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Sample records for pluvial total interna

  1. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  2. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  3. Precision Topography of Pluvial Features in Nevada as Analogs for Possible Pluvial Landforms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Irwin, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Topographic measurements with better than 2 cm horizontal and 4 cm vertical precision were obtained for pluvial features in Nevada using a Trimble R8 Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), making use of both real-time kinematic and post-processed kinematic techniques. We collected ten transects across shorelines in the southern end of Surprise Valley, near the California border in NW Nevada, on April 15-17, 2008, plus five transects of shorelines and eight transects of a wavecut scarp in Long Valley, near the Utah border in NE Nevada, on May 5-7, 2009. Each transect consists of topographic points keyed to field notes and photographs. In Surprise Valley, the highstand shoreline was noted at 1533.4 m elevation in 8 of the 10 transects, and several prominent intermediate shorelines could be correlated between two or more transects. In Long Valley, the well preserved highstand shoreline elevation of 1908.7 m correlated (within 0.6 m) to the base of the wavecut scarp along a horizontal distance of 1.2 km. These results demonstrate that adherence to a geopotential elevation level is one of the strongest indicators that a possible shoreline feature is the result of pluvial processes, and that elevation levels of features can be clearly detected and documented with precise topographic measurements. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) is returning images of Mars that show potential shoreline features in remarkable detail (e.g., image PSP_009998_2165, 32 cm/pixel, showing a possible shoreline in NW Arabia). Our results from studying shorelines in Nevada will provide a basis for evaluating the plausibility of possible shoreline features on Mars, the implications of which are significant for the overall history of Mars.

  4. Pluvials, Droughts, Energetics, and the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.

    2012-12-01

    The success of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire the world has ever known, is a historical enigma. At its peak in the late 13th century, the empire influenced areas from the Hungary to southern Asia and Persia. Powered by domesticated herbivores, the Mongol Empire grew at the expense of agriculturalists in Eastern Europe, Persia, and China. What environmental factors contributed to the rise of the Mongols? What factors influenced the disintegration of the empire by 1300 CE? Until now, little high resolution environmental data have been available to address these questions. We use tree-ring records of past temperature and water to illuminate the role of energy and water in the evolution of the Mongol Empire. The study of energetics has long been applied to biological and ecological systems but has only recently become a theme in understanding modern coupled natural and human systems (CNH). Because water and energy are tightly linked in human and natural systems, studying their synergies and interactions make it possible to integrate knowledge across disciplines and human history, yielding important lessons for modern societies. We focus on the role of energy and water in the trajectory of an empire, including its rise, development, and demise. Our research is focused on the Orkhon Valley, seat of the Mongol Empire, where recent paleoenvironmental and archeological discoveries allow high resolution reconstructions of past human and environmental conditions for the first time. Our preliminary records indicate that the period 1210-1230 CE, the height of Chinggis Khan's reign is one of the longest and most consistent pluvials in our tree ring reconstruction of interannual drought. Reconstructed temperature derived from five millennium-long records from subalpine forests in Mongolia document warm temperatures beginning in the early 1200's and ending with a plunge into cold temperatures in 1260. Abrupt cooling in central Mongolia at this time is

  5. Systematic Planning of Adaptation Options for Pluvial Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovic, Filip; Mijic, Ana; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Different elements of infrastructure and the built environment vary in their ability to quickly adapt to changing circumstances. Furthermore, many of the slowest, and often largest infrastructure adaptations, offer the greatest improvements to system performance. In the context of de-carbonation of individual buildings Brand (1995) identified six potential layers of adaptation based on their renewal times ranging from daily to multi-decadal time scales. Similar layers exist in urban areas with regards to Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and pluvial flood risk. These layers range from appliances within buildings to changes in the larger urban form. Changes in low-level elements can be quickly implemented, but are limited in effectiveness, while larger interventions occur at a much slower pace but offer greater benefits as a part of systemic change. In the context of urban adaptation this multi-layered approach provides information on how to order urban adaptations. This information helps to identify potential pathways by prioritising relatively quick adaptations to be implemented in the short term while identifying options which require more long term planning with respect to both uncertainty and flexibility. This information is particularly critical in the evolution towards more resilient and water sensitive cities (Brown, 2009). Several potential adaptation options were identified ranging from small to large-scale adaptations. The time needed for the adaptation to be implemented was estimated and curves representing the added drainage capacity per year were established. The total drainage capacity added by each option was then established. This methodology was utilised on a case study in the Cranbrook Catchment in the North East of London. This information was able to provide insight on how to best renew or extend the life of critical ageing infrastructure.

  6. Holocene and Pleistocene pluvial periods in Yemen, southern Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitmann, Dominik; Burns, Stephen J.; Pekala, Marek; Mangini, Augusto; Al-Subbary, Abdulkarim; Al-Aowah, Mohammad; Kramers, Jan; Matter, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Arabia is an important potential pathway for the dispersal of Homo sapiens ("out of Africa"). Yet, because of its arid to hyper-arid climate humans could only migrate across southern Arabia during pluvial periods when environmental conditions were favorable. However, knowledge on the timing of Arabian pluvial periods prior to the Holocene is mainly based on a single and possibly incomplete speleothem record from Hoti Cave in Northern Oman. Additional terrestrial records from the Arabian Peninsula are needed to confirm the Hoti Cave record. Here we present a new speleothem record from Mukalla Cave in southern Yemen. The Mukalla Cave and Hoti Cave records clearly reveal that speleothems growth occurred solely during peak interglacial periods, corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1 (early to mid-Holocene), 5.1, 5.3, 5.5 (Eemian), 7.1, 7.5 and 9. Of these humid periods, highest precipitation occurred during MIS 5.5 and lowest during early to middle Holocene.

