Science.gov

Sample records for plutonium-239-induced canine lung

  1. p53, erbB-2 and K-ras gene alterations are rare in spontaneous and plutonium-239-induced canine lung neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1996-02-01

    Inhalation of high-linear energy transfer radiation in the form of radon progeny is a suspected cause of human lung cancer. To gain insight into the types of genetic derangements caused by this type of radiation, lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and those arising in animals with no known carcinogen exposure were examined for evidence of aberrations in genes known to be altered in lung tumors. Altered expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and proto-oncogene erbB-2 proteins (p185{sup erbB2}) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of 117 tumors representing different histological types in exposed (n = 80) and unexposed (n = 37) animals. Twenty-eight tumors were analyzed for K-ras proto-oncogene mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Fourteen percent (16/116) of all lung neoplasms showed elevated nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Regardless of exposure history, adenosquamous and squamous cell cancers comprised 94% of all tumors with p53 abnormalities. Eighteen percent (21/117) of all tumors had evidence of erbB-2 protein overexpression. K-ras mutations were not detected in codons 12, 13 or 61 of tumors from unexposed (n = 9) or plutonium-exposed dogs (n = 19). These data indicate that p53 and K-ras gene abnormalities as a result of missense mutation are infrequent events in spontaneous and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-induced lung neoplasia in this colony of beagle dogs. Alternative mechanisms of gene alteration may be involved in canine pulmonary carcinogenesis. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A clinically relevant canine lung cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Benfield, J.R.; Shors, E.C.; Hammond, W.G.; Paladugu, R.R.; Cohen, A.H.; Jensen, T.; Fu, P.C.; Pak, H.Y.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Research on early human lung cancer is difficult; we have sought a canine correlate. Regimens included endobronchial submucosal injections and topical focal applications of benzo(a)pyrene, nitrosomethylurea, dimethylbenzanthracene, and methylcholanthrene, singly or in combinations. Sustained-release discs were placed into lung parenchyma or sutured into major bronchi. Tracheal segments were isolated as cervical pedicle grafts. Gross and histological evolution was reproducible. Columnar and basal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were early changes. Atypia occurred within 6 weeks and was found in all dogs within 16 to 18 weeks. Invasive cancers occurred within 8 to 65 months. No tracheal graft developed cancer. Of 15 dogs with parenchymal sustained-release implants, 1 to date has developed cancer in 8 months. Four endobronchial regimens have produced 16 cancers in 56 lungs at risk for 18 to 65 months. No cancers developed in 23 lungs at risk from eight other regimens. Of 10 dogs at risk for unilateral endobronchial cancer, 5 have had cancer. Of 23 dogs with both lungs at risk, 9 developed cancer. We have shown focal carcinogenesis with well-defined pathogenesis and an extended preneoplastic period at predictable sites in a lung cancer model.

  3. Perfusion and ventilation of isolated canine lungs

    PubMed Central

    Otto, T. J.; Trenkner, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Gawdziński, M.; Chełstowska, B.

    1968-01-01

    In order to evaluate methods of preserving lungs for use in transplantation, experiments on 28 mongrel dogs were carried out. Two methods were tried—first, mechanical respiration of isolated lungs under deep hypothermia, with the vascular bed filled with blood; and, secondly, the perfusion of isolated lungs with the aid of a modified DeWall's apparatus. Allogenic transplantations of lungs preserved in both ways were carried out. Gasometric and histological examinations of preserved lungs, before and after transplantation, were performed. The best results were obtained with perfusion under hypothermic conditions; ventilation without perfusion resulted in failure. Lung transplantation was successful when, after being preserved, the lung remained unchanged. Major discrepancies between the macroscopic and microscopic findings in preserved lungs were observed. An original classification of the changes occurring in preserved lungs is proposed. PMID:4886091

  4. Bronchoalveolar casting using formalin-fixed canine lungs and a low viscosity silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Nettum, J A

    1993-06-01

    A method for creating tough, flexible, bronchoalveolar casts from formalin-fixed canine lung is described. A lung was washed using simple methods and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. While still wet with formalin, an intact lobe was injected with silicone sealant, Silastic 734 RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing), using a caulk gun. Following digestion with protease and corrosion with potassium hydroxide, a bronchoalveolar cast was recovered giving detail as shown using scanning electron microscopy or conveniently seen by stereo light microscopy. This method should be useful for micro-anatomy studies of normal and diseased lungs. PMID:8393308

  5. Solubility of inert gases in homogenates of canine lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, I H; Wagner, P D

    1979-06-01

    The solubility of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), ethane, cyclopropane, halothane, diethyl ether, and acetone in homogenates of dog lung tissue were measured and compared with values obtained in dog blood. The measurements were made to provide data for a method for determining distribution of ventilation, blood flow, and tissue volume (Physiologist 20: 95, 1977) and for reasons discussed, the blood was not washed from the tissue prior to homogenization. All gases except SF6 were significantly more soluble in blood than lung tissue, whereas SF6 was 3.7 times more soluble in tissue than blood. It was further found that SF6 is 5 times more soluble, and ethane is twice as soluble in tissue obtained from lungs containing blood than in tissue obtained from rinsed lungs, suggesting that measurements of parenchymal solubility made on tissue from sinsed lungs may be considerably in error for some lipid-soluble gases. PMID:224018

  6. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  7. A canine model of beryllium-induced granulomatous lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Harmsen, A.G.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bice, D.E. )

    1989-08-01

    Groups of beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to attain either low or high initial lung burdens (ILB) of BeO calcined at 500 degrees or 1000 degrees C. Dogs were killed at 8, 32, 64, 180, and 365 days after exposure for evaluation of beryllium tissue burdens and histopathologic examination. Histologic lesions were characterized by perivascular and peribronchiolar infiltrates of lymphocytes and macrophages 8 days after exposure. These lesions progressed to distinct microgranulomas accompanied by patchy granulomatous pneumonia. Lesions were more severe in dogs exposed to 500 degrees C BeO. Additional dogs were sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage at 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, and 22 months after exposure for characterization of lung cytology and lung immune responses. Lymphocyte percentages and numbers were increased in lavage samples 3 months after exposure in dogs with both the high and low ILB of 500 degrees C. Values for both parameters decreased rapidly thereafter. Dogs with either low or high ILB of 1000 degrees C-treated BeO displayed negligible to low and variable changes in both lymphocyte percentages and numbers. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation by beryllium was increased 180 and 210 days after exposure in dogs with the high ILB 500 degrees C BeO only. A marked degree of individual variation in both histologic lesions and lymphocyte responses among dogs was noted. Less soluble 1000 degrees C-treated BeO was retained in the lung longer than the more soluble 500 degrees C-treated material that was cleared almost entirely by 1 year after exposure. Because these changes are similar to those reported in humans with chronic beryllium disease, these data suggest that the beagle represents a good model to study histologic and immunologic aspects of this disease syndrome.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effects of Mixed Hematopoietic Chimerism: Immune Tolerance in Canine Model of Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nash;, Richard A.; Yunosov;, Murad; Abrams;, Kraig; Hwang;, Billanna; Castilla-Llorente;, Cristina; Chen;, Peter; Farivar;, Alexander S.; Georges;, George E.; Hackman;, Robert C.; Lamm;, Wayne J.E.; Lesnikova;, Marina; Ochs;, Hans D.; Randolph-Habecker;, Julie; Ziegler;, Stephen F.; Storb;, Rainer; Storer;, Barry; Madtes;, David K.; Glenny;, Robb; Mulligan, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term survival after lung transplantation is limited by acute and chronic graft rejection. Induction of immune tolerance by first establishing mixed hematopoietic chimerism (MC) is a promising strategy to improve outcomes. In a preclinical canine model, stable MC was established in recipients after reduced-intensity conditioning and hematopoietic cell transplantation from a DLA-identical donor. Delayed lung transplantation was performed from the stem cell donor without pharmacological immunosuppression. Lung graft survival without loss of function was prolonged in chimeric (n=5) vs. nonchimeric (n=7) recipients (p≤0.05, Fisher’s test). There were histological changes consistent with low grade rejection in 3/5 of the lung grafts in chimeric recipients at ≥1 year. Chimeric recipients after lung transplantation had a normal immune response to a T-dependent antigen. Compared to normal dogs, there were significant increases of CD4+INFγ+, CD4+IL-4+ and CD8+ INFγ+ T-cell subsets in the blood (p <0.0001 for each of the 3 T-cell subsets). Markers for regulatory T-cell subsets including foxP3, IL10 and TGFβ were also increased in CD3+ T cells from the blood and peripheral tissues of chimeric recipients after lung transplantation. Establishing MC is immunomodulatory and observed changes were consistent with activation of both the effector and regulatory immune response. PMID:19422333

  9. Levosimendan Reduces Lung Injury in a Canine Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Junbo; Liu, Haiyuan; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jiyuan; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To explore the lung-protective effect of levosimendan (LS) during cardiopulmonary bypass in a canine model by determining the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of lung tissue, malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and performing a histological evaluation. Materials and Methods Thirty-two canines were divided randomly into four groups and underwent a routine aortic cross-clamping cardiopulmonary bypass procedure for 1 h, followed by recovery for 2 h. Animals were handled as follows: group C (means control group), no special treatment after aortic cross clamping; group P (means pulmonary artery perfusion group), pulmonary artery perfusion with cold oxygenated blood after aortic cross clamping; group LSIV (means intravenous injection of LS group), intravenous injection of LS (65 µg/kg) before thoracotomy, and the rest of the procedure was identical to the control group; group LPS (means pulmonary perfusion with LS group), pulmonary perfusion with cold oxygenated blood combined with LS (65 µg/kg) after aortic cross clamping. Lung tissues were removed and subjected to evaluation of pathological alterations, W/D ratio and MDA and SOD concentrations. Results In group C, the W/D ratio and MDA concentration were higher, while the SOD concentrations were lower (p<0.05). Compared with groups P and LSIV, the MDA concentration was lower in group LPS, while that of SOD was higher (p<0.05); Light and electron microscopy indicated that LS intervention reduced impairment of lung tissues. Conclusion Our findings suggest that LS plays an important role in protecting lung tissues. PMID:27275177

  10. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  11. Human Genetic Relevance and Potent Antitumor Activity of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibition in Canine Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Clemente-Vicario, Francisco; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Rowell, Jennie L.; Roy, Satavisha; London, Cheryl A.; Kisseberth, William C.; Lorch, Gwendolen

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been an open question how similar human and canine lung cancers are. This has major implications in availability of human treatments for dogs and in establishing translational models to test new therapies in pet dogs. The prognosis for canine advanced lung cancer is poor and new treatments are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an ATPase-dependent molecular chaperone ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells. HSP90 is essential for posttranslational conformational maturation and stability of client proteins including protein kinases and transcription factors, many of which are important for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. We investigated the activity of STA-1474, a HSP90 inhibitor, in two canine lung cancer cell lines, BACA and CLAC. Results Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of both cell lines revealed genetic relevance to human non-small cell lung cancer. STA-1474 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ICs50 after 72 h treatment with STA-1474 were 0.08 and 0.11 μM for BACA and CLAC, respectively. When grown as spheroids, the IC50 of STA-1474 for BACA cells was approximately two-fold higher than when grown as a monolayer (0.348 μM vs. 0.168 μM), whereas CLAC spheroids were relatively drug resistant. Treatment of tumor-stromal fibroblasts with STA-1474 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in their relative cell viability with a low IC50 of 0.28 μM. Conclusions Here we first established that lung adenocarcinoma in people and dogs are genetically and biochemically similar. STA1474 demonstrated biological activity in both canine lung cancer cell lines and tumor-stromal fibroblasts. As significant decreases in relative cell viability can be achieved with nanomolar concentrations of STA-1474, investigation into the clinical efficacy of this drug in canine lung cancer patients is warranted. PMID:26560147

  12. IMPACT OF VENTILATION FREQUENCY AND PARENCHYMAL STIFFNESS ON FLOW AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A CANINE LUNG MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cmH2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized. PMID:23872936

  13. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Serum Canine Surfactant Protein A Concentrations in Dogs with Chronic Cough by Bronchial and Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    YAMAYA, Yoshiki; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; WATARI, Toshihiro; ASANO, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum canine surfactant protein (cSP)-A concentrations in dogs with chronic cough. There were no significant differences between bronchial and interstitial lung diseases in BALF cSP-A concentrations. However, serum cSP-A concentrations in dogs with the interstitial lung disease as diffuse panbronchiolitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were significantly higher than those in dogs with the bronchial disease as chronic bronchitis. These results suggest that serum cSP-A concentrations may be a useful and noninvasive biomarker to understand the existence of interstitial lung damage in dogs with chronic cough. PMID:24366151

  14. Airway and tissue impedances of canine lungs after step volume changes.

    PubMed

    Bates, J H; Donoso, F A; Peslin, R

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the changes in pulmonary mechanics in five anesthetized paralyzed tracheostomized open-chest dogs after step changes in lung volume. We applied small-amplitude (10-ml) volume oscillations at 6 Hz at the tracheal opening for 50-s periods, during which we applied a step volume change of 250, 500, or 750 ml to the lungs. Alveolar capsule measurements of alveolar pressure allowed us to calculate cycle-by-cycle values for airway resistance (Raw) and reactance (Xaw) and lung tissue resistance (Rti) and reactance (Xti). Before the step changes in lung volume, when transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) had a mean value of 0.65 kPa, Raw was markedly greater than Rti. The situation was reversed after the step changes, however, when Raw decreased and Rti increased. Both Raw and Xaw showed negative dependences on Ptp and hence on airway caliber, as expected, and also decreased transiently after the step volume changes, almost certainly due to a vagally mediated bronchodilation reflex. Both Rti and Xti showed clear linear dependences on Ptp and were themselves tightly coupled. Furthermore, our estimate of bulk modulus for lung tissue at 6 Hz is comparable to its previously reported values at much lower oscillation frequencies. PMID:8282590

  15. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes

    PubMed Central

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called ‘Hoover's sign’, has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (ΔPpl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ΔPpl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ΔPpl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm. PMID:25063819

  16. Site of deposition and factors affecting clearance of aerosolized solute from canine lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, N.W.; Luce, J.M.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Price, D.C.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several factors on lung solute clearance using aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate was determined. The authors used a jet nebulizer-plate separator-balloon system to generate particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.1 ..mu..m, administered the aerosol in a standard fashion, and determined clearance half times (t/sub 1/2/) with a gamma-scintillation camera. The following serial studies were performed in five anesthetized, paralyzed, intubated, mechanically ventilated dogs: (1) control, with ventilatory frequency (f) = 15 breaths/min and tidal volume (V/sub T/) = 15 ml/kg during solute clearance; (2) repeat control, for reproducibility; (3) increased frequency, with f = 25 breaths/min and V/sub T/ = 10 ml/kg; (4) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 cmH/sub 2/O; (5) unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion (PAO); and (6) bronchial arterial occlusion (BAO). Control t/sub 1/2/ was 25 +/- 5 min and did not change in the repeat control, increased frequency, or BAO experiments. PEEP markedly decreased t/sub 1/2/ to 13 +/- 3 min (P < 0.01), and PAO increased it to 37 +/- 6 min (P < 0.05). We conclude that clearance from the lungs by our method is uninfluenced by increased frequency, increases markedly with PEEP, and depends on pulmonary, not bronchial, blood flow.

  17. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of health information. Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. ...

  18. Intravenous PGF2 alpha infusion does not enhance hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during canine one-lung hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Miller, F L; Malmkvist, G; Cooley, R; Marshall, C; Marshall, B E

    1988-02-01

    The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) on the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor (HPV) response was studied in 12 closed-chest dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and paralyzed with pancuronium. The right lung was ventilated continuously with 100% O2, while the left lung was either ventilated with 100% O2 ("hyperoxia") or ventilated with an hypoxic gas mixture ("hypoxia:" end-tidal PO2 approximately equal to 50.0 +/- 0.1 mmHg). Cardiac output (CO) was altered from a "normal" value of 2.89 +/- 0.26 1.min-1 to a "high" value of 3.55 +/- 0.26 1.min-1 by opening arteriovenous fistulae which allowed measurements of two points along a pressure-flow line. These four phases of left lung hypoxia or hyperoxia with normal and high cardiac output were performed in the absence of, and in the presence of, PGF2 alpha administered as a constant peripheral intravenous infusion of 1.0 microgram.kg-1.min-1. During left lung hypoxia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased significantly when compared to hyperoxia. With PGF2 alpha administration, mean PAP increased significantly during both hyperoxia and hypoxia. The presence or absence of PGF2 alpha had no effect on cardiac output or PaO2 during hypoxia. Relative blood flow to each lung was measured with a differential CO2 excretion (VCO2) method corrected for the Haldane effect. With both lungs hyperoxic, the percent left lung blood flow (%QL-VCO2) was 45 +/- 1%. When the left lung was exposed to hypoxia, the %QL-VCO2 decreased significantly to 29 +/- 3%. However, with the administration of PGF2 alpha, the %QL-VCO2 during left lung hypoxia did not change significantly 26 +/- 3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3422547

  19. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  20. CONSTANT-PHASE DESCRIPTIONS OF CANINE LUNG, CHEST WALL, AND TOTAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VISCOELASTICITY: EFFECTS OF DISTENDING PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Smallwood, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in twelve dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cmH2O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η = G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H2O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H2O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. PMID:22691447

  1. Canine Parvovirus

    MedlinePlus

    Finally, do not let your puppy or adult dog to come into contact with the fecal waste of other dogs while walking or playing outdoors. Prompt and proper ... advisable as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that ...

  2. Canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Sapierzyński, R

    2008-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is an infectious disease of zoonotic potential, caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. Common clinical manifestations of canine visceral leishmaniosis include decrease of appetite, progressive weight loss, exercise intolerance, peripheral lymph node and spleen enlargement, chronic renal and liver disease, muscle, atrophy, polyarthritis and others. Because the Polish literature in the field contains no information on leishmaniosis in animals the recognised case of this disease is presented. Homeless mongrel, intact female dog, 3 years of age was brought to a veterinary clinic because of apathy, and generalised dermatologic lesions to perform routine examination. Because therapeutic effect of primarily recognised scabies was unsatisfactory, the skin samples from ear margins, trunk and lesion of the area of the left gluteal region for histopatologic examination were taken. Due to suspicion of leishmaniosis, fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes, skin lesions, ocular discharge and imprint samples from skin lesion were performed, and tissue collected were examined under optical microscopy for identification of Leishmania amastigotes. To confirm cytologic diagnosis, blood samples for serological tests (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay-ELISA; indirect immunofluorescence assay test-IFAT) were taken. Based on physical examination, histopatology, cytopathology and serology, canine visceral leishmaniosis was finally diagnosed. PMID:18683546

  3. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Close concordance between pulmonary angiography and pathology in a canine model with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and pathological mechanisms after lung ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chaosheng; Wu, Dawen; Zhai, Zhenguo; Lin, Qichang; Zhong, Zhanghua; Yang, Yuanhua; Chen, Qunlin; Lian, Ningfang; Gao, Shaoyong; Yang, Minxia; Liu, Kaixiong; Wang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the pulmonary angiography and pathology in a canine model with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The cylindrical blood clots were selectively introduced into the left (n = 10) or right (n = 20) lower pulmonary arteries of dogs. Pulmonary arteriography (PA) was performed before or after embolization. The values after embolization and baseline of mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac output had changed. After 1 or 2 weeks' embolization, local PA demonstrated the abrupt cut-off perfusion defects or webs, bands, and abrupt vascular narrowing. 2 weeks after embolization, the pathology showed that the fibrin networks of the thrombi had multiple recanalization channels, and pulmonary artery had the concentric, lamellar (onion-like) intimal hyperplasia, multilayered, irregular arrangements of endothelial cells, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. After embolectomy-mediated reperfusion, 2 weeks' subgroup showed destroyed and incomplete alveolar structures, and a large number of exudative cells, primarily neutrophils, and exudate. There close concordance between pulmonary angiography and pathology in a canine model with chronic PTE. The LIRI mechanisms after embolectomy-mediated reperfusion involve the destroyed, incomplete alveolar structures, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. PMID:26286518

  5. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  6. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  7. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  8. Molecular Cloning and Gene Expression of Canine Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    TOMURA, Shintaro; UCHIDA, Mona; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; KOBAYASHI, Masato; BONKOBARA, Makoto; ARAI, Satoko; MIYAZAKI, Toru; TAMAHARA, Satoshi; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) plays roles in survival of macrophages. In this study, we cloned canine AIM cDNA and observed its transcriptional expression levels in various tissues. The coding sequence of canine AIM was 1,023 bp encoding 340 amino acid residues, which had around 65% homology with those of the human, mouse and rat. Transcriptional expression of AIM was observed in the spleen, lung, liver and lymph node, which confirmed the expression of canine AIM in tissue macrophages. Moreover, AIM was highly expressed in one of the canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines. CD36, the receptor of AIM, was also expressed in various tissues and these cell lines. These findings are useful to reveal the actual functions of canine AIM. PMID:25649949

  9. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  10. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  11. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  13. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  14. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  15. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  16. Canine degenerative myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Coates, Joan R; Wininger, Fred A

    2010-09-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that occurs in many breeds. The initial upper motor neuron spastic paraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs progress to a flaccid lower motor neuron tetraparesis. Recently, a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene was found to be a risk factor for DM, suggesting that DM is similar to some forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This article reviews the current knowledge of canine DM with regard to its signalment, clinical spectrum, diagnostic approach, and treatment. The implications of the SOD1 mutation on both diseases are discussed, comparing pathogenic mechanisms while conveying perspectives to translational medicine. PMID:20732599

  17. Control of canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Chappuis, G

    1995-05-01

    Control of canine distemper can realistically only be achieved by the use of vaccination. The types of vaccine in current use are described, together with some of the problems encountered such as interference by maternal antibodies, and usage in species other than dogs. Modified live viral vaccines, as used for more than thirty years, have proved very effective. Nevertheless there is scope for some improvement in vaccine efficacy and recent developments in genetic recombinant methods are described. PMID:8588329

  18. Canine ehrlichiosis in Connecticut.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Litwin, H J; Holland, C J; Anderson, J F; Ristic, M

    1990-01-01

    The first case of canine ehrlichiosis in Connecticut is reported. A female Brittany spaniel from Milford presented with lethargy, anorexia, fever, petechiae, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia. Serologic analysis revealed antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (titer, 1:2,560). This documents a more northern geographic distribution in the United States for this infectious agent than had previously been suspected. PMID:2312682

  19. American canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A

    2003-06-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs. PMID:12885206

  20. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  1. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil. PMID:21961746

  2. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  3. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  4. Canine rickettsial infections.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J

    2000-09-01

    Dogs that live in tick-infested areas are at risk for contracting rickettsial infections. Clinical signs associated with ehrlichiosis or Rocky Mountain spotted fever may be dramatic or mild. Clinicians must consider the possibility of rickettsial diseases to request laboratory tests that will permit a proper diagnosis. Specific antimicrobial therapy usually brings about clinical improvement, although some dogs may not be cleared of rickettsial organisms, even with prolonged treatment. A small percentage of dogs die of rickettsial infections, either in the acute stage or owing to chronic bone marrow suppression and generalized debilitation. Ocular lesions are an important clinical sign in canine rickettsial infections and may aid the clinician in making a diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. PMID:11033879

  5. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions. PMID:27065598

  6. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  7. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  8. Studies of Lung Micromechanics via Hyperpolarized Helium-3 Diffusion NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajari, Adam James

    While high quality MR Images of lungs are difficult to obtain with conventional proton MRI due to the organ's low tissue density, the advent of techniques in noble gas polarization have enabled MR investigations of the lung's more abundant air space rather than its tissue. In addition to high-resolution images of lung ventilation, lung morphometry via gas diffusion NMR provides information about the size and shape of the microscopic airways that account for over 95% of the lung's airspace. Consequently, gas diffusion NMR provides an important new tool for investigating changes in lung microstructure during macroscopic changes in lung volume. Despite decades of research into the mechanisms of lung inflation and deflation, there is little consensus about whether macroscopic changes in lung volume occur due to changes in the size and/or shape of alveoli and alveolar ducts or by alveolar recruitment and derecruitment. In this dissertation lung morphometry is performed via 3He diffusion MRI in order to measure the average alveolar depth and alveolar duct radius at multiple levels of both inspiration and expiration in in vivo human subjects and in explanted human and canine lungs. Average alveolar volume, surface area, and the total number of alveoli at each lung volume are calculated from the 3He morphometric parameters. The results suggest that human lungs inflate/deflate primarily by recruitment/derecruitment of alveoli, and that individual alveolar ducts in both human and canine lungs increase in volume non-isotropically by accordion-like extension. The results further suggest that this change in alveolar duct volume is the primary mechanism of lung volume change in canine lungs but is secondary to alveolar recruitment/derecruitment in humans.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of canine ICOS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Hwan; Joo, Young-Don; Yim, Daesong; Lee, Richard; Ostrander, Elaine A; Loretz, Carol; Little, Marie-Térèse; Storb, Rainer; Kuhr, Christian S

    2004-10-01

    Inducible costimulatory receptor (ICOS) is one recently identified member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules. Evidence suggests ICOS functions as a critical immune regulator and, to evaluate these effects, we employed the canine model system that has been used to develop strategies currently in clinical use for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To investigate the effects of blocking the ICOS pathway in the canine hematopoietic cell transplantation model, we tested existing murine and human reagents and cloned the full length of the open reading frame of canine ICOS cDNA to allow the development of reagents specific for the canine ICOS. Canine ICOS contains a major open reading frame of 624 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 208 amino acids, and localizes to chromosome 37. Canine ICOS shares 79% sequence identity with human ICOS, 70% with mouse, and 69% with rat. Canine ICOS expression is limited to stimulated PBMC. PMID:15475250

  10. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  11. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature. PMID:26953614

  12. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox. PMID:20299771

  13. What's eating you? Canine scabies.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Richard F; Elston, Dirk M

    2003-08-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, the causative strain of canine scabies, can produce a pruritic rash in humans. The rash generally manifests within 24 to 96 hours of contact with the affected pet. Scrapings are generally negative, and the correct diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:12953932

  14. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  15. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  16. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus... virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) A geometric mean titer of...

  17. Antigen expression in normal and neoplastic canine tissues defined by a monoclonal antibody generated against canine mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, K X; Bird, A E; Lenz, S D; McDonough, S P; Wolfe, L G

    1994-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B5 generated against canine mesothelioma cells was applied to canine tumors and normal tissues via immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques to evaluate antigen binding. By use of an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex (ABC) method, immunoreactivity was noted in reactive mesothelial cells and in normal tissues was observed primarily in mesothelial cell linings, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle of blood vessels and soft tissues; the reactivity was nearly equivalent in frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Use of the ABC method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors yielded moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of neoplastic cells in 10/11 (91%) mesotheliomas, 18/23 (78%) hemangiosarcomas, 4/10 (40%) intestinal and lung carcinomas, and < or = 20% of hemangiomas, leiomyosarcomas, leiomyomas, mammary carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. No immunostaining of tumor cells was observed in fibrosarcomas, hemangiopericytomas, perianal gland carcinomas, and melanomas. Immunoblotting was performed on samples that demonstrated strong immunoreactivity with MAb 3B5 by the ABC method: mesothelioma, hemangiosarcoma, urinary bladder (smooth muscle), and lung (alveolar capillaries). These analyses showed that MAb 3B5 bound a major antigen of 78 kilodaltons (kd) and minor antigens at 56 and 54 kd in normal and neoplastic tissues. The preliminary immunohistochemical results suggest that MAb 3B5 may possess utility in diagnosis of mesotheliomas and hemangiosarcomas, discrimination of cell types in proliferative serosal lesions, and demonstration of vascularity or angiogenesis in neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. PMID:7863582

  18. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  19. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  20. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  1. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  2. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    PubMed

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  3. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  4. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  5. Canine leishmaniosis - an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Kaszak, Ilona; Planellas, Marta; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an invasive disease of dogs, caused by Leishmania spp. parasites transmitted by the bite of an infected phlebotomine sand fly. CanL is declared an important disease by World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Due to its zoonotic potential is of a great importance the prevention of this disease in non endemic areas. Canine leishmaniosis is endemic disease in more than 70 countries and is a common disease in Mediterranean region. Recently, many cases have been reported in non endemic areas, like United Kingdom, Germany and Poland as well, where this disease is considered exotic. The aim of this article is to summarize shortly canine leishmaniosis, it's transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics procedure, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Increasing knowledge about this disease can be of a great use for veterinary surgeons from countries where CanL is an emerging disease. Multiple clinical presentations of CanL should aware clinicians to include leishmaniosis in the differential diagnosis of most clinical cases. Unfortunately, even if dogs recover clinically after treatment, complete elimination of Leishmania spp. is rarely achieved, and they remain infected and may relapse. PMID:26342500

  6. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  7. Canine oesophageal mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Satchell, P M

    1984-01-01

    The properties of slowly adapting oesophageal mechanoreceptors were determined in anaesthetized dogs in which the oesophagus had been isolated surgically. Changes in oesophageal pressure resulted in reproducible changes in oesophageal volume. Action potentials were recorded from thirty-three oesophageal afferent nerve fibres in the cervical vagus. All the receptors were located in the thoracic oesophagus. The conduction velocities of the afferent fibres ranged from 9.3 to 27.7 m/s (mean, 17.2; S.D., 4.1). The receptors were of the 'in series' type. In the pressure range of 0-1 mmHg, all units were tonically active with irregular firing rates that ranged from 0.2 to 13.0 Hz. Lung inflation altered the discharge rate in a variable manner depending upon the degree of distension of the oesophagus. The adapted discharge rate of eight units reached a maximum of 23-44 Hz (mean, 35; S.D., 8) at an oesophageal pressure of 8-15 mmHg (mean, 11; S.D., 3). The relationship between pressure and discharge rate was linear over a narrow pressure range. Ramps of similar gradient produced higher discharge rates in units whose afferent fibres had higher conduction velocities. In some units a large increase in firing rate occurred over a narrow pressure range and became more pronounced with ramps of increasing gradient. This increase in firing rate was called a 'burst'. Six out of thirty-three units showed a 'burst' response. The conduction velocities of these six units ranged from 18.7 to 23.5 m/s. Slowly adapting oesophageal mechanoreceptors could be subdivided functionally into two types. Their discharge pattern was dominated by a narrow response range. These properties may be significant in an organ that is normally empty and has a low residual volume. PMID:6699776

  8. Bilateral Mandibular Supernumerary Canines: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth. PMID:23346342

  9. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  10. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  11. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  12. Effect of Dirofilaria immitis on canine cardiopulmonary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of canine heartworm disease (CHD) were studied using in vitro and in vivo preparation to gain insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the characteristics lesions. The in vitro studies examined the contractile responses of pulmonary artery strips, bronchial spirals and lung parenchymal strips from normal and CHD dogs. Carbamylcholine failed to contract arteries and bronchial and parenchymal responses were the same for both groups. Decreased arterial responsiveness to histamine in both magnitude and number of strips responding was seen in the CHD group, suggesting tachyphylaxis of the histamine receptors. Enhanced responses were seen i the CHD pulmonary artery strips with norepinephrine and in the lung parenchymal strips with histamine. Hypoxia caused increased pulmonary perfusion pressures in the anesthetized dogs. Only heart rate changes and percent change in cardiac index differed. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors of the lung parenchyma were studied by radioligand binding using (H{sup 3}) prazosin. Low amount of specific binding necessitated the use of a single high concentration of ligand to determine receptor density. No differences in binding were seen.

