a marked interindividual variability and in five patients pulmonary vascular effect and improvement in arterial oxygenation were dissociated. Conclusion: For similar NOinduced decreases in MPAP and PVRI in both groups, the increase in arterial oxygenation was more marked in patients with septic shock. PMID:11056694

  20. Influence of oxidation states on plutonium mobility during long-term transport through an unsaturated subsurface environment.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel I; Powell, Brian A; Demirkanli, Deniz I; Fjeld, Robert A; Molz, Fred J; Serkiz, Steven M; Coates, John T

    2004-10-01

    Lysimeter and laboratory studies were conducted to identify the controlling chemical processes influencing Pu(IV) mobility through the vadose zone. A 52-L lysimeter containing sediment from the Savannah River Site, South Carolina and solid PuIV(NO3)4 was left exposed to natural wetting and drying cycles for 11 years before the lysimeter sediment was sampled. Pu had traveled 10 cm, with >95% of the Pu remaining within 1.25 cm of the source. Laboratory studies showed that the sediment quickly reduced Pu(V) to Pu(IV) (the pseudo-first-order reduction rate constant, Kobs, was 0.11 h(-1)). Of particular interest was that this same sediment could be induced to release very low concentrations of sorbed Pu under oxidizing conditions, presumably by oxidation of sorbed Pu(IV) to the more mobile Pu(V) species. Transport modeling supported the postulation that Pu oxidation occurred in the lysimeter sediment; the inclusion of an oxidation term in the model produced simulations that capture the Pu depth profile data. By not including the oxidation process in the model, Pu mobility was grossly underestimated by a factor of 3.5. It is concluded that both oxidation and reduction mechanisms can play an important role in Pu transportthrough the vadose zone and should be considered when evaluating disposal of Pu-bearing wastes. PMID:15506198

  1. Structural Properties and Charge Distribution of the Sodium Uranium, Neptunium, and Plutonium Ternary Oxides: A Combined X-ray Diffraction and XANES Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna L; Martin, Philippe; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C; Raison, Philippe E; Cheetham, Anthony K; Konings, Rudy J M

    2016-02-15

    The charge distributions in α-Na2UO4, Na3NpO4, α-Na2NpO4, Na4NpO5, Na5NpO6, Na2PuO3, Na4PuO5, and Na5PuO6 are investigated in this work using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the U-L3, Np-L3, and Pu-L3 edges. In addition, a Rietveld refinement of monoclinic Na2PuO3, in space group C2/c, is reported for the first time, and the existence of the isostructural Na2NpO3 phase is revealed. In contrast to measurements in solution, the number of published XANES data for neptunium and plutonium solid phases with a valence state higher than IV is very limited. The present results cover a wide range of oxidation states, namely, IV to VII, and can serve as reference for future investigations. The sodium actinide series show a variety of local coordination geometries, and correlations between the shape of the XANES spectra and the local structural environments are discussed herein. PMID:26835549

  2. Development of quality control data base ``DANTE'' and relational analysis between fission gas release behavior and plutonium homogeneity in mixed oxide fuel by DANTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kamimura, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Masuda, S.

    1988-04-01

    The PNC Plutonium Fabrication Facility (PPFF) of Tokai Works of the "Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation" (PNC) has produced several types of mixed oxide fuels which have been used as the fuels for the Advanced Thermal Reactor FUGEN, and the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO. Accumulated production of MOX fuel is about 58000 pins as of December, 1986. PPFF production technique is so reliable that no failure of driver fuel pins has been found in the FUGEN and JOYO. This is based on the adequate process control and quality control. In this paper the outline of quality control method applied to MOX fuels in our facility will be reviewed. The discussion is done mainly on the viewpoint of the software system including data gathering, data analysis and data storage, etc. The code system, Data Analysing Technology for Engineers, DANTE, has been developed for this purpose. The DANTE code system is consisted of real time system having relational data base. It is possible to refer the data base relationally and to make tables and figures of the analyzed results on real time by using the DANTE code system. The DANTE code system contributes to quality assurance in the MOX Fuel production facility by evaluating overall data which come from each process such as production and inspection processes.

  3. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  4. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  5. International shipment of plutonium by air

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government`s decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method.

  6. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  7. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  8. Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

  9. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. PMID:17761725

  10. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  11. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 μg SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 μg SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more

  12. Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, R; Vera-Aguilar, E; Uribe-Ramirez, M; Gookin, G; Camacho, J; Osornio-Vargas, A R; Mugica-Alvarez, V; Angulo-Olais, R; Campbell, A; Froines, J; Kleinman, T M; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A

    2013-10-24

    To study central nervous system airborne PM related subchronic toxicity, SD male rats were exposed for eight weeks to either coarse (32 μg/m³), fine (178 μg/m³) or ultrafine (107 μg/m³) concentrated PM or filtered air. Different brain regions (olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus), were harvested from the rats following exposure to airborne PM. Subsequently, prooxidant (HO-1 and SOD-2), and inflammatory markers (IL-1β and TNFα), apoptotic (caspase 3), and unfolded protein response (UPR) markers (XBP-1S and BiP), were also measured using real-time PCR. Activation of nuclear transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB, associated with antioxidant and inflammation processes, respectively, were also analyzed by GSMA. Ultrafine PM increased HO-1 and SOD-2 mRNA levels in the striatum and hippocampus, in the presence of Nrf-2 activation. Also, ultrafine PM activated NF-κB and increased IL-1β and TNFα in the striatum. Activation of UPR was observed after exposure to coarse PM through the increment of XBP-1S and BiP in the striatum, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant response markers HO-1 and SOD-2. Our results indicate that exposure to different size fractions of PM may induce physiological changes (in a neuroanatomical manner) in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically within the striatum, where inflammation, oxidative stress and UPR signals were effectively activated. PMID:23892126

  13. Exposure to inhaled particulate matter activates early markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and unfolded protein response in rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, R.; Vera-Aguilar, E.; Uribe-Ramirez, M.; Gookin, G.; Camacho, J.; Osornio-Vargas, A.R.; Mugica-Alvarez, V.; Angulo-Olais, R.; Campbell, A.; Froines, J.; Kleinman, T.M.; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A.