  7. Multi-year Droughts and Pluvials over the Southwestern U.S. and Associated Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, A. A.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The southwestern U.S. is highly vulnerable to climate variability leading to extremes, such as droughts and pluvials, because of its geographic location and climatologic characteristics. These can include multi-year and multi-decadal extremes in precipitation, as occurred in the 1950s drought. Multi-year droughts and pluvials can have severe consequences on water resources management, which makes them events of interest to a major water utility in the region, Denver Water. Denver Water managers are especially interested in 36-month droughts for planning water management, both for maintaining supply and adequate operating revenue. Our analysis is part of an effort to understand the basis for past droughts and pluvials and how they might change in the future. Several indices, based on their sensitivity to drought development at different time scales, data availability and drought types, have been developed for detecting and monitoring drought and pluvial severity. Among them are the Palmer drought severity index, standardized precipitation index (SPI), and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). This study uses 36-month SPEI and SPI to analyze drought and pluvial episodes over the southwestern U.S., with a focus on the region that supplies water for Denver Water. Aims of this study include: 1) characteristics of multi-year droughts and pluvials (e.g., onset, duration, cessation, intensity, and frequency), 2) the contrasts between drought and pluvial characteristics, and 3) atmospheric large-scale features associated with the initiation and maintenance of extended drought and pluvial periods. We find that droughts and pluvials are not simply mirror images of each other in their characteristics, so that one is not simply the opposite phase of the other. This result is particularly true of the large-scale circulation patterns associated with droughts and pluvials. We diagnose how the circulation behavior sustains the very wet and very dry episodes

  8. Integrated assessment of fluvial and pluvial flood hazards in the city of Salzburg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinl, Korbinian

    2014-05-01

    Urban flooding can have various sources including floods from a river ('fluvial flooding'), from heavy rainfall usually from convective storms ('pluvial flooding') or from high tides ('storm surge'). Although awareness of pluvial flooding in the scientific community and among policymakers has been increasing, the term 'flooding' is still often seen as a phenomenon explicitly related to a river. Previous research primarily focused on fluvial flooding, with only very recent literature dealing with pluvial flooding. As a result, there are established methods to assess the hazards from fluvial floods, and a smaller number focusing on pluvial floods. Much less work has been conducted on integrated flood hazard assessment taking into account various types of flood hazards. In this work, an integrative, probabilistic modelling framework was developed to assess the urban flood hazard from fluvial and pluvial flooding in the city of Salzburg (Austria). The framework consists of a stochastic multi-site weather generator, which provides input for the hydrological model HBV. In the city of Salzburg, a kNN algorithm converts the simulated mean discharge into peak discharge as well as daily into sub-daily precipitation. The time series generated in this way make the identification of fluvial events (peak discharge) and pluvial events (sub-daily precipitation) possible. The kNN algorithm inherently considers weather situations to ensure a reasonable disaggregation of daily precipitation. Critical thresholds of pluvial flood events are empirically derived from damage data provided by a local insurer as well as action plans from the local fire service. The modelling framework is then applied to examine the probability of the two single flood hazards, as well as the probability of simultaneous pluvial-fluvial flood events.

  9. Morphofunctional changes of phytoplankton community during pluvial anomaly in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Câmara, F R A; Rocha, O; Pessoa, E K R; Chellappa, S; Chellappa, N T

    2015-08-01

    The present study focuses on the structure and function of phytoplankton community during periods of marked changes in hydrological traits, influenced by an atypical climatic event (La Niña) and its impact on Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir of Rio Grande do Norte, situated in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The main questions addressed were: What are the effects of environmental factors on the temporal variation of Morphologically Based Functional Group (MBFG) of phytoplankton community? How does the composition of cyanobacterial species shift in relation to high and low trends of phytoplankton diversity? The samples were collected monthly during 2008-2009 and analyzed for pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen content and the nutrients, such as, nitrate-nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, total nitrogen and orthophosphate. Phytoplankton samples were collected for both qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate species richness index and species diversity index. The data was divided into two distinct hydrodynamic periods of instability and stability. The results demonstrate considerable changes in dissolved oxygen content, water transparency and nitrogen nutrients, which directly influenced the MBFG of phytoplankton community in space and time. The instability of reservoir water was caused by heavy rainfall, which exerts atypical external disturbances. The seasonal variation of MBFG demonstrates a change in cyanobacterial composition and their diversity during instability and stability periods. MBFG VII, composed by colonial cyanobacteria with mucilage, was associated with reduced values of electrical conductance and alterations in pH. The predominance of filamentous species with heterocyst (MBFG III) occurs only during the hydrodynamic stability period and did not show significant association with analyzed parameters. The co-dominance of MBGFs III, V and VII along with high species diversity of phytoplankton community