  13. Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation. PMID:21042562

  14. Canine procalcitonin messenger RNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kuzi, Sharon; Aroch, Itamar; Peleg, Keren; Karnieli, Ohad; Klement, Eyal; Dank, Gillian

    2008-09-01

    Procalcitonin is considered an acute phase protein used as both a marker of infection and prognosis in human medicine. Canine procalcitonin has been previously sequenced; however, its use as a diagnostic or prognostic tool in dogs has never been assessed. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for canine procalcitonin messenger RNA (mRNA) was developed. Whole blood samples were collected from ill and healthy dogs. RNA was extracted and the real-time PCR was assessed. The patients' diagnoses, complete blood cell count, and differential leukocyte count results were recorded. Based on the diagnosis, dogs were divided into 5 groups: inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, other diseases, and healthy controls. Procalcitonin mRNA expression and the hematological measures were compared between groups, and their correlations were assessed. Procalcitonin mRNA expression was assessed in 70 dogs, including infectious (17), noninfectious inflammatory (17), neoplastic (18), other diseases (7), and healthy controls (11), and was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in all ill dogs versus controls. Procalcitonin may therefore be considered an acutephase protein in dogs. However, there were no significant differences in procalcitonin mRNA expression between ill dog groups and no correlations between its expression levels and hematological measures. In 5 dogs of all disease categories, procalcitonin mRNA expression was measured twice during the course of disease. The changes in its levels were in agreement with the clinical evaluation of improvement or deterioration, suggesting a possible prognostic value. PMID:18776098

  15. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions. PMID:25432679

  16. Radioresistance of cancer stem-like cell derived from canine tumours.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, A; Deguchi, T; Sato, T; Nemoto, Y; Maruo, T; Madarame, H; Shida, T; Naya, Y; Ogihara, K; Sahara, H

    2016-09-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a small subpopulation of cancer cells that are responsible for the initiation, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. We previously demonstrated that, using the Hoechst 33342 dye-based side population technique, CSCs/CICs in canine lung adenocarcinoma cell line exist. In this study, as CSCs/CICs are known to form spheres in anchorage-independent environment in vitro, we evaluated the stemness of spheroid cells derived from canine lung adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma cells by expression of stemness markers, and investigated radioresistance. Spheroid cells showed greater expression of stemness markers Oct-4 and CD133 gene than those of adherent-cultured cells. In nude mouse xenograft models, spheroid cells showed higher tumourigenic ability than adherent-cultured cells. In addition, spheroid cells showed significantly resistant against radioactivity as compared with adherent-cultured cells. These results suggest that spheroid cells could possess stemness and provide a CSCs/CICs research tool to investigate CSCs/CICs of canine tumour cells. PMID:25070729

  17. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... balloon-like tissues (blebs) that cause lung collapse ( pneumothorax ) Wedge resection, to remove part of a lobe ... Treat injuries that cause lung tissue to collapse ( pneumothorax or hemothorax ) Treat permanently collapsed lung tissue ( atelectasis ) ...

  18. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a total collapse, it is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, ...

  19. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  20. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  1. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  2. Comparative functional characterization of canine IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lisa M; McCandless, Erin E; Dunham, Steve; Dunkle, Bill; Zhu, Yaqi; Shelly, John; Lightle, Sandra; Gonzales, Andrea; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-01-15

    To date, very little is known about the functional characteristics of the four published canine IgG subclasses. It is not clear how each subclass engages the immune system via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), or how long each antibody may last in serum. Such information is critical for understanding canine immunology and for the discovery of canine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Through both in vitro and ex vivo experiments to evaluate canine Fc's for effector function, complement binding, FcRn binding, and ADCC, we are now able to categorize canine subclasses by function. The subclasses share functional properties with the four human IgG subclasses and are reported herein with their function-based human analog. Canine Fc fusions, canine chimeras, and caninized antibodies were characterized. Canine subclasses A and D appear effector-function negative while subclasses B and C bind canine Fc gamma receptors and are positive for ADCC. All canine subclasses bind the neonatal Fc receptor except subclass C. By understanding canine IgGs in this way, we can apply what is known of human immunology toward translational and veterinary medicine. Thus, this body of work lays the foundation for evaluating canine IgG subclasses for therapeutic antibody development and builds upon the fundamental scholarship of canine immunology. PMID:24268690

  3. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis. PMID:19482334

  4. Etiology of maxillary canine impaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Stella

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review that enumerates the causes of impaction of the maxillary permanent canines, including hard tissue obstructions, soft tissue lesions, and anomalies of neighboring teeth, and discusses the much-argued relationship between environmental and genetic factors. These phenomena have been shown in many investigations to accompany the diagnosis of canine impaction and have been presented as unrelated anomalous features, each of which is etiologically construed as genetic, including the aberrant canine itself. While in general the influence of genetics pervades the wider picture, a guidance theory proposes an alternative etiologic line of reasoning and interpretation of these studies, in which the same genetically determined anomalous features provide an abnormal milieu in which the canine is reared and from which it is guided in its misdirected and often abortive path of eruption. PMID:26432311

  5. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  6. Rootless eruption of a mandibular permanent canine.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Yehoshua; Kuftinec, Mladen M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the rootless eruption of a mandibular permanent canine in a 10-year-old boy; his mandible had been fractured in a car accident. The fracture was at the region of the developing canine, resulting in arrested root formation and causing abnormal, rootless eruption. Current theories on tooth eruption and the important role of the dental follicle in the process of eruption are discussed. PMID:21457868

  7. Canine Cytogenetics - From band to basepair

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st Century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics ‘toolbox’ for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics. PMID:18467825

  8. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  9. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  10. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation. PMID:25698302

  11. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  12. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine adenovirus. (i) The 20 dogs to... negative at a 1:2 final serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test using 50 to.... (2) Potency test for canine hepatitis—serum neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples...

  13. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  14. Effects of vaccines on the canine immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, T R; Jensen, J L; Rubino, M J; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1989-01-01

    The effects of several commercially available polyvalent canine vaccines on the immune system of the dog were examined. The results demonstrated that the polyvalent vaccines used in this study significantly suppressed the absolute lymphocyte count and that most of the polyvalent vaccines significantly suppressed lymphocyte response to mitogen, but had no effect on natural effector cell activity, neutrophil chemiluminescence, nor antibody response to canine distemper virus. The individual vaccine components from the polyvalent vaccines when inoculated alone did not significantly suppress the lymphocyte response to mitogen. However, when canine distemper virus was combined with canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2, significant suppression in lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogen occurred. The results indicate that interactions between canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2 are responsible for the polyvalent vaccine induced suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness. PMID:2540897

  15. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    PubMed Central

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Różyło, T. Katarzyna; Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Denkiewicz, Katarzyna; Masłowska, Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. Results The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation. PMID:24520309

  16. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  17. Immunologic Observations in Canine Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Kai; Mero, Matti; Oksanen, Aili; Sandholm, Markus

    1971-01-01

    Immunofluorescence studies in cases of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) in the dog demonstrated deposition of canine IgC and C'3 in the thickened capillary walls of the glomeruli and in the mesangium. Eluates obtained from the nephritic kidneys contained antibodies of IgG type and reacted with autologous or homologous nephritic kidneys but not with normal kidneys or with any normal canine tissue. The staining pattern of fluorescein-conjugated eluates was similar to that obtained with anti-canine IgG or anti-canine C'3. The eluates did not contain leptospiral antibodies. The findings indicate that complement-fixing immune complexes are deposited in the damaged glomeruli in CIN. The nature of the antigen involved in these complexes is unknown, but it does not seem to be a component of normal canine tissue and could thus be viral or bacterial. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4106382

  18. Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Flanders, James; Southard, Teresa L.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2012-03-01

    Limitations of current medical procedures for detecting early lung cancers inspire the need for new diagnostic imaging modalities for the direct microscopic visualization of lung nodules. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides for subcellular resolution imaging of intrinsic fluorescence from unprocessed tissue with minimal optical attenuation and photodamage. We demonstrate that MPM detects morphological and spectral features of lung tissue and differentiates between normal, inflammatory and neoplastic lung. Ex vivo MPM imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence was performed on mouse and canine neoplastic, inflammatory and tumor-free lung sites. Results showed that MPM detected microanatomical differences between tumor-free and neoplastic lung tissue similar to standard histopathology but without the need for tissue processing. Furthermore, inflammatory sites displayed a distinct red-shifted fluorescence compared to neoplasms in both mouse and canine lung, and adenocarcinomas displayed a less pronounced fluorescence emission in the 500 to 550 nm region compared to adenomas in mouse models of lung cancer. These spectral distinctions were also confirmed by two-photon excited fluorescence microspectroscopy. We demonstrate the feasibility of applying MPM imaging of intrinsic fluorescence for the differentiation of lung neoplasms, inflammatory and tumor-free lung, which motivates the application of multiphoton endoscopy for the in situ imaging of lung nodules.

  19. Furcation lesion in a mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Sena, Larryson Goncalves; Santos, Maria Helena; Goncalves, Patricia Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes can complicate dental treatment. This report presents a rare case of a furcation lesion in a mandibular canine with two roots. A 39-year-old man in general good health sought dental care for severe pain in his maxillary anterior teeth. The clinical examination showed localized swelling in the vestibular mucosa close to the mandibular left canine. Radiographic examination revealed two distinct roots and vertical bone resorption in the canine's mesial surface. Periodontal evaluation led to a diagnosis of periodontal abscess associated with furcation lesion. Despite the occurrence in an atypical location, the site of periodontal furcation received conventional therapy for initial decontamination, including tissue debridement and a combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone irrigation and antibiotics. To improve access, the decontamination was completed with surgical techniques and scaling and root planing. Early diagnosis of this rare morphological change helped to determine appropriate, timely treatment planning and optimal patient recovery. PMID:21903558

  20. Canine neuroendocrine carcinoma. A tumor resembling histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Hill, J; Weiss, L M

    1985-12-01

    The clinical and light- and electron microscopic features of 20 cases of canine neuroendocrine carcinoma, initially classified as atypical histiocytomas, are reported. The locally expansile well-circumscribed dermal tumor nodules were composed of solid masses of cells with high mitotic index and multinucleation, arranged in a trabecular pattern with prominent fibrovascular connective tissue stroma rich in reticulin fibers that outlined compact cell nests. Ultrastructural studies revealed evenly dispersed chromatin, focally indented nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with perinuclear filaments, membrane-bound dense core granules, and prominent interdigitating plasma membrane projections with primitive intercellular junctions. Clinical and pathological comparisons between canine neuroendocrine carcinoma, canine histiocytomas, and human Merkel cell neoplasms are discussed. PMID:4091229

  1. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  2. The orthodontic management of ectopic canine

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, R.; Sriram, G.; Satish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The canines being the cornerstone of the arch and smile is one of the teeth, which has the longest eruption passage that gets influenced by local and general etiological factors easily. The initial calcification of the crowns starts at 4–5 months of age and proceeds toward eruption about 11–13 years of age with mesiobuccal crown angulation that gets corrected toward occlusion. It gets displaced buccally or palatally or may sometimes get impacted. Early intervention is the best suited to manage canine eruption patterns. Once erupted ectopically, they possess a great challenge in repositioning them back into their correct position. This case report discusses an orthodontic treatment planning and execution to correct a buccally placed canine with an anterior crossbite in an adult. PMID:26538959

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  4. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that may require a lung transplant are: Cystic fibrosis Damage to the arteries of the lung because ... BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; ... Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: ...

  5. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/20675678 . Kotloff RM, Keshavjee S. Lung transplantation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et ... 58. Solomon M, Grasemann H, Keshavjee S. Pediatric lung transplantation. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2010; 57(2):375- ...

  6. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  7. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration.

  8. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  9. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  10. A report of canine tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, William B; O'Halloran, Henry S

    2004-03-01

    The authors describe the case of a 5-year-old girl traumatized from a dog bite to the superior aspect of the orbit in the right eye. The dog's canine tooth penetrated deep into the posterior orbit and severed the attachment of the superior oblique muscle from the globe posterior to the trochlea. The management and clinical course of the patient are described and photographs documenting the initial ocular damage and postoperative course are provided. In addition, the entity known as 'canine tooth syndrome' is reviewed. PMID:15513022

  11. Molecular cloning of the canine c-Met/HGF receptor and its expression in normal and regenerated liver.

    PubMed

    Neo, Sakurako; Kansaku, Norio; Furuichi, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Masashi; Hisamatsu, Sin; Ohno, Koichi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu

    2005-05-01

    The c-Met proto-oncogene is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Activation of the HGF/c-Met signal pathway leads to cell proliferation, motility, regeneration, and morphogenesis. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA (cDNA) of canine c-Met was cloned, and its distribution was determined in tissues. The canine c-Met cDNA clone had an open reading frame of 4419 bp that encoded a putative polypeptide of 1383 amino acids. The c-Met mRNA was expressed in a variety of canine tissues including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), bone marrow, liver, kidney, lung, stomach, uterus, testis, thymus, lymph node, small intestine, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, heart, muscle, skin, pancreas, ovary, prostate, spleen, fat, cerebrum, and cerebellum. In addition, the c-Met mRNA expression in normal and regenerated liver was examined. The levels of the mRNA increased 2-fold in regenerated liver compared to that found in normal liver, indicating that c-Met is involved in various functions including remodeling of canine hepatocytes. PMID:15942139

  12. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  13. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  14. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    PubMed

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. PMID:24382172

  15. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  16. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  17. [Backshifting of lower canines in occlusion regulation].

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Sarosiek, A; Wedrychowska-Szulc, B; Doniec-Zawidzka, I

    1990-08-01

    In 17 patients the lower canines were shifted back during treatment of prognathic malocclusion and cross-bites. Stable devices with retraction loops, rubber or spring traction were used. The duration of active treatment was about 3 months, on average. During the treatment gaps after the removed premolars were closed completely, although this is nearly impossible when removable devices are applied. PMID:2104380

  18. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  19. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  20. Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: surgical management.

    PubMed

    Trappler, Michelle; Moore, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Many surgical options have been described to treat various aspects of canine brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS). This article describes the surgical management, postoperative care, and prognosis of this condition. The pathophysiology and medical therapy of BAS are described in a companion article. PMID:21870354

  1. Production of monoclonal antibodies against canine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Borges dos Santos, Roberto Robson; Lima, Carla Andrade; Rios de Sousa Gomes, Hilton; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Patrícia Meira; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Conrado dos-Santos, Washington Luis; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain

    2004-04-01

    A panel of anti-canine leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), either resting or stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Three out of 28 clones-IH1, AB6, and HG6-screened by ELISA and producing antibody with the highest specificity for canine cell immunostaining, were subjected to three subsequent subcloning steps by limiting dilution, and selected for further characterization. These MAbs belonged to IgG1 (HG6 and IH1) and IgG2a (AB6) isotypes. The distribution of cell populations expressing the antigen recognized by the antibodies was identified by indirect immunoflorescence on canine PBMC and on tissue sections of lymph node, spleen, liver and skin. The possible crossreactivity with human PBMC was also examined in immunocytochemistry. One of the antibodies specifically recognized macrophages. The MAbs presented here can be foreseen as possible valuable diagnostic and research tools to study immune functions in dogs. PMID:15165486

  2. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  3. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. Objectives: To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18–25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. Results: All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. Conclusion: The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification. PMID:27555724

  4. Canine adenovirus type 1 and Pasteurella pneumotropica co‑infection in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Pintore, Maria Domenica; Corbellini, Debora; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Florio, Caterina Lucia; Varello, Katia; Bozzetta, Elena; Adriano, Daniela; Decaro, Nicola; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara

    2016-03-31

    In 2008, a 2 months-old male German shepherd was presented with fever, depression, and evident organic wasting. The puppy died within 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. A complete necropsy was performed. Bacteriological examination of samples from the brain, lung, liver, spleen, and bone marrow tested positive for Pasteurella pneumotropica. Histopathology demonstrated in ammatory and vascular lesions in the central nervous system and internal organs. Canine adenovirus type 1 nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the frozen brain but not in the formalin- xed, para n-embedded liver and lung samples. The positive PCR was subsequently con rmed by indirect uorescent antibody testing of the para n-embedded brain and liver sections. Although the liver is the primary site of viral damage, these laboratory ndings suggest that Canine adenovirus type 1 infection should be included in the di erential diagnosis of neuropathological diseases in dogs and that adenoviral infections could promote septicaemia caused by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:27033531

  5. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  6. Hypothermic lung preservation functions, six or more years later.

    PubMed Central

    Garzon, A A; Goldstein, S; Okadigwe, C I; Paley, N B; Minkowitz, S

    1977-01-01

    The functions of each lung were measured 41 and 79 months following hypothermic twenty-four four lung preservation and autotransplantation in six and four dogs respectively. Functional results were compared with long-term autotransplanted canine lungs. Compliance, total lung capacity, functional reserve capacity and ventilation of preserved lungs were similar to autotransplanted lungs, and only slightly decreased as compared with normal animals. There was no statistically significant difference between the pulmonary diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake of the preserved and autotransplanted lungs group and autotransplants alone. However, in both groups, diffusion capacity and oxygen uptake were decreased as compared with intact animals. Pulmonary hypertension was found on occlusion of the contralateral lung's artery: it was due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. No gross narrowing of the pulmonary artery or venous anastomosis was found that could explain the increased resistance. Diffuse emphysema of various degrees was observed in all animals. This study seems to indicate that hypothermic preservation of the lung does not affect significantly the long-term functional ability of the organ, and probably will have practical value in future clinical lung transplantation. Images Fig. 1. PMID:341822

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  8. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  9. Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta.

    PubMed

    Klonisch, T; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Froehlich, C; Kauffold, J; Steger, K; Steinetz, B G; Fischer, B

    1999-03-01

    Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta. PMID:10026098

  10. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  11. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  12. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    PubMed

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  13. Survivin inhibition via EZN-3042 in canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shoeneman, J K; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J B; Thamm, D H

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (LSA) and osteosarcoma (OS) have high mortality rates and remain in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member protein that inhibits apoptosis and drives cell proliferation, is commonly elevated in human and canine cancer. Survivin expression is a negative prognostic factor in dogs with LSA and OS, and canine LSA and OS cell lines express high levels of survivin. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin downregulation in canine LSA and OS cells using a clinically applicable locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (EZN-3042, Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Piscataway Township, NJ, USA) inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity in vitro, and inhibits survivin transcription and protein production in orthotopic canine OS xenografts. Our findings strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be effective in treatment of canine LSA and OS and support evaluation of EZN-3042 in dogs with cancer. PMID:24923332

  14. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  15. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  17. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  18. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  19. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  20. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  1. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    MedlinePlus

    Air around the lung; Air outside the lung; Pneumothorax dropped lung; Spontaneous pneumothorax ... Collapsed lung can be caused by an injury to the lung. Injuries can include a gunshot or knife wound ...

  2. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  3. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  4. Rhabdomyolysis as a complication of canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L S; Lobetti, R G

    1996-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in two dogs with babesiosis. The first animal presented with muscle pain and caramel-coloured urine, and had markedly elevated serum myoglobin and muscle enzymes. Acute renal failure complicated the clinical picture. The second dog exhibited muscle pain and tremors, together with neurological signs and pulmonary oedema, and died soon after admission. Muscle necrosis and haemorrhage were found at necropsy. In human malaria, a disease clinically similar to canine babesiosis, rhabdomyolysis is unusual, but clinically silent muscle damage appears to be common. Likewise, biochemical evidence of muscle damage is readily found in experimental bovine babesiosis. Muscle enzymes were mildly elevated in three dogs with severe babesiosis and pigmenturia but there was no obvious muscle damage, indicating that this might also apply to canine babesiosis. The pathogenesis of infection-associated rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure remains unclear, but inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide could play an important role. PMID:8965483

  5. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  6. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  7. Ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Angela J; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Benigni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    There is little published information on the ultrasonographic appearance of canine renal lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide additional information regarding the ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma, suggest ultrasonographic description criteria, and evaluate the role of fine-needle aspirate cytology in the diagnosis of this disease. The ultrasonographic features of confirmed renal lymphoma were reviewed in ten dogs. Pyelectasia was found in all dogs. Other ultrasonographic findings were loss of corticomedullary distinction (9/10 dogs), renomegaly (8/10 dogs), renal deformity (6/10 dogs), hypoechoic lesion(s) (6/10 dogs), and hyperechoic lesion(s) (2/10 dogs). Hypoechoic lesions were described as masses, nodules, and indistinct areas. In 30% of the cases (3/10 dogs) ultrasound revealed only minor abnormalities, including grade 1 pyelectasia, mild renomegaly, and focal loss of corticomedullary definition. Bilateral lesions were seen in nine dogs (90%). Renal fine-needle aspirates were performed in 9/10 dogs, yielding a diagnosis in seven on first attempt (78%). Two dogs had been given a provisional cytological diagnosis of round cell neoplasia; in one dog lymphoma was confirmed by second aspirate and by tissue core biopsy in the other. In 1/10 dogs, lymphoma was found at necropsy. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic signs of canine renal lymphoma may be subtle, canine renal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when the above ultrasonographic features are observed, and fine-needle aspirate cytology is a useful method for diagnosing this disease. PMID:24629062

  8. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed. (DLC)

  9. Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow impacts thermodilution-based extravascular lung water measurements in a model of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Easley, R. Blaine; Mulreany, Daniel G.; Lancaster, Christopher T.; Custer, Jason W.; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Simon, Brett A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies using transthoracic thermodilution have demonstrated increased extravascular lung water (EVLW) measurements attributed to progression of edema and flooding during sepsis and acute lung injury. We hypothesize that redistribution of pulmonary blood flow can cause increased apparent EVLW secondary to increased perfusion of thermally silent tissue, not increased lung edema. Methods Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated canines were instrumented with PiCCO® (Pulsion Medical, Munich, Germany) catheters and underwent lung injury by repetitive saline lavage. Hemodynamic and respiratory physiologic data were recorded. After stabilized lung injury, endotoxin was administered to inactivate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Computerized tomographic imaging was performed to quantify in vivo lung volume, total tissue (fluid) and air content, and regional distribution of blood flow. Results Lavage injury caused an increase in airway pressures and decreased arterial oxygen content with minimal hemodynamic effects. EVLW and shunt fraction increased after injury and then markedly following endotoxin administration. Computerized tomographic measurements quantified an endotoxin-induced increase in pulmonary blood flow to poorly aerated regions with no change in total lung tissue volume. Conclusions The abrupt increase in EVLW and shunt fraction after endotoxin administration is consistent with inactivation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased perfusion to already flooded lung regions that were previously thermally silent. Computerized tomographic studies further demonstrate in vivo alterations in regional blood flow (but not lung water) and account for these alterations in shunt fraction and EVLW. PMID:19809280

  10. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  11. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  12. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  13. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  14. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  15. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  16. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  17. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  18. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved. PMID:19350641

  19. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  20. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306 Section 113.306 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine...