    2014-01-01

    To study central nervous system airborne PM related subchronic toxicity, SD male rats were exposed for eight weeks to either coarse (32 µg/m3), fine (178 µg/m3) or ultrafine (107 µg/m3) concentrated PM or filtered air. Different brain regions (olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus), were harvested from the rats following exposure to airborne PM. Subsequently, prooxidant (HO-1 and SOD-2), and inflammatory markers (IL-1β and TNFα), apoptotic (caspase 3), and unfolded protein response (UPR) markers (XBP-1S and BiP), were also measured using real-time PCR. Activation of nuclear transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB, associated with antioxidant and inflammation processes, respectively, were also analyzed by GSMA. Ultrafine PM increased HO-1 and SOD-2 mRNA levels in the striatum and hippocampus, in the presence of Nrf-2 activation. Also, ultrafine PM activated NF-κB and increased IL-1β and TNFα in the striatum. Activation of UPR was observed after exposure to coarse PM through the increment of XBP-1S and BiP in the striatum, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant response markers HO-1 and SOD-2. Our results indicate that exposure to different size fractions of PM may induce physiological changes (in a neuroanatomical manner) in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically within the striatum, where inflammation, oxidative stress and UPR signals were effectively activated. PMID:23892126

  14. Mechanisms of plutonium sorption to mineral oxide surfaces: new insights with implications for colloid-enhanced migration

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, J. M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-11-01

    New equilibrium and kinetic models have been developed to describe rate-limited sorption and desorption of Pu onto and off of mineral oxide surfaces using a generic approach to estimate sorption constants that require minimal laboratory calibrations. Equilibrium reactions describing a total of six surface species were derived from a combination of empirical relationships previously described in the literature and generated as part of this work.

  15. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  16. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  17. Reduction of Worldwide Plutonium Inventories Using Conventional Reactors and Advanced Fuels: A Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A., Bathke, C.G.

    1997-12-31

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed oxide forms is examined by means of a cost based plutonium flow systems model. This model emphasizes: (1) the minimization of separated plutonium; (2) the long term reduction of spent fuel plutonium; (3) the optimum utilization of uranium resources; and (4) the reduction of (relative) proliferation risks. This parametric systems study utilizes a globally aggregated, long term (approx. 100 years) nuclear energy model that interprets scenario consequences in terms of material inventories, energy costs, and relative proliferation risks associated with the civilian fuel cycle. The impact of introducing nonfertile fuels (NFF,e.g., plutonium oxide in an oxide matrix that contains no uranium) into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo- reactor plutonium inventories also is examined.

  18. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  19. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-02-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

  20. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  1. Oxidation states, geometries, and electronic structures of plutonium tetroxide PuO4 isomers: is octavalent Pu viable?

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Wen-Hua; Su, Jing; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2013-12-16

    In neutral chemical compounds, the highest known oxidation state of all elements in the Periodic Table is +VIII. While PuO4 is viewed as an exotic Pu(+VIII) complex, we have shown here that no stable electronic homologue of octavalent RuO4 and OsO4 exists for PuO4, even though Pu has the same number of eight valence electrons as Ru and Os. Using quantum chemical approaches at the levels of quasi-relativistic DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), and CASPT2, we find the ground state of PuO4 as a quintet (5)C2v-(PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) complex with the leading valence configuration of an (f(3))plutonyl(V) unit, loosely coupled to a superoxido (π*(3))O2(-) ligand. This stable isomer is likely detectable as a transient species, while the previously suggested planar (1)D4h-Pu(VIII)O4 isomer is only metastable. Through electronic structure analyses, the bonding and the oxidation states are explained and rationalized. We have predicted the characteristics of the electronic and vibrational spectra to assist future experimental identification of (PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) by IR, UV-vis, and ionization spectroscopy. PMID:24274785

  2. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  3. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  4. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, W.C.; Phillips, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  5. First-principles local density approximation+U and generalized gradient approximation+U study of plutonium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2008-02-01

    The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible.

  6. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  7. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  8. Reduction of worldwide plutonium inventories using conventional reactors and advanced fuels: A systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Chodak, P. III

    1997-09-01

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed-oxide forms is examined by means of a cost-based plutonium-flow systems model that includes an approximate measure of proliferation risk. The impact of plutonium recycle in a number of forms is examined, including the introduction of nonfertile fuels into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo-reactor plutonium inventories.

  9. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  10. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O'Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    As a result of nuclear weapons testing and accidents, plutonium has been distributed into the environment. The areas close to the sites of these tests and accidental dispersions contain plutonium deposition of such a magnitude that health authorities and responsible officials have mandated that the contaminated areas be protected, generally through isolation or removal of the contaminated areas. In recent years remedial actions have taken place at all these sites. For reasons not entirely clear, the public perceives radiation exposure risk to be much greater than the evidence would suggest [1]. This perception seems to be particularly true for plutonium, which has often been ''demonized'' in various publications as the ''most hazardous substance known to man'' [2]. As the position statement adapted by the Health Physics Society explains, ''Plutonium's demonization is an example of how the public has been misled about radiation's environmental and health threats generally, and in cases like plutonium, how it has developed a warped ''risk perception'' that does not reflect reality'' [3]. As a result of this risk perception and ongoing debate surrounding environmental plutonium contamination, remedial action criteria are difficult to establish. By examining the data available before and after remedial actions taken at the three sites discussed in our report, we hope to present data that will illustrate that plutonium measured as aged deposition (older than several months) does not present as high a dose or risk as many had expected. The authors show that even though dose to the lung from inhalation (the primary pathway for the high-fired plutonium oxide particles present at these sites) is reduced, such a reduction is achieved at significant cost. The cost comes from damage to the environment, large expenditures per hectare rehabilitated, and the risk to occupational workers. This paper specifically examines sites that are similar in many ways. These sites were chosen

  11. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  12. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  13. Size fractionation methods: measuring plutonium in respirable dust.