  10. Constraining Late Pleistocene Pluvial Lake Chronologies in Northeastern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, J. S.; Laabs, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of lakes in closed basins of the northern Great Basin during pluvial episodes of the Pleistocene has been recognized for over a century. Some of these lakes, such as Bonneville in western Utah and Lahontan in western Nevada, were large, and their histories are well constrained by field mapping, stratigraphic investigations, and geochronology. Dozens of other lakes with smaller dimensions are known to have existed, however with few exceptions their histories are virtually unknown. This situation is unfortunate because smaller, hydrologically closed lakes should be particularly sensitive to climatic changes that shifted the balance of precipitation and evaporation. Records of their fluctuations, therefore, could provide important information about atmospheric reorganization during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Ongoing work in northeastern Nevada is aimed at developing these records through detailed mapping, investigation of natural exposures and artificial excavations, and radiocarbon dating. Gastropod shells recovered from two sites along a beach ridge in the northeast Independence Valley indicate that Lake Clover reached its late Pleistocene highstand between 14,400 and 14,200 14C years BP (~17.5 cal. ka BP). Similarly, radiocarbon dating of gastropod shells from a beach ridge in the Ruby Valley indicates that Lake Franklin was near its late Pleistocene highstand at 13,400 14C years BP (~16.4 cal. ka BP). These ages are essentially synchronous with the highstands of Lakes Newark and Jakes ~150 km to the south, overlap with the hydrologic maximum of Lake Bonneville, and appear to predate the highstand of Lake Lahontan. Additional radiocarbon dating will refine these age relationships and attempt to constrain the timing of stillstands during the overall regression of these lakes in the latest Pleistocene.

  11. On the Causes and Dynamics of the Early Twentieth Century North American Pluvial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century North American pluvial (1905-1917) was one of the most extreme wet periods of the last five hundred years and directly led to overly generous water allotments in the water-limited American West. Here we examine the causes and dynamics of the pluvial event using a combination of observation-based data sets and general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The character of the moisture surpluses during the pluvial differed by region, alternately driven by increased precipitation (the Southwest), low evaporation from cool temperatures (the Central Plains), or a combination of the two (the Pacific Northwest). Cool temperature anomalies covered much of the west and persisted through most months, part of a globally extensive period of cooler land and sea surface temperatures (SST). Circulation during boreal winter favored increased moisture import and precipitation in the southwest, while other regions and seasons were characterized by near normal or reduced precipitation. Anomalies in the mean circulation, precipitation, and SST fields are partially consistent with the relatively weak El Nino forcing during the pluvial, and also reflect the impact of positive departures in the Arctic Oscillation that occurred in ten of the thirteen pluvial winters. Differences between the reanalysis dataset, an independent statistical drought model, and GCM simulations highlight some of the remaining uncertainties in understanding the full extent of SST forcing of North American hydroclimatic variability.

  12. Pluvial Period over NE Brazil linked to Heinrich Stadial 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, K. A.; Häuselmann, A.; Fleitmann, D.; Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The precise timing and duration of Heinrich Stadials (HS) remains a topic of active debate. Here we present multiple NE Brazilian stalagmites known to grow during HS 4[i]. Using a combination of U/Th dating, confocal microscopy, and stable isotope analysis, we aim to provide additional age constraints on the Brazilian pluvial anomaly associated with HS 4. Stalagmite growth in this region is caused by increased rainfall due to a southerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during HS Events. We focus on three stalagmites—TBV40, TBV63, and TBR14—collected from Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR) caves[ii], respectively. TBV40 and TBV63 each contain an aragonite phase U/Th dated from 40.02 to 39.57 ka B.P., followed by a calcitic phase U/Th dated from 39.27 to 38.74 ka B.P., within errors of ±0.1 ka. The switch from aragonite to calcite at approximately 39.57 ka B.P. is characterized by an abrupt 4‰ decrease in the δ18O record of TBV40. We infer that rainfall increased over NE Brazil at this time. TBR14 has a single calcite growth phase from 39.66 to 39.45 ka B.P., which correlates in part with the calcite phases of TBV40 and TBV 63. Stable isotope values for TBR14 are similar in range, trend, and absolute values to the correlative calcite portion of TBR40. Fluorescent banding was discovered in the calcitic portion of all three stalagmites using confocal laser scanning microscopy. If annual, band-counts may add additional constrains to the duration of the HS 4 growth phases. Adopting ice core band-counting methods, an average of 325±128 bands per sample and 17 small hiatuses were identified. The estimated duration of the calcitic HS 4 growth phases is therefore consistent with the U/Th dates. Growth phases may correlate in detail with other global records of HS 4, such as the Hulu Cave record[iii]from China, with the aragonitic portion correlating to the weak monsoon immediately following Chinese Interstadial 9 and the calcitic

  13. A late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene pluvial lake in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Slate, J.L.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The question of whether a pluvial lake existed in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada and California, has been debated for more than 100 yr. New stratigraphic evidence indicates that a lake did exist in this valley at intervals during late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time. This lake may have drained northward, or it may have been periodically contiguous with a pluvial lake to the north in Columbus Salt Marsh. Proof of the existence of this lake, informally named Pluvial Lake Rennie, is derived from three principal outcrops of shallow-water deposits, two outcrops of deep-water deposits, and several drilling logs. The deposits contain beds of silicic tephra, which provide age control. Pluvial Lake Rennie fluctuated in size and depth beginning prior to 2 Ma and continuing until sometime after 0.77 Ma. At about 0.77 Ma, the lake had a highstand at an elevation of ~1460 m, covered an area of 400-500 km2, and had a maximum depth of ~250 m. The lake level dropped just after the eruption of the Bishop ash, but the lake may have persisted at a lower level until ~0.5 Ma. -from Authors