  1. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  2. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype. PMID:11329471

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine intracranial meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, J H; Robertson, J L; Zimmerman, K L; Higgins, M A; Geiger, D A

    2009-09-01

    Meningiomas are the most common canine intracranial tumour. Neurologic disability and death from treatment failure remain problematic despite current surgical and radiotherapeutic treatments for canine intracranial meningiomas. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression has been demonstrated in multiple canine malignancies, and COX-2 inhibitory treatment strategies have been shown to have both preventative and therapeutic effects in spontaneous and experimental models of cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate COX-2 expression in canine intracranial meningiomas. Immunohistochemical and Western blot (WB) analyses showed COX-2 expression in multiple tissues of the normal canine brain, and 87% (21/24) of intracranial meningiomas studied were immunoreactive to COX-2. No significant associations between COX-2 immunoreactivity and tumour grade were identified. Further studies are required to elucidate the physiologic roles of constitutive COX-2 expression in the central nervous system as well as its participation in meningioma tumourigenesis. PMID:19691646

  4. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  5. The effects of oncolytic reovirus in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C C; Umeki, S; Igase, M; Coffey, M; Noguchi, S; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2016-08-01

    Reovirus is a potent oncolytic virus in many human neoplasms that has reached phase II and III clinical trials. Our laboratory has previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine mast cell tumour (MCT). In order to further explore the potential of reovirus in veterinary oncology, we tested the susceptibility of reovirus in 10 canine lymphoma cell lines. Reovirus-induced cell death, virus replication and infectivity were confirmed in four cell lines with variable levels of susceptibility. The level of Ras activation varied among the cell lines with no correlation with reovirus susceptibility. Reovirus-susceptible cell lines underwent apoptosis as proven by propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cleavage of PARP and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitor. A single intratumoral injection of reovirus suppressed the growth of canine lymphoma subcutaneous tumour in NOD/SCID mice. Unlike canine MCT, canine lymphoma is less susceptible to reovirus. PMID:25319493

  6. SIMULATING VENTILATION DISTRIBUTION IN HETEROGENOUS LUNG INJURY USING A BINARY TREE DATA STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Ashley A.; Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on the distribution of regional flows and pressures in the injured lung, we developed an anatomic model of the canine lung comprised of an asymmetric branching airway network which can be stored as binary tree data structure. The entire tree can be traversed using a recursive flow divider algorithm, allowing for efficient computation of acinar flow and pressure distributions in a mechanically heterogeneous lung. These distributions were found to be highly dependent on ventilation frequency and the heterogeneity of tissue elastances, reflecting the preferential distribution of ventilation to areas of lower regional impedance. PMID:21872852

  7. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery. PMID:26694269

  8. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals. PMID:22698451

  9. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation may be the only intervention that can prolong survival and improve quality of life for those individuals with advanced lung disease who are acceptable candidates for the procedure. However, these candidates may be extremely ill and require ventilator and/or circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, and lung transplantation recipients are at risk of numerous post-transplant complications that include surgical complications, primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, opportunistic infection, and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which may be caused by chronic rejection. Many advances in pre- and post-transplant management have led to improved outcomes over the past decade. These include the creation of sound guidelines for candidate selection, improved surgical techniques, advances in donor lung preservation, an improving ability to suppress and treat allograft rejection, the development of prophylaxis protocols to decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection, more effective therapies for treating infectious complications, and the development of novel therapies to treat and manage CLAD. A major obstacle to prolonged survival beyond the early post-operative time period is the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), which is the most common form of CLAD. This manuscript discusses recent and evolving advances in the field of lung transplantation. PMID:23710330

  10. Global and quantitative proteomic analysis of dogs infected by avian-like H3N2 canine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Tian, Jin; Hong, Malin; Zhou, Pei; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Huachen; Zhang, Guihong; Lai, Alexander; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Canine influenza virus A (H3N2) is a newly emerged etiological agent for respiratory infections in dogs. The mechanism of interspecies transmission from avian to canine species and the development of diseases in this new host remain to be explored. To investigate this, we conducted a differential proteomics study in 2-month-old beagles inoculated intranasally with 106 TCID50 of A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2) virus. Lung sections excised at 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 4 days, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) were processed for global and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed proteins. A total of 17,796 proteins were identified at different time points. About 1.6% was differentially expressed between normal and infected samples. Of these, 23, 27, and 136 polypeptides were up-regulated, and 14, 18, and 123 polypeptides were down-regulated, at 12 hpi, 4 dpi, and 7 dpi, respectively. Vann diagram analysis indicated that 17 proteins were up-regulated and one was down-regulated at all three time points. Selected proteins were validated by real-time PCR and by Western blot. Our results show that apoptosis and cytoskeleton-associated proteins expression was suppressed, whereas interferon-induced proteins plus other innate immunity proteins were induced after the infection. Understanding of the interactions between virus and the host will provide insights into the basis of interspecies transmission, adaptation, and virus pathogenicity. PMID:25883591

  11. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma - a study based on the Norwegian canine cancer register

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998–2009. Results Histologically verified tumours recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were studied (n = 19,715). A total of 31 (0.16%) cases of canine gastric carcinomas were identified. The median age of affected dogs was 10 years. The most commonly reported clinical signs were vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Males had significantly higher odds of gastric carcinoma than females (P = 0.02). The PMR with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each breed, and a breed predisposition was identified. Individuals of the breeds Tervuren (PMR 56.1), Bouvier des Flandres (PMR 36.5), Groenendael (PMR 34.5), Collie (PMR 26.1), Standard poodle (PMR 7.6), and Norwegian elkhound (PMR 6.1) had a significantly increased risk of developing gastric carcinoma. Discussion and conclusion The proportion of cases of gastric carcinoma recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register was found to be 0.16%, and a breed predisposition was identified. The breed predisposition observed in the current study indicates a genetic susceptibility to gastric carcinoma. PMID:23514604

  12. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J; Yates, R A; Foley, G L; Bernstein, J J; Santinelli, S; Spelman, L H; Miller, L D; Arp, L H; Anderson, M; Barr, M

    1994-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection occurred in captive leopards (Panthera pardus), tigers (Panthera tigris), lions (Panthera leo), and a jaguar (Panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992. An epizootic affected all 4 types of cats at the Wildlife Waystation, San Fernando, California, with 17 mortalities. CDV-infected raccoons were thought to be the source of infection in these cats. Two black leopards died at the Naibi Zoo, Coal Valley, Illinois, and 2 tigers died at the Shambala Preserve, Acton, California. Initial clinical signs were anorexia with gastrointestinal and/or respiratory disease followed by seizures. Canine distemper virus was isolated from 3 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 lions that died or were euthanized when moribund. Monoclonal antibody testing identified the virus isolates as CDV. Gross and histopathologic findings were similar to those found in canids with distemper with a few exceptions. There were fewer lesions in the brain, and there was a pronounced type 2 cell proliferation in the lung, with inclusion bodies and CDV antigen demonstrated by immunohistology. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was found in high titers in serum from most animals but was absent or was found only in low titers in some cats that succumbed after CDV infection. There was a marked difference in neutralizing antibody titers when tests were done with different strains of CDV. PMID:7948195

  13. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Rosa, Maria Eugênia Dela; Giacomini, Guilherme; Bacchim Neto, Fernando Antonio; Yamashita, Seizo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda; de Pina, Diana Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  14. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  15. Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jenny P; Miller, Debra L; Riley, Matthew C; Anis, Eman; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a common cause of a multisystemic disease in both domestic dogs and wildlife species, including raccoons and foxes. Outbreaks of CDV in domestic dogs in eastern Tennessee have occurred since 2012, and it was determined that these outbreaks resulted from a novel genotype of CDV. We hypothesized that this virus is also infecting area wildlife and may be a source of the virus for these outbreaks in dogs. From 2013 to 2014, autopsies were performed and tissues collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor; n = 50) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus; n = 8) for CDV testing. A real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to document the presence of CDV in tissue samples, and a portion of the virus was subsequently sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A high percentage of wildlife, both with (86%) and without (55%) clinical signs, tested positive for CDV, with the majority (77%) testing positive for the novel genotype. Microscopic findings, including syncytia in the lungs and viral inclusion bodies in urothelium, astrocytes, neurons, and bronchiolar epithelium, were also consistent with canine distemper. Minimal inflammation in the central nervous system of affected animals was indicative of the acute neurologic form of the disease. Pneumonia and parasitism were also commonly found in CDV-infected animals. Based on these results, CDV appears to be prevalent in eastern Tennessee wildlife. Subclinical or clinically recovered shedders are a potential source of this novel genotype for domestic dogs, and this genotype is genetically distinct from vaccine strains. PMID:27400957

  16. Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  17. Canine hip extension range during gait.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, A M; Stewart, A V; Joubert, K E; Bekker, P

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of canine gait is frequently used by veterinary clinicians to establish the presence of orthopaedic pain. As up to 30% of canine orthopaedic conditions affect the pelvic limb, knowledge of pelvic limb biomechanics during gait is very important. Previous studies have investigated the biomechanics at the tarsus and stifle, but little information is available regarding hip motion during gait. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum hip extension range achieved during the stance phase of gait in normal canines. In addition, this study aimed to determine the difference between maximum passive hip extension and maximum hip extension during gait. Using a sample of 30 morphologically similar normal dogs, mean maximum passive hip extension was measured using a goniometer and mean maximum hip extension range during gait was determined videographically. Inter- and intra-assessor reliability studies performed at the start of the study showed that the measurement tools and techniques used in this study were valid and reliable. The goniometric data showed that mean maximum passive hip extension range was 162.44 degrees (+/-3.94) with no significant difference between the left and the right hind limbs. The videographic data showed that mean maximum hip extension range during gait was 119.9 degrees (+/-9.26) with no significant difference between the left and right hind limbs. The results of this study provided reference values for active and passive hip extension range and showed that the degree of hip extension range required for normal gait is significantly less than maximum passive hip extension range. PMID:19496317

  18. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  19. Canine blood groups: description of 20 specificities.

    PubMed

    Symons, M; Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Twenty blood typing reagents, four agglutinins and 16 operable in the antiglobulin test, were prepared from 54 antisera which were produced in 24 dogs. Two of the reagents were identified as anti-B and Nf6. Two of the antigens were shown by absorption and family studies to be linear subtypes. In most cases, detailed family studies demonstrated a Mendelian dominant inheritance for the genes controlling the canine red cell antigens. Gene frequencies were determined in various breeds of dogs and in the dingo. PMID:1492701

  20. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  1. Diagnosis and management of canine claw diseases.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S

    1999-11-01

    The diagnostic workup for canine claw disease consists of a good history and complete clinical examination which may provide clues for a possible underlying disorder. In dogs with claw disease but no other clinical or historical signs, further recommended diagnostic procedures include cytological evaluation of impression smears or discharge from the claw fold, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, biopsy of the claw matrix, and an elimination diet for 6 to 8 weeks. If no underlying disease can be identified, trial treatment with essential fatty acid supplementation, vitamin E, or a combination of doxycycline hydrochloride and niacinamide may be useful. In some patients, onychectomy of all claws may be considered. PMID:10563005

  2. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  3. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  4. Canine congenital portosystemic shunts: Disconnections dissected.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, L; van Steenbeek, F G

    2016-05-01

    Canine congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are vascular anomalies that connect the portal vein with the systemic circulation, therefore bypassing the hepatic parenchyma. Portosystemic shunts exist in two different subtypes: extrahepatic and intrahepatic. This congenital disorder is also described in mice, cat, sheep and man. Research has been focused on pathophysiology, diagnostics and treatment of CPSS and this has resulted in increased knowledge, although the aetiology of the disease remains unclear. This review focuses on the aetiology and genetic basis of both intra- and extrahepatic shunts. PMID:27061656

  5. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  6. Cone-beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Luana Costa; Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; da Silva, Silvio José Albergaria; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Campos, Paulo Sérgio Flores

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and Methods Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Results Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Conclusion Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth. PMID:25473636

  7. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  8. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  9. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  10. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  11. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  12. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  13. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 by canine soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, M R; Dittmer, K E

    2016-09-01

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of humans. Some mesenchymal tumours (often resembling haemangiopericytomas) express molecules that normally regulate phosphorus metabolism; most frequently, fibroblast growth factor 23. Patients develop renal phosphate wasting and inappropriately low serum concentrations of 1, 25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 , leading to osteomalacia. Surgical removal of the tumour is curative. The authors examined expression of canine fibroblast growth factor 23 in 49 soft tissue sarcomas, and control tissues from normal adult dogs. RNA extracted from bone or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was analysed by end point and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Fibroblast growth factor 23 expression was detected in bone, lung, kidney, lymph node and thymus. Fifteen of 49 sarcomas (31%) expressed fibroblast growth factor 23, three of these had high relative expression and some features resembling phosphatonin-expressing mesenchymal tumours of humans. Further work is required to determine whether TIO may occur in dogs. PMID:24923416

  14. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  15. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22057370

  16. Osteocalcin and Osteonectin Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wehrle-Martinez, A S; Dittmer, K E; Aberdein, D; Thompson, K G

    2016-07-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a malignant heterogeneous primary bone tumor responsible for up to 90% of all primary bone tumors in dogs. In this study, osteocalcin (OC) and osteonectin (ON) immunoreactivity was evaluated in 23 canine OSAs, 4 chondrosarcomas, 4 fibrosarcomas, 2 hemangiosarcomas, and 4 histiocytic sarcomas. The effects of three different decalcification agents (ethylenediaminetetraetic acid [EDTA], formic acid and hydrochloric acid [HCl]) on the immunoreactivity for OC and ON was also assessed. Immunoreactivity to OC was present in 19/23 (83%) cases of OSA and all cases of chondrosarcoma. In three OSAs the extracellular matrix showed immunoreactivity to OC. None of the fibrosarcomas, histiocytic sarcomas or hemangiosarcomas showed immunoreactivity to OC. The sensitivity and specificity for OC in canine OSA in this study was 83% and 71% respectively. For ON, 100% of both OSAs (23/23) and non-OSAs (14/14) showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity to this antibody, giving a sensitivity of 100% but a complete lack of specificity. There were no significant differences in immunoreactivity for OC and ON between the different decalcification agents used. In conclusion, OC showed high sensitivity for identifying OSA but it failed to distinguish between OSA and chondrosarcoma, and the osteoid produced by neoplastic cells in most cases did not show immunoreactivity to OC. These factors may limit the practical utility of OC in the diagnosis of OSA in dogs when chondrosarcoma is a differential diagnosis. ON showed no specificity in detecting OSA and has little practical application for the diagnosis of OSA in dogs. PMID:26926085

  17. The Evolutionary Processes of Canine Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pratelli, Annamaria

    2011-01-01

    Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods. PMID:22315601

  18. Immunology and pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Lluis; Ravera, Ivan; Silbermayr, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Demodex mites colonized the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of mammals millions of years ago and have remained relatively unchanged in this protected ecologic niche since then. The host immune system detects and tolerates their presence. Toll-like receptor-2 of keratinocytes has been demonstrated to recognize mite chitin and to elicit an innate immune response. The subsequent acquired immune response is poorly understood at present, but there is experimental and clinical evidence that this is the main mechanism in the control of mite proliferation. A transgenic mouse model (STAT(-/-) /CD28(-/-) ) has demonstrated that the immune response is complex, probably involving both cellular and humoral mechanisms and requiring the role of co-stimulatory molecules (CD28). It is known that a genetic predisposition for developing canine juvenile generalized demodicosis exists; however, the primary defect leading to the disease remains unknown. Once the mite proliferation is advanced, dogs show a phenotype that is similar to the T-cell exhaustion characterized by low interleukin-2 production and high interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β production by lymphocytes, as described in other viral and parasitic diseases. Acaricidal treatment (macrocyclic lactones) decreases the antigenic load and reverses T-cell exhaustion, leading to a clinical cure. Although in recent years there have been significant advances in the management and understanding of this important and complex canine disease, more research in areas such as the aetiology of the genetic predisposition and the immune control of the mite populations is clearly needed. PMID:24910252

  19. Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of canine round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Sandusky, G E; Carlton, W W; Wightman, K A

    1987-11-01

    Sixty-five canine skin neoplasms studied using immunocytochemistry, included 22 histiocytomas, 18 amelanotic melanomas, 14 cutaneous lymphosarcomas, six mast cell tumors, and five transmissible venereal tumors. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were stained using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) immunoperoxidase technique for reactivity with S-100 protein, kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, leukocyte common antigen (LCA), neuron-specific enolase, keratin, cytokeratin, muramidase, and vimentin. Detection of S-100, kappa and lambda light chains, neuron-specific enolase, and vimentin were most useful for screening these neoplasms. None of the markers examined was consistent in staining histiocytomas. While reactivity of S-100 (ten cases) and neuron-specific enolase (ten cases) was detected in some amelanotic melanomas, lambda light chain immunoglobulin (eight cases) was relatively consistent in cutaneous lymphomas. Mast cell neoplasms reacted with avidin and, therefore, were positive, even on negative control sections. Vimentin reacted strongly on all amelanotic melanomas and transmissible venereal tumors examined. These antibodies are helpful adjuncts in the differential diagnosis of canine skin tumors. PMID:3137715

  20. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  1. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  2. Peptide neurons in the canine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Costa, M; Furness, J B; Keast, J R

    1985-07-01

    The distributions of peptide-containing nerve fibers and cell bodies in the canine small intestine were determined with antibodies raised against seven peptides: enkephalin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuropeptide Y, neurotensin, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers were found for each peptide except neurotensin. In the muscle layers there were numerous substance P, VIP, and enkephalin fibers, fewer neuropeptide Y fibers, and very few GRP or somatostatin fibers. The mucosa contained many VIP and substance P fibers, moderate numbers of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and GRP fibers and rare enkephalin fibers. Nerve cell bodies reactive for each of the six neural peptides were located in both the myenteric and submucous plexuses. The distributions of nerve cell bodies and processes in the canine small intestine show many similarities with other mammals, for example, in the distributions of VIP, substance P, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin nerves. There are some major differences, such as the presence in dogs of numerous submucosal nerve cell bodies with enkephalinlike immunoreactivity and of GRP-like immunoreactivity in submucous nerve cell bodies and mucosal fibers. PMID:2411766

  3. Masitinib monotherapy in canine epitheliotropic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Holtermann, N; Kiupel, M; Kessler, M; Teske, E; Betz, D; Hirschberger, J

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated efficacy and side effects of masitinib in canine epitheliotropic lymphoma. Complete remission occurred in 2 of 10 dogs and lasted for median 85 days. Five dogs went into partial remission for median 60.5 days. Three pretreated dogs did not respond to therapy. Side effects occurred in six dogs and were mostly mild to moderate. Immunohistochemistry was available for eight dogs. KIT receptor was negative in all of them, six of eight lymphomas stained strongly positive for stem cell factor (SCF). platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA was weakly positive in two and negative in six. PDGF-BB was negative in four tumours, weakly positive in one and strongly positive in three. One was strongly positive for PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β, seven were negative for that receptor. Five showed strong expression of PDGFR-α, two showed weak expression, one was negative. In conclusion, masitinib is effective in treating canine epitheliotropic lymphoma. But its effects are most likely not generated through the KIT receptor. PMID:26364581

  4. Canine Pluripotent Stem Cells: Are They Ready for Clinical Applications?

    PubMed

    Betts, Dean H; Tobias, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine-induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms, and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner. PMID:26664969

  5. Canine hematopoiesis in a model of combined injury

    SciTech Connect

    MacVittie, T.J.; Monroy, R.L.; Fink, M.; Gruber, D.F.; Patchen, M.L.

    1983-04-29

    The development of a large animal model for CI within the context of a nuclear disaster required that we describe, experimentally, the essential features of the radiobiology of acute effects in the canine. The large-animal model is also appropriate for assessing the immunologic, pharmacologic, and surgical modes of intervention of following CI. The canine model of CI at the AFRRI has stressed three developmental aspects: (a) establishing the radiobiology of the canine hemopoietic system, (b) choosing a relevant model for peritoneal sepsis, and (c) identifying several choices for physical trauma. This paper stresses the relevance of the first aspect, the radiation-induced suppression and recovery of the hemopoietic system.

  6. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. PMID:24776659

  7. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... years. Their conditions are so severe that other treatments, such as medicines or breathing devices, no longer work. Lung transplants most often are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary ...

  8. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serum neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine parainfluenza virus. (2) A geometric mean... neutralization titers of 1:4 or greater; or, if there is not a significant reduction in virus isolation rate...

  9. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... serum neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine parainfluenza virus. (2) A geometric mean... neutralization titers of 1:4 or greater; or, if there is not a significant reduction in virus isolation rate...

  10. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... serum neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine parainfluenza virus. (2) A geometric mean... neutralization titers of 1:4 or greater; or, if there is not a significant reduction in virus isolation rate...

  11. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... serum neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine parainfluenza virus. (2) A geometric mean... neutralization titers of 1:4 or greater; or, if there is not a significant reduction in virus isolation rate...

  12. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... serum neutralization test using 50 to 300 TCID50 of canine parainfluenza virus. (2) A geometric mean... neutralization titers of 1:4 or greater; or, if there is not a significant reduction in virus isolation rate...

  13. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  14. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, GS; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two males, mean age 18.5 years). After the osteotomy procedure distractor was fixed. After 3 days of consolidation period, the distractor was activated 3 quarter turns per day(0.75 mm/day) till the canines comes in contact with second premolar. An electrical vitality test was applied before and after the distraction procedure and during the follow-up period. Results: The mean distal retraction of canines was 7.262 ± 0.4864 mm. The distal displacement of the canine was mainly a combination of tipping and translation. The mean distraction procedure was completed in 14.60 ±1.536 days. The duration of retraction was less for mandibular canine compared to maxillary canine. The mean posterior anchorage loss was mean 0.50±0.688 mm. The amount of root resorption that occurred during distraction was clinically insignificant. None of the teeth reacted negatively to the electrical vitality test that was performed 6 months after the completion of the distraction procedure. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any tooth. Conclusion: With dentoalveolar distraction, as canines can be fully retracted in 12 to 16 days, the non-compliance patients, patients with root-shape malformations, periodontal problems, or ankylosed teeth will benefit from this technique. The anchorage teeth can withstand the retraction forces better with no anchorage loss, and without clinical or radiographic evidence of root resorption, ankylosis, periodontal problems, and soft tissue dehiscence. This

  15. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Muppalla, Jaya Nagendra Krishna; Kavuda, Krishnamurthy; Punna, Rajani; Vanapatla, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals. PMID:26779354

  16. Nutraceuticals for canine liver disease: assessing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Cambier, Carole; Gustin, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Nutraceuticals, or nutritional supplements, have been promoted for the ancillary treatment of liver disease in dogs. However, minimal information is available in the scientific literature about commonly used nutraceuticals, such as S-adenosylmethionine, silymarin, and vitamin E. No strong clinical evidence exists regarding the efficacy of these compounds as hepatoprotectants in canine liver disease. Until this evidence exists, individual veterinarians must assume responsibility for their decision to use nutritional supplements in their canine patients with liver disease. PMID:23890245

  17. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Masami; Genet, Stefan C; Roybal, Erica J; Rota, Garrett W; Saffer, Ethan R; Rose, Barbara J; Hanneman, William H; Thamm, Douglas H; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2012-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OSA) is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA. PMID:22916246

  18. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force. PMID:18183549

  19. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  20. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required. PMID:21906306

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  2. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  3. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  4. Canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia found in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, A C; Chang, W L; Lin, C T; Pan, M J; Lee, S C

    1996-05-01

    Here were report the first canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia (CICT) found in Taiwan. Platelet-specific inclusions were detected in the blood smear of a military working dog. To identify the etiologic agent, the patient's blood was transmitted to three six-month-old German Shepherd dogs. The Ehrlichia platys-like inclusions were observed six to eight days after inoculation. Indirect fluorescent antibody test showed that the serum from the patient reacted specifically with the microorganisms within the platelets. Typical hematologic manifestations of E. platys infection, cyclic parasitemia and concomitant thrombocytopenia, were observed in these dogs. The prevalence of CICT in north Taiwan was also studied, and the incidence was 8.9% (4 out of 45) in civilian dogs and 97.1% (34 out of 35) in dogs from a heavily tick infested kennel. PMID:8741613

  5. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    PubMed

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  6. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  7. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  8. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity, little is known about CD1 protein expression in dogs, notably due to lack of isoform-specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only recognized canine CD1a8 and CD1a9 isoforms, and Fe1.5F4 mAb solely recognized canine CD1a6. Anti-CD1b mAbs recognized the canine CD1b protein, but also bound CD1a2, CD1a8, and CD1a9. Interestingly, Ca9.AG5 showed allele specificity based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 321. Our findings have refined the structure of the canine CD1 locus and available antibody specificity against canine CD1 proteins. These are important fundamentals for future investigation of the role of canine CD1 in lipid immunity. PMID:26687789

  9. Wilson disease and canine copper toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J

    1998-05-01

    In this article we review the current clinical and research status of Wilson disease and canine copper toxicosis. One of the main clinical challenges in Wilson disease is for clinicians to recognize the possibility of Wilson disease when young patients present with liver disease, psychiatric disease, or a movement-disorder type of neurologic disease. Once the possibility of the disease is recognized, many copper-related tests are available that are quite accurate in making the diagnosis or ruling it out. It is important to remember that this is an inherited disease and that family members at risk should be screened, particularly siblings. The cloning of the Wilson disease gene opened up the possibility that a direct DNA test could be developed, allowing convenient screening of certain patients and family members. However, the large number of mutations already found, with no small set of mutations dominating the picture, have thwarted this approach. Once the diagnosis has been made, a variety of treatments are available. For maintenance therapy, therapy of presymptomatic patients, and therapy of pregnant patients, we use zinc. For initial therapy of patients with liver disease, we use a combination of zinc and trientine. For initial therapy of patients with neurologic disease we use tetrathiomolybdate. Canine copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers is due to a gene different from the gene for Wilson disease. However, the disease is treatable with the same array of anticopper therapies that work in humans. Recently, we established linkage of the copper toxicosis gene to a microsatellite marker, which has made available a linkage test to breeders of Bedlington terriers. PMID:9587157

  10. Canine Hip Dysplasia is Predictable by Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Gang; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Yachun; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Lust, George; Hunter, Linda; Friedenberg, Steven; Li, Junya; Zhang, Yuan; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Paul; Sandler, Jody; Krotscheck, Ursula; Todhunter, Rory; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Design Two sets of dogs (6 breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV or phenotype), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. Results The cross validation showed a strong correlation (r>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a strong correlation (r=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of the genomic data were all above 70%. Conclusions Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. PMID:21215318

  11. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Adriana; Calleja, Neville; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine-first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine-first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development. PMID:25634123

  12. Production of antibodies to canine IL-1beta and canine TNF to assess the role of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Vannozza; Ott, Fabienne; Fischer, René W; Gram, Hermann; Peele, John; Spreng, David; Schmökel, Hugo; Jungi, Thomas W

    2005-08-15

    IL-1 and TNF are important proinflammatory cytokines implicated in both antimicrobial host defense and pathogenesis of diseases with an immune-mediated and/or inflammatory component. Respective studies in the dog have been hampered by the unavailability of reagents allowing the specific measurement of canine cytokine proteins and the effect of canine cytokine neutralization by Ab. Starting with recombinant canine (rcan) IL-1beta and rcanTNF, four polyclonal antisera and 22 mAb specific for rcanIL-1beta and rcanTNF were generated. Their usefulness in neutralization assays was determined. Using cytokine-containing supernatants of canine cells in bioassays, polyclonal antisera neutralized either canine IL-1beta or TNF. TNF was also neutralized by three antibodies developed in this study and one commercial mAb. The usefulness of monoclonal and polyclonal Ab in canine cytokine-specific Ab capture ELISA's was assessed. This resulted in the identification of a commercial mAb combination and one pair developed in this study allowing low levels of TNF to be detected by antibody capture ELISA. The detection limit was 141 pg/ml rcanTNF for both combinations. Using rcanIL-1beta as an antigen allowed the detection of lower concentrations of rcanIL-1beta (20 pg/ml, on the average) by a pair of polyclonal antisera than when monoclonals were used. By using such IL-1beta-specific and TNF-specific ELISA's, the respective cytokines were detected in supernatants of canine PBMC stimulated with LPS or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes and interferon-gamma combined. Thus, monoclonal and polyclonal reagents were identified allowing the quantitation of canine IL-1beta and TNF production in vitro, and the neutralization of these cytokines. PMID:15982477

  13. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research.

  14. Cadaver lung donors: effect of preharvest ventilation on graft function.

    PubMed

    Ulicny, K S; Egan, T M; Lambert, C J; Reddick, R L; Wilcox, B R

    1993-05-01

    The pulmonary donor pool would increase substantially if lungs could be safely transplanted after cessation of circulation. To determine whether ventilation of cadaver lungs could improve graft function, canine donors were sacrificed and then ventilated with 100% oxygen (n = 6) or 100% nitrogen (n = 6); 6 served as nonventilated controls. Four hours after death, the lungs were flushed with modified Euro-Collins solution and harvested. Controls were ventilated with 100% oxygen only during flush and harvest. Recipients were rendered dependent on the transplanted lung by occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and bronchus 1 hour after transplantation. Ventilation was maintained at a constant inspired oxygen fraction of 0.4. Four controls died of pulmonary edema shortly after occlusion of the native lung. The mean arterial oxygen tensions in the oxygen-ventilated, nitrogen-ventilated, and control groups at the end of 8 hours were 81 mm Hg (n = 4), 88 mm Hg (n = 3), and 55 mm Hg (n = 2), respectively. Postmortem oxygen ventilation improved early recipient survival and gas exchange. Postmortem nitrogen ventilation improved early gas exchange and delayed recipient death compared with non-ventilated controls. The mechanics of ventilation appears to confer a functional advantage independent of a continued supply of oxygen. Transplantation of lungs harvested from cadavers after cessation of circulation might be feasible. PMID:8494430

  15. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further

  16. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  17. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  18. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Update Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  19. How Lungs Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of ... Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow spaces in the bones ...

  20. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  1. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, the cause ...

  2. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... Gender Height Hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen) level

  3. Unusual Cases of the Transmigrated Mandibular Canines: Report of 4 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Kara, Sami; Akgunlu, Faruk; Isman, Eren; Malkoc, Siddik

    2008-01-01

    The canine impaction is not uncommon in dental literature, but the transmigration of mandibular canine is a rare phenomenon, and some of them are far more extreme than others. In this study, we aimed to present the more extreme cases of the four transmigrated mandibular canine cases with special emphasis on their classification. PMID:19212522

  4. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge

  5. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  6. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  7. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25444773

  8. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kambalimath, Halaswamy V; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  9. Biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Guo; Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser with different power and different irradiation time. Methods: The canine bladder was irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. The effects of ablation and thermal coagulation in different laser settings were observed. The damage scale was evaluated macroscopically, with microscope and with electroscope. Results: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on the canine bladder by irradiation of Nd:YAP laser on. Pathology vision shows the thermal coagulation dose on perforation is 10W、6s;20W、4s;30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s;the dose of whole audience wear through is 10W、6s 20W、4s 30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s. Conclusions: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on biological effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder. The better safety dose is power 10W、duration time less than 6s; power 20W、duration time less than 4s. power 30W、time less than 3s. power 40W、time less than 2s. The ablation and thermal coagulation effects of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder is homocercal of power and time.