    PubMed

    Hayden, J A

    1978-11-17

    Methods used to evaluate the inhalation hazard of soil contaminated with plutonium were investigated. Four soil fractionation procedures were used to separate three size fractions of soil particles taken from two locations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats facility. The results show that increasing amounts of soil mass and plutonium activity (0.5 to 38 percent and 7 to 84 percent, respectively) remain in the fraction of soil smaller than 10 micrometers as the in situ particle associations are increasingly disrupted by physical and chemical forces. The introduction of forces of dispersion unrelated to ambient conditions yields results that are unrelated to the original particle associations. PMID:17807250

  14. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    1998-04-24

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  15. FORMATION OF 8-OXO-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE, AN OXIDATIVE ADDUCT IN THE LUNG DNA OF RATS FOLLOWING SUBCHRONIC INHALATION OF CARBON BLACK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic inhalation of carbon black (CB) can produce carcinomas in rat lungs. The mechanisms underlying this response are uncertain. However, it has been postulated that chronic inflammation and cell proliferation may play a role in the development of tumors after high dose, lo...

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  17. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  18. Inhalation deposition and retention patterns of a U-Pu chain aggregate aerosol.

    PubMed

    Briant, J K; Sanders, C L

    1987-10-01

    Chain aggregate aerosol particles are normally formed during many high-temperature combustion and vaporization processes. The shape of chain aggregate aerosol particles could have an effect on the pattern of inhalation deposition and retention of the particles in the respiratory tract. A chain aggregate aerosol of nuclear reactor fuel could be present as an inhalation hazard if it were released to the atmosphere after a meltdown, core-disruptive accident. Rats were exposed to a chain aggregate U-Pu aerosol made by laser vaporization of mixed-oxide, breeder reactor fuel (20% plutonium dioxide and 80% uranium dioxide), then sacrificed to measure the clearance and retention of the fuel aerosol particles. Deposition of the 0.7-micron (activity median aerodynamic equivalent diameter) aerosol particles resulted in an average initial lung burden of 4140 Bq alpha activity. The chain aggregate particle shape was not a major factor in the total deposition; however, it may have influenced the regional distribution of the activity deposited. Retention of the particles in the upper airways of the tracheobronchial tree was on the order of 1% of the concurrent lung burden, which is consistent with recent data of other investigations. This study indicates that insoluble chain aggregate particles are retained in the tracheobronchial airways to a degree similar to simple spherically shaped particles of equivalent volume diameter. PMID:3654224

  19. Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

  20. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  1. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  2. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  4. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  5. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  6. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  7. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  8. Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

    2009-11-20

    Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

  9. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  10. Ambiguous and forbidden parameter combinations for aqueous plutonium.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of forbidden and ambiguous oxidation-state distributions for plutonium are easier to understand when presented graphically. This note describes two diagrams that illustrate the phenomena. PMID:18986812

  11. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to

  12. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  13. Uncertainties in electron-absorbed fractions and lung doses from inhaled beta-emitters.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Bolch, Wesley E; Huston, Thomas E; Rajon, Didier A; Huh, Chulhaeng; Bolch, W Emmett

    2005-01-01

    The computer code LUDUC (Lung Dose Uncertainty Code), developed at the University of Florida, was originally used to investigate the range of potential doses from the inhalation of either plutonium or uranium oxides. The code employs the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract model; however, rather than using simple point estimates for each of the model parameters associated with particle deposition, clearance, and lung-tissue dosimetry, probability density functions are ascribed to these parameters based upon detailed literature review. These distributions are subsequently sampled within LUDUC using Latin hypercube sampling techniques to generate multiple (e.g., approximately 1,000) sets of input vectors (i.e., trials), each yielding a unique estimate of lung dose. In the present study, the dosimetry component of the ICRP-66 model within LUDUC has been extended to explicitly consider variations in the beta particle absorbed fraction due to corresponding uncertainties and biological variabilities in both source and target tissue depths and thicknesses within the bronchi and bronchioles of the thoracic airways. Example dose distributions are given for the inhalation of absorption Type S compounds of 90Sr (Tmax = 546 keV) and 90Y (Tmax = 2,284 keV) as a function of particle size. Over the particle size range of 0.001 to 1 microm, estimates of total lung dose vary by a factor of 10 for 90Sr particles and by a factor of 4 to 10 for 90Y particles. As the particle size increases to 10 microm, dose uncertainties reach a factor of 100 for both radionuclides. In comparisons to identical exposures scenarios run by the LUDEP 2.0 code, Reference Man doses for inhaled beta-emitters were shown to provide slightly conservative estimates of lung dose compared to those in this study where uncertainties in lung airway histology are considered. PMID:15596988

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  15. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D.L.; Sauerbrun, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate dispositioning options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) assisted NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the dispositioning options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. Additionally, the INEL investigated the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing light water reactors and provided a preconceptual analysis for a reactor specifically designed for destruction of weapons-grade plutonium. This four-volume report was prepared for NAS to document the findings of these studies. Volume 2 evaluates 12 plutonium dispositioning options. Volume 3 considers a concept for a low-temperature, low-pressure, low-power-density, low-coolant-flow-rate light water reactor that quickly destroys plutonium without using uranium or thorium. This reactor concept does not produce electricity and has no other mission than the destruction of plutonium. Volume 4 addresses neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and fuel performance and compatibility issues for zirconium-plutonium oxide fuels and aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels. This volumes gives summaries of Volumes 2--4.