  14. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  15. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  17. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: method development and application to Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Trepat, O. M.; Hung, N. N.; Chinh, D. T.; Merz, B.; Dung, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas, and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims at the analysis of fluvial and pluvial flood hazard individually, but also at developing a method for the analysis of combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. Fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. Pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data, and a stochastic rain storm generator. Inundation was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation considering the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by

  18. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    with C-Band and X-Band radars with NWP and pluvial flood prediction models. The RG project deals with the merging and providing synergy of these technologies. Combined effects of BG technologies can totally reduce the risk of surface flooding for low return period events and up to 50-80% for high return periods. Demonstration technology testing sites for both BGD and RG projects will be established in 5 participating countries. Decision Support Systems will enhance full scale implementation of both BGD and RG project deliverables. A BGD efficiency rating scheme and training guidelines and e-learning tools will be developed. Experimental/demo sites for BDG and RG technology development and testing in Rotterdam, Paris, Berlin, Leuven and London and the expected results with concepts of RG and BGD projects and the initial results will be presented in the paper.

  19. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon; Bright, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17–14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45–40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45–40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45–40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  20. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Bright, Jordon

    2014-03-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17-14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45-40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45-40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45-40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  1. A pluvial episode identified in arid Australia during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, T. J.; Nanson, G. C.; Jansen, J. D.; Gliganic, L. A.; May, J.-H.; Larsen, J. R.; Goodwin, I. D.; Browning, S.; Price, D. M.

    2012-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from a relict shoreline on Lake Callabonna record a major pluvial episode in southern central Australia between 1050 ± 70 and 1100 ± 60 Common Era (CE), within the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). During this pluvial interval Lake Callabonna filled to 10-12 times the volume of the largest historical filling (1974) and reached maximum depths of 4-5 m, compared to the 0.5-1.0 m achieved today. Until now there has been no direct evidence for the MCA in the arid interior of Australia. A multi-proxy, analogue-based atmospheric circulation reconstruction indicates that the pluvial episode was associated with an anomalous meridional atmospheric circulation pattern over the Southern extratropics, with high sea-level pressure ridges in the central Indian Ocean and Tasman Sea, and a trough extending from the Southern Ocean into central Australia. A major decline in the mobility of the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer coincides with this MCA period, in southern central Australia.

  2. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  3. An integrated multi-scale risk analysis procedure for pluvial flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tader, Andreas; Mergili, Martin; Jäger, Stefan; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of or adaptation to the negative impacts of natural processes on society requires a better understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution not only of the processes themselves, but also of the elements at risk. Information on their values, exposures and vulnerabilities towards the expected impact magnitudes/intensities of the relevant processes is needed. GIS-supported methods are particularly useful for integrated spatio-temporal analyses of natural processes and their potential consequences. Hereby, pluvial floods are of particular concern for many parts of Austria. The overall aim of the present study is to calculate the hazards emanating from pluvial floods, to determine the exposure of given elements at risk, to determine their vulnerabilities towards given pluvial flood hazards and to analyze potential consequences in terms of monetary losses. The whole approach builds on data available on a national scale. We introduce an integrated, multi-scale risk analysis procedure with regard to pluvial flooding. Focusing on the risk to buildings, we firstly exemplify this procedure with a well-documented event in the city of Graz (Austria), in order to highlight the associated potentials and limitations. Secondly, we attempt to predict the possible consequences of pluvial flooding triggered by rainfall events with recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 300 years. (i) We compute spatially distributed inundation depths using the software FloodArea. Infiltration capacity and surface roughness are estimated from the land cover units given by the official cadastre. Various assumptions are tested with regard to the inflow to the urban sewer system. (ii) Based on the inundation depths and the official building register, we employ a set of rules and functions to deduce the exposure, vulnerability and risk for each building. A risk indicator for each building, expressed as the expected damage associated to a given event, is derived by combining the building value and

  4. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  5. A multiscale analysis of drought and pluvial mechanisms for the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Jonghun; Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    The Southeast (SE) U.S. has experienced several severe droughts over the past 30 years, with the most recent drought during 2006-2008 causing agricultural impacts of $1 billion. However, the mechanisms that lead to droughts over the region and their persistence have been poorly understood due to the region's humid coastal environment and its complex climate. In this study, we carry out a multiscale analysis of drought mechanisms for the SE U.S. over 1979-2008 using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to identify conditions associated with drought and contrast with those associated with pluvials. These conditions include land surface drought propagation, land-atmosphere feedbacks, regional moisture sources, persistent atmospheric patterns, and larger-scale oceanic conditions. Typical conditions for SE U.S. droughts (pluvials) are identified as follows: (1) weaker (stronger) southerly meridional fluxes and weaker (stronger) westerly zonal fluxes, (2) strong moisture flux divergence (convergence) by transient eddies, and (3) strong (weak) coupling between the land surface and atmosphere. The NARR demonstrates that historic SE droughts are mainly derived from a combination of a strong North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and Icelandic Low (IL) during summer and winter, respectively, which peak 1 month earlier than the onset of the drought. The land surface plays a moderate role in drought occurrence over the SE via recycling of precipitation, and the oceans show an asymmetric influence on droughts and pluvials depending on the season. This study suggests that the NASH and IL can be used as a predictor for SE droughts at 1 month lead despite the overall that it represents an atmospheric forcing.