  10. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  11. Discriminant canine index – a novel approach in sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Chennoju Sai; Ramaswamy, Pachigolla; Swathi, Erva; Smitha, Balla; Sudhakar, Shankaran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Context Assessment of sex has significant contribution in construction of a physical profile of the decedent along with other parameters like race, stature and age. Sex determination with aid of skeletal remains is difficult procedure when, only a part of the body is obtainable. To solve this difficulty, tooth size standards based on odontometric data can be used in age and sex determination. The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the reliability of sex determination using discriminant canine index (DCI). Methods A total of 120 subjects, with healthy periodontium and between the age groups of 15 to 40 years were selected randomly. Subjects with hard tissue abnormalities were excluded from the study. The maximum mesiodistal widths of left mandibular canines were measured intraorally with the help of divider and digital vernier caliper. Data was collected and analyzed statistically. Results A significant increase in the mesiodistal width of canines in males (7.21 ± 0.45 mm) when compared to females (6.77 ± 0.29 mm) was observed. The discriminant canine index (DCI) has identified 68.3% of males and 76.7% of females correctly with an overall accuracy rate of 72.5%. Conclusion The present study indicated that the DCI can produce reliable results and can be used as an alternative for mandibular canine index (MCI), for sex determination. PMID:26330903

  12. Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle Dynamics in Canines and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is the sole abductor of the glottis and serves important functions during respiration, phonation, cough, and sniff. The present study examines vocal fold abduction dynamics during PCA muscle activation. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model and human subjects. Methods In four canines and five healthy humans vocal fold abduction time was measured using high speed video recording. In the canines, PCA muscle activation was achieved using graded stimulation of the PCA nerve branch. The human subjects performed coughing and sniffing tasks. High speed video and audio signals were concurrently recorded. Results In the canines the vocal fold moved posteriorly, laterally, and superiorly during abduction. Average time to reach 10%, 50% and 90% abduction was 23, 50, and 100 ms with low stimulation, 24, 58, and 129 ms with medium stimulation, and 21, 49, and 117 ms with high level stimulation. In the humans, 100% abduction times for coughing and sniffing tasks were 79 and 193 ms, respectively. Conclusion The PCA abduction times in canines are within the range in humans. The results also further support the notion that PCA muscles are fully active during cough. Level of Evidence N/A (Animal studies and basic research) PMID:24781959

  13. Transnasal endoscopic approach to the impacted maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Torroni, Andrea; Gasparini, Giulio; Moro, Alessandro S; Pelo, Sandro

    2014-09-01

    The inclusion of maxillary canines is a very common condition. The intraoral approach to the canine extraction can be buccal or palatal depending on the position of the tooth. However, in some cases, the proximity to the nasal floor or the side wall of the nose makes the transoral approach rather invasive. The aim of this article was to describe a novel transnasal endoscopically assisted approach for the extraction of high palatal/paranasal impacted canines. Thirty-seven maxillary canines have been extracted in 29 patients. The surgical approaches were buccal in 5 cases, palatal in 24 cases, and transnasal endoscopically assisted in 8 cases. Patients treated with the transnasal approach required the least amount of pain killers in the postoperative period, and the average of the operative time was shorter than that of the transoral extraction. In our opinion, the transnasal endoscopically assisted approach is a safe and effective procedure for the extraction of highly impacted maxillary canines located within 2 cm from the piriform aperture. PMID:25102392

  14. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  15. Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, J; Amwayi, P; Muriithi, A

    1995-04-01

    The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase. PMID:7621751

  16. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  17. Who Needs a Lung Transplant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Lung Transplant? Your doctor may recommend a lung transplant ... lungs to pick up oxygen. Applying to a Lung Transplant Program Lung transplants are done in medical ...

  18. Clones of Streptococcus zooepidemicus from Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Canine Pneumonia and Associated Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Velineni, Sridhar; Russell, Kim; Hamlen, Heidi J.; Pesavento, Patricia; Fortney, William D.; Crawford, P. Cynda

    2014-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus has emerged as a major disease of shelter dogs and greyhounds. S. zooepidemicus strains differing in multilocus sequence typing (MLST), protective protein (SzP), and M-like protein (SzM) sequences were identified from 9 outbreaks in Texas, Kansas, Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania. Clonality based on 2 or more isolates was evident for 7 of these outbreaks. The Pennsylvania and Nevada outbreaks also involved cats. Goat antisera against acutely infected lung tissue as well as convalescent-phase sera reacted with a mucinase (Sz115), hyaluronidase (HylC), InlA domain-containing cell surface-anchored protein (INLA), membrane-anchored protein (MAP), SzP, SzM, and extracellular oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA). The amino acid sequences of SzP and SzM of the isolates varied greatly. The szp and szm alleles of the closely related Kansas clone (sequence type 129 [ST-129]) and United Kingdom isolate BHS5 (ST-123) were different, indicating that MLST was unreliable as a predictor of virulence phenotype. Combinations of conserved HylC and serine protease (ScpC) and variable SzM and SzP proteins of S. zooepidemicus strain NC78 were protectively immunogenic for mice challenged with a virulent canine strain. Thus, although canine pneumonia outbreaks are caused by different strains of S. zooepidemicus, protective immune responses were elicited in mice by combinations of conserved or variable S. zooepidemicus proteins from a single strain. PMID:24990905

  19. Genome aberrations in canine mammary carcinomas and their detection in cell-free plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Beck, Julia; Hennecke, Silvia; Bornemann-Kolatzki, Kirsten; Urnovitz, Howard B; Neumann, Stephan; Ströbel, Philipp; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Mammary tumors are the most frequent cancers in female dogs exhibiting a variety of histopathological differences. There is lack of knowledge about the genomes of these common dog tumors. Five tumors of three different histological subtypes were evaluated. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed in comparison to the respective somatic genome of each animal. Copy number and structural aberrations were validated using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Using mate-pair sequencing chromosomal aneuploidies were found in two tumors, frequent smaller deletions were found in one, inter-chromosomal fusions in one other, whereas one tumor was almost normal. These aberrations affect several known cancer associated genes such as cMYC, and KIT. One common deletion of the proximal end of CFA27, harboring the tumor suppressor gene PFDN5 was detected in four tumors. Using ddPCR, this deletion was validated and detected in 50% of tumors (N = 20). Breakpoint specific dPCRs were established for four tumors and tumor specific cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was detected in the plasma. In one animal tumor-specific cfDNA was found >1 year after surgery, attributable to a lung metastasis. Paired-end sequencing proved that copy-number imbalances of the tumor are reflected by the cfDNA. This report on chromosomal instability of canine mammary cancers reveals similarities to human breast cancers as well as special canine alterations. This animal model provides a framework for using MPS for screening for individual cancer biomarkers with cost effective confirmation and monitoring using ddPCR. The possibility exists that ddPCR can be expanded to screening for common cancer related variants. PMID:24098698

  20. Genome Aberrations in Canine Mammary Carcinomas and Their Detection in Cell-Free Plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Julia; Hennecke, Silvia; Bornemann-Kolatzki, Kirsten; Urnovitz, Howard B.; Neumann, Stephan; Ströbel, Philipp; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Mammary tumors are the most frequent cancers in female dogs exhibiting a variety of histopathological differences. There is lack of knowledge about the genomes of these common dog tumors. Five tumors of three different histological subtypes were evaluated. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed in comparison to the respective somatic genome of each animal. Copy number and structural aberrations were validated using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Using mate-pair sequencing chromosomal aneuploidies were found in two tumors, frequent smaller deletions were found in one, inter-chromosomal fusions in one other, whereas one tumor was almost normal. These aberrations affect several known cancer associated genes such as cMYC, and KIT. One common deletion of the proximal end of CFA27, harboring the tumor suppressor gene PFDN5 was detected in four tumors. Using ddPCR, this deletion was validated and detected in 50% of tumors (N = 20). Breakpoint specific dPCRs were established for four tumors and tumor specific cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was detected in the plasma. In one animal tumor-specific cfDNA was found >1 year after surgery, attributable to a lung metastasis. Paired-end sequencing proved that copy-number imbalances of the tumor are reflected by the cfDNA. This report on chromosomal instability of canine mammary cancers reveals similarities to human breast cancers as well as special canine alterations. This animal model provides a framework for using MPS for screening for individual cancer biomarkers with cost effective confirmation and monitoring using ddPCR. The possibility exists that ddPCR can be expanded to screening for common cancer related variants. PMID:24098698

  1. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  2. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p < 0.001 by paired t-test on geometric means). Individual differences in numbers of P4-wt bacteria bound between dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:23279531

  3. Canine urolithiasis: retrospective analysis of 438 cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, N O; Parks, J L; Greene, R W

    1977-02-15

    In a retrospective analysis of 438 cases of canine urolithiasis, a total of 561 urolithic episodes were found to have occurred in a 6 1/2-year period. The hospital incidence of urolithiasis during that period, defined as the proportion of dogs hospitalized with urolithiasis to the total number of dogs hospitalized, was 2.8%. The major chemical component of the calculus in 307 dogs was phosphate; in 95 dogs, cystine; in 21 dogs, urate; in 12 dogs, oxalate; and in 3 dogs, carbonate. The Miniature Schnauzer, Dachsund, Dalmatian, Pug, Bulldog, Welsh Corgi, Beagle, and Bassett Hound were breeds that had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) incidence of calculi than did breeds of other dogs hospitalized. Predisposition for calculi, by sex, was not found. Most dogs with calculi were between 3 and 7 years old. Most calculi were radiopaque and were located in the bladder or in the bladder and urethra. Specimens for bacteriologic culture were obtained by catheterization or by swabbing of tissue at the surgical site. Of 259 specimens obtained, 181 were culture-positive. The most common organisms isolated were Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Streptococcus spp, and Klebsiella spp. Most of the bacteria were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cephalothin, and methanamine mandelate. PMID:838615

  4. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma. PMID:27458589

  5. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma. PMID:27458589

  6. Viscoelastic and ultrasonic measurements of canine tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Miklos; Varghese, Tomy

    2005-03-01

    Mechanical properties, of biological tissues, such as the complex modulus, are of interest for assessing the performance of elastographic methods that evaluate the stiffness characteristics of tissue. Determination of the mechanical properties of biological tissues is often limited by proper geometry of the sample, as well as homogeneity of the stress-strain relationship. Viscoelastic measurements were performed on in vitro canine liver tissue specimens, using a dynamic testing system, from 0.1 -- 100 Hz, and ultrasonic attenuation measurements were performed from 6 -- 9 MHz . Both normal tissues as well as thermal lesions prepared by immersion heating at several temperatures were tested. Experiments were conducted by uniaxially compressing tissue samples and measuring the load response. The resulting moduli spectra were then fit to both the Kelvin-Voigt model, as well as the Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model. The data agree well with the models and in comparing the results from the normal tissue with that of the thermal lesions, the concept of a complex modulus contrast is introduced and its applications to elastography are discussed.

  7. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous. PMID:19249302

  8. Prevalence of canine dirofilariasis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Cheng; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2003-03-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, 837 stray dogs from North Taiwan were necropsied and examined for dog heartworm infections. A thick smear from 20 ml of peripheral blood from each dog was also prepared and examined for microfilariae (mf). The overall prevalence of adult worms in the dog population was 57%. The prevalence of mf in 1228 house dogs from different parts of Taiwan was also determined from 20 ml of peripheral blood in the same way. The overall prevalence of mf was 25%, with a value of 30% in the main island of Taiwan, this being 15 times higher than that in the offshore islands (2%). In Taiwan, the prevalence ranged from 4% in Hualien County, East Taiwan, to 41% in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. The mf prevalences on offshore islands were 1% on Liuchiu and 2% on Lanyu. The mf density per 20 ml blood in 82 house dogs was found to be 23 mf per dog, with a range of 3-97 mf per dog. A total of 477 stray dogs were found to be infected with adult worms of Dirofilaria immitis. The mean number of 7 worms per dog was obtained, with a range of 1-55 worms per dog. These results indicate that the prevalence of canine dirofilariasis has increased in Taiwan over the past 10 years. Moreover, the prevalence may be related to the wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and altitude in the different areas surveyed. PMID:12590670

  9. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. PMID:27083072

  10. Prognostic factors in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Misdorp, W; Hart, A A

    1976-04-01

    From a follow-up study of dogs surgically treated for mammary cancer, ten characteristics were analyzed statistically with special reference to their association with prognosis (expressed as survival for 2 years). The interrelations among five of the characteristics were also tested. The histologic type (descending range in malignancy: sarcomas greater than simple carcinomas greater than complex carcinomas), mode of growth (highly infiltrating greater than moderately infiltrating greater than expansive), clinical stage of complex carcinomas (large tumors and/or tumors involving the skin or underlying tissue greater than small, well-defined tumors), and size (greater than 15 cm greater than 11-15 cm greater than 5-10 cm greater than 0-5 cm) were of definite prognostic importance. The histologic grade was of possible prognostic importance. Localization, type of surgical therapy (mastectomy, block-dissection), growth in lymph vessels, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and duration of symptoms before treatment were not important to prognosis. A comparison between the factors associated with the prognosis of canine and human mammary cancer showed many similarities. However, the involvement of regional lymph nodes, important in women, was not so in bitches. PMID:1255797

  11. Canine mdr1 gene mutation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Akiko; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-11-01

    Frequency of the 4-bp deletion mutant in canine mdr1 gene was examined in 193 dogs of eight breeds in Japan. The mutant allele was found in Collies, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs, where its respective frequencies were 58.3%, 33.3%, and 1.2%. The MDR1 protein was detected on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a MDR1/MDR1 dog, but not on PBMC from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. Rhodamine 123 was extruded from MDR1/MDR1 lymphocytes. That excretion was inhibited by a MDR1 inhibitor, verapamil. On the other hand, Rh123 excretion was not observed from lymphocytes derived from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. These results indicated that the mutant mdr1 allele also existed in Collie-breed dogs in Japan at high rates and that mdr1-1Delta /mdr1-1Delta dogs have no functional MDR1. PMID:16327220

  12. In vivo canine muscle function assay.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2011-01-01

    We describe a minimally-invasive and reproducible method to measure canine pelvic limb muscle strength and muscle response to repeated eccentric contractions. The pelvic limb of an anesthetized dog is immobilized in a stereotactic frame to align the tibia at a right angle to the femur. Adhesive wrap affixes the paw to a pedal mounted on the shaft of a servomotor to measure torque. Percutaneous nerve stimulation activates pelvic limb muscles of the paw to either push (extend) or pull (flex) against the pedal to generate isometric torque. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation activates tibiotarsal extensor muscles. Repeated eccentric (lengthening) contractions are induced in the tibiotarsal flexor muscles by percutaneous peroneal nerve stimulation. The eccentric protocol consists of an initial isometric contraction followed by a forced stretch imposed by the servomotor. The rotation effectively lengthens the muscle while it contracts, e.g., an eccentric contraction. During stimulation flexor muscles are subjected to an 800 msec isometric and 200 msec eccentric contraction. This procedure is repeated every 5 sec. To avoid fatigue, 4 min rest follows every 10 contractions with a total of 30 contractions performed. PMID:21494224

  13. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of approx. 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h.

  14. Recombinant Canine Coronaviruses in Dogs, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Viviana; Elia, Gabriella; Addie, Diane D.; Camero, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses of potential recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001–2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with gastroenteritis. Of 1,172 samples, 493 (42.06%) were positive for CCoV. CCoV-II was found in 218 samples, and CCoV-I and CCoV-II genotypes were found in 182. Approximately 20% of the samples with CCoV-II had the TGEV-like subtype; detection rates varied according to geographic origin. The highest and lowest rates of prevalence for CCoV-II infection were found in samples from Hungary and Greece (96.87% and 3.45%, respectively). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the CCoV-IIb strains were related to prototype TGEV-like strains in the 5′ and the 3′ ends of the spike protein gene. PMID:20031041

  15. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144

  16. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR. PMID:26403490

  17. Allergens causing atopic diseases in canine.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hwa-Young; Kang, Hyung-Seok; Bhang, Dong-Ha; Kim, Min-Kue; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Han, Hong-Ryul

    2002-12-01

    Canine atopic skin disease is seasonal or sometimes non-seasonal immune-mediated skin disease which occurs commonly in Korea. The definite clinical sign is systemic pruritus, especially on periocular parts, external ear, interdigit spaces and lateral flank. For diagnosis of this dermatitis, complete history taking followed by intradermal skin test and serum in vitro IgE test needs to be performed. Allergen selection for the diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis should be varied geographically. In this study, with intradermal skin test(IDST) the prevalence of atopic disease and what allergens are involved in are researched. Allergens used for IDST included 26 allergen extracts from six allergen groups: grasses, trees, weeds, molds, epidermal allergens and environmental allergens. The number of allergens was 42 in which the positive and negative controls are included. The most common positive allergen reaction was the house dust mites on IDST(22/35, 63%). The other positive allergen reactions were to flea(3/35, 9%), molds(1/35, 3%), house dusts(2/35, 6%), feathers (1/35, 3%), cedar/juniper(1/35, 3%), timothy grass(1/35, 3%) and dandelion(1/35, 3%). In this study, the most prevalent allergen causing atopic dermatitis in dogs in Korea was the house dust mites followed by the flea. PMID:12819384

  18. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  19. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  20. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. PMID:1313899

  1. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Correction of bilateral impacted mandibular canines with a lip bumper for anchorage reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sachin; Yadav, Sumit; Shah, Neelesh V; Valiathan, Ashima; Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-03-01

    Multiple treatment options are available to patients with impacted manibular canines in addition to a retained deciduous canine. This article describes the treatment of a prepubertal girl, aged 10 years 6 months, with a skeletal Class I, dental Class II Division 1 malocclusion, retrognathic mandible, deep overbite, proclined maxillary incisors, midline diastema, and bilateral mandibular canine impaction. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous canine and forced eruption of the impacted canines. A modified lip bumper appliance was used both for forced eruption and to reinforce anchorage. Through the collaborative efforts of an orthodontist and an oral surgeon, an excellent esthetic and functional outcome was achieved. PMID:23452974

  3. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Botelho, Clarisse Vieira; Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Scherer, Paulo Oldemar; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. PMID:23193403

  4. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  5. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared. PMID:24112194

  6. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-01-01

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended. PMID:27543040

  7. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies.

    PubMed

    Hull, Noah C; O'Toole, Donal; Miller, Myrna M; Shoults, Hannah; Deck, Robin; Jones, Warren; Johnson, Gayle C; Shaw, Daniel P; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-09-01

    Canine dysautonomia is a sporadic, generally fatal disease that rarely affects groups of related animals. Four 10-week-old Havanese puppies from a litter of 5 developed clinical signs of canine dysautonomia. The 4 affected dogs were exposed to an outdoor environment, whereas the fifth littermate was not exposed to the outdoors and remained clinically healthy. Clinical signs of dysautonomia developed 10-16 days after going outside the house. An unrelated dog also developed dysautonomia after exposure to 1 of the affected Havanese littermates. All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons). Differential diagnoses were excluded through negative toxicological evaluation, fecal parasite screening, negative Canine distemper virus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody testing, attempted virus isolation, and electron microscopy. The 5 affected dogs were in the Kansas City, Missouri area, where there is a high incidence of dysautonomia. PMID:26179098

  8. Distribution of beta-amyloid in the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; White, R G; Bobik, M; Marks, J S; Russell, M J

    1997-03-01

    The distribution of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) in the canine brain was demonstrated by immunochemistry on serially sectioned tissues from 10 aged mixed breed dogs. Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. The highest density of A beta was in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Cortical areas exhibiting the greatest A beta deposition were the posterior and medial suprasylvius gyrus and the proreus gyrus of the frontal lobe. Unlike humans the canine entorhinal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia and olfactory bulbs were rarely affected. This suggested that the highly developed olfactory pathways of the canine are generally spared from A beta deposition. PMID:9141082

  9. The anatomy and internal aerodynamics of canine olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Paterson, Eric; Settles, Gary

    2007-11-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nasal airway of a large dog reveal an intricate scrollwork of nasal conchae providing large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. From these anatomical scans we reconstruct a 3-D surface model of the nasal passage and extract detailed morphometric data providing insight into the internal airflows of canine olfaction. A complicated airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls are structurally distinct. 3-D airway connectivity also reveals separate respiratory and olfactory flow paths. Knowing the approximate airflow rate and frequency of canine sniffing, we find Reynolds numbers that are, surprisingly, well below the turbulent-flow threshold. Finally, the internal aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are considered via non-dimensional analysis and initially-simple theoretical and computational models. (To appear in the Anatomical Record.)

  10. The innervation of canine hip joint capsule: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, C H; Hou, S M; Yeh, L S

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the contributions of the nerves supplying the canine hip joint capsule for clinical application, cadaver study of six healthy mongrel dogs was performed. The pelvises and hindlimbs of cadavers were dissected and fixed in formaldehyde. Innervation of the joint capsule was investigated with the aid of an operative microscope. As a result, the canine hip joint capsule receives multiple innervations from articular branches of four nerves. They are articular nerve fibres of femoral, obturator, cranial gluteal and sciatic nerves from the cranioventral, caudoventral, craniolateral and dorsolateral directions of the joint, respectively. No branch originating from the caudal gluteal nerve was observed innervating the hip joint capsule. Our data provides useful information for research on the canine hip joint, including pain analysis with hip disorders and surgical nerve blockade to relieve pain. PMID:23410229

  11. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frödin, J E

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on radiotherapy for lung cancer is based on 80 scientific articles, including 2 meta-analyses, 29 randomized studies, 19 prospective studies, and 21 retrospective studies. These studies involve 28172 patients. Basic treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is chemotherapy. Addition of radiotherapy to the primary tumor and mediastinum reduces local recurrence, prolongs long-term survival, and is often indicated. Current, and future, studies can be expected to show successive improvements in results for SCLC by optimizing the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Should these treatments be given simultaneously or sequentially, and in which order? Which fractionation is best? Probably, no change in resource requirements for radiotherapy will be necessary, with the possible exception of changes in fractionation. Surgery constitutes primary treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages I and II. Radiotherapy may provide an alternative for patients who are inoperable for medical reasons. The value of radiotherapy following radical surgery for NSCLC remains to be shown. It is not indicated based on current knowledge. For NSCLC stage III, radiotherapy shrinks tumors and prolongs survival at 2 and 3 years. Whether it influences long-term survival after 5 years has not been shown. Considering the side effects of treatment, one must question whether limited improvements in survival motivate routine radiotherapy in these patients. Earlier attempts to add chemotherapy to radiotherapy to improve treatment results of NSCLC have not yielded convincing results. Several studies are currently on-going. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) greatly reduces the risk for brain metastases from SCLC. However, it has little influence on survival. Many treatment centers give PCI to SCLC patients who have achieved complete remission. This practice may be questioned since PCI is associated with serious complications. PCI is

  12. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  13. Plasma free amino acid profiles of canine mammary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between plasma free amino acid (PFAA) levels and the clinical stages of mammary gland tumors (MGT) in dogs. PFAA levels in canines with malignant mammary tumors were decreased compared to those of healthy animals. The levels of aspartate and ornithine, in the dogs with tumor metastasis were significantly decreased when compared to those of dogs that did not have metastases. Results of this study indicate that PFAA levels could be a risk factor or biomarker for canine MGT metastasis. PMID:23271187

  14. Cadherin Cell Adhesion System in Canine Mammary Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Adelina; Schmitt, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin-catenin adhesion complexes play important roles by providing cell-cell adhesion and communication in different organ systems. Abnormal expression of cadherin adhesion molecules constitutes a common phenomenon in canine mammary cancer and has been frequently implicated in tumour progression. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on cadherin/catenin adhesion molecules (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and P-cadherin) in canine mammary cancer, focusing on the putative biological functions and clinical significance of these molecules in this disease. This paper highlights the need for further research studies in this setting in order to elucidate the role of these adhesion molecules during tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:22973534

  15. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  16. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  17. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

  18. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  19. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  20. Imaging diagnosis--canine thoracic mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Echandi, Rita L; Morandi, Federica; Newman, Shelley J; Holford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year-old neutered female Pembroke Welsh Corgi had a 2-month history of a progressive, productive cough nonresponsive to therapy. Mild pleural effusion, right middle lung lobe collapse, and multiple subpleural nodular lesions were detected in thoracic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images. Histopathologic diagnosis of the pleural nodules was mesothelioma. Mesothelioma should be considered in patients where pleural masses are detected in radiographs or CT images. PMID:17508511

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  2. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  3. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation. PMID:26700566

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  5. Mechanism of action of ATP on canine pulmonary vagal C fibre nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pelleg, A; Hurt, C M

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pulmonary vagal afferent fibres (n = 46) was studied in a canine model in vivo (n = 38). 2. ATP (3-6 mumol kg-1), administered as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a transient burst of action potentials in cervical vagal fibres, which was not affected by either blockade of ganglionic transmission (hexamethonium) or a drop in arterial blood pressure (nitroglycerine). 3. The fibres with ATP-sensitive terminals were otherwise quiescent with no activity related to either cardiac or respiratory cycles and their conduction velocity was 0.85 +/- 0.13 m s-1 (n = 7). 4. Inflation of the lungs to 2-3 times the tidal volume triggered brief bursts of action potentials in these fibres. 5. Capsaicin (10 micrograms kg-1), given as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a burst of action potentials in these ATP-sensitive fibres. 6. Smaller amounts of ATP and capsaicin (0.5-3 mumol kg-1 and 1-5 micrograms kg-1, respectively) had similar effects when the two compounds were given into the right pulmonary artery. 7. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, or adenosine 5'-diphosphate did not excite these fibres (n = 30). 8. The non-degradable analogue of ATP alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP) was tenfold more potent than ATP while beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma-mATP) was in active. 9. The selective P2x-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid markedly attenuated the effect of ATP but not of capsaicin. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist Reactive Blue 2 was without effect. 10. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not affect this action of ATP. 11. In the canine lungs ATP activates vagal C fibre nerve terminals. This action is mediated by P2X-purinoceptors and is independent of a PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). PMID:8745294

  6. Diode laser prostatectomy (VLAP): initial canine evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopchok, George E.; Verbin, Chris; Ayres, Bruce; Peng, Shi-Kaung; White, Rodney A.

    1995-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute and chronic effects of diode laser (960 nm) prostatectomy using a Prolase II fiber in a canine model (n equals 5). The laser fiber consists of a 1000 um quartz fiber which reflects a cone of laser energy, at 45 degree(s) to the axis of the fiber, into the prostatic urethra (Visual Laser Ablation of Prostate). Perineal access was used to guide a 15.5 Fr cystoscope to the level of the prostate. Under visual guidance and continual saline irrigation, 60 watts of laser power was delivered for 60 seconds at 3, 9, and 12 o'clock and 30 seconds at the 6 o'clock (posterior) positions for a total energy fluence of 12,600 J. One prostate received an additional 60 second exposure at 3 and 9 o'clock for a total fluence of 19,800 J. The prostates were evaluated at one day (n equals 1) and 8 weeks (n equals 4). The histopathology of laser effects at one day show areas of necrosis with loss of glandular structures and stromal edema. Surrounding this area was a zone of degenerative glandular structures extending up to 17.5 mm (cross sectional diameter). The histopathology of the 8 week laser treated animals demonstrated dilated prostatic urethras with maximum cross- sectional diameter of 23.4 mm (mean equals 18.5 +/- 3.9 mm). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of diode laser energy for prostatic tissue coagulation and eventual sloughing. The results also demonstrate the safety of diode laser energy, with similar tissue response as seen with Nd:YAG laser, for laser prostatectomy.