  16. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  17. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.

    1957-09-10

    A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

  18. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  19. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  20. Plutonium hazard in respirable dust on the surface of soil.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C J; Tidball, R R; Severson, R C

    1976-08-01

    Plutonium-239 in the fine particulate soil fraction of surface dust is subject to suspension by air currents and is a potential health hazard to humans who may inhale it. This respirable particulate fraction is defined as particles less than or equal to 5 micrometers. The respirable fraction of surface dust was separated by ultrasonic dispersion and a standard water-sedimentation procedure. Plutonium concentration in this fraction of off-site soils located downwind from the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (Jefferson County, Colorado) were as much as 380 times the background concentration. It is prposed that this method of evaluation defines more precisely the potential health hazard from the respirable fraction of plutonium-contaminated soils. PMID:941018

  1. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  3. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution

  4. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-03-10

    A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

  6. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  7. A Plutonium Ceramic Target for MASHA

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P A; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M; Wild, J F; Stoyer, M A; Patin, J B; Lougheed, R W; Ebbinghaus, B B; Landingham, R L; Oganessian, Y T; Yeremin, A V; Dmitriev, S N

    2004-07-06

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  8. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  9. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  10. An isotopic analysis system for plutonium samples enriched in sup 238 Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1991-08-01

    We have designed and built a gamma-ray spectrometer system that measures the relative plutonium isotopic abundances of plutonium oxide enriched in {sup 238}Pu. The first system installed at Westinghouse Savannah River Company was tested and evaluated on plutonium oxide in stainless steel EP60/61 containers. {sup 238}Pu enrichments ranged from 20% to 85%. Results show that 200 grams of plutonium oxide in an EP60.61 container can be measured with {plus minus}0.3% precision and better than {plus minus}1.0% accuracy in the specific power using a counting time of 50 minutes. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  12. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  13. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic ... the puff; continue to take a full, deep breath. Take the inhaler away from you mouth, hold ...

  14. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by opening the inhaler unless you are ... refrigerator or at room temperature away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the ...

  15. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  16. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  17. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... Sit upright and place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put on the facemask. Turn on the ...

  18. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning: Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  19. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  20. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  1. Neutronic Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 - Volume 4, Part 2--Saxton Plutonium Program Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurrahman, NM

    2000-10-12

    Critical experiments with water-moderated, single-region PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} or UO{sub 2}, and multiple-region PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2}- and UO{sub 2}-fueled cores were performed at the CRX reactor critical facility at the Westinghouse Reactor Evaluation Center (WREC) at Waltz Mill, Pennsylvania in 1965 [1]. These critical experiments were part of the Saxton Plutonium Program. The mixed oxide (MOX) fuel used in these critical experiments and then loaded in the Saxton reactor contained 6.6 wt% PuO{sub 2} in a mixture of PuO{sub 2} and natural UO{sub 2}. The Pu metal had the following isotopic mass percentages: 90.50% {sup 239}Pu; 8.57% {sup 239}Pu; 0.89% {sup 240}Pu; and 0.04% {sup 241}Pu. The purpose of these critical experiments was to verify the nuclear design of Saxton partial plutonium cores while obtaining parameters of fundamental significance such as buckling, control rod worth, soluble poison worth, flux, power peaking, relative pin power, and power sharing factors of MOX and UO{sub 2} lattices. For comparison purposes, the core was also loaded with uranium dioxide fuel rods only. This series is covered by experiments beginning with the designation SX.

  2. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  3. Inhalation of two putative Gulf War toxins by mice.

    PubMed

    Repine, John E; Wilson, Paul; Elkins, Nancy; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Peters, Ben; Smith, Dwight M

    2016-06-01

    We employed our inhalation methodology to examine whether biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be produced in mice following inhalation of aerosols containing carbonaceous particles or the vapor of pesticides prevalent during the first Gulf War. Exposure to two putative Gulf War Illness toxins, fine airborne particles and the pesticide malathion, increased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Friend virus B (FVB) female mice. Mice inhaling particles 24 h before had increased lung lavage and plasma Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (a biomarker of inflammation) and PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) levels, lung lavage protein and lung lavage lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. These changes were a function of particle density and exposure time. Compared to particle inhalation, mice inhaling malathion 24 h before had small increase in plasma LTB4 and PGF2α levels but no increase in lung lavage LTB4, lung lavage protein, lung lavage LDH, and lung lavage alveolar macrophage (AM) levels compared to unexposed control mice. AM from particle-exposed mice contained phagocytosed particles, while AM from malathion-exposed mice showed no abnormalities. Our results indicate that inhaling particles or malathion can alter inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in mice and raise the possibility that these toxins may have altered inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Gulf War-exposed individuals. PMID:26950528

  4. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory.

  5. Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (..cap alpha..,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the /sup 240/Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (..cap alpha..,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride.

  6. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  7. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

    1960-09-13

    Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

  8. Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1999-10-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

  9. Disposing of the world`s excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis.

  10. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  11. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  12. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  13. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  14. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  15. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  16. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  17. Plutonium microstructures, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, E. M.; Bergin, J. B.

    1981-09-01

    Illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments are presented. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns are included. Historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples are described and the composition of the etchant solutions are given. The etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample is described.

  18. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake. PMID:26606066

  19. Handling, Storage, and Disposition of Plutonium and Uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschke, John M.; Stakebake, Jerry L.