  6. Forced and unforced variability of twentieth century North American droughts and pluvials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-09-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  7. Forced and Unforced Variability of Twentieth Century North American Droughts and Pluvials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  8. Reconstructing Quaternary pluvial episodes and paleohydrology using travertines from Egypt's Western Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, G.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Ricketts, J. W.; Tafoya, A. J.; Anan, T.; Mohammed, A.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Farouk, S.

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climate in North Africa was marked by multiple wet periods overprinting extreme aridity, but pluvial drivers, as well as their timing and geographic extent, are poorly constrained. We address these factors in the first comprehensive analysis of travertine from Egypt's Western Desert, which represents a unique and under-utilized record of paleoclimate and paleohydrology. We infer large-volume travertine mound deposition along faults near the area's central limestone plateau to reflect times of high discharge (high groundwater head) from springs of the Nubian aquifer, likely associated with so-called Green Sahara pluvial episodes. Similarly, we assume that travertine platforms in depressions (oases) represent related marsh and lake deposition, including a widespread late Cenozoic dolostone of probable lacustrine origin in Farafra Oasis, which needs additional mapping. We present the results of uranium-series analysis of travertines from oasis areas spanning a north-south gradient through the Western Desert; we dated the tops and bottoms of inset deposits at different wadi (wash) elevations to resolve the inception and termination of high spring heads/pluvials as well as regional aggradation or incision patterns. Our dates, combined with published literature ages, suggest wet intervals around 100-115, 125-140, 180-200, 350-360, 450, and 600 ka. Heights of inset terrace travertines in wadis are potentially correlative between sites and are seen as approximately 5, 10, and 25 m above the modern wadi levels. Assuming that paleohydrological changes reflect paleoclimate changes, we examine correlations between times of travertine deposition, relative to glacial cycles or to more specific orbital forcings, acting on the North African summer monsoon. Initial comparison of travertine occurrence to glacial cycles shows no obvious correlation, although there are major travertine deposition episodes at important paleoclimate transitions such as MIS 6 to 5, 7 to 6, and

  9. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial floods in Japan using rainfall data and socioeconomic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Rajan; Yoshimura, Kei; Seto, Shinta; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Oki, Taikan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policymakers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately USD 1 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial floods only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  10. Modeling pluvial flooding damage in urban environments: spatial relationships between citizens' complaints and overland catchment areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are expected to cause severe economic losses in The Netherlands. Cumulative damage due to pluvial flooding can be considerable, especially in lowland areas where this type of floods occurs relatively frequently. Currently, in The Netherlands, water-related damages to property and contents are covered through private insurance. As pluvial flooding is becoming heavier and more likely to occur, sound modelling of damages is required to ensure that insurance systems are able to stand as an adaptation measure. Current damage models based on rainfall intensity, registries of insurance claims, and classifications of building types are unable to fully explain damage variability. Further developments assessing additional explanatory factors and reducing uncertainties, are required in order to significantly explain damage. In this study, urban topography is used as an explanatory factor for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Flood damage is evaluated based on complaints data, a valuable resource for assessing vulnerability to urban pluvial flooding. Though previous research has shown coincidences between the localization of high complaint counts and large size catchments areas in Rotterdam, additional research is needed to establish the precise spatial relationship of those two variables. This additional task is the focus of the presented work. To that end a data base of complaints, that was made available by the Municipality Administration of the City, will be analysed. It comprises close to 36800 complaints from 2004 to 2011. The geographical position of the registries is aggregated into 4 to 6-digit Postal Code zones, which represents entire streets or relative positions along a street, respectively. The Municipality also provided the DEM, characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.5 m × 0.5 m, a vertical precision of 5 cm, and an accuracy better than two standard deviations of 15 cm. First the localization of complaints

  11. Ultrastructure of the theca interna of ovarian follicles in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, J D; Cran, D G; Hay, M F; Moor, R M

    1978-03-13

    The theca interna of non-atretic ovarian follicles from 2.0 mm in diameter up to the stage shortly following ovulation was studied by light and electron microscopy. In follicles less than 3.0 mm in diameter, the theca interna consisted of about 8-12 layers of flattened cells, together with many capillaries and small bundles of collagen. Two main forms of cellular differentiation were seen. These were towards either fibroblast-like cells or presumed steroidogenic cells whose cytoplasm contained large amounts of predominantly smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum, to which some ribosomes were attached. The majority of cells were of relatively undifferentiated or intermediate structure. In larger follicles up to the early stages of oestrus the theca interna cells became larger and less flattened, and cells rich in tubular endoplasmic reticulum became proportionately more numerous. By 18 h after the onset of oestrus the theca interna was oedematous, and many cells possessed pseudopodia. Many cells also contained numerous lipid droplets, but there were no signs of thecal cell degeneration or death. Shortly after ovulation the basal lamina of the membrana granulosa was incomplete, and it became more difficult to distinguish between theca and granulosa layers. Structural heterogeneity, with two major cell types and cells of intermediate structure, was present at all stages. It was concluded that: (1) the theca interna of 2.0-2.9 mm follicles contained many cells whose structure was compatible with a steroidogenic capacity; (2) changes in the differentiated thecal cells up to the early stages of oestrus were quantitative rather than qualitative, and suggestive of an increased steroidogenic capacity; (3) the accumulation of lipid in many cells of the theca interna by 18 h after the onset of oestrus probably reflected a reduction in steroidogenic activity; and (4) there was no evidence of any structural specialization to facilitate the transport of steroids from the theca