  7. Canine Babesioses in Noninvestigated Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Otašević, Suzana; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Savić, Sara; Fraulo, Maurizio; Arsić-Arsenijević, Valentina; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2012-2014, a total of 158 outdoor dogs from Pančevo and Đurđevo (northern Serbia) and Niš and Prokuplje (southern Serbia) were submitted to molecular analyses (PCR and sequencing) for canine babesioses. An overall prevalence of 21.5% was found, due to the species Babesia sp. 'spanish dog' (10.1%), B. gibsoni (5.7%), B. canis vogeli (1.9%), B. caballi (1.9%), and B. microti (1.9%). In addition, sequence analysis showed the presence of Hepatozoon canis in a dog from Niš. No significant difference between infected and noninfected dogs was found by age, sex, and place of residence, whereas there was difference regarding the presence of ticks (p<0.005) and application of preventive measures such as applying of antitick drugs/devices. Moreover, a significant difference was established by area: Dogs from Prokuplje showed infection rates (59.1%) higher than dogs from Pančevo (11.9%), Niš (4.5), and Đurđevo (where infected dogs were not found), and a different geographical distribution of the species was found. The presence of so many Babesia species and the first identification of H. canis will allow investigations on the pathogenic role played by each one and suggests entomological studies on the tick species that are more suitable vectors for each of them. Finally, the presence of so many infected dogs offers the opportunity of evaluating the hypothesis of a possible zoonotic role of babesial species affecting dogs. PMID:26348245

  8. Chromatography purification of canine adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Segura, María Mercedes; Puig, Meritxell; Monfar, Mercè; Chillón, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Canine adenovirus vectors (CAV2) are currently being evaluated for gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. Despite the need for increasing volumes of purified CAV2 preparations for preclinical and clinical testing, their purification still relies on the use of conventional, scale-limited CsCl ultracentrifugation techniques. A complete downstream processing strategy for CAV2 vectors based on membrane filtration and chromatography is reported here. Microfiltration and ultra/diafiltration are selected for clarification and concentration of crude viral stocks containing both intracellular and extracellular CAV2 particles. A DNase digestion step is introduced between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations. At these early stages, concentration of vector stocks with good recovery of viral particles (above 80%) and removal of a substantial amount of protein and nucleic acid contaminants is achieved. The ability of various chromatography techniques to isolate CAV2 particles was evaluated. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Fractogel propyl tentacle resin was selected as a first chromatography step, because it allows removal of the bulk of contaminating proteins with high CAV2 yields (88%). An anion-exchange chromatography step using monolithic supports is further introduced to remove the remaining contaminants with good recovery of CAV2 particles (58-69%). The main CAV2 viral structural components are visualized in purified preparations by electrophoresis analyses. Purified vector stocks contained intact icosahedral viral particles, low contamination with empty viral capsids (10%), and an acceptable total-to-infectious particle ratio (below 30). The downstream processing strategy that was developed allows preparation of large volumes of high-quality CAV2 stocks. PMID:22799886

  9. Detection of Bacteriuria by Canine Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Maureen; McCulloch, Michael; Willey, Angel M; Hirsch, Wendi; Dewey, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    Background.  Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant medical problem , particularly for patients with neurological conditions and the elderly. Detection is often difficult in these patients, resulting in delayed diagnoses and more serious infections such as pyelonephritis and life-threatening sepsis. Many patients have a higher risk of UTIs because of impaired bladder function, catheterization, and lack of symptoms. Urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infection; however, better strategies are needed to improve early detection of the disease. Methods.  In this double-blinded, case-control, validation study, we obtained fresh urine samples daily in a consecutive case series over a period of 16 weeks. Dogs were trained to distinguish urine samples that were culture-positive for bacteriuria from those of culture-negative controls, using reward-based clicker and treat methods. Results.  Samples were obtained from 687 individuals (from 3 months to 92 years of age; 86% female and 14% male; 34% culture-positive and 66% culture-negative controls). Dogs detected urine samples positive for 100 000 colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli (N = 250 trials; sensitivity 99.6%, specificity 91.5%). Dilution of E coli urine with distilled water did not affect accuracy at 1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91.1%) or 0.1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.6%) concentration. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to Enterococcus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.9%), Klebsiella (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 95.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.3%). All dogs performed with similarly high accuracy: overall sensitivity was at or near 100%, and specificity was above 90%. Conclusions.  Canine scent detection is an accurate and feasible method for detection of bacteriuria. PMID:27186578

  10. Detection of Bacteriuria by Canine Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maureen; McCulloch, Michael; Willey, Angel M.; Hirsch, Wendi; Dewey, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant medical problem , particularly for patients with neurological conditions and the elderly. Detection is often difficult in these patients, resulting in delayed diagnoses and more serious infections such as pyelonephritis and life-threatening sepsis. Many patients have a higher risk of UTIs because of impaired bladder function, catheterization, and lack of symptoms. Urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infection; however, better strategies are needed to improve early detection of the disease. Methods. In this double-blinded, case-control, validation study, we obtained fresh urine samples daily in a consecutive case series over a period of 16 weeks. Dogs were trained to distinguish urine samples that were culture-positive for bacteriuria from those of culture-negative controls, using reward-based clicker and treat methods. Results. Samples were obtained from 687 individuals (from 3 months to 92 years of age; 86% female and 14% male; 34% culture-positive and 66% culture-negative controls). Dogs detected urine samples positive for 100 000 colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli (N = 250 trials; sensitivity 99.6%, specificity 91.5%). Dilution of E coli urine with distilled water did not affect accuracy at 1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91.1%) or 0.1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.6%) concentration. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to Enterococcus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.9%), Klebsiella (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 95.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.3%). All dogs performed with similarly high accuracy: overall sensitivity was at or near 100%, and specificity was above 90%. Conclusions. Canine scent detection is an accurate and feasible method for detection of bacteriuria. PMID:27186578

  11. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  12. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China. PMID:26265248

  13. Expression of prolactin receptors in normal canine mammary tissue, canine mammary adenomas and mammary adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammary tumors represent the most common neoplastic disease in female dogs. Recently, the promoting role of prolactin (PRL) in the development of human breast carcinoma has been shown. Possible proliferative, anti-apoptotic, migratory and angiogenic effects of PRL on human mammary cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were suggested. The effects of PRL are mediated by its receptor, and alterations in receptor expression are likely to play a role in tumor development. Currently, not much data is available about prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression in canine mammary tumors. To set the basis for investigations on the role of PRL in mammary tumorigenesis in this species, prolactin receptor expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry on 10 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples each of canine non-neoplastic mammary tissue, mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Results The highest PRLR expression levels were found in normal mammary tissue, while adenomas, and to an even higher degree adenocarcinomas, showed a significant decrease in prolactin receptor expression. Compared to normal tissue, PRLR mRNA was reduced 2.4 fold (p = 0.0261) in adenomas and 4.8 fold (p = 0.008) in adenocarcinomas. PRLR mRNA expression was significantly lower in malignant than in benign lesions (p = 0.0165). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated PRLR expression in all three tissue types with signals mostly limited to epithelial cells. Conclusions Malignant transformation of mammary tissue was associated with a decline in prolactin receptor expression. Further studies are warranted to address the functional significance of this finding. PMID:22647582

  14. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  15. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine inner and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marco; Covelli, Eugenio M; Meomartino, Leonardo; Lamb, Christopher R; Brunetti, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    A series of high-resolution computed x-ray tomography (CT) images of the normal canine middle and inner ear are presented to serve as a reference for optimal interpretation of clinical CT images of animals with diseases affecting this region. PMID:11866039

  16. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  17. Characterization of canine dental pulp cells and their neuroregenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiji; Kudo, Daichi; Sekine, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kobatake, Yui; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Inden, Masatoshi; Iida, Kazuki; Ito, Yusuke; Hozumi, Isao; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp cells (DPCs) of various species have been studied for their potentials of differentiation into functional neurons and secretion of neurotrophic factors. In canine, DPCs have only been studied for cell surface markers and differentiation, but there is little direct evidence for therapeutic potentials for neurological disorders. The present study aimed to further characterize canine DPCs (cDPCs), particularly focusing on their neuroregenerative potentials. It was also reported that superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles were useful for labeling of MSCs and tracking with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our data suggested that cDPCs hold higher proliferation capacity than bone marrow stromal cells, the other type of mesenchymal stem cells which have been the target of intensive research. Canine DPCs constitutively expressed neural markers, suggesting a close relationship to the nervous system in their developmental origin. Canine DPCs promoted neuritogenesis of PC12 cells, most likely through secretion of neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, SPIO nanoparticles could be effectively transported to cDPCs without significant cytotoxicity and unfavorable effects on neuritogenesis. SPIO-labeled cDPCs embedded in agarose spinal cord phantoms were successfully visualized with a magnetic resonance imaging arousing a hope for noninvasive cell tracking in transplantation studies. PMID:26170225

  18. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  19. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  20. Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Trappler, Michelle; Moore, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome is a progressive disease that affects many brachycephalic dogs. This article describes the components of this syndrome and focuses on acute emergency management and long-term conservative management of these patients. Surgical management is described in a companion article. PMID:21870353

  1. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  2. Selection against canine hip dysplasia: success or failure?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bethany; Nicholas, Frank W; Thomson, Peter C

    2011-08-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology as assessed by a variety of phenotypes. There is less information regarding the genotypic correlation between these phenotypes and the impact of CHD on canine welfare. Although the phenotypes chosen as the basis for these control schemes have displayed heritable phenotypic variation in many studies, success in achieving improvement in the phenotypes has been mixed. There is significant room for improvement in the current schemes through the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs), which can combine a dog's CHD phenotype with CHD phenotypes of relatives, other phenotypes as they are proven to be genetically correlated with CHD (especially elbow dysplasia phenotypes), and information from genetic tests for population-relevant DNA markers, as such tests become available. Additionally, breed clubs should be encouraged and assisted to formulate rational, evidenced-based breeding recommendations for CHD which suit their individual circumstances and dynamically to adjust the breeding recommendations based on continuous tracking of CHD genetic trends. These improvements can assist in safely and effectively reducing the impact of CHD on pedigree dog welfare. PMID:21727013

  3. Immunohistochemical vascular factor expression in canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Peña, L; Gil, A González; Martín-Ruiz, A; Dunner, S; Illera, J C

    2014-07-01

    Human inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) are considered the most malignant types of breast cancer. IMC has similar characteristics to IBC; hence, IMC has been suggested as a model to study the human disease. To compare the angiogenic and angioinvasive features of IMC with non-IMC, 3 canine mammary tumor xenograft models in female SCID mice were developed: IMC, comedocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of both primary canine tumors and xenografts using cellular markers pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin and vascular factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-D, VEGFR-3, and COX-2) was performed. Tumor cell proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 marker. The xenograft models reproduced histological features found in the primary canine tumor and preserved the original immunophenotype. IMC xenografts showed a high invasive character with tumor emboli in the dermis, edema, and occasional observations of ulceration. In addition, compared with osteosarcoma and comedocarcinoma, the IMC model showed the highest vascular factor expression associated with a high proliferation index. Likewise, IMC xenografts showed higher COX-2 expression associated with VEGF-D and VEGFR-3, as well as a higher presence of dermal lymphatic tumor emboli, suggesting COX-2 participation in IMC lymphangiogenesis. These results provide additional evidence to consider vascular factors, their receptors, and COX-2 as therapeutic targets for IBC. PMID:24048323

  4. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  5. Migration of canine neutrophils to chitin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Usami, Y; Okamoto, Y; Minami, S; Matsuhashi, A; Kumazawa, N H; Tanioka, S; Shigemasa, Y

    1994-12-01

    Suspension of chitin and chitosan particles (mean size of 1 micron) were found to attract canine neutrophils chemotactically as determined by a checkerboard assay through polycarbonate filter with 5 microns pore size in Blind well chamber. Suspension of chitin induced chemokinetic migrations of the neutrophils. These evidences might reflect accumulation of neutrophils to chitin- and chitosan-implanted regions in dogs. PMID:7696425

  6. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K.; Coulibaly, Amy P.; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006–2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  7. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K; Coulibaly, Amy P; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-05-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006-2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  8. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  9. Associations between neurologic dysfunction and lesions in canine fucosidosis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J L; Taylor, R M

    2016-04-01

    Canine fucosidosis in English Springer spaniels is the only animal model of the neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease fucosidosis available for preclinical therapeutic trials. For this reason, it is crucial to identify critical time points in disease progression, and if there are particular lesions associated with specific aspects of neurologic dysfunction. Historical records of 53 canine fucosidosis cases from 1979 to 2009 containing a neurologic dysfunction score assessing motor, behavioral and sensory dysfunction were interrogated by statistical analysis. Motor and behavioral dysfunction scores assessing gait deficits and apprehensive behavior first significantly increased at 12-17 months, and increased at each 6-month interval thereafter. Sensory dysfunction scores, assessing hearing loss, balance and vision deterioration, did not significantly increase until 18-23 months, and coincided with a rapid decline in neurologic function. Regression analysis incorporating published neuropathology data, measured by image analysis, identified neuroinflammation and apoptotic cell death as significant informative predictors of increasing neurologic dysfunction. These findings indicate that the level of neuropathology required to induce consistent and conspicuous clinical signs in canine fucosidosis is reached by approximately 12 months of age in the absence of other disease processes. Significant association between neuroinflammation and apoptotic cell death also suggests that specifically targeting these lesions combined with enzyme replacement in future studies may reduce disease burden in fucosidosis. Overall, examining this historical clinical data to identify associations between the extent of neuropathology and degree of clinical dysfunction provides a useful reference tool for monitoring disease and evaluating therapeutic trials conducted in canine fucosidosis. PMID:26711085

  10. The blood supply to the canine middle ear.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Jarrett, Keith; McNulty, Margaret A; Strain, George M

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the anatomy of the blood supply to the canine middle ear are either incomplete or inconsistent, particularly in regards to the vascular branches in close proximity to the temporomandibular articulation (TMJ). To further investigate this blood supply, dissections (n = 9), corrosion casts (n = 4), and computed tomography (n = 8) of canine temporal regions/ears were performed. The goal of this study was to identify and describe branches of the external carotid and maxillary arteries in close proximity to the TMJ that supply the middle ear of the dog. Specific focus was placed on the constancy and origin of the canine rostral tympanic artery since this artery was anticipated to arise from the maxillary artery and enter a foramen at the medial aspect of the mandibular fossa adjacent to the TMJ. New anatomical variations of three canine arteries are described in this study. (1) The rostral tympanic artery is a branch of the temporomandibular ramus and is accommodated by a small foramen located within a depression medial to the temporomandibular joint. (2) A pharyngeal branch of the caudal deep temporal artery was identified. (3) The origin of the caudal auricular artery occurred opposite the lingual artery in 25.8% of dissected specimens, contrary to published descriptions. Anat Rec, 299:907-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27082971

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  12. The oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine solid tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; HWANG, Chung Chew; COFFEY, Matt; OKUDA, Masaru; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment for humans and dogs. Reovirus has been proven to be a potent oncolytic virus in human medicine. Our laboratory has previously reported that canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma were susceptible to reovirus. In this study, canine solid tumor cell lines (mammary gland tumor, osteosarcoma and malignant melanoma) were tested to determine their susceptibility towards reovirus. We demonstrated that reovirus induces more than 50% cell death in three canine mammary gland tumors and one canine malignant melanoma cell line. The reovirus-induced cell death occurred via the activation of caspase 3. Ras activation has been shown to be one of the important mechanisms of reovirus-susceptibility in human cancers. However, Ras activation was not related to the reovirus-susceptibility in canine solid tumor cell lines, which was similar to reports in canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma. The results of this study highly suggest that canine mammary gland tumor and canine malignant melanoma are also potential candidates for reovirus therapy in veterinary oncology. PMID:25648933

  13. The oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine solid tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Igase, Masaya; Hwang, Chung Chew; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2015-05-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment for humans and dogs. Reovirus has been proven to be a potent oncolytic virus in human medicine. Our laboratory has previously reported that canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma were susceptible to reovirus. In this study, canine solid tumor cell lines (mammary gland tumor, osteosarcoma and malignant melanoma) were tested to determine their susceptibility towards reovirus. We demonstrated that reovirus induces more than 50% cell death in three canine mammary gland tumors and one canine malignant melanoma cell line. The reovirus-induced cell death occurred via the activation of caspase 3. Ras activation has been shown to be one of the important mechanisms of reovirus-susceptibility in human cancers. However, Ras activation was not related to the reovirus-susceptibility in canine solid tumor cell lines, which was similar to reports in canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma. The results of this study highly suggest that canine mammary gland tumor and canine malignant melanoma are also potential candidates for reovirus therapy in veterinary oncology. PMID:25648933

  14. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    PubMed Central

    Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected. Results 33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease. Conclusions This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC

  15. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome. PMID:22647637

  16. A canine minidystrophin is functional and therapeutic in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Li, J; Qiao, C; Chen, C; Hu, P; Zhu, X; Zhou, L; Bogan, J; Kornegay, J; Xiao, X

    2008-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and lethal genetic muscle disorder lacking a curative treatment. We wish to use the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog, a canine model of DMD, to investigate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated minidystrophin gene therapy. The dog model is useful in evaluating vector dose requirement and immunological consequences owing to its large size and outbred nature. In this study, we have cloned and constructed a canine minidystrophin gene vector. Owing to limited availability of the GRMD dogs, here we first examined the functions and therapeutic effects of the canine minidystrophin in the mdx mouse model. We observed efficient minigene expression without cellular immune responses in mdx mice after AAV1-cMinidys vector intramuscular injection. We also observed restoration of the missing dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC) onto the sarcolemma, including sarcoglycans and dystrobrevin, and a partial restoration of alpha-syntrophin and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In addition, minidystrophin treatment ameliorated dystrophic pathology, such as fibrosis and myofiber central nucleation (CN). CN remained minimal (<2%) after AAV injection in the neonatal mdx mice and was reduced from more than 75% to about 25% after AAV injection in adult mdx mice. Finally, in vivo cell membrane leakage test with Evans blue dye showed that the canine minidystrophin could effectively protect the myofiber plasma membrane integrity. Our results, thus, demonstrated the functionality and therapeutic potential of the canine minidystrophin and paved its way for further testing in the GRMD dog model. PMID:18432277

  17. Establishment of Canine-Derived Giardia duodenalis Isolates in Culture.

    PubMed

    Tysnes, Kristoffer R; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-06-01

    Researchers continue to rely on axenic cultivation of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro to study the life cycle and host-parasite interactions of G. duodenalis and to develop vaccines and drugs to prevent and treat giardiasis. The majority of in vitro studies of G. duodenalis have used a small subset of isolates, mostly of assemblage A, and these isolates are usually originally isolated from humans. The most commonly used isolate for lab studies is known as WB. Canine giardiasis is a disease of veterinary importance, but it may also be of relevance in zoonotic transmission. Few G. duodenalis isolates from dogs have been adapted to in vitro culture, probably because the methods used are not suitable for the canine-specific genotypes that tend to dominate in most dog populations. In the current study, an experimental approach to cultivating canine-derived isolates of G. duodenalis was attempted by modification of the standard protocol based on physiological differences between the human and canine digestive system. An adapted method is described for improving the rate of in vitro excystation of cysts isolated from dogs by chemically weakening the cyst wall. A new canine-derived assemblage A G. duodenalis isolate was successfully adapted to axenic culture by using this method; the dog apparently had a mixed infection of assemblages A and D, but the assemblage A successfully outcompeted the assemblage D under conditions of in vitro culture. Based on the results, reasons regarding why humans do not seem to be suitable hosts for G. duodenalis in assemblages C and D are discussed. PMID:26835750

  18. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  19. Headspace concentrations of explosive vapors in containers designed for canine testing and training: theory, experiment, and canine trials.

    PubMed

    Lotspeich, Erica; Kitts, Kelley; Goodpaster, John

    2012-07-10

    It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. PMID:22421324

  20. Characterization of the canine mda-7 gene, transcripts and expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sandey, Maninder; Bird, R. Curtis; Das, Swadesh K.; Sarkar, Devanand; Curiel, David T.; Fisher, Paul B.; Smith, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Human melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) displays potent growth suppressing and cell killing activity against a wide variety of human and rodent cancer cells. In this study, we identified a canine ortholog of the human mda-7/IL-24 gene located within a cluster of IL-10 family members on chromosome 7. The full-length mRNA sequence of canine mda-7 was determined, which encodes a 186-amino acid protein that has 66% similarity to human MDA-7/IL-24. Canine MDA-7 is constitutively expressed in cultured normal canine epidermal keratinocytes (NCEKs), and its expression levels are increased after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In cultured NCEKs, the canine mda-7 pre-mRNA is differentially spliced, via exon skipping and alternate 5′-splice donor sites, to yield five splice variants (canine mda-7sv1, canine mda-7sv2, canine mda-7sv3, canine mda-7sv4 and canine mda-7sv5) that encode four protein isoforms of the canine MDA-7 protein. These protein isoforms have a conserved N-terminus (signal peptide sequence) and are dissimilar in amino acid sequences at their C-terminus. Canine MDA-7 is not expressed in primary canine tumor samples, and most tumor derived cancer cell lines tested, like its human counterpart. Unlike human MDA-7/IL-24, canine mda-7 mRNA is not expressed in unstimulated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, in-silico analysis revealed that canonical canine MDA-7 has a potential 28 amino acid signal peptide sequence that can target it for active secretion. This data suggests that canine mda-7 is indeed an ortholog of human mda-7/IL-24, its protein product has high amino acid similarity to human MDA-7/IL-24 protein and it may possess similar biological properties to human MDA-7/IL-24, but its expression pattern is more restricted than its human ortholog. PMID:24865935

  1. The cloning and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in normal canine lymph nodes and in canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Newman, R G; Kitchell, B E; Wallig, M A; Paria, B

    2008-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), are known to be important in cancer. The purposes of this study were to determine the cDNA sequence of canine MMP-2 and to investigate the expression patterns of MMP-2 and TIMP2 in normal canine lymph nodes and spontaneously arising canine lymphomas. We cloned and sequenced a PCR product containing most (1901 base pairs) of the coding sequence of canine MMP-2 that translates into a 623 amino acid protein. The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences are highly homologous to those of other mammalian species. Canine MMP-2 and TIMP2 mRNAs were detectable in the majority of normal lymph node and lymphomatous samples evaluated. No statistical difference was identified when comparing the expression of either gene with regard to normal versus neoplastic nodes, nodal versus extranodal lymphoma, lymphoma grade, or B versus T cell immunophenotype. PMID:17604063

  2. Enhanced replication of avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in eggs, cell cultures and mice by a two-amino acid insertion in neuraminidase stalk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Xie, Xing; Zhao, Yanbing; Kalhoro, Dildar Hussain; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) is a newly identified, highly contagious respiratory pathogen in dogs. Recent studies indicate that avian-origin H3N2 CIV are circulating in Chinese dogs. To investigate the effects of a two-amino acid (2-aa) insertion naturally occurring at the distal end of the neuraminidase (NA) stalk found in Chinese isolates since 2010 on virus replication and virulence, we rescued the CIV strain, A/canine/Jiangsu/06/2011(H3N2) and its NA mutant without the 2-aa insertion using reverse genetics. The NA stalk length affected virus growth in cell culture. Compared to the short stalk strain (without 2-aa insertion), the long stalk strain (with 2-aa insertion) exhibited higher peak titers and greater yields in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, chicken embryo fibroblasts and canine bronchiolar epithelial cells, as well as much larger plaques in MDCK cell monolayers. Furthermore, mice inoculated with the long stalk strain showed more severe pathologic damage in lung and higher proportion of detectable viral RNA in tissues. The long stalk strain induced local IFN-γ production with faster kinetics and higher levels in mice. However, in chickens, the two viral strains showed no significant difference with nearly the same proportion of detectable viral RNA loads in tissues. These observations suggest that the 2-aa insertion in the NA stalk acquired by avian-origin H3N2 CIV helps to enhance viral replication and is likely a result of adaptive evolution in canine hosts. PMID:27160077

  3. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  4. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  5. Canine mammary carcinoma cell line are resistant to chemosensitizers: verapamil and cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Król, M; Pawłowski, K M; Majchrzak, K; Mucha, J; Motyl, T

    2014-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can fail in many ways. One of the most significant is the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR), which constitutes a serious clinical problem. The development of MDR relates to the expression of a major membrane pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Thus, currently one of the goals of experimental and clinical oncology is to decrease its activity. So far, many different P-gp inhibitors are available, but their efficacy is still questionable and requires further study. The aim of our study was to assess an impact of classical P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and cyclosporin A) in the reversion of multidrug resistance in canine mammary cancer cells. We used two cell lines isolated from mammary tumors and two cell lines isolated from their lung metastases. All of them showed P-gp over-expression confirmed using Real-time rt-PCR, Skan(R) screening station and confocal microscopy. The FACS analysis showed that in three of the examined cell lines, treatment with verpamil/cyclosporin A was ineffective to reverse cancer chemoresistance. However, more studies in this field are required. PMID:24724465

  6. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  7. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  8. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of different conditions, such as: Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Wegener granulomatosis Risks There is a possibility of ... fibrous Mesothelioma - malignant Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Viral pneumonia X-ray Update ...

  9. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  10. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  11. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  12. Occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E

    1987-01-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed. PMID:3303381

  13. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  14. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data. Images PMID:6264109

  15. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer PMID:25398122

  16. Lung tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Bassett, Erik K; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Lung tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the development of lung replacement devices and tissue to treat patients with end stage lung disease. Microfluidic based lung assist devices have been developed that have biomimetically designed vascular networks that achieve physiologic blood flow. Gas exchange in these devices occurs across a thin respiratory membrane. Designed for intrathoracic implantation as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy, these lung assist devices will allow ambulation and hospital discharge for patients with end stage lung disease. Decellularized lungs subsequently recellularized with epithelial and endothelial cells have been implanted in small animal models with demonstration of initial gas exchange. Further development of these tissues and scaling to large animal models will validate this approach and may be an organ source for lung transplantation. Initial clinical success has been achieved with decellularized tracheal implants using autologous stem cells. Development of microfluidic lung models using similar architecture to the lung assist device technology allows study of lung biology and diseases with manipulation of lung cells and respiratory membrane strain. PMID:24896347

  17. Feeding ecology and morphology of the upper canines in bears (carnivora: Ursidae).

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-07-01

    The morphology and mechanical strength of the upper canines in all eight extant species of ursids is analyzed, and the findings are discussed in relation to feeding ecology. Ursids have proportionally smaller canines than other large carnivores with a specialized feeding ecology, such as large felids, and the upper canine morphology is both canid-like and felid-like. The giant panda is the most divergent species, and its short, blunt, and cone-like canines appear well adapted for tearing into bamboo. The almost equally herbivorous spectacled bear has a less derived canine morphology. The large canines of the sun bear are divergent from other ursine ursids, and may be an adaptation for tearing open tree trunks in search of insects. Discriminant Analysis is successful in separating ursid species on the basis of canine morphology, but the canines of ursine ursids, and also of the spectacled bear, show greater resemblance among the species than the marked differences in feeding ecology would suggest. This could be in part due to a short evolutionary history, and in part due to canines not having been subjected to much evolutionary selection as has been the case among other large carnivores, such as large felids. Ursids are probably evolutionarily and ecologically successful due to physical size and strength rather than a derived craniodental anatomy. PMID:18488989

  18. Dental age in patients with impacted maxillary canines related to the position of the impacted teeth.

    PubMed

    Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Kolasa-Raczka, Anna; Kalinowski, Pawel

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in dental age (DA) using the method of Demirjian, in patients with impacted buccal or palatal maxillary canines in relation to unaffected controls. DA was estimated using Demirjian's method on panoramic radiographs of two groups of Caucasian patients. The study group consisted of 116 patients aged from 12 to 16 years (80 females and 36 males) that was further divided into 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral palatally impacted maxillary canines and 62 patients with buccally positioned canines. The control group of 116 subjects without canine impaction was matched to the study group by age and gender. Calculated DAs and differences between dental and chronological age (CA) were compared between the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney U, and Student's t-test. DA was significantly lower in patients with impacted maxillary canines than in healthy controls and also when palatal or buccal ectopia was considered. The rate of dental development in patients with palatally impacted canines did not differ from that of subjects with buccal canine displacement. The differences between DA and CA were higher in healthy controls (increase in DA) than in patients with impacted maxillary canines. DA estimation using Demirjian's method may be lower than expected in subjects with maxillary canine impaction. PMID:21262933

  19. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    PubMed

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size. PMID:25950700

  20. Cloning and expression of canine interferon-alpha genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Taira, Osamu; Watanugi, Itsuki; Hagiwara, Yuko; Takahashi, Masaki; Arai, Setsuo; Sato, Hisaaki; Maehara, Nobutoshi

    2005-10-01

    We cloned five new subtypes of cDNA encoding canine interferon-alpha (CaIFN-alpha) from a canine epithelial cell line. CaIFN-alphas were divided into two groups by amino acid sequences and a molecular phylogenic tree. Two subtypes of them were expressed in Escherichia coli, and IFN proteins were purified. Recombinant CaIFN-alphas were highly species-specific and showed antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus and canine adenovirus-1 , but not against canine herpesvirus-1. PMID:16276065

  1. Canine Length in Wild Male Baboons: Maturation, Aging and Social Dominance Rank

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04–20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size. PMID:25950700

  2. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs. PMID:27276060

  3. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs. PMID:27276060

  4. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  5. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  6. Xenogeneic lung transplantation models

    PubMed Central

    Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study of lung xenografts has proven useful to understand the remaining barriers to successful transplantation of other organ xenografts. In this chapter, the history and current status of lung xenotransplantation will be briefly reviewed and two different experimental models, the ex vivo porcine-to-human lung perfusion and the in vivo xenogeneic lung transplantation, will be presented. We will focus on the technical details of these lung xenograft models in sufficient detail, list the needed materials and mention analysis techniques to allow others to adopt them with minimal learning curve. PMID:22565996

  7. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  8. Perioperative lung injury.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative mechanical ventilation, using large tidal volumes without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can cause a sub-clinical lung injury and this injury becomes clinically important when any additional lung injury is added. Lung-protective ventilation strategies using more physiologic tidal volumes and appropriate levels of PEEP can decrease the extent of this injury. PMID:18494396

  9. Canine Distemper Virus Strains Circulating among North American Dogs▿

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Sanjay; Allison, Robin W.; Johnston, Larry; Murray, Brandy L.; Holland, Steven; Meinkoth, Jim; Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes multisystemic disease in dogs. We received seven samples from dogs with CD from the United States during 2007. CDV isolates from these samples formed large, multinucleated syncytia in a Vero cell line expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Based on the hemagglutinin gene sequences, the CDV isolates from three states (California, Missouri, and Oklahoma) formed two CDV genetic groups: group I (major; six of seven isolates) consisted of CDV isolates closely related to the European wildlife lineage of CDV, and group II (minor; one of seven isolates) was genetically related to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. However, both CDV groups were genetically different from the current vaccine strains that belong to the American-1 lineage of the old (1930 to 1950) CDV isolates. PMID:18256210

  10. Canine multifocal retinopathy in the Australian Shepherd: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ingo; Guziewicz, Karina E.; Zangerl, Barbara; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Mardin, Christian Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old Australian Shepherd (AS) was presented for a routine hereditary eye examination. During the examination multiple raised, brown to orange lesions were noted in the fundus, which could not be attributed to a known retinal disease in this breed. As they clinically most closely resembled canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) and no indication of an acquired condition was found, genetic tests for BEST1 gene mutations were performed. These showed the dog to be homozygous for the cmr1 (C73T/R25X) gene defect. Furthermore, ultrasound (US), electroretinography (ERG), and optical coherence tomography were performed, confirming changes typical for cmr. Subsequently, the AS pedigree members were genetically and clinically tested, demonstrating autosomal recessive inheritance with no clinical symptoms in carrier animals, as was previously described for cmr. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canine multifocal retinopathy in the AS breed. Further investigations are under way. PMID:22432598

  11. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Watier-Grillot, S.; Marié, J.-L.; Cabre, O.; Davoust, B.