    The need to address topics of handling, storage, and disposal of plutonium and uranium is driven by concern about hazards posed by the element and by the worldwide quantity of civilian and military materials. The projected inventory of separated civilian plutonium for use in fabricating mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel during initial decades of this century is constant at about 120 metric tons and a comparable amount of excess military plutonium is anticipated from reductions in nuclear weapon stockpiles (IAEA Report, 1998). Although inventories of civilian material are in oxide form, Pu from weapons programs exists primarily as metal. Plutonium is a radiological toxin (Voelz, 2000); its management in a safe and secure manner is essential for protecting workers, the public, and the environment.

  20. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.; Goeckermann, R.H.

    1958-06-10

    An improvement in oxidation-reduction type methods of separating plutoniunn from elements associated with it in a neutron-irradiated uranium solution is described. The method relates to the separating of plutonium from lanthanum ions in an aqueous 0.5 to 2.5 N nitric acid solution by 'treating the solution, at room temperature, with ammonium sulfite in an amount sufficient to reduce the hexavalent plutonium present to a lower valence state, and then treating the solution with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ thereby forming a tetravalent plutonium peroxide precipitate.

  1. Spiked Alloy Production for Accelerated Aging of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P A; McNeese, J A; Dodson, K E; Williams, W L; Krikorian, O H; Blau, M S; Schmitz, J E; Bajao, F G; Mew, D A; Matz, T E; Torres, R A; Holck, D M; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M

    2009-07-10

    The accelerated aging effects on weapons grade plutonium alloys are being studied using {sup 238}Pu-enriched plutonium metal to increase the rate of formation of defect structures. Pyrochemical processing methods have been used to produce two {sup 238}Pu-spiked plutonium alloys with nominal compositions of 7.5 wt% {sup 238}Pu. Processes used in the preparation of the alloys include direct oxide reduction of PuO{sub 2} with calcium and electrorefining. Rolled disks were prepared from the spiked alloys for sampling. Test specimens were cut out of the disks for physical property measurements.

  2. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  3. Development and testing of conceptual models describing plutonium subsurface transport (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding coupled chemical, physical, and biological processes controlling plutonium subsurface transport is fundamental to predicting the fate and transport of actinides in the subsurface. In previous conceptual models of plutonium transport, it is assumed that low solubility and high affinity for mineral surfaces will limit the mobility of plutonium in the environment. However, this traditional model has been challenged based on observations of accelerated subsurface migration. Revised conceptual models developed through a combination of field scale observations and targeted laboratory experiments will be discussed in the context of two subsurface environments. Conceptual models of colloid facilitated plutonium transport in the southwestern United States will be discussed. Field observations and measurements show kilometer scale transport of plutonium. However, the identity of the colloidal fraction has not yet been confirmed. Laboratory experiments indicate that plutonium has strong interactions with smectite clays and iron oxide colloids. Interfacial modeling of plutonium interactions with smectite indicate that sorption of plutonium occurs through both ion exchange and surface complexation mechanisms. Batch, column, and batch flow-through experiments examining plutonium interactions with metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals indicate strong sorption hysteresis which is believed to be the result of plutonium reduction to more strongly sorbing oxidation states as well as dehydration of the plutonium ion upon formation of a surface complex. Furthermore, nanoscale plutonium hydrous oxide colloids also appear to have strong interactions with iron oxide colloids. These data aid in the validation of the observed kilometer scale transport of plutonium in subsurface environments. A second set of long-term experiments have focused on vadoze zone transport of plutonium at the Savannah River Site in the southeastern United States. Based on a series of batch and column studies

  4. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  5. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-06-28

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution.

  6. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  7. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  8. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  9. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  10. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  11. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  12. INTERCOMPARISON OF PLUTONIUM-239 MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1977 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency distributed calibrated solutions of plutonium-239 to laboratories interested in participating in an intercomparison study of plutonium analysis. Participants were asked to perform a quantitative radioactivity analysis of the soluti...

  13. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

    2010-02-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

  14. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  15. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  16. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  17. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  18. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk. PMID:22962267

  19. EXAFS/XANES studies of plutonium-loaded sodalite/glass waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Aase, Scott B.; Lewis, Michele A.

    2001-09-01

    A sodalite/glass ceramic waste form is being developed to immobilize highly radioactive nuclear wastes in chloride form, as part of an electrochemical cleanup process. Two types of simulated waste forms were studied: where the plutonium was alone in an LiCl/KCl matrix and where simulated fission-product elements were added representative of the electrometallurgical treatment process used to recover uranium from spent nuclear fuel also containing plutonium and a variety of fission products. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) studies were performed to determine the location, oxidation state, and particle size of the plutonium within these waste form samples. Plutonium was found to segregate as plutonium(IV) oxide with a crystallite size of at least 4.8 nm in the non-fission-element case and 1.3 nm with fission elements present. No plutonium was observed within the sodalite in the waste form made from the plutonium-loaded LiCl/KCl eutectic salt. Up to 35% of the plutonium in the waste form made from the plutonium-loaded simulated fission-product salt may be segregated with a heavy-element nearest neighbor other than plutonium or occluded internally within the sodalite lattice.

  20. Plutonium Management in the Medium Term

    SciTech Connect

    Hesketh, Kevin; Schlosser, Gerhard; Porsch, Dieter F.; Wolf, Timm; Koeberl, Oliver; Lance, Benoit; Chawla, Rakesh; Gehin, Jess C.; Ellis, Ron; Uchikawa, Sadao; Sato, Osamu; Okubo, Tsutomu; Mineo, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Toru; Sagayama, Yutaka; Sartori, Enrico

    2004-12-15

    For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review.

  1. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  2. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  3. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures.