  12. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and steroidogenic cells (P < 0.01) of the theca interna of basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  13. Current and future pluvial flood hazard analysis for the city of Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick; Tabari, Hossein; De Niel, Jan; Van Uytven, Els; Lambrechts, Griet; Wellens, Geert

    2016-04-01

    For the city of Antwerp in Belgium, higher rainfall extremes were observed in comparison with surrounding areas. The differences were found statistically significant for some areas and may be the result of the heat island effect in combination with the higher concentrations of aerosols. A network of 19 rain gauges but with varying records length (the longest since the 1960s) and continuous radar data for 10 years were combined to map the spatial variability of rainfall extremes over the city at various durations from 15 minutes to 1 day together with the uncertainty. The improved spatial rainfall information was used as input in the sewer system model of the city to analyze the frequency of urban pluvial floods. Comparison with historical flood observations from various sources (fire brigade and media) confirmed that the improved spatial rainfall information also improved sewer impact results on both the magnitude and frequency of the sewer floods. Next to these improved urban flood impact results for recent and current climatological conditions, the new insights on the local rainfall microclimate were also helpful to enhance future projections on rainfall extremes and pluvial floods in the city. This was done by improved statistical downscaling of all available CMIP5 global climate model runs (160 runs) for the 4 RCP scenarios, as well as the available EURO-CORDEX regional climate model runs. Two types of statistical downscaling methods were applied for that purpose (a weather typing based method, and a quantile perturbation approach), making use of the microclimate results and its dependency on specific weather types. Changes in extreme rainfall intensities were analyzed and mapped as a function of the RCP scenario, together with the uncertainty, decomposed in the uncertainties related to the climate models, the climate model initialization or limited length of the 30-year time series (natural climate variability) and the statistical downscaling (albeit limited

  14. Age and isotopic constraints on pleistocene pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Crombie, M. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Sturchio, N. C.; El Alfy, Z.; Abu Zeid, K.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    North Africa has undergone drastic climatic changes over the past several hundred thousand years. The timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium-series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The youngest and best dated travertines (70-160 ka) are found in Wadi Kurkur and include spring and lacustrine units exposed as 2 to 3 m high terraces. Travertines having an age of approximately 191-220 ka are exposed by differential erosion as linear mounds produced by spring systems over fracture zones in ancient wadis. The oldest travertines, having ages >260 ka, are extensive, cap limestone units above the oasis, and were deposited in paludal and lacustrine environments. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured for the wadi travertines ({delta}{sup 18}O values ranging from 16.7 to 19.1{per_thousand} SMOW) and for spring mound travertines (18.5-20.5{per_thousand}). Equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicate that the Kurkur travertines were deposited from waters having {delta}{sup 18}O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters ({approx} -11{per_thousand}). The ages of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Rainfall producing these groundwaters (and travertines) was significantly fractionated during atmospheric transport, in contrast to modern meteoric waters (-2.09{per_thousand}), implying a distant source for the pluvial waters. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch insolation cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during interglacial time periods.

  15. The last Pluvial Highstand (Late Wisconsin, Tioga Age) in Panamint Valley, Southeast California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Sharpe, S.; Smith, G. I.

    2001-12-01

    A large late Wisconsin age lake has not been previously documented in Panamint Valley which contains a small north basin and a large south basin, both of which could have received overflow from the Owens River system via Searles Lake when the lake exceeded 1700' elevation. A 14C age on gastropod-bearing tufa indicates that the lake's surface elevation was near 512m (1680') at 22,600 ka +/-130 yr. This tufa deposit is about 2-3 meters thick and forms a fringing reef within a bedrock alcove about 1 km north of Water Canyon. The deposit appears to document a water body in the southern basin that would have been about 11 km wide, 52 km long and least 150m (500') deep with a volume around 4000 km3. Tentatively, the highest stand of the Tioga-age glacial lake' could have reached ~1800-1820' based on the marginal-lacustrine gastropod assemblage Helisoma newberryi newberryi, Vorticifex solida (lacustrine indicator), and Stagnicola sp., found in a sandy (beach?) deposit 120' upslope from the 1680' tufa, but probably was not any higher (14C in progress). The lake does not appear to have breached the Wingate Pass spillway at 1977' into Death Valley during the last glacial. Along the lower part of the Shepard Canyon fan, lacustrine silt is exposed at about 415m (1360') in a stream incision overlain by 1.5 to 2.0 meters of alluvial gravel. Tufa underlying the silt yielded a 14C age of 17,130ka +/- 100yr indicating a lake whose shoreline elevation was between 60 to 75 meters above the present valley floor. White chalky silt overlying the tufa at this locality yielded abundant Limnocythere sappaensis, an ostracode that lives within a wide range of total dissolved solids (TDS) in waters that are enriched or dominated by bicarbonate-carbonate and depleted in Ca. Its waters typically have an alk/Ca ratio of 7 or much higher. When this species is abundant and the only ostrocode present, the lake water commonly has a TDS of more than about 20,000 mg/L; in lakes with a much lower TDS