    2011-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe) and the Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM) test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe). Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs received a permanent chemoprophylaxis (moxidectin). In 11 stray dogs, both tests were positive (22.4%). All the military dogs were negative, showing efficiency of chemoprophaxis. Results were discrepant in 6 dogs, negative with one test and doubtful with the other. Antigen heartworm test kits are available and reliable diagnostic tools. They are useful to evaluate the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis and to detect infected animals in order to treat them and to prevent the spreading of the disease. PMID:21547264

  12. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Subapriya, R; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Thangadurai, A; Nagini, S

    2006-09-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms in female dogs. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between different clinical stages with activities of phase I and phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours. The levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and NADPH diaphorase in tumour tissues of 25 bitches was estimated. Enhanced levels of cytochrome P450 and b5 and phase II enzyme activities were observed in tumour tissues compared to the corresponding uninvolved adjacent tissues. The magnitude of the changes in phase I and phase II enzyme status was, however, more pronounced in stages I and II compared to stages III and IV. The results suggest that the balance between phase I carcinogen activation and phase II detoxification systems may play an important role in canine mammary tumour development. PMID:16014333

  13. Canine lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous flap: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cao Minh; Hoàng, Văn Lu'o'ng; Pham, Thi Ngoc; Hoàng, Manh An

    2009-10-01

    For the purpose of reconstructive surgery training and research, we have developed a new skin flap model: canine lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous flap. Anatomical study found that the lateral thoracic arteries in dogs have similar anatomical characteristics to human's ones. Based on these vessels, if a skin flap was designed within the vessels territory (size 5 x 8 cm) it could survive completely, whereas, if designed beyond the vessels territory (size 5 x 14 cm) would result in partial necrosis of the flap. This fasciocutaneous flap model closely simulates the human surgery and could be valuable for training and research. Furthermore, this flap could be applied in the veterinary practice for reconstruction of canine forelimbs and cervical area. PMID:19638323

  14. In vitro comparative models for canine and human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    VISAN, SIMONA; BALACESCU, OVIDIU; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; CATOI, CORNEL

    2016-01-01

    During the past four decades, an increased number of similarities between canine mammary tumors and human breast cancer have been reported: molecular, histological, morphological, clinical and epidemiological, which lead to comparative oncological studies. One of the most important goals in human and veterinary oncology is to discover potential molecular biomarkers that could detect breast cancer in an early stage and to develop new effective therapies. Recently, cancer cell lines have successfully been used as an in vitro model to study the biology of cancer, to investigate molecular pathways and to test the efficiency of anticancer drugs. Moreover, establishment of an experimental animal model for the study of human breast cancer will improve testing potential anti-cancer therapies and the discovery of effective therapeutic schemes suitable for human clinical trials. In this review, we collected data from previous studies that strengthen the value of canine mammary cancer cell lines as an in vitro model for the study of human breast cancer. PMID:27004024

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  16. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis). The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed. PMID:21489234

  17. Survivin and related proteins in canine mammary tumors: immunohistochemical expression.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, L; Romanucci, M; Malatesta, D; D'Andrea, A; Ciccarelli, A; Della Salda, L

    2015-03-01

    Survivin is reexpressed in most human breast cancers, where its expression has been associated with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis, and poor response to therapy. Survivin expression was evaluated in 41 malignant canine mammary tumors (CMTs) by immunohistochemistry, in relation to histological grade and stage, and correlated with that of some related molecules (β-catenin, caspase 3, heat shock proteins) to understand their possible role in canine mammary tumorigenesis. An increase in nuclear survivin expression, compared with healthy mammary glands, was observed in CMTs, where nuclear immunolabeling was related to the presence of necrosis. No statistically significant relation was found between the expression of the investigated molecules and the histological grade or stage. The present study may suggest an important involvement of survivin in CMT tumorigenesis. Its overexpression in most of the cases evaluated might suggest that targeting survivin in CMTs may be a valid anticancer therapy. PMID:24686389

  18. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  19. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Watier-Grillot, S; Marié, J-L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe) and the Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM) test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe). Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs received a permanent chemoprophylaxis (moxidectin). In 11 stray dogs, both tests were positive (22.4%). All the military dogs were negative, showing efficiency of chemoprophaxis. Results were discrepant in 6 dogs, negative with one test and doubtful with the other. Antigen heartworm test kits are available and reliable diagnostic tools. They are useful to evaluate the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis and to detect infected animals in order to treat them and to prevent the spreading of the disease. PMID:21547264

  20. Identification of drug-resistant subpopulations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Khammanivong, A; Gorden, B H; Frantz, A M; Graef, A J; Dickerson, E B

    2016-09-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma is a rapidly progressive disease that is poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy. Despite numerous attempts to advance treatment options and improve outcomes, drug resistance remains a hurdle to successful therapy. To address this problem, we used recently characterized progenitor cell populations derived from canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and grown as non-adherent spheres to identify potential drug resistance mechanisms as well as drug-resistant cell populations. Cells from sphere-forming cultures displayed enhanced resistance to chemotherapy drugs, expansion of dye-excluding side populations and altered ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression. Invasion studies demonstrated variability between cell lines as well as between sphere and monolayer cell populations. Collectively, our results suggest that sphere cell populations contain distinct subpopulations of drug-resistant cells that utilize multiple mechanisms to evade cytotoxic drugs. Our approach represents a new tool for the study of drug resistance in hemangiosarcoma, which could alter approaches for treating this disease. PMID:25112808

  1. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  2. Computed tomographic arthrography of the normal canine elbow.

    PubMed

    Gendler, Andrew; Keuler, Nicholas S; Schaefer, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of canine elbow joint dysfunction includes assessment of articular cartilage, which can noninvasively be performed with contrast arthrography. Aims of this prospective study were to compare positive contrast computed tomographic (CT) arthrography and histomorphometry measures of cartilage thickness in normal canine elbows, and to determine the optimal contrast medium concentration. Thirty-two canine cadaver elbows were examined using multidetector CT, before and after intra-articular administration of iohexol at one of three different concentrations. Articular cartilage thickness was measured on both the CT arthrography images and corresponding histologic specimens. Mean difference (bias) between the CT arthrography and histomorphologic measurements was 0.18 and 0.19 mm in the sagittal and dorsal planes, respectively. Mean bias and precision of CT arthrography measurements made in the sagittal or dorsal reformations were not significantly different from one another. Computed tomographic arthrography measurements from elbows with 75 mg I/ml were significantly larger and had greater bias compared to other contrast medium groups (150 and 37.5 mg I/ml). There was no significant difference in CT arthrography measurement precision between different contrast medium concentrations. Histomorphologic thickness of the articular cartilage overlying the cranial aspect of the ulna (mean 0.32 mm) was significantly thinner than cartilage of the radius (0.36 mm) or humerus (0.36 mm). Findings from this cadaver study indicated that CT arthrography delineates articular cartilage of the normal canine elbow; yields cartilage thickness measures slightly greater than histomorphometry measures; and provides high measurement precision regardless of image plane, contrast medium concentration, or anatomic zone. PMID:25154869

  3. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. G.; Raghunath, S.; Williams, C.; Motsinger-Reif, A. A.; Cullen, J. M.; Liu, T.; Albertson, D.; Ruvolo, M.; Lucas, A. Bergstrom; Jin, J.; Knapp, D. W.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97% and 84% of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77% of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to

  4. Selection of reference genes in canine uterine tissues.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Wang, X; Yue, Y W; Zhou, P Y; Yao, W; Li, X; Ding, X B; Liu, X F; Guo, H; Ma, W Z

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is usually employed in gene expression studies in veterinary research, including in studies on canine pyometra. Canine pyometra is a common clinical disease in bitches. When using RT-qPCR, internal standards, such as reference genes, are necessary to investigate relative gene expression by quantitative measurements of mRNA levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of reference genes and select reference genes suitable for canine pyometra studies. We collected 24 bitch uterine tissue samples, including five healthy and 19 pyometra infected samples. These were used to screen the best reference genes of seven candidate genes (18SrRNA, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT, RPL13A, and YWHAZ). The method of KH Sadek and the GeNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software were used to evaluate the stability of gene expression in both pyometra and healthy uterine samples. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate gene in pyometra and healthy tissues differed. We showed that YWHAZ was the best reference gene, which could be used as an accurate internal control gene in canine pyometra studies. To further validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF1R) was investigated. We found that the expression of IGF1R was significantly altered when different reference genes were used. All reference genes identified in the present study will enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in both pyometra infected and healthy uterine tissues. PMID:27323194

  5. Systemic canine histoplasmosis: A case report from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yépez, Julio R.; Ortega-Paredes, David A.; Barba, Pedro M.; Mafla-Endara, Paola M.; Zurita, Jeannete.

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a zoonotic systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a case of a female canine, 4 years old, presenting multifocal lymphadenitis and skin and gingival lesions, in Ecuador. Based on cytological, histopathological, histochemical analyses, fungal culture and DNA sequencing of the ITS region of the fungus, the diagnosis confirmed the presence of H. capsulatum as the agent of infection. The treatment plan included ketoconazole with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:26199868

  6. Effect of aging on neurogenesis in the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Pekcec, Anton; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Bankstahl, Jens P; Stein, Veronika M; Potschka, Heidrun

    2008-06-01

    An age-dependent decline in hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in laboratory rodents. Environmental enrichment proved to be a strong trigger of neurogenesis in young and aged laboratory rodents, which are generally kept in facilities with a paucity of environmental stimuli. These data raise the question whether an age-dependent decline in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis can also be observed in individuals exposed to diversified and varying surroundings. Therefore, we determined rates of canine hippocampal neurogenesis using post-mortem tissue from 37 nonlaboratory dogs that were exposed to a variety of environmental conditions throughout their life. Expression of the neuronal progenitor cell marker doublecortin clearly correlated with age. The analysis of doublecortin-labeled cells in dogs aged > 133 months indicated a 96% drop in the aged canine brain as compared to young adults. Expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the subgranular zone decreased until dogs were aged 85-132 months. In the aging canine brain amyloid-beta peptide deposits have been described that might resemble an early pathophysiological change in the course of human Alzheimer's disease. Comparison of Ki-67 and doublecortin expression in canine brain tissue with or without diffuse plaques revealed no differences. The data indicate that occurrence of diffuse plaques in the aging brain is not sufficient to trigger enhanced proliferation or enhanced neurogenesis such as described in human Alzheimer's disease. In addition, this study gives first proof that an age-dependent decline also dominates hippocampal neurogenesis rates in individuals living in diversified environments. PMID:18363905

  7. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  8. Lipids and FA analysis of canine prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Attar-Bashi, Nadia M; Orzeszko, Karyn; Slocombe, Ronald F; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    It is widely reported that an association exists between dietary fat intake and the incidence of prostate cancer in humans. To study this association, there is a need for an animal model where prostate carcinogenesis occurs spontaneously. The canine prostate is considered a suitable experimental model for prostate cancer in humans since it is morphologically similar to the human prostate and both humans and dogs have a predisposition to benign and malignant prostate disease. In this study, the FA and lipids profiles of the normal canine prostate tissue from nine dogs were examined. The total lipid content of the canine prostate tissue was 1.7 +/- 0.5% (wet weight). The lipid composition analysis using TLC-FID showed that the two major lipid classes were phospholipids and TAG. Total FA, phospholipid, and TAG FA analysis showed that the major FA were palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). The n-3 FA were present at <3% of total FA and included alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (in total and TAG tissue FA), EPA (20:5n-3) (not in TAG), and DHA (22:6n-3) (not in TAG). The n-3/n-6 ratio was 1:11, 1:13, and 1:8 in total, phospholipid, and TAG FA, respectively. This study shows the canine prostate has a low level of n-3 FA and a low n-3/n-6 ratio. This is perhaps due to low n-3 content of the diet of the dogs. FA analysis of dogfoods available in Australia showed that the n-3 content in both supermarket and premium brand dogfoods was <3% (wet weight), and the n-3/n-6 ratio was low. PMID:12934677

  9. Canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chang-Bum; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, A-Jin; Suh, Hyun-Jung; Yoo, Saejong; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Eom, Ki Dong

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old, Shih Tzu dog was presented with an enlarged, curled 2nd nail in the left forelimb. Digital amputation was performed and the mass was diagnosed as a nail bed keratoacanthoma (infundibular keratinizing acanthoma) histopathologically. There was no recurrence postoperatively. This is the first case report of a canine nail bed keratoacanthoma diagnosed by histologic and immunohistochemical examination including Ki-67 and p53 expression. PMID:26538676

  10. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. This study builds upon previously reported ex vivo tissue studies by exploring acute and short-term chronic in vivo canine studies. Isolation of the canine vas was achieved using a conventional vas ring clamp method. No perforation of the scrotal skin was necessary to occlude the vas. Laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface in a total of 8 dogs (n = 16 vasa) for a treatment time of 60 s. Burst pressure measurements were conducted at Days 0 and 21 (n = 8 vasa each day) to quantify the strength of vas closure. The vas was successfully thermally occluded in 15/16 (94%) procedures with 14/15 (93%) vas recording burst pressures above ejaculation pressure. One vas was not present, and another vas recorded a bursting pressure below ejaculation pressure. The coagulated vas bursting pressure averaged 283 +/- 34 mm Hg at Day 0 and 260 +/- 77 mm Hg at Day 21, significantly higher than reported vas ejaculation pressures of 136 +/- 29 mm Hg. Minor scrotal skin burns were observed during the recovery period. Noninvasive thermal occlusion of the vas is feasible in an in vivo canine model. Elimination of minor skin burns and longer term chronic in vivo canine studies are needed to confirm azospermia after vas occlusion without recanalization.

  11. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  12. [Zinc metabolism--a factor in canine aggression?].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Behne, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of zinc-deficiency as a factor in canine aggression, we examined sera of dangerously aggressive dogs and of behaviourally normal (non-aggressive) dogs for their zinc-contents. The results showed distinctly higher zinc-concentrations (mean +/- SD) in aggressive dogs (1.69 +/- 0.49 micrograms/ml) than in normal non aggressive dogs (0.76 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml). PMID:12894678

  13. Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges. PMID:24833219

  14. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK signaling prevents growth of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nicholas J; Nickoloff, Brian J; Dykema, Karl J; Boguslawski, Elissa A; Krivochenitser, Roman I; Froman, Roe E; Dawes, Michelle J; Baker, Laurence H; Thomas, Dafydd G; Kamstock, Debra A; Kitchell, Barbara E; Furge, Kyle A; Duesbery, Nicholas S

    2013-09-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. As a model for human angiosarcoma, we studied primary cells and tumorgrafts derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), which is also an endothelial malignancy with similar presentation and histology. Primary cells isolated from HSA showed constitutive extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. The mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor CI-1040 reduced ERK activation and the viability of primary cells derived from visceral, cutaneous, and cardiac HSA in vitro. HSA-derived primary cells were also sensitive to sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-Raf and multireceptor tyrosine kinases. In vivo, CI-1040 or PD0325901 decreased the growth of cutaneous cell-derived xenografts and cardiac-derived tumorgrafts. Sorafenib decreased tumor size in both in vivo models, although cardiac tumorgrafts were more sensitive. In human angiosarcoma, we noted that 50% of tumors stained positively for phosphorylated ERK1/2 and that the expression of several MEK-responsive transcription factors was upregulated. Our data showed that MEK signaling is essential for the growth of HSA in vitro and in vivo and provided evidence that the same pathways are activated in human angiosarcoma. This indicates that MEK inhibitors may form part of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of canine HSA or human angiosarcoma, and it highlights the use of spontaneous canine cancers as a model of human disease. PMID:23804705

  15. Somatostatin modulates cholinergic neurotransmission in canine antral muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Koelbel, C.B.; van Deventer, G.; Khawaja, S.; Mogard, M.; Walsh, J.H.; Mayer, E.A. UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA )

    1988-02-01

    Somatostatin has been shown to inhibit antral motility in vivo. To examine the effect of somatostatin on cholinergic neurotransmission in the canine antrum, we studied the mechanical response of and the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine from canine longitudinal antral muscle in response to substance P, gastrin 17, and electrical stimulation. In unstimulated tissues, somatostatin had a positive inotropic effect on spontaneous phasic contractions. In tissues stimulated with substance P and gastrin 17, but not with electrical stimulation, somatostatin inhibited the phasic inotropic response dose dependently. This inhibitory effect was abolished by indomethacin. Somatostatin stimulated the release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} radioimmunoreactivity, and prostaglandin E{sub 2} inhibited the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine induced by substance P and electrical stimulation. Somatostatin increased the release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine from unstimulated tissues by a tetrodotoxin-sensitive mechanism but inhibited the release induced by substance P and electrical stimulation. These results suggest that somatostatin has a dual modulatory effect on cholinergic neutrotransmission in canine longitudinal antral muscle. This effect is excitatory in unstimulated tissues and inhibitory in stimulated tissues. The inhibitory effect is partially mediated by prostaglandins.

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK signaling prevents growth of canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nicholas J.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Dykema, Karl J.; Boguslawski, Elissa A.; Krivochenitser, Roman I.; Froman, Roe E.; Dawes, Michelle J.; Baker, Laurence H.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Kamstock, Debra A.; Kitchell, Barbara E.; Furge, Kyle A.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. As a model for human AS, we studied primary cells and tumorgrafts derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), which is also an endothelial malignancy with similar presentation and histology. Primary cells isolated from HSA showed constitutive ERK activation. The MEK inhibitor CI-1040 reduced ERK activation and the viability of primary cells derived from visceral, cutaneous, and cardiac HSA in vitro. HSA-derived primary cells were also sensitive to sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-Raf and multi-receptor tyrosine kinases. In vivo, CI-1040 or PD0325901 decreased the growth of cutaneous cell-derived xenografts and cardiac-derived tumorgrafts. Sorafenib decreased tumor size in both in vivo models, although cardiac tumorgrafts were more sensitive. In human AS, we noted that 50% of tumors stained positively for phosphorylated ERK1/2 and that the expression of several MEK-responsive transcription factors was up-regulated. Our data showed that MEK signaling is essential for the growth of HSA in vitro and in vivo and provided evidence that the same pathways are activated in human AS. This indicates that MEK inhibitors may form part of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of canine HSA or human AS, and it highlights the utility of spontaneous canine cancers as a model of human disease. PMID:23804705

  17. [Canine excrement in the urban environment: what is the solution?].

    PubMed

    Parizot, X

    1991-09-01

    With the increase in urban dog populations during the 1960s and 1970s, the problem of canine excreta has become more serious, and has become a typical subject of concern for the urban environment and the quality of life. While there may be a discrepancy between the often controversial treatment of the subject by the media and the actual situation for city dwellers, responsibility lies with the local authorities. This article presents the results of ten years of theoretical study and practical applications, undertaken on behalf of the French Association for Information and Studies on Companion Animals (AFIRAC) by experts from many disciplines: doctors, veterinarians, ethologists, teachers, landscape gardeners, town planners and architects, in collaboration with those responsible for open spaces, roadways, urban cleaning, etc. The results obtained are illustrated by the success of programmes implemented by cities such as Grenoble, Le Havre and Mulhouse, and they have led to the establishment of basic principles designed to solve the problem of canine excreta in the urban environment. Details of these principles are provided: the need for an overall approach to animals in towns, a permanent long-term programme under centralised guidance, suitable regulations complemented by information, education, etc. Next there is an account of sanitary equipment specific for dealing with the problem of canine excreta in the urban environment. Cleaning and general maintenance of such equipment are also discussed. PMID:1782423

  18. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Dubovi, Edward J.; Qaisar, Natasha; Henriquez, Jose A.; Medina, Jan; Shields, Shelly; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal “civilization” infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions. Comparative phylogenetic analysis using various structural and nonstructural proteins of CKoV confirmed it as the animal virus homolog most closely related to human Aichivirus (AiV). Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis suggests a mean recent divergence time of CKoV and AiV within the past 20 to 50 years, well after the domestication of canines. The discovery of CKoV provides new insights into the origin and evolution of AiV and the species specificity and pathogenesis of kobuviruses. PMID:21880761

  19. Characterization of a canine homolog of human Aichivirus.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Dubovi, Edward J; Qaisar, Natasha; Henriquez, Jose A; Medina, Jan; Shields, Shelly; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-11-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Comparative phylogenetic analysis using various structural and nonstructural proteins of CKoV confirmed it as the animal virus homolog most closely related to human Aichivirus (AiV). Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis suggests a mean recent divergence time of CKoV and AiV within the past 20 to 50 years, well after the domestication of canines. The discovery of CKoV provides new insights into the origin and evolution of AiV and the species specificity and pathogenesis of kobuviruses. PMID:21880761

  20. Tetracycline-induced steatosis in primary canine hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Amacher, D E; Martin, B A

    1997-12-01

    Primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from male beagle dog liver were used to determine susceptibility of the canine liver to tetracycline-induced steatosis. The effects of the drug on mitochondrial lipid metabolism and intracellular triglyceride accumulation were monitored at the same time that steatosis was detected by light microscopy and quantitated using lipid-specific stains. Exposure of primary canine hepatocyte cultures to tetracycline for 24-48 h resulted in concentration-dependent, significant increases in the Oil Red O-stained lipid inclusions. Microscopic examination of the total stained areas suggested that increases over control levels were due primarily to the increase in the size of the lipid inclusions rather than in the number. Biochemical analyses for triglyceride content and histological staining with Nile red, another neutral lipid-specific dye, confirmed a specific increase in intracellular triglyceride following a 24-h exposure to noncytotoxic levels of tetracycline beta-oxidation studies based on the oxidation of [14C]palmitic acid or [14C]palmitoyl carnitine demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial but not peroxisomal beta-oxidation in hepatocytes after a 24-h exposure to tetracycline. In vitro incubation of tetracycline with mitochondria isolated from dog liver showed similar concentration-dependent inhibition. This study clearly indicates that the canine hepatocyte is susceptible to tetracycline-induced steatosis. Triglyceride accumulation was concomitant with the inhibition of mitochondrial lipid metabolism, indicating that this is a primary mechanism leading to steatosis in dog hepatocytes following tetracycline exposure. PMID:9441722

  1. The effect of nematode administration on canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Specht, L; Helmer, M; Epe, C; Wolken, S; Denk, D; Majzoub, M; Sauter-Luis, C

    2011-09-27

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common disease and is considered as an animal model of the human disease. Immunomodulation by helminths is reported in several species. The aim of this study was to determine whether nematodes have an immunomodulatory effect on atopic dermatitis in dogs. In the pilot study, 12 atopic dogs were infected with either embryonated eggs of Trichuris vulpis (500 and 2500 eggs in 3 dogs each) or L3 larvae of Uncinaria stenocephala (100, 500 and 2500 eggs in 2 dogs each), respectively, for 3 months. Pruritus was evaluated with visual analogue scales and clinical lesions with the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies were obtained for histopathology at the beginning and end of the study. In the subsequent placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised study, 21 dogs received either 2500 embryonated T. vulpis eggs or placebo and were evaluated similarly. In addition, allergen-specific serum IgE concentrations were determined. All dogs in the pilot study improved in their lesion scores, most in their pruritus scores. The cutaneous inflammatory infiltrate did not change significantly. In the subsequent randomised study, there was no significant difference between placebo and Trichuris administration in regard to pruritus or CADESI. IgE concentrations also did not change significantly. Infection with T. vulpis did not significantly change clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:21621922

  2. Isolation and characterization of canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Michael, Helen T; Ito, Daisuke; McCullar, Valarie; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jeffrey S; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-09-15

    NK cells are non-T, non-B lymphocytes that kill target cells without previous activation. The immunophenotype and function of these cells in humans and mice are well defined, but canine NK cells remain incompletely characterized. Our objectives were to isolate and culture canine peripheral blood NK cells, and to define their immunophenotype and killing capability. PBMC were obtained from healthy dogs and T cells were depleted by immunomagnetic separation. The residual cells were cultured in media supplemented with IL-2, IL-15 or both, or with mouse embryonic liver (EL) feeder cells. Non-T, non-B lymphocytes survived and expanded in these cultures. IL-2 was necessary and sufficient for survival; the addition of IL-15 was necessary for expansion, but IL-15 alone did not support survival. Culture with EL cells and IL-2 also fostered survival and expansion. The non-T, non-B lymphocytes uniformly expressed CD45, MHC I, and showed significant cytotoxic activity against CTAC targets. Expression of MHC II, CD11/18 was restricted to subsets of these cells. The data show that cells meeting the criteria for NK cells in other species, i.e., non-T, non-B lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity, can be expanded from canine PBMC by T-cell depletion and culture with cytokines or feeder cells. PMID:23876304

  3. Immunohistochemical evaluation of mx protein expression in canine encephalitides.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ambrus, A; Storts, R W

    2006-11-01

    Mx proteins are a group of interferon-induced GTPases whose expression has been demonstrated in a number of human viral infections and in some idiopathic inflammatory diseases. In this study, the expression of Mx protein was evaluated in known viral, nonviral, and idiopathic encephalitides in the dog via immunohistochemistry using an antibody against human MxA. All 12 cases of confirmed viral encephalitis, including 7 cases of canine distemper, 4 cases of canine herpesvirus, and 1 case of rabies, were Mx positive. In canine distemper cases, staining was particularly strong and a variety of cell types were positive, including astrocytes, macrophages/microglia, and neurons. Immunoreactivity for Mx protein was evident in a few cases of nonviral infectious encephalitis, including neosporosis (1/1), Chagas disease (2/3), aspergillosis (1/2), and encephalitozoonosis (1/1). Consistent staining was observed in most cases of idiopathic encephalitis, including granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (7/7), necrotizing meningoencephalitis of pug dogs (6/7), and necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire Terrier (3/3) and Maltese (1/1) breeds. Mx staining was negative in 5 normal dog brains; 3 cases of cryptococcosis; and single cases of blastomycosis, protothecosis, and bacterial meningitis. PMID:17099155

  4. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    PubMed

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. PMID:24378296

  5. A Novel Canine Model of Acute Vertebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Jin, Min; Du, Bin; Lin, Hao; Xu, Chengyong; Jiang, Weijian; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Background The extended time window and theoretic reduction in hemorrhage make mechanical strategies an attractive approach for the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke. However, a limited availability of suitable animal models of cerebrovascular thrombosis has hampered the study of novel endovascular interventions. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique for site-specific placement of a thrombus in a canine model that would allow for the evaluation of mechanical thrombectomy and clot retrieval methods and the visualization of thrombus dislocation or fragmentation during angiographic manipulation. Methods Angiography and embolization with a preformed thrombus were performed in 12 canines. Under fluoroscopic guidance, an embolism protection device (EPD) was anchored to the middle segment of the left vertebral artery (VA) via the left femoral arterial sheath. A preformed radiopaque clot was injected through the guide catheter into the left VA, via the contralateral femoral artery, proximal to the EPD. After 15 min of occlusion, the EPD was removed and persistent occlusion of the VA was documented angiographically. Results Angiography performed during the observation period confirmed the persistence of VA occlusion in each case, and displacement of the radiopaque clots did not occur during the 3-hour observation period. The technique allowed selective embolization of targeted vessels without thrombus fragmentation. Conclusion This study demonstrates, for the first time, a canine model of post-circulation embolism induced by autologous blood clot placement. This model can be rapidly formed and easily operated, and the site of thrombosis can be readily controlled. PMID:26545253

  6. Widespread somatosensory sensitivity in naturally occurring canine model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Knazovicky, David; Helgeson, Erika S; Case, Beth; Gruen, Margaret E; Maixner, William; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain is a leading cause of disability. Central sensitization (CS), as a result of OA, is recognized as an important facet of human patients' chronic pain and has been measured in people using quantitative sensory testing (QST) testing. The spontaneous canine OA model has been suggested as a good translational model, but CS has not been explored in this model. In this study, QST was performed on dogs with and without spontaneous hip or stifle OA to determine whether OA is associated with CS in this model. Mechanical (von Frey and blunt pressure) and thermal (hot and cold) sensory thresholds obtained in dogs with chronic OA-associated pain (n = 31) were compared with those of normal dogs (n = 23). Dogs were phenotyped and joint-pain scored, and testing was performed at the OA-affected joint, cranial tibial muscle, and dorsal metatarsal region. QST summary data were evaluated using mixed-effect models to understand the influence of OA status and covariates, and dogs with OA and control dogs were compared. The presence of OA was strongly associated with hyperalgesia across all QST modalities at the index joint, cranial tibial muscle, and metatarsal site. Mechanical QST scores were significantly moderately negatively correlated with total joint-pain scores. The spontaneous canine OA model is associated with somatosensory sensitivity, likely indicative of CS. These data further validate the canine spontaneous OA model as an appropriate model of the human OA pain condition. PMID:26901805