  4. Screening strategy to avoid toxicological hazards of inhaled nanoparticles for drug delivery: The use of a-quartz and nano zinc oxide particles as benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Andrea; Schulz, Holger; Kissel, Thomas; Stoeger, Tobias

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a broad, revolutionary field with promising advantages for new medicine. In this context the rapid development and improvement of so called nanocarriers is of high pharmaceutical interest and some devices are already on the market. In our project we aim to develop well characterized nanoscaled drug delivery systems for an inhalative application. To this end, we focus on the most adverse side-effects within the lung, the cytotoxic and the proinflammatory responses to these nanoparticles (NPs). Before performing any animal experiments, we start with an in vitro screening for analyzing the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of the investigated particles on two murine lung target cell lines, the alveolar epithelial like typ II cell line (LA4) and the alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S). Three different endpoints were estimated, (i) cellular metabolic activity, determined by the WST-1 assay, (ii) membrane integrity, by detection of LDH release and hemolytic activity, and (iii) secretion of inflammatory mediators. To analyze the relative particle toxicity we choose two reference particles as benchmarks, (i) fine a-quartz, and (ii) ultrafine ZnO particles. The investigation of dose-response and kinetics of proinflammatory and toxic effects caused to the named cell lines provide an insight to a close evaluation of our cell based screening strategy. oc-quartz is well known for its inflammatory and toxic potential caused by inhalation, and nanosized ZnO particles - used in a broad field of nanotechnology like electronics, but also cosmetics and pharmaceuticals - is to a high degree cytotoxic and proinflammatory in vitro. Preliminary experiments indicated not only particle and cell specific inflammatory responses, but also different susceptibilities of the cell types being exposed to our benchmark particles regarding their size and surface activities. Exposure to the μm-sized a-quartz particles affected the viability of epithelia cells less than that of

  5. Persistence of a hyperthermic sign-reversal during nitrous oxide inhalation despite cue-exposure treatment with and without a drug-onset cue

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Woods, Stephen C.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    We asked whether chronic tolerance and the hyperthermic sign-reversal induced by repeated 60% N2O exposures could be extinguished using a cue-exposure paradigm. Rats received 18 N2O administrations in a total calorimetry system that simultaneously measures core temperature (Tc), metabolic heat production (HP), and body heat loss (HL). Each exposure entailed a 2-h baseline period followed by a 1.5-h N2O exposure. The 18 drug exposures induced a robust intra-administration hyperthermia in which the initial hypothermic effect of N2O inverted to a significant hyperthermic sign-reversal during N2O inhalation due primarily to an acquired robust increase in HP. The rats were then randomized to one of three extinction procedures (n=8/procedure) over a 20-d interval: 1) a N2O-abstinent home-cage group (HC) that received only the usual animal care; 2) a cue-exposure group (CEXP) in which the animals were placed in the calorimeter 8 times but received no N2O; and 3) a drug-onset-cue group (DOC) in which animals received a brief N2O exposure in the calorimeter that mimicked the first 3 min of an actual 60% N2O trial. Following the extinction sessions, all rats received a 60% N2O test trial and Tc, HP and HL were assessed. The hyperthermic sign-reversal remained fully intact during the test trial, with no significant differences observed among groups in any post-baseline change in any thermal outcome. These data suggest that cue exposure may not be an efficacious strategy to reduce sign-reversals that develop with chronic drug use. PMID:25938128

  6. Acute Pulmonary Vasodilator Testing With Inhaled Treprostinil in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Parker, Donna K.; Doran, Aimee K.; Friesen, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute pulmonary vasodilator testing (AVT) is essential to determining the initial therapy for children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study aimed to report the initial experience with inhaled treprostinil used for AVT in children with PAH and to evaluate the hemodynamic change after inhaled treprostinil compared with inhaled nitric oxide. This prospective cohort study was designed for 13 children who underwent AVT with inhaled treprostinil or oxygen plus inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) during catheterization. Inhaled treprostinil was delivered during cardiac catheterization by adapting the Optineb ultrasonic nebulizer via either a flow-inflating bag or the manual mode of the anesthesia system. The median age of the patients was 10 years (range 4–17 years). The etiologies of PAH included idiopathic PAH and associated PAH. All the patients tolerated inhaled treprostinil without marked clinical worsening and received six or nine breaths (36 or 54 µg) of treprostinil. The median of the total treprostinil doses was 1.53 µg/kg (range 0.71–2.89 µg/kg). Inhaled treprostinil was administrated via an endotracheal tube (n = 8), anesthesia mask (n = 3), or laryngeal mask airway (n = 2). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and inhaled treprostinil significantly decreased the mean pulmonary artery pressure and the pulmonary vascular resistance index compared with baseline. Three adverse events were reported after inhaled treprostinil, including cough and mild to moderate hypotension with higher doses. All adverse events resolved without any intervention. This study report is the first to describe the use of inhaled treprostinil for AVT in children with PAH. In this small pediatric cohort, inhaled treprostinil was effectively delivered and well tolerated and may be useful for AVT. PMID:23184020

  7. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issues associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.

  8. Insulin inhalation--Pfizer/Nektar Therapeutics: HMR 4006, inhaled PEG-insulin--Nektar, PEGylated insulin--Nektar.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 120 centres worldwide, and will use a fourth prototype inhaler device that is half the size of the first prototype, and has reduced manufacturing costs. Pfizer and its partner, Aventis Pharma, are conducting additional long-term pulmonary safety data studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pfizer is also conducting phase III clinical trials with inhaled insulin in paediatric patients aged 6-17 years. Nektar Therapeutics is using its Advanced PEGylation technology to develop a dry powder-inhaled polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulation for delivering peptides efficiently across the lungs and to promote prolonged serum concentration of the peptide. PEG is a neutral, water-soluble, nontoxic polymer comprising any number of repeating units of ethylene oxide. PEGylation is designed to increase the size of the active molecule and ultimately improve drug performance by optimising pharmacokinetics, increasing bioavailability, and decreasing immunogenicity and dosing frequency. The investigation has begun with inhaled, long-acting (PEGylated) insulin [inhaled PEG-insulin, PEGylated insulin--Nektar], and is funded by Pfizer. Preclinical results of a dry powder formulation of inhaled PEG-insulin presented at the 63rd Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association (ADA-2003) [June 2003, New Orleans, LA, USA] demonstrated prolonged systemic activity of insulin in dogs. Nektar Therapeutics was granted US patent 5,997,848 on a method for delivering inhalable insulin. The patent covers a method for delivering of 0.5-15 mg of aerosol dry powder insulin per dosing session in 1-4 individual dosages into the deep lung for systemic absorption. The patent does not specify the formulation of insulin or aerosol delivery device. Nektar Therapeutics estimated in June 2002 that Exubera could earn the company potential revenues of >200 million US dollars. PMID:15139780