  16. The Atlas of Natural Hazards and Risks of Austria: first results for fluvial and pluvial floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, Martin; Tader, Andreas; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Incoherent societal adaptation to natural processes results in significant losses every year. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of hazards and risks, and of particular hot spots in a given region or period, is essential for reducing adverse impacts. Commonly, different hazard and risk estimations are performed within individual approaches based on tailor-made concepts. This works well as long as specific cases are considered. The advantage of such a procedure is that each individual hazard and risk is addressed in the best possible manner. The drawback, however, consists in the fact that the results differ significantly in terms of quality and accuracy and therefore cannot be compared. Hence, there is a need to develop a strategy and concept which uses similar data sources of equivalent quality in order to adequately analyze the different natural hazards and risks at broader scales. The present study is aiming to develop such a platform. The project Risk:ATlas focuses on the design of an atlas visualizing the most relevant natural hazards and, in particular, possible consequences for the entire territory of Austria. Available as a web-based tool and as a printed atlas, it is seen as a key tool to improve the basis for risk reduction, risk adaptation and risk transfer. The atlas is founded on those data sets available for the entire territory of Austria at a consistent resolution and quality. A 1 m resolution DEM and the official cadastre and building register represent the core, further data sets are employed according to the requirements for each natural hazard and risk. In this contribution, the methodology and the preliminary results for fluvial and pluvial floods and their consequences to buildings for three selected test areas in different types of landscapes (rural, urban and mountainous) are presented. Flooding depths expected for annualities of 30, 100 and 300 are derived from existing data sets for fluvial floods and are computed

  17. Synchronous late Pleistocene extensional faulting and basaltic volcanism in pluvial Fort Rock basin, central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, B. H.; Castonguay, S. R.; Wallace, P. J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Central Oregon, where northern Basin and Range extension intersects the High Lava Plains, exhibits widespread extensional faulting and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, yet the relations between the processes are complex and chronology is poorly constrained. Here we use cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of basalt to quantify the timing of normal faulting and emplacement of a related cinder cone volcanic field on the margins of pluvial Fort Rock Lake. The N15W striking North Christmas Valley fault system offsets High Lava Plains volcanics forming a ~3 km wide graben that transects the eastern Fort Rock Basin. Several young volcanic vents, including the ~740 ka Green Mountain (GM) shield volcano, and younger Four Craters lava field (4C), are aligned parallel with, and bounded by the graben. The western edge of the graben is expressed as an enigmatic monocline with up to10 m vertical throw and a prominent vertical hinge crack due to folding of the overlying GM lava flows. Younger basalt flows of the 4C field abut and flow into this crack, known as the 'Crack in the Ground' fault. Exposure dating of the 4C lava field on the eastern flank of GM indicates an emplacement age of 13 ka, which is largely consistent across multiple flows emerging from the 4 linearly aligned cinder cones. In addition, we dated the GM basalt exposed in the sub-vertical walls of the crack (the fault wall), which are cleanly separated by up to 10 m, but with uneroded (and in places identically matching) crack walls. Samples were taken >3 m below ground surface to avoid pre-faulting inheritance, and required considerable shielding corrections, but return a consistent exposure age of ~13 ka. This suggests substantial crack opening occurred at the same time the 4C lava was emplaced. A small fault offsets the 4C lava where it flows across the Crack, and dating the fault wall of this younger lava also generated an exposure age of 13 ka, indicating it must have ruptured shortly after the 4C lava cooled

  18. Modelling the impact of land subsidence on urban pluvial flooding: A case study of downtown Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Rob

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of pluvial flooding to evaluate the impact of land subsidence on flood risks in urban contexts using a hydraulic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D). The pluvial flood event of August 2011 in Shanghai, China is used for model calibration and simulation. Evolving patterns of inundation (area and depth) are assessed over four time periods (1991, 1996, 2001 and 2011) for the downtown area, given local changes in topography and rates of land subsidence of up to 27 mm/yr. The results show that land subsidence can lead to non-linear response of flood characteristics. However, the impact on flood depths is generally minor (<5 cm) and limited to areas with lowest-lying topographies because of relatively uniform patterns of subsidence and micro-topographic variations at the local scale. Nonetheless, the modelling approach tested here may be applied to other cities where there are more marked rates of subsidence and/or greater heterogeneity in the depressed urban surface. In these cases, any identified hot-spots of subsidence and focusing of pluvial flooding may be targeted for adaptation interventions. PMID:26674703

  19. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek D.; Evans, R. Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible. PMID:26394395

  20. Glacial and pluvial periods: their relationship revealed by pleistocene sediments of the red sea and gulf of aden.

    PubMed

    Deuser, W G; Ross, E H; Waterman, L S

    1976-03-19

    Oxygen isotope analyses of planktonic foraminifera from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden indicate that during periods of maximum continental and polar glaciation in the late Pleistocene, the Red Sea was subject to strong evaporation. Between glacial maximums the salinity of the Red Sea was equal to or below that of the open ocean. This suggests that high-latitude glacial periods corresponded in time to interpluvial stages in the present-day desert belt of northern Africa, whereas high-latitude interglacial periods coincided with pluvial stages. PMID:17781646

  1. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Deron T.; Ely, Lisa L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.