  7. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  8. Widespread somatosensory sensitivity in naturally occurring canine model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Knazovicky, David; Helgeson, Erika S.; Case, Beth; Gruen, Margaret E.; Maixner, William; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain is a leading cause of disability. Central sensitization (CS), as a result of OA, is recognized as an important facet of human patients' chronic pain and has been measured in people using quantitative sensory testing (QST) testing. The spontaneous canine OA model has been suggested as a good translational model, but CS has not been explored in this model. In this study, QST was performed on dogs with and without spontaneous hip or stifle OA to determine whether OA is associated with CS in this model. Mechanical (von Frey and blunt pressure) and thermal (hot and cold) sensory thresholds obtained in dogs with chronic OA-associated pain (n = 31) were compared with those of normal dogs (n = 23). Dogs were phenotyped and joint-pain scored, and testing was performed at the OA-affected joint, cranial tibial muscle, and dorsal metatarsal region. QST summary data were evaluated using mixed-effect models to understand the influence of OA status and covariates, and dogs with OA and control dogs were compared. The presence of OA was strongly associated with hyperalgesia across all QST modalities at the index joint, cranial tibial muscle, and metatarsal site. Mechanical QST scores were significantly moderately negatively correlated with total joint-pain scores. The spontaneous canine OA model is associated with somatosensory sensitivity, likely indicative of CS. These data further validate the canine spontaneous OA model as an appropriate model of the human OA pain condition. PMID:26901805

  9. Urethral Sparing Histotripsy of the Prostate in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Schade, George R.; Hall, Timothy L.; Roberts, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and healing response to urethral sparing prostate histotripsy a canine model of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Methods Histotripsy was performed on 10 canines using a 750 kHz piezoelectric ultrasound transducer targeting the prostatic parenchyma while avoiding the urethra. Periprocedure prostatic urethral integrity was evaluated with serial cystourethroscopy. Evolution of histotripsy treatment effect and subjects’ response to urethral sparing was evaluated with serial ultrasound and laboratory evaluation, respectively. Subjects were euthanized acutely or chronically and findings were confirmed histologically. Results Bilateral treatment was possible in 8/10 subjects while unilateral treatment was performed in 2/10. Failure to spare the urethra was observed in 2/18 treatments; one acutely and one chronically despite normal cystourethroscopy for the first week. Modest prostatic volume reduction was seen in subjects survived to 8 weeks post-histotripsy. Laboratory studies revealed transient perioperative increases in mean white-blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. On histology, 80% of successful urethral sparing treatment cavities were completely epithelialized, containing simple fluid with minimal cellular debris at 8 weeks despite no communication with the urethra. Conclusions Urethral sparing histotripsy of the prostate is feasible and well tolerated in a canine model, resulting in modest volume reduction and prompt resorption of homogenized tissue debris. Human studies to evaluate the clinical utility and symptomatic response of urethral sparing are needed. PMID:22840869

  10. Survival of post-treatment canine-to-canine lingual retainers with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farronato, Davide; Briguglio, Roberto; Mangano, Francesco; Azzi, Lorenzo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Briguglio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of the study is to evaluate the long term results of ribbond retainer after orthodontic treatment. One hundred and thirty patients who were orthodontically treated satisfied the inclusion criteria of having received a semipermanent retention were treated with FRC lingual retainers (Ribbond ®). It was performed a follow up evaluation after 2 years average from the retainer application and any complication or failure was recorded. Data from 119 remaining patients that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and no instances of loosening were observed. It may be concluded that orthodontic canine-to-canine FRC retainers provide aneffective means of retaining realigned anterior teeth for at least two years. PMID:25506411

  11. Current and future tools for global canine rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Franka, Richard; Smith, Todd G; Dyer, Jessie L; Wu, Xianfu; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Even though rabies is almost uniformly fatal, it is readily preventable with currently available tools. Vaccination is highly efficacious for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of rabies in humans and animals, and prompt postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with vaccine and rabies immune globulin (RIG) can reliably prevent disease in humans. However, access to these tools and knowledge of their proper use are often limited, especially in impoverished, rabies-enzootic countries with the highest disease burden. In the absence of reliable diagnostic capacity and risk assessments, vaccines and RIG are often administered inappropriately, leading to chronic supply shortages and otherwise preventable deaths. Rather than focusing solely on human prophylaxis, it is more cost-effective over the long term to eliminate canine rabies in its natural terrestrial reservoirs. Because more than 99% of human rabies deaths result from dog bites, prevention efforts should focus on dogs. A versatile "One Health" strategy for canine rabies elimination should aim to create sustainable herd immunity in dogs, using proven vaccination strategies at the local level, coupled with community education and humane population management. Such strategies have succeeded in both developed and developing countries, and can be adapted to any locality. Numerous examples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have shown that community-based, locally guided vaccination and education programs, based on a shared vision and long-term commitment, can eliminate canine rabies. Such programs should have specific goals and measurable outcomes, and should be conducted under the guidance of supportive governments, in collaboration with international partners and nongovernmental organizations. In addition to currently available tools, rabies prevention can be augmented by new dose-sparing human vaccine schedules, alternative routes of vaccine administration, monoclonal antibodies as an alternative to RIG, sensitive and

  12. Antiviral antibodies stimulate production of reactive oxygen species in cultured canine brain cells infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bürge, T; Griot, C; Vandevelde, M; Peterhans, E

    1989-01-01

    Canine distemper is characterized mainly by respiratory, enteric, and nervous symptoms. Infection of the central nervous system results in demyelination, to which inflammation has been shown to contribute significantly. It has been proposed that macrophages play a major role as effector cells in this process. We report that cultured dog brain cells contain a population of macrophages capable of producing reactive oxygen species as measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. In cultures infected with canine distemper virus, a burst of reactive oxygen is triggered by antiviral antibody. This response depends on the presence of viral antigens on the surfaces of infected cells and is mediated by the interaction of antigen-bound antibody with Fc receptors on the macrophages. Since there is no evidence in vitro or in vivo that oligodendrocytes, the cells forming myelin, are infected, our observation supports the hypothesis that "innocent bystander killing" is important in demyelination caused by canine distemper virus. Reactive oxygen species released from macrophages may contribute to destruction of myelin. Images PMID:2724413

  13. Corrective GUSB transfer to the canine mucopolysaccharidosis VII cornea using a helper-dependent canine adenovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Serratrice, Nicolas; Cubizolle, Aurelie; Ibanes, Sandy; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Bayo-Puxan, Neus; Creyssels, Sophie; Gennetier, Aurelie; Bernex, Florence; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Haskins, Mark E.; Couderc, Guilhem; Malecaze, Francois; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Kremer, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal transparency is maintained, in part, by specialized fibroblasts called keratocytes, which reside in the fibrous lamellae of the stroma. Corneal clouding, a condition that impairs visual acuity, is associated with numerous diseases, including mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VII. MPS VII is due to deficiency in β-glucuronidase (β-glu) enzymatic activity, which leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and secondary accumulation of gangliosides. Here, we tested the efficacy of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors to transduce keratocyte in vivo in mice and nonhuman primates, and ex vivo in dog and human corneal explants. Following efficacy studies, we asked if we could treat corneal clouding by the injection a helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vector (HD-RIGIE) harboring the human cDNA coding for β-glu (GUSB) in the canine MPS VII cornea. β-Glu activity, GAG content, and lysosome morphology and physiopathology were analyzed. We found that HD-RIGIE injections efficiently transduced coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor-expressing keratocytes in the four species and, compared to mock-injected controls, improved the pathology in the canine MPS VII cornea. The key criterion to corrective therapy was the steady controlled release of β-glu and its diffusion throughout the collagen-dense stroma. These data support the continued evaluation of HD CAV-2 vectors to treat diseases affecting corneal keratocytes. PMID:24607662

  14. Genotypic Characterization of Canine Coronaviruses Associated with Fatal Canine Neonatal Enteritis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Licitra, Beth N.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Dubovi, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging canine coronavirus (CCoV) variants that are associated with systemic infections have been reported in the European Union; however, CCoV-associated disease in the United States is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to correlate the clinicopathological findings and viral antigen distribution with the genotypic characteristics of CCoV in 11 puppies from nine premises in five states that were submitted for diagnostic investigation at Cornell University between 2008 and 2013. CCoV antigen was found in epithelial cells of small intestinal villi in all puppies and the colon in 2 of the 10 puppies where colon specimens were available. No evidence of systemic CCoV infection was found. Comparative sequence analyses of viral RNA extracted from intestinal tissues revealed CCoV-II genotype in 9 out of 11 puppies. Of the nine CCoV-IIs, five were subtyped as group IIa and one as IIb, while three CCoVs could not be subtyped. One of the CCoV-IIa variants was isolated in cell culture. Infection with CCoV alone was found in five puppies, of which two also had small intestinal intussusception. Concurrent infections with either parvovirus (n = 1), attaching-effacing Escherichia coli (n = 4), or protozoan parasites (n = 3) were found in the other six puppies. CCoV is an important differential diagnosis in outbreaks of severe enterocolitis among puppies between 4 days and 21 weeks of age that are housed at high population density. These findings will assist with the rapid laboratory diagnosis of enteritis in puppies and highlight the need for continued surveillance for CCoV variants and intestinal viral diseases of global significance. PMID:25253797

  15. Genotypic characterization of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal canine neonatal enteritis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Beth N; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubovi, Edward J; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2014-12-01

    Emerging canine coronavirus (CCoV) variants that are associated with systemic infections have been reported in the European Union; however, CCoV-associated disease in the United States is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to correlate the clinicopathological findings and viral antigen distribution with the genotypic characteristics of CCoV in 11 puppies from nine premises in five states that were submitted for diagnostic investigation at Cornell University between 2008 and 2013. CCoV antigen was found in epithelial cells of small intestinal villi in all puppies and the colon in 2 of the 10 puppies where colon specimens were available. No evidence of systemic CCoV infection was found. Comparative sequence analyses of viral RNA extracted from intestinal tissues revealed CCoV-II genotype in 9 out of 11 puppies. Of the nine CCoV-IIs, five were subtyped as group IIa and one as IIb, while three CCoVs could not be subtyped. One of the CCoV-IIa variants was isolated in cell culture. Infection with CCoV alone was found in five puppies, of which two also had small intestinal intussusception. Concurrent infections with either parvovirus (n = 1), attaching-effacing Escherichia coli (n = 4), or protozoan parasites (n = 3) were found in the other six puppies. CCoV is an important differential diagnosis in outbreaks of severe enterocolitis among puppies between 4 days and 21 weeks of age that are housed at high population density. These findings will assist with the rapid laboratory diagnosis of enteritis in puppies and highlight the need for continued surveillance for CCoV variants and intestinal viral diseases of global significance. PMID:25253797

  16. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  17. The pathogenesis of H3N8 canine influenza virus in chickens, turkeys and ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) of the H3N8 subtype has emerged in dog populations throughout the U.S. where is has become endemic in kennels and animal shelters in some regions. It has not previously been determined whether the canine adapted virus can be transmitted to domestic poultry, which are su...

  18. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment... Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. Possible Field Test Locations: Arizona, Florida, Georgia, New York, North...

  19. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. PMID:27527760

  20. Mandibular canine tooth impaction in a young dog--treatment and subsequent eruption: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, B L; Clarke, L L

    1999-09-01

    Extraction of an embedded supranumerary incisor tooth and surgical exposure of the crown of an impacted left mandibular canine tooth were performed in a 5 month-old Doberman Pinscher dog. Six months following surgery, the canine tooth was fully erupted and in normal occlusion. A review of tooth eruption in the dog is provided. PMID:10863519

  1. Steroid receptors in canine and human female genital tract tumours with smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Millán, Y; Gordon, A; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Reymundo, C; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2007-01-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) was examined in 32 canine genital tract tumours diagnosed as smooth muscle tumours (benign or malignant, pure or mixed). The immunohistochemical expression of calponin was used to assess the smooth muscle differentiation of the tumours. Nineteen human uterine leiomyomas were also examined. Calponin expression was detected in 89.3% of canine and 100% of human genital tract tumours diagnosed as leiomyomas, as well as in the majority of other tumours examined (canine or human, genital or extragenital, benign or malignant) with the exception of canine negative control tumours (cutaneous fibroma and hepatoid gland adenoma). ERalpha was found in 56.3% of canine and 52.6% of human leiomyomas, while PR was found in 84.4% of canine and 94.7% of human tumours. These results indicate that calponin is a good marker for differentiating neoplasia of the canine genital system of uncertain origin, as in human patients. They also show that canine tumours with smooth muscle differentiation of the genital tract of the bitch express steroid hormone receptors, a finding that opens up the possibility of hormone therapy. PMID:17362977

  2. Infants' Intermodal Perception of Canine ("Canis Familairis") Facial Expressions and Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously…

  3. Age-related presence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in paraffin-embedded lung samples of dogs with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wöhrer, Daniela; Spergser, Joachim; Bagrinovschi, Gabriela; Möstl, Karin; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia. PMID:26919147

  4. Generation of recombinant canine interleukin-15 and evaluation of its effects on the proliferation and function of canine NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Shin, Dong-Jun; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-05-15

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-15 is also a promising cytokine for treating cancer. Despite the growing importance of the clinical use of IL-15 for immunotherapy, no attempts have been made to generate a recombinant canine IL-15 (rcIL-15) and to examine its effects on the antitumor activities of immune effector cells in dogs. Here, we generated an rcIL-15 protein consisting of Asn-49-Ser-162 with a C-terminal His tag and examined its functions ex vivo in terms of the proliferation and antitumor effects on canine non-B, non-T, large granular natural killer (NK) cells. Non-B, non-T, large granular NK cells rapidly expanded in response to stimulation with rcIL-15 in the presence of IL-2, and a majority of the cells that selectively expanded over 21 days exhibited a CD3(-)CD5(-)CD4(-)CD8(+/-)CD21(-) phenotype. Purified rcIL-15 significantly enhanced the expansion rate of canine NK cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared to human IL-15, or culture in the absence of IL-15 for 21 days (p<0.05). Purified rcIL-15 was superior at enhancing the effector function of NK cells compared to human IL-15. The cytotoxic activity against canine thyroid adenocarcinoma (CTAC) cells, interferon-γ production, and the mRNA expression levels of perforin and granzyme B of expanded NK cells cultured with rcIL-15 were significantly elevated compared to those cultured with human IL-15 or without IL-15 (p<0.05). Intravenous administration of rcIL-15 significantly increased the numbers of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of dogs on days 6, 8, and 11 after injection compared to numbers before administration (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that the rcIL-15 protein, consisting of Asn-49-Ser-162, enhanced the proliferation and antitumor effects of canine NK cells and promoted the generation of lymphocytes in dogs. PMID:25890849

  5. Lung transplantation at Duke

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alice L.; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung transplantation represents the gold-standard therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Utilization of this therapy continues to rise. The Lung Transplant Program at Duke University Medical Center was established in 1992, and since that time has grown to one of the highest volume centers in the world. The program to date has performed over 1,600 lung transplants. This report represents an up-to-date review of the practice and management strategies employed for safe and effective lung transplantation at our center. Specific attention is paid to the evaluation of candidacy for lung transplantation, donor selection, surgical approach, and postoperative management. These evidence-based strategies form the foundation of the clinical transplantation program at Duke. PMID:27076968

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Mami; HOSHINO, Yuki; IZUMI, Yusuke; TAKAGI, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  7. Oncolytic virotherapy in veterinary medicine: current status and future prospects for canine patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus strains, canine distemper virus and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. However, in contrast to human studies, clinical trials with oncolytic viruses for canine cancer patients have not been reported. An 'ideal' virus has yet to be identified. This review is focused on the prospective use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of canine tumors - a knowledge that will undoubtedly contribute to the development of oncolytic viral agents for canine cancer therapy in the future. PMID:22216938

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  9. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies. PMID:26315688

  10. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  11. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  12. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  13. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) is a proliferative disorder of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Canine epitheliotropic lymphoma (mycosis fungoides [MF]) is a spontaneous neoplasm of skin and mucous membranes that occurs in old dogs (mean age 11 years) and has no breed predilection. The lesions evolve from a patch-plaque stage with prominent epitheliotropism into a tumor stage in which distant metastasis is observed. Unlike human MF, epitheliotropism of the lymphoid infiltrate is still prominent in tumor stage lesions. Tropism of the lymphoid infiltrate for adnexal structures, especially hair follicles and apocrine sweat glands, was marked in all clinical stages of canine MF. Twenty-three cases of MF were subjected to extensive immunophenotypic analysis in which reagents specific for canine leukocyte antigens and fresh frozen tissue sections of the canine lesions were used. Canine MF proved to be a T cell lymphoma in which the epitheliotropic lymphocytes consistently expressed CD3 (22 cases) and CD8 (19 cases); CD3+CD4-CD8- lymphocytes predominated in the remaining 4 cases. In this regard, canine MF clearly differed from human MF in which a CD4 immunophenotype predominates in the T cell infiltrate. Lack of expression of CD45RA by epitheliotropic T cells and intense expression of a beta 1 integrin (VLA-4-like) suggested that T cells in canine MF belonged to the memory subpopulation, as has been suggested for T cells in human MF. Pan-T cell antigen loss or discordant expression also proved useful as phenotypic indicators of neoplasia in canine MF. Loss of CD5 was observed in epitheliotropic T cells in 63% of cases. Discordance of neoplastic T cell Thy-1 expression was frequently observed between epithelial and dermal or submucosal compartments. We conclude that canine MF still represents a useful spontaneous animal disease model of human cutaneous T cell lymphoma, despite the immunophenotypic differences, which may reflect operational differences between human and canine skin-associated lymphoid tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure

  14. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  16. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  19. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  20. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  1. Characterization of lipoproteins in human and canine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

    SciTech Connect

    Pitas, R.E.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Boyles, J.K.; Lee, S.; Mahley, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Previously the authors demonstrated that rat brain astrocytes in vitro synthesize and secrete apo-E and possess apo-B,E(LDL) receptors. The apo-E secreted by astrocytes and apo-E in rat brain extracts differed from serum apo-E in two respects. Brain apo-E had a higher apparent molecular weight and a higher percentage of more acidic isoforms. To characterize further the apo-E within the central nervous system, apo-E in human and canine CSF was investigated. Compared to plasma apo-E, CSF apo-E had a higher apparent M/sub r/ and a higher percentage of acidic isoforms which were sialylated, as shown by neuraminidase digestion. The apo-E in human CSF was approx.5-10% of the plasma level. In CSF 60-80% of the apo-E was in lipoproteins with d = 1.09-1.15. The remainder of the apo-E was in the d > 1.21 fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins were primarily spherical (110-190 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) while canine CSF lipoproteins were a mixture of discs (205 x 65 A) and spheres (100-150 A). The CSF also contained apo-AI in the d = 1.09-1.15 g/ml fraction. Human CSF lipoproteins containing both apo-E and apo-AI were isolated on an anti-apo-E affinity column, suggesting that apo-E and AI occurred in the same particles. The CSF apo-E-containing lipoproteins competed for binding of /sup 125/I-LDL to the apo-B,E(LDL) receptor. There was no detectable apo-B in CSF. These data suggest that CSF lipoproteins might transport lipid and regulate lipid homeostasis within the brain.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant canine mammary tumors represent 50% of all neoplasms in female dogs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are thought to be involved in tumor progression, and they are also associated with the reactive stroma, which provides structural and vascular support for tumor growth. Results MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP were expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in tumor samples. MMP-2 and MMP-9 immunohistochemical reactions were evident both in the epithelial tumor cells and in the stromal compartment to varying degrees; in particular, the intensity of the MMP-2 staining was stronger in the stromal fibroblasts close to epithelial tumor cells in simple carcinomas than in adenomas. These data were supported by gelatin-zymography; bands for the active form of MMP-2 were found in 94% of carcinoma samples, compared with 17% of benign tumor samples. The gene expression and immunohistochemical results for MT1-MMP were comparable to those for MMP-2. The immunoreactivity for MMP-13 and TIMP-2 was lower in carcinomas than in adenomas, confirming the mRNA data for MMP-13 and the other MMP inhibitors that were evaluated. The active form of MMP-9, but not the active form of MMP-2, was identified in the plasma of all of the tested dogs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that MMP-9, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which are synthesized by epithelial cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, play an important role in malignant canine mammary tumors. The reduction of MMP-13 and TIMP-2 could also be a significant step in malignant transformation. MMP-2 and MT1-MMP could be further evaluated as future biomarkers for predicting the progression and prognosis of canine mammary tumors. PMID:21726449

  3. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y.; Brix, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  4. Dynamic testing of regional viscoelastic behavior of canine sclera

    PubMed Central

    Palko, Joel R.; Pan, Xueliang; Liu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations have gained recent clinical interest and thus warrant an understanding of how the sclera responds to dynamic mechanical insults. The objective of this study was to characterize the regional dynamic viscoelastic properties of canine sclera under physiological cyclic loadings. Scleral strips were excised from the anterior, equatorial, and posterior sclera in ten canine eyes. The dimensions of each strip were measured using a high resolution ultrasound imaging system. The strips were tested in a humidity chamber at approximately 37°C using a Rheometrics Systems Analyzer. A cyclic strain input (0.25%, 1 Hz) was applied to the strips, superimposed upon pre-stresses corresponding to an IOP of 15, 25, and 45 mmHg. The cyclic stress output was recorded and the dynamic properties were calculated based on linear viscoelasticity. Uniaxial tensile tests were also performed on the same samples and the results were compared to those reported for human eyes. The results showed that the sclera’s resistance to dynamic loading increased significantly while the damping capability decreased significantly with increasing pre-stresses for all regions of sclera (P<0.001). Anterior sclera appeared to have a significantly higher damping capability than equatorial and posterior sclera (P=0.003 and 0.018, respectively). The secant modulus from uniaxial tensile tests showed a decreasing trend from anterior to posterior sclera, displaying a similar pattern as in the human eye. In conclusion, all scleral regions in the canine eyes exhibited an increased ability to resist and a decreased ability to dampen cyclic stress insults at increasing prestress (i.e., increasing steady-state IOP). The regional variation of the dynamic properties differed from those of uniaxial tensile tests. Dynamic testing may provide useful information to better understand the mechanical behavior of the sclera in response to dynamic IOP. PMID:21983041

  5. Resident Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Canine Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Pires, M A; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    Resident immune cells play a major role in endometrial immunity and in tissue homoeostasis. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of macrophages, B and T lymphocytes (respectively, Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym) in the canine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle and in late involution (at the proestrus stage post-parturition). An immunohistochemistry technique was used on samples from 50 post-pubertal healthy female dogs, of which five in late post-partum. The distribution of resident immune cells was analysed in three endometrial layers (superficial, intermediate and basal areas). Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym were demonstrated to reside in the endometrium in all the stages of the canine cycle; their numbers being considerably higher during late involution. T-Lym were scattered in the stroma or amidst the glandular epithelium, constituting the predominant immune cell population in anestrus and proestrus, but decreased in number at all other stages. Endometrial B-Lym remained fairly constant during the canine cycle, although its numbers were higher in late involution. Mø counts were higher during anestrus compared to the other stages, the cells being displaced into the superficial endometrial layer. Mø demonstrated the highest level in late involution samples, forming small aggregates below the surface epithelium. The number of immune cells was not normally distributed, suggesting the influence of individual factors, such as age or parity, not explored herein due to limited sample availability. Still, this study provides important information for the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in dogs and for the understanding of the increased susceptibility to uterine infection during dioestrus found in the bitch. PMID:26234683

  6. A clinical study of canine collagen type III glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Collagen type III glomerulopathy (Col3GP), also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy, is a rare renal disease with unknown pathogenesis that occurs in animals and humans. We recently described a naturally occurring canine autosomal recessive model of Col3GP, and the aim of the present work was to study the clinical features of canine Col3GP and compare with the human phenotype. In humans two different clinical syndromes with different age at onset (child- or adulthood) have been observed. In children a more aggressive course with familial occurrence is described, characterized by progressively increasing proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and chronic renal failure. A markedly increased serum level of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is considered a useful marker for the disease. Since Col3GP and concurrent hypocomplementemia have been observed in humans, we also aimed to investigate if hypocomplementemia was present in Col3GP affected dogs. A litter consisting of seven puppies, four Col3GP affected and three healthy unaffected, was observed from the day of birth until the affected puppies developed a mild or moderate renal azotemia. Results During the period of observation growth retardation, increasing blood pressure, progressive proteinuria, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased serum PIIINP were observed in all the affected dogs. Hypocomplementemia was not detected. Affected dogs were euthanized between 109 and 144 days of age, and pathological examinations revealed ascites and massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III, consistent with Col3GP. Conclusions Dogs with Col3GP develop juvenile chronic renal failure, preceded by nephrotic syndrome, elevated serum PIIINP and hypertension, thus have similar clinical features as the juvenile Col3GP in humans. Further studies of this naturally occurring canine phenotype may provide more information on the pathogenesis and

  7. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  8. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    White, Michelle E.; Hayward, Jessica J.; Stokol, Tracy; Boyko, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests). After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10−13) was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies. PMID:26683458

  9. Isolation of a large cholecystokinin precursor from canine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Eysselein, V E; Reeve, J R; Shively, J E; Miller, C; Walsh, J H

    1984-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) in a pool of 12 dog brains was extracted sequentially into boiling water and cold 2% trifluoroacetic acid. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 revealed three main molecular forms detected by a carboxyl-terminal antibody; one was eluted in the position of CCK-58 (58 amino acid residues long); a second, in the position of CCK-8; and a third, near the radioactive iodide marker. When the CCK-LI was purified by affinity chromatography using carboxyl-terminal CCK antibody followed by three steps of reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, three components were isolated and characterized by sequence microanalysis. The smallest component was the pentapeptide common to gastrin and CCK. The second peak was eluted in the same region as synthetic CCK octapeptide, and sequence analysis showed that the chemical structure of this biologically active region of canine CCK is identical to that found in sheep and pig brains. The 22-residue amino-terminal sequence of brain CCK-58 was: Ala-Val-Gln-Lys-Val-Asp-Gly-Glu-Pro-Arg-Ala-His-Leu-Gly -Ala-Leu-leu-Ala-Arg-Tyr-Ile-Gln-, the same as the sequence found for canine intestinal CCK-58 from this pool of dogs. This is the same sequence others have reported for porcine brain CCK-58 lacking nine amino acid residues (CCK-58 desnonapeptide) except that the porcine peptide had a serine in position 9. The canine CCK amino-terminal sequence differed from the sequence Ala-Gln-Lys-Val-Asn-Ser previously reported for intestinal CCK-58 purified from another pool of dog tissue, but the rest of the residues identified were identical in the two peptides. CCK-58 may be a molecular precursor of the smaller forms of CCK in brain as well as in gut. PMID:6093106

  10. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Okusa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yumi; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Cushing’s disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1), which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog’s pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing’s disease. PMID:26262685

  11. Sexual dimorphism of canine volume: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gibelli, Daniele; Gaudio, Daniel; Cipriani Noce, Filippo; Guercini, Nicola; Varvara, Giuseppe; Sguazza, Emanuela; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Sex assessment is a crucial part of the biological profile in forensic and archaeological context, but it can be hardly performed in cases of commingled and charred human remains where DNA tests often are not applicable. With time literature have analyzed the sexual dimorphism of teeth (and especially canines), but very few articles take into consideration the teeth volume, although with time several technologies have been introduced in order to assess 3D volume (CT-scan, laser scanner, etc.). This study aims at assessing the sexual dimorphism of dental and pulp chamber volumes of a sample of canines. Cone beam computed tomography analyses were performed by 87 patients (41 males and 46 females, aged between 15 and 83 years) for clinical purposes, and were acquired in order to measure canine volumes. Results show that the dental volume amounted to 0.745 cm(3) (SD 0.126 cm(3)) in males, 0.551 cm(3) (SD 0.130 cm(3)) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). A diagnostic threshold of 0.619 cm(3) was stated, which provides a percentage of correct answer of 80.5% in the chosen sample. The novel method was then applied with success to 7 archaeological: where in all the cases the results were concordant with those provided by the assessment of the cranium and pelvis. The study adds a contribution to the wide analysis of dental sexual dimorphism confirming the statistically significant differences of volume between males and females and providing a method for the diagnosis of sex applicable to forensic cases. PMID:25556039

  12. First Record of Autochthonous Canine Leishmaniasis in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Tánczos, Balázs; Balogh, Nándor; Király, László; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May–November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained. PMID:22607079