  9. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  10. Radiation from plutonium 238 used in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. K.; Vallee, R. E.; Powers, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The principal mode of the nuclear decay of plutonium 238 is by alpha particle emission at a rate of 17 curies per gram. Gamma radiation also present in nuclear fuels arises primarily from the nuclear de-excitation of daughter nuclei as a result of the alpha decay of plutonium 238 and reactor-produced impurities. Plutonium 238 has a spontaneous fission half life of 4.8 x 10 to the 10th power years. Neutrons associated with this spontaneous fission are emitted at a rate of 28,000 neutrons per second per gram. Since the space fuel form of plutonium 238 is the oxide pressed into a cermet with molybdenum, a contribution to the neutron emission rate arises from (alpha, n) reactions with 0-17 and 0-18 which occur in natural oxygen.

  11. Electron Emission From Slightly Oxidized Delta-stabilized Plutonium Generated by its Radioactivity, and Radiation Induced Ionization and Dissociation of Hydrogen at its Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

    2011-10-26

    Energy dependent electron emission between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of plutonium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron spectral intensity decreases continuously except for a distinctive feature of unknown origin at approximately 180eV. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases and literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2} second, found to be about 8*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. These results are to be used with caution until complementary measurements can be made, e.g. independent measurement of the total emitted electron current, since the results here are based on the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine angular distribution. That is unlikely to be correct.

  12. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  13. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  14. Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs. PMID:25541044

  15. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  16. Commentary on Inhaled 239PUO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis Against Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. PMID:26675366

  17. Inhaled medical gases: more to breathe than oxygen.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is usually sufficient to achieve the therapeutic objective of supporting adequate gas exchange. Pediatric and neonatal patients have an assortment of physiologic conditions that may require adjunctive inhaled gases to treat the wide variety of diseases seen in this heterogeneous population. Inhaled nitric oxide, helium oxygen mixtures, inhaled anesthetics, hypercarbic mixtures, hypoxic mixtures, inhaled carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide have been used to alter physiology in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Balancing the therapeutic potential, possible adverse effects, and the complexity of the technical aspects of gas delivery, it is essential that clinicians thoroughly understand the application of medical gas therapy beyond the traditional nitrogen/oxygen mixture. PMID:21944684

  18. Inhaled therapy for the management of perioperative pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Thunberg, C. A.; Morozowich, S. T.; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary-specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil), NO-donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite), and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil) may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators. PMID:26139748

  19. Technosphere inhaled insulin (Afrezza).

    PubMed

    Rendell, M

    2014-12-01

    Technosphere® insulin uses a unique carrier -fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP)- which adsorbs insulin to form microparticles to permit delivery to the alveoli by inhalation. Toxicity studies have been entirely negative. The pulmonary absorption of insulin is very rapid, and the disappearance time is shorter than for subcutaneously delivered rapid-acting insulins. As a result, after inhalation, there is a rapid drop in glucose levels which subsequently return to normal in a shorter time than after subcutaneous insulin administration. Consequently, there is a lower incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Pulmonary function studies have shown a small, reversible decrease in FEV1, and pulmonary imaging studies have shown no adverse effect. The inhalation of Technosphere insulin can produce a cough in up to 27% of patients. The cough has resulted in discontinuance in as many as 9% of users. Technosphere insulin has been approved for use in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies of pulmonary safety and surveillance for malignancy will be performed in the future. Studies to assess the optimal time dosing regimen are needed. PMID:25588086

  20. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  1. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-09-02

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  2. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCT VALUES FROM THE HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1959-12-15

    An improved precipitation of fission products on bismuth phosphate from an aqueous mineral acid solution also containing hexavalent plutonium by incorporating, prior to bismuth phosphate precipitation, from 0.05 to 2.5 grams/ liter of zirconium phosphate, niobium oxide. and/or lanthanum fluoride is described. The plutonium remains in solution.

  3. The reaction product of hydrogen and electro-refined plutonium observed by in situ electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, M.; Knowles, J. P.; Preuss, M.

    2016-02-01

    Electro-refined plutonium was reacted with hydrogen within the preparation chamber of a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope and in situ images were obtained. The plutonium hydride reaction product was observed to have precipitated at the oxide metal interface as angular particulates (ca 2 μm in length) and was also present within micro cracks intersecting the surface.

  4. Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g PUO{sub 2}/cm{sup 2} of metal surface per min) and independent of temperature above 500{degrees}C. Total mass and particle distributions are derived for oxide products formed by reactions of plutonium metal and hydride. The mass distributions for products of all metal-gas reactions are remarkably similar with approximately 0.07 mass% of the oxide particles having geometric diameters {le} 10 {mu}m. In comparison, 25 mass% of the oxide formed by the PuH{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction is in this range. Experimental values of mass fractions released during oxidation are evaluated and factors that alter the release fraction are discussed.

  5. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...

  6. a Plutonium Ceramic Target for Masha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, P. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Landingham, R. L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 °C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  8. EXAFS and XANES analysis of plutonium and cerium edges from titanate ceramics for fissile materials disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Bakel, A. J.; Hash, M. C.; Aase, S. B.; Buck, E. C.; Chamerlain, D. B.