    2006-05-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km 3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ˜ 10,000 m 3 s - 1 . Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m 3 s - 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the

  2. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, D.T.; Ely, L.L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Fenton, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ??? 10,000 m3 s- 1. Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m3 s- 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m3 s- 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m3 s- 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the Columbia River

  3. Developing the Late Quaternary Record of Pluvial Lake Clover, Northern Great Basin, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laabs, B. J.; Munroe, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Clover was one of numerous closed-basin pluvial lakes that formed in the northern Great Basin during the Pleistocene. The geomorphic record of the lake includes continuous shoreline ridges and spits at altitudes of as much as 25 m above the modern playa surface. The history of Lake Clover is poorly known compared to those of the larger lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, but can provide a useful framework for understanding regional-scale environmental changes during the latest Pleistocene. Shoreline ridges of Lake Clover are preserved at altitudes of ca. 1729, 1725, 1719, and 1715 m asl, which correspond to intervals when the lake attained a surface area of 788, 726, 618, and 524 km2, respectively. Although the chronology of highstands at these altitudes is still being developed (through radiocarbon and luminescence-dating methods), the morphology and orientations of prominent shoreline features provide clues to regional air-circulation patterns during highstands. The highest shoreline is represented by a gravel ridge that can be traced nearly continuously around the perimeter of the lake basin. The ridge is uniformly developed along shorelines of differing aspect, suggesting that the wind field during the ice-free season was not dominated by a single direction. Along the eastern and western shores of the basin, the lower shorelines are manifested by a similar gravel ridge. However, in other sectors of the basin, features associated with progressively lower shorelines reveal an increasing dominance of northward longshore drift. The most dramatic features correspond with the 1719 m shoreline and include 1) a pronounced V-shaped, northward projecting spit at the southern end of the basin, 2) a 3-km long spit projecting to the north-northwest along the northeastern shoreline, and 3) a tombolo connecting a former island to the northern shore. Together these features suggest that dominant wind directions became more southerly during the ice-free season when the lake

  4. Pluvial Period over NE Brazil linked to Heinrich Stadial Event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Kathleen A.; Berry, Akemi; Häuselmann, Anamaria; Fleitmann, Dominik; Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    The precise timing of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 1 and its impact on tropical regions remain a topic of active debate. We present a high-resolution precipitation record of HS-1 using a stalagmite collected from Toca da Barriguda cave located in the interior of NE Brazil (40o51'39"W 10o09'36"S, 600m asl). Stalagmite growth in this region is caused by increased rainfall due to a southerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during HS Events. Stalagmite TBR14 includes a 107mm calcitic growth phase 230Th dated from 17070 ±40 to 15640 ±65 BP, which we interpret to be the period of rainfall maximum over NE Brazil in association with HS-1. Oxygen isotope analysis reveals a two-stepped structure to the HS-1 pluvial period: starting with a 970-year period of δ18O values averaging -5‰ followed by an abrupt 2.5‰ drop between 16100 to 16080 BP (±20). We infer that rainfall amount increased during this time, as supported by the modern day observation of anti-correlated δ18O values and precipitation amount. A second step of the HS-1 growth phase shows a gradual increase from -7‰ over 440 years followed by the termination of stalagmite growth. Fluorescent banding was discovered throughout the stalagmite using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy. If annual, band counts may add additional constrains to the duration of the abrupt decrease in δ18O values observed at 16100 BP (±20). The two-stepped δ18O pattern observed in our stalagmite record may correlate in detail with other low-latitude high-resolution records of HS-1 such as the Hulu Cave record (Wang et al. 2001) from China, in which an abrupt (2.2) weakening of the East Asian Monsoon at 16070 BP (±40) is followed by a 600 year recovery (decreasing) of δ18O values. The possible anti-phase relationship between these two distant records is concurrent with the hypothesis of a southward migrating ITCZ, and suggests rapid transmission of atmospheric signals during HS-1.

  5. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial flood in Japan using rainfall data and socio-economic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Seto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oki, T.

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policy makers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately JPY 100 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial flood only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope, and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  6. Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Zhane; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Urban pluvial flood are attracting growing public concern due to rising intense precipitation and increasing consequences. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient urban pluvial flood management, particularly in transportation sector. This paper describes an integrated methodology, which initially makes use of high resolution 2D inundation modeling and flood depth-dependent measure to evaluate the potential impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on road network in the city center of Shanghai, China. Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships of Shanghai rainstorm and Chicago Design Storm are combined to generate ensemble rainfall scenarios. A hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) is used to simulate overland flow and flood inundation for each scenario. Furthermore, road impact and risk assessment are respectively conducted by a new proposed algorithm and proxy. Results suggest that the flood response is a function of spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and local characteristics (i.e. drainage and topography), and pluvial flash flood is found to lead to proportionate but nonlinear impact on intra-urban road inundation risk. The approach tested here would provide more detailed flood information for smart management of urban street network and may be applied to other big cities where road flood risk is evolving in the context of climate change and urbanization.

  7. Effects of drought and pluvial periods on fish and zooplankton communities in prairie lakes: systematic and asystematic responses.

    PubMed

    Starks, Elizabeth; Cooper, Ryan; Leavitt, Peter R; Wissel, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The anticipated impacts of climate change on aquatic biota are difficult to evaluate because of potentially contrasting effects of temperature and hydrology on lake ecosystems, particularly those closed-basin lakes within semiarid regions. To address this shortfall, we quantified decade-scale changes in chemical and biological properties of 20 endorheic lakes in central North America in response to a pronounced transition from a drought to a pluvial period during the early 21st century. Lakes exhibited marked temporal changes in chemical characteristics and formed two discrete clusters corresponding to periods of substantially different effective moisture (as Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) explained 90% of variability in fish assemblage composition and showed that fish communities were predicted best by environmental conditions during the arid interval (PDSI <-2). DFA also predicted that lakes could support more fish species during pluvial periods, but their occurrences may be limited by periodic stress due to recurrent droughts and physical barriers to colonization. Zooplankton taxonomic assemblages in fishless lakes were resilient to short-term changes in