  13. Transmission electron microscope evidence of telocytes in canine dura mater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Lu, Shanshan; Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells present in a wide variety of organs and tissues (www.telocytes.com). Telocytes are identified morphologically by a small cell body and specific long prolongations (telopodes) alternating thin segments (podomers) with dilations (podoms). The presence of TCs in rat meninges has been identified in previous research. We here present further evidence that TCs existed in canine dura mater, closed to capillary and surrounded by a great deal of collagen fibres under transmission electron microscope. PMID:26781033

  14. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  15. A comparative study of canine and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, L N

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of mammary tumours in the bitch is probably three times as great as in women. While many of these tumours are mixed mammary tumours about one-third are carcinomas which resemble human breast carcinomas. Allowing for differences in life span, the age at onset is similar in both species. The World Health Organization classification of tumours and dysplasias of the canine mammary gland follows as far as possible the WHO classification for human breast tumours. Clinical staging of canine mammary tumours has now been completed. Some prognostic factors are similar in both species but regional lymph node metastasis does not seem to be of major importance in the bitch; mitotic activity may also not be as important as in women. Metastatic spread is broadly similar in both species except that involvement of the liver and skeleton is not as common in the bitch as in women. In older normal Beagles hyperplastic and neoplastic nodules commonly appear in the mammary gland, and they occur earlier in animals receiving large doses of progestogens. This has produced problems for the drug industry when conducting long-term carcinogenicity tests on progestogens present in the human contraceptive pill. Despite considerable endocrinological differences between the two species, oophorectomy is sparing for breast cancer in both. As in women, oestrogen and progesterone receptors have been detected in mammary carcinomas in bitches. Canine tumours can be grown in tissue culture but cloned cell lines have not yet been obtained. Transplantation can be made into nude mice and immunosuppressed neonatal dogs. The prognosis following mastectomy for invasive tubular adenocarcinoma and invasive solid carcinoma in the bitch is poor and these histological types make the best models for breast cancer in women. International trials are planned using chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy following mastectomy and, as results can be obtained within 3 years of commencement, it is expected that

  16. Pimobendan and its use in treating canine congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Danielle; Fry, Darren

    2011-11-01

    Pimobendan, a calcium sensitizer and phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, has positive inotropic and vasodilatory properties. Its use in patients with naturally occurring congestive heart failure (CHF) has been studied in a number of blinded, randomized, multicenter clinical trials. It has been shown to improve quality of life, reduce heart insufficiency scores, and increase median survival times for patients with CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy and myxomatous valvular disease. Although most studies have reported positive findings, some potential adverse effects have also been described. Studies are under way to further evaluate the effects of this novel positive inotrope and vasodilator in canine cardiac disease. PMID:22101450

  17. Structure of the immediate early gene of canine herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, M; Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Hashimoto, A; Takada, A; Okazaki, K; Kida, H

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the immediate early (IE) gene of canine herpesvirus was determined. This gene was located in the inverted repeat regions, encoding a polypeptide of 1,383 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was most closely related to that of the feline herpesvirus 1 IE protein among those of other alphaherpesviruses. DNA binding and transcriptional activation domains were found in the IE protein. A spliced region of the IE gene transcript was determined in its 5' non-coding region. PMID:10470264

  18. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  19. Pulp revascularization of a severely malformed immature maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Chang; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul; Nam, Ok Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly exhibiting complex anatomical forms. Because of this anatomical complexity, immature DI teeth with necrotic pulp are difficult to treat via apexification. We used revascularization as an alternative treatment for a patient with DI. An 11-year-old boy visited our clinic with chief complaints of gingival swelling and pain in the left maxillary canine. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of type III DI. Revascularization therapy was performed, and a 24-month follow-up examination confirmed healing of the periapical radiolucency and physiological root formation. (J Oral Sci 58, 295-298, 2016). PMID:27349553

  20. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates from cases of canine dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Francesca; Piancastelli, Chiara; Taddei, Simone; Gandolfo, Emanuele; Cavirani, Sandro; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Among 97 bacterial isolates, 74 strains of Staphylococcus spp developed from 95 swabs taken from skin lesions in dogs. Twenty-eight staphylococcal strains resistant to methicillin and/or oxacillin were identified and mecA expression was confirmed for 14 of these strains. S. aureus and S. intermedius group (SIG) strains were particularly relevant in our cases due to their antibiotic resistance leading to an increased veterinary and public health risk. We suggest a diagnostic protocol based on cytological examination, bacterial identification to species level, and antibiotic sensitivity testing prior to prescribing antibiotic treatment for canine skin diseases. PMID:22143814

  1. Adrafinil: effects on behavior and cognition in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-07-01

    1. Adrafmil is a novel vigilance promoting agent developed in France by Louis Lafon Laboratories. 2. Adrafinil causes increased locomotion without producing stereotypical activity in canines tested in an open field. 3. The effectiveness of a single treatment is long-lasting, and the effectiveness persists over repeated treatments. 4. Acquisition of a size discrimination problem is enhanced by adrafinil. This may be linked to performance motivation. 5. Adrafinil causes a long-lasting increase in high frequency electroencephalographic activity recorded from cortical electrodes. 6. These results indicate that adrafinil is novel behavioral stimulant with cognitive enhancing potential. The underlying mechanisms of action are still unknown. PMID:11191710

  2. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  3. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  4. Viral Oncolysis — Can Insights from Measles Be Transferred to Canine Distemper Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Lapp, Stefanie; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Puff, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly suitable

  5. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of canine inflammatory mammary cancer: IPC-366.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Illera, Maria J; Lopez, Mirtha S; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366) for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %). At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the comparative

  6. Investigation of the local expression of the relaxin system in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Lamp, O; Honscha, K U; Jakob, J; Lamp, J; Schweizer, S; Reischauer, A; Gottschalk, J; Hahn, A; Ebert, M; Rothemund, S; Blaschzik, S; Einspanier, A

    2009-07-01

    While mammary tumours are the main reasons of death in bitches, early detection of tumours and metastases is crucial for survival of affected dogs. Invasiveness and angiogenesis, which are important processes of tumour growth and spreading, require connective tissue remodelling. This process is dominantly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which are well known to be positively regulated by relaxin (RLX) in various tissues, including human breast cancer. So far, the presence of RLX and its receptor RXFP-1 as well as their linkage with MMP in canine mammary tumours (CMT) is completely unknown. In the first part of the present study, concentrations of RLX, oestradiol and progesterone from plasma samples of bitches with CMT were compared with clinical and survival data to investigate the predictive value of these hormones. In the second part, the expressions of RLX, RXFP-1 and MMP-2, -9 and -13 were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 31 CMT samples. Finally, relationships of systemic plasma RLX or locally expressed RLX with expression of MMP in CMT were analyzed for the first time. Comparison of hormone concentrations in 93 bitches in terms of benign or malignant nature of the CMT, lung metastases, recidivation and 12-month survival discovered no significances. The expressions of RLX, RXFP-1 and MMP were independent from plasma RLX, but expressions of local RLX and RXFP-1 showed a strong correlation (p = 0.00004, r = 0.671) as well as RXFP-1 and MMP-2 (p = 0.009, r = 0.463), indicating a possible significant role of the locally produced RLX in CMT pathogenesis as an inducer of connective tissue remodelling. PMID:19754574

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Diana; Pelayo, Rosana; Medina, Luis Alberto; Vadillo, Eduardo; Sánchez, Rogelio; Núñez, Luis; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4), as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5%) and dog (34% ± 12%) lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h) biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 1012 TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose) in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures. PMID:26703717

  8. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Diana; Pelayo, Rosana; Medina, Luis Alberto; Vadillo, Eduardo; Sánchez, Rogelio; Núñez, Luis; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2016-01-01

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4), as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5%) and dog (34% ± 12%) lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h) biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 10(12) TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose) in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures. PMID:26703717

  9. Delayed embolization of an Amplatz(®) canine duct occluder in a dog.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Justin A; Achen, Sarah A; Saunders, Ashley B; Gordon, Sonya G; Miller, Matthew W

    2013-12-01

    A 5-year old, 5.8 kg, castrated male Pomeranian was diagnosed with a type IIa patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with a minimal ductal diameter of 3.5 mm and ampulla width of 7.1 mm based on angiographic assessment. A 6 mm Amplatz(®) Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO) was deployed within the PDA. Once deployed, the device assumed it's native shape and back-and-forth maneuvering was performed with the delivery cable to assess device stability. Device position and complete occlusion were confirmed with both angiography and transesophageal echocardiography prior to and after release of the device. The device location was confirmed within the ductus arteriosus by echocardiography prior to discharge. The dog was discharged with instructions for strict activity restriction. Two days after discharge, the dog was left unsupervised in the backyard and shortly afterwards was found coughing with severe respiratory distress. The dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital and thoracic radiographs documented embolization of the ACDO to the main pulmonary artery along with a severe alveolar pattern throughout the right lung fields. Shortly after obtaining thoracic radiographs, the dog experienced cardiopulmonary arrest with unsuccessful resuscitation. This case describes a possible complication of transcatheter PDA occlusion with an ACDO, which has not been previously reported. An incident report, or catalog of adverse events with these devices, may prove useful in identifying additional fatal complications that others may have encountered, but are not reported in the literature. The report of this complication emphasizes the importance of strict activity restriction after device placement in dogs. PMID:24246437

  10. Establishment and Characterization of a New Cell Line of Canine Inflammatory Mammary Cancer: IPC-366

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J.; Illera, Maria J.; Lopez, Mirtha S.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366) for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %). At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the comparative

  11. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  12. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  13. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  14. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  15. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... when there is an abnormal condition near the surface of the lung, in the lung itself, or on the chest wall. Most often, it is done to rule out cancer. The biopsy is usually done after abnormalities appear on a chest x-ray or CT ...

  16. Immunosuppression for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Choo Y.; Madsen, Joren C.; Rosengard, Bruce R.; Allan, James S.

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT As a result of advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy, and postoperative management, lung transplantation has become an established therapeutic option for individuals with a variety of end-stage lung diseases. The current 1-year actuarial survival rate following lung transplantation is approaching 80%. However, the 5- year actuarial survival rate has remained virtually unchanged at approximately 50% over the last 15 years due to the processes of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection (1). Clinicians still rely on a vast array of immunosuppressive agents to suppress the process of graft rejection, but find themselves limited by an inescapable therapeutic paradox. Insufficient immunosuppression results in graft loss due to rejection, while excess immunosuppression results in increased morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections and malignancies. Indeed, graft rejection, infection, and malignancy are the three principal causes of mortality for the lung transplant recipient. One should also keep in mind that graft loss in a lung transplant recipient is usually a fatal event, since there is no practical means of long-term mechanical support, and since the prospects of re-transplantation are low, given the shortage of acceptable donor grafts. This chapter reviews the current state of immunosuppressive therapy for lung transplantation and suggests alternative paradigms for the management of future lung transplant recipients. PMID:19273152

  17. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  18. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  19. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  20. Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Methods A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian’s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. Conclusions The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  1. Activation of Mammalian target of rapamycin in canine mammary carcinomas: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, L; Gärtner, F; Dias Pereira, P

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in cell growth, proliferation and survival. Activation of mTOR has been reported in various tumour types, including human breast cancer; however, the expression of mTOR in canine mammary tumours has not been examined. In the present study, expression of the activated form of mTOR (phospho-mTOR [p-mTOR]) was examined immunohistochemically in five normal canine mammary glands, 45 canine mammary carcinomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions (n = 15). Phospho-mTOR was not expressed in normal canine mammary tissue, but cytoplasmic labelling was observed in 78% of canine mammary carcinomas. Two carcinomas had both cytoplasmic and nuclear labelling. No significant relationship was found between p-mTOR cytoplasmic expression and histological type or grading of carcinomas, degree of tubular formation, anisokaryosis, mitotic activity or lymph node metastasis. In all except one case, the expression pattern of p-mTOR in lymph node metastases was similar or decreased when compared with the primary lesion. The findings suggest that p-mTOR is involved in mammary carcinogenesis in dogs. However, p-mTOR cytoplasmic expression does not appear to be a prognostic indicator in canine mammary carcinomas, which may be related to its subcellular location in the neoplastic cells. Canine mammary tumours may provide a model for the development of innovative medical strategies involving mTOR inhibitors in human breast cancer. PMID:25670666

  2. Molecular homology and difference between spontaneous canine mammary cancer and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deli; Xiong, Huan; Ellis, Angela E; Northrup, Nicole C; Rodriguez, Carlos O; O'Regan, Ruth M; Dalton, Stephen; Zhao, Shaying

    2014-09-15

    Spontaneously occurring canine mammary cancer represents an excellent model of human breast cancer, but is greatly understudied. To better use this valuable resource, we performed whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, RNA-seq, and/or high-density arrays on twelve canine mammary cancer cases, including seven simple carcinomas and four complex carcinomas. Canine simple carcinomas, which histologically match human breast carcinomas, harbor extensive genomic aberrations, many of which faithfully recapitulate key features of human breast cancer. Canine complex carcinomas, which are characterized by proliferation of both luminal and myoepithelial cells and are rare in human breast cancer, seem to lack genomic abnormalities. Instead, these tumors have about 35 chromatin-modification genes downregulated and are abnormally enriched with active histone modification H4-acetylation, whereas aberrantly depleted with repressive histone modification H3K9me3. Our findings indicate the likelihood that canine simple carcinomas arise from genomic aberrations, whereas complex carcinomas originate from epigenomic alterations, reinforcing their unique value. Canine complex carcinomas offer an ideal system to study myoepithelial cells, the second major cell lineage of the mammary gland. Canine simple carcinomas, which faithfully represent human breast carcinomas at the molecular level, provide indispensable models for basic and translational breast cancer research. PMID:25082814

  3. Comparative stimulation of motilin duodenal receptor by porcine or canine motilin.

    PubMed

    Poitras, P; Lahaie, R G; St-Pierre, S; Trudel, L

    1987-03-01

    Motilins purified from porcine and canine intestine differ in their amino acid composition in positions 7-8-12-13-14. We studied in vitro the contractile response of longitudinal duodenal muscles from various animals (guinea pig, rabbit, dog) to porcine and canine synthetic motilins. Both substances failed to elicit contraction of the guinea pig duodenum but were active and equally potent on rabbit muscle. In dogs, porcine motilin was inactive at the concentrations tested (up to 10(-4) M) whereas canine motilin induced duodenal contractions in a dose-response fashion (mean dose required to induce half-maximal response: 4.82 +/- 0.25 X 10(-5) M). The contraction generated by synthetic canine motilin (10(-5) M) was not influenced by atropine, hexamethonium, tetrodotoxin, naloxone, or sodium nitroprusside (all used at 10(-4) M) but was blocked by verapamil (10(-4)). Our study shows that species-related structural alterations in motilin molecules generate different bioactive capacities in some animal species, suggests that the middle portion of the molecule is important for its bioactive expression, suggests the presence of motilin receptors on canine duodenal muscle, and suggests that an influx of extracellular calcium is involved in the canine duodenal muscle contraction elicited by canine motilin. PMID:3817389

  4. Interleukin-10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of tissue factor in canine peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Seigo; Stokol, Tracy

    2012-08-15

    The potentially fatal hemostatic disorder of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is initiated in bacterial sepsis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) expression on monocytes. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent inhibitory cytokine that downregulates monocyte inflammatory and procoagulant responses. We hypothesized that canine recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) would inhibit LPS-induced TF upregulation on canine monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), obtained by double-density gradient centrifugation, and monocytes, purified from PBMC by immunomagnetic bead separation with an anti-canine CD14 antibody (Ab), were stimulated in suspension with LPS (0.1-1000 ng/mL) for various times. Recombinant IL-10 (10-5000 pg/mL) was added with LPS or up to 2h later. Tissue factor procoagulant activity was measured by cleavage of a chromogenic substrate by activated Factor X generated by the TF-factor VII complex. We found that rIL-10, when given concurrently or 1h after LPS, strongly inhibited LPS-induced TF procoagulant activity in canine PBMC and monocytes. This inhibition was dose-dependent and blocked by an anti-canine IL-10 Ab. Our results indicate that rIL-10 effectively inhibits LPS-induced TF upregulation in canine monocytes and could potentially be useful in limiting the development of DIC in dogs with endotoxemia. PMID:22609246

  5. Novel canine bocavirus strain associated with severe enteritis in a dog litter.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; Lapp, Stefanie; Hahn, Kerstin; Habierski, André; Förster, Christine; König, Matthias; Wohlsein, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Bocaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a linear ssDNA genome, that belong to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the subfamiliy Parvovirinae. Bocavirus infections are associated with a wide spectrum of disease in humans and various mammalian species. Here we describe a fatal enteritis associated with infection with a novel strain of canine bocavirus 2 (CaBoV-2), that occurred in a litter of German wirehaired pointers. Necropsy performed on three puppies revealed an enteritis reminiscent of canine parvovirus associated enteritis, accompanied with signs of lymphocytolytic disease in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. While other major causes of enteritis of young dogs, including canine parvovirus, were excluded, by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel CaBoV-2 strain was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of this novel canine bocavirus strain indicated that this virus was indeed most closely related to group 2 canine bocaviruses. Infection with canine bocavirus was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of CaBoV-2 nucleic acid in the intestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of the dogs. In a small-scale retrospective analysis concerning the role of CaBoV-2 no additional cases were identified. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the pathogenicity of canine bocaviruses. PMID:25263495

  6. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Emily J.; Lam, Carol J.; Cox, Aaron R.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Van Winkle, Thomas J.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Kushner, Jake A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been proposed regarding the underlying cause of canine diabetes, from pancreatic atrophy to chronic pancreatitis to autoimmune mediated β-cell destruction. It remains unclear to what extent β-cell loss contributes to canine diabetes, as precise quantifications of islet morphometry have not been performed. We used high-throughput microscopy and automated image processing to characterize islet histology in a large collection of pancreata of diabetic dogs. Diabetic pancreata displayed a profound reduction in β-cells and islet endocrine cells. Unlike humans, canine non-diabetic islets are largely comprised of β-cells. Very few β-cells remained in islets of diabetic dogs, even in pancreata from new onset cases. Similarly, total islet endocrine cell number was sharply reduced in diabetic dogs. No compensatory proliferation or lymphocyte infiltration was detected. The majority of pancreata had no evidence of pancreatitis. Thus, canine diabetes is associated with extreme β-cell deficiency in both new and longstanding disease. The β-cell predominant composition of canine islets and the near-total absence of β-cells in new onset elderly diabetic dogs strongly implies that similar to human type 1 diabetes, β-cell loss underlies the pathophysiology of canine diabetes. PMID:26057531

  7. The relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index, rainfall and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rika-Heke, Tamara; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P < 0.05) positive cross-correlation was found between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P < 0.05) negative cross-correlations (-0.34 to -0.39) were found between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases. PMID:25841899

  8. Intraglottal geometry and velocity measurements in canine larynges

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Liran; Khosla, Sid; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2014-01-01

    Previous flow velocity measurements during phonation in canine larynges were done above the glottal exit. These studies found that vortical structures are present in the flow above the glottis at different phases of the glottal cycle. Some vortices were observed to leave the glottis during the closing phase and assumptions were proposed regarding their formation mechanism. In the current study, intraglottal velocity measurements are performed using PIV, and the intraglottal flow characteristics are determined. Results from five canine larynges show that at low subglottal pressure the glottis assumes a minimal divergence angle during closing and the flow separates at the glottal exit. Vortical structures are observed above the glottis but not inside. As the subglottal pressure is increased, the divergence angle between the folds during closing increases and the location of the flow separation moves upstream into the glottis. Entrainment flow enters the glottis to fill the void that is formed between the glottal jet and the fold. Vortical structures develop near the superior edge at medium and high subglottal pressures from the flow separation. The magnitude of their swirling strength changes as a function of the wall dynamics. PMID:24437778

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  10. Pathways of ion movement in the canine tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Welsh, M J; Widdicombe, J H

    1980-09-01

    The pathways of ion movement across canine tracheal epithelium, a Cl-secreting tissue, were examined by three techniques. First, the measurement of simultaneous, unidirectional fluxes of Na or Cl and mannitol, a large hydrophilic molecule that serves as a marker of the paracellular pathway, indicated that a significant fraction of both the Na flux from submucosa to mucosa (J Na sm) and the flux of Cl from mucosa to submucosa (J Cl ms) traverse the cellular pathway. The ratio of the Na-to-Cl diffusion coefficients through the paracellular pathway was 0.23, in contrast to the free solution ratio of 0.63. Second, in voltage-clamp experiments we examined the effect of transepithelial voltage differences on the unidirectional fluxes of Na and Cl. The results agree with the previous findings, suggesting that there are voltage-independent, or transcellular, backfluxes of Na and Cl, and that the relative permeability of Na to Cl through the voltage-dependent (presumably paracellular) pathway was 0.28. Third, measurement of transepithelial diffusion potentials gave a Na-to-Cl permeability ratio of 0.31 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SE). These results suggest that there are significant transcellular backfluxes of Na and Cl and that the paracellular pathway in the canine trachea is anion selective. An anion-selective pathway would tend to shunt the secreted Cl back through the paracellular pathway, thus minimizing the net ion and fluid movement across the tissue in the open-circuit condition. PMID:7435560

  11. Canine gastrointestinal physiology: Breeds variations that can influence drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Hayley; Sharkey, Michele; Pade, Devendra; Martinez, Marilyn N

    2015-11-01

    Although all dogs belong to Canis lupus familiaris, the physiological diversity resulting from selective breeding can lead to wide interbreed variability in drug pharmacokinetics (PK) or in oral drug product performance. It is important to understand this diversity in order to predict the impact of drug product formulation attributes on in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics across the canine population when the dog represents the targeted patient population. Based upon published information, this review addresses breed differences in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology and discusses the in vivo implications of these differences. In addition to the importance of such information for understanding the variability that may exist in the performance of oral dosage forms in dogs for the purpose of developing canine therapeutics, an appreciation of breed differences in GI physiology can improve our prediction of oral drug formulation performance when we extrapolate bioavailability results from the dog to the humans, and vice versa. In this literature review, we examine reports of breed associated diversity in GI anatomy and morphology, gastric emptying time (GET), oro-cecal transit time (OCTT), small intestinal transit time (SITT), large intestinal transit time (LITT), intestinal permeability, sodium/potassium fecal concentrations, intestinal flora, and fecal moisture content. PMID:26409436

  12. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. PMID:24192279

  13. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties

    PubMed Central

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety. PMID:26528555

  14. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Spheroid Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, C; Gabriel, C; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Spheroid cell culture emerges as powerful in vitro tool for experimental tumour research. In this study, we established a scaffold-free three-dimensional spheroid system built from canine osteosarcoma (OS) cells (D17). Spheroids (7, 14 and 19 days of cultivation) and monolayer cultures (2 and 7 days of cultivation) were evaluated and compared on light and electron microscopy. Monolayer and spheroid cultures were tested for vimentin, cytokeratin, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and collagen I by means of immunohistochemistry. The spheroid cell culture exhibited a distinct network of collagen I in particular after 19-day cultivation, whereas in monolayer cultures, collagen I was arranged as a lamellar basal structure. Necrotic centres of large spheroids, as observed in 14- and 19-day cultures, were characterized by significant amounts of osteocalcin. Proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity showed an even distribution in two-dimensional cultures. In spheroids, proliferation was predominating in the peripheral areas. Metastasis-associated markers ezrin and S100A4 were shown to be continuously expressed in monolayer and spheroid cultures. We conclude that the scaffold-free spheroid system from canine OS cells has the ability to mimic the architecture of the in vivo tumour, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26287450

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  16. Big endothelin-1 as a tumour marker for canine haemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Miyasho, Taku; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Saida, Kaname; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Haemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an important malignant neoplasm of dogs that originates from vascular endothelial cells. This study explored the suitability of using serum big endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a tumour marker for canine spontaneous HSA. Serum big ET-1 was measured in dogs with splenic HSA (n = 14), splenic malignant tumours other than HSA (n = 10), benign splenic lesions (n = 11) and normal healthy dogs (n = 17) by ELISA. Serum big ET-1 levels in dogs with HSA were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in other dogs. High sensitivity (100%, 95% confidence interval 86-100%) and specificity (95%, 95% confidence interval 86-95%) for HSA diagnosis were obtained using a cut-off of 17 pg/mL according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (area under ROC curve 0.93). PPET1, ETA, VEGF and Hif1-α mRNA expression, measured by real-time PCR, were elevated in HSA compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that elevated serum big ET-1 could be used as a diagnostic marker for canine HSA. PMID:25920760

  17. A Pre-Clinical Canine Model for Composite Tissue Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, David W.; Noland, Marie; Graves, Scott; Schlenker, Robert; Miwongtum, Tiffany; Storb, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of composite tissue allografts (CTA) has been demonstrated by the successful transplantation of the hand, abdomen and face. However, the survival of these transplants is dependent on immunosupression. Our laboratory is interested in achieving tolerance in order to decrease the risks associated with the use of chronic immunosuppression. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a large animal model for CTA. Four canine flaps were auto-transplanted to examine the use of a myocutaneous rectus flap based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels. Five CTA transplants were performed between Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) identical littermates without any therapy. The allografts were followed clinically and underwent routine biopsies. The anatomic dissections and auto-transplants were all successful and revealed that the flap could be divided into two separate components. Skin is routinely perfused by the superficial epigastric artery. Rectus muscle is perfused by the deep inferior epigastrc system. This allows the allografts to be transplanted as muscle, skin or with both components based on the external iliac artery and veins. The DLA-identical littermates rejected the allografts in 15 to 30 days. This study demonstrates the versatility of the myocutaneous rectus flap for use in canines as composite tissue allograft models. PMID:20108180

  18. Differential Genetic Regulation of Canine Hip Dysplasia and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Guo, Gang; Friedenberg, Steve G.; Hunter, Linda S.; Vandenberg-Foels, Wendy S.; Hornbuckle, William E.; Krotscheck, Ursula; Corey, Elizabeth; Moise, Nancy S.; Dykes, Nathan L.; Li, Junya; Xu, Shangzhong; Du, Lixin; Wang, Yachun; Sandler, Jody; Acland, Gregory M.; Lust, George; Todhunter, Rory J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Canine hip dysplasia (HD) is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA). The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever, Rottweiler, Border Collie and Bernese Mountain Dog). The linkage population included Labrador retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crosses. Of these, 366 dogs were genotyped at ∼22,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and a targeted screen across 8 chromosomes with ∼3,300 SNPs was performed on 551 dogs (196 dogs were common to both sets). A mixed linear model approach was used to perform an association study on this combined association and linkage population. The study identified 4 susceptibility SNPs associated with HD and 2 SNPs associated with hip OA. Conclusion/Significance The identified SNPs included those near known genes (PTPRD, PARD3B, and COL15A1) reported to be associated with, or expressed in, OA in humans. This suggested that the canine model could provide a unique opportunity to identify genes underlying natural HD and hip OA, which are common and debilitating conditions in both dogs and humans. PMID:20949002

  19. Cellular sources of tenascin-C in canine mammary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Matsuda, Y; Ishiwata, T; Naito, Z; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    Tenascin-C (Tn-C) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein implicated in the progression of several human cancers. In canine mammary carcinomas, accumulation of Tn-C has been recognized in 3 different areas: regions of proliferating myoepithelial cells in complex carcinoma, basement membrane zone in low-grade simple carcinoma, and reactive stroma in high-grade simple carcinoma. To identify the Tn-C synthesizing cells in these areas, we utilized double-labeling immunohistochemistry, branched DNA in situ hybridization, and in situ hybridization-immunohistochemistry double-labeling techniques. In complex carcinomas, Tn-C was generated by proliferating myoepithelial cells. Tn-C in low-grade simple carcinomas was also derived from myoepithelial cells existing as a basal monolayer. However, stromal Tn-C in high-grade carcinomas was mainly synthesized by fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, similar to human breast cancer. Thus, the origin of Tn-C in canine mammary carcinomas differs between low- and high-grade malignancies. The role of myoepithelial cell-generated Tn-C is not yet understood. PMID:24565830

  20. Retrospective study and immunohistochemical analysis of canine mammary sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine mammary sarcomas (CMSs) are rarely diagnosed in female dogs, which explains the scarcity of immunohistochemical findings concerning those tumors. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study into CMSs and discusses the clinical features of the analyzed tumors, the expression of intermediate filaments CK, Vim, Des and α-SMA, and the expression of p63, Ki67, ERα, PR and p53 protein. Results Four percent of all canine mammary tumors (CMTs) were classified as CMSs, and they represented 5.1% of malignant CMTs. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.1 ± 2.8 years. Large breed dogs were more frequently affected (38.7%). The majority of observed CMSs were fibrosarcomas (2.1%). All CMSs expressed vimentin, and higher levels of vimentin expression were noted in fibrosarcomas and osteosarcomas. Ki67 expression was significantly correlated with the grade of CMS. Conclusions Our results revealed that CMSs form a heterogeneous group, therefore, immunohistochemical examinations could support differential and final diagnosis. Although this study analyzed a limited number of samples, the reported results can expand our knowledge about CMSs. Further work is required in this field. PMID:24321325