    1999-11-16

    We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra from the plutonium L{sub III} edge and XANES from the cerium L{sub II} edge in prototype titanate ceramic hosts. The titanate ceramics studied are based upon the hafnium-pyrochlore and zirconolite mineral structures and will serve as an immobilization host for surplus fissile materials, containing as much as 10 weight % fissile plutonium and 20 weight % (natural or depleted) uranium. Three ceramic formulations were studied: one employed cerium as a ''surrogate'' element, replacing both plutonium and uranium in the ceramic matrix, another formulation contained plutonium in a ''baseline'' ceramic formulation, and a third contained plutonium in a formulation representing a high-impurity plutonium stream. The cerium XANES from the surrogate ceramic clearly indicates a mixed III-IV oxidation state for the cerium. In contrast, XANES analysis of the two plutonium-bearing ceramics shows that the plutonium is present almost entirely as Pu(IV) and occupies the calcium site in the zirconolite and pyrochlore phases. The plutonium EXAFS real-space structure shows a strong second-shell peak, clearly distinct from that of PuO{sub 2}, with remarkably little difference in the plutonium crystal chemistry indicated between the baseline and high-impurity formulations.

  9. Solubility of plutonium(VI) carbonate in saline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Sean D.; Runde, Wolfgang; Neu, Mary P.

    2007-06-01

    Among the plutonium oxidation states found to form in the environment, mobile plutonium(VI) can exist under oxidizing conditions and in waters with high chloride content due to radiolysis effects. We are investigating the solubility and speciation of plutonium(VI) carbonate under conditions relevant to natural waters and brines such as those found near some geologic radioactive waste repositories. The solid Pu(VI) phase PuO 2CO 3(s) was prepared and its solubility was measured in NaCl and NaClO 4 solutions in a CO 2 atmosphere as a function of pH and ionic strength (0.1-5.6 m). The concentration of soluble plutonium in solution was calculated from spectroscopic data and liquid scintillation counting. Spectroscopic measurements also revealed the plutonium oxidation state. The apparent solubility product of PuO 2CO 3(s) was determined at selected electrolyte concentrations to be, log Ks,0 = -13.95 ± 0.07 (0.1 m NaCl), log Ks,0 = -14.07 ± 0.13 (5.6 m NaCl), and log Ks,0 = -15.26 ± 0.11 (5.6 m NaClO 4). Specific ion interaction theory was used to calculate the solubility product at zero ionic strength, logKs,0∘=-14.82±0.05.

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  11. Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

    1999-06-18

    Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

  12. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  13. Stabilization and immobilization of military plutonium: A non-proliferation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Nuclear Control Institute welcomes this DOE-sponsored technical workshop on stabilization and immobilization of weapons plutonium (W Pu) because of the significant contribution it can make toward the ultimate non-proliferation objective of eliminating weapons-usable nuclear material, plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU), from world commerce. The risk of theft or diversion of these materials warrants concern, as only a few kilograms in the hands of terrorists or threshold states would give them the capability to build nuclear weapons. Military plutonium disposition questions cannot be addressed in isolation from civilian plutonium issues. The National Academy of Sciences has urged that {open_quotes}further steps should be taken to reduce the proliferation risks posed by all of the world`s plutonium stocks, military and civilian, separated and unseparated...{close_quotes}. This report discusses vitrification and a mixed oxide fuels option, and the effects of disposition choices on civilian plutonium fuel cycles.

  14. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  15. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Method for dissolving plutonium oxide with HI and separating plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Vondra, Benedict L.; Tallent, Othar K.; Mailen, James C.

    1979-01-01

    PuO.sub.2 -containing solids, particularly residues from incomplete HNO.sub.3 dissolution of irradiated nuclear fuels, are dissolved in aqueous HI. The resulting solution is evaporated to dryness and the solids are dissolved in HNO.sub.3 for further chemical reprocessing. Alternatively, the HI solution containing dissolved Pu values, can be contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the Pu values to load the resin. The Pu values are selectively eluted from the resin with more concentrated HI.

  17. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-22

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu2[B12O18(OH)4Br2(H2O)3]·0.5H2O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  18. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  19. Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.H.; Haschke, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H{sub 2} after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuH{sub x})-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuH{sub x} catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (E{sub a} = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 {+-} 0.03 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed.

  20. [Impact of inhaled NO on developing lung and brain].

    PubMed

    Baud, O; Olivier, P; Vottier, G; Pham, H; Mercier, J-C; Loron, G

    2009-09-01

    With the advent of prenatal steroids, postnatal exogenous surfactant and less aggressive respiratory support, premature infants can develop chronic lung disease without even acute respiratory distress. This "new bronchopulmonary dysplasia" could be the result of impaired postnatal growth. Several experimental studies have suggested a possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/nitric oxide (VEGF/NO) pathway in restoring pulmonary angiogenesis and enhancing distal lung growth. The results of the clinical studies are, however, inconclusive, and it is currently unclear which subsets of premature infants might benefit from inhaled nitric oxide. Besides, severe intracranial haemorrhage and/or cystic periventricular leukomalacia may affect the most immature babies, many of whom are spared from severe initial respiratory disease. Recently, inhaled nitric oxide was shown to significantly decrease the incidence of these neurological events, and to improve the long-term outcome in a few clinical trials. At times neuroprotective, at times neurotoxic, nitric oxide is capable of divergent effects depending upon the extent of cerebral damage, the redox state of the cell, and the experimental model used. Recently, inhaled nitric oxide had recognized to have dramatic remote effects including angiogenesis and maturation on the developing brain in rodent pups. Therefore, the developmental consequences of inhaled NO should be further investigated to ensure its safety on the developing brain and to test its potential neurprotective effect. PMID:19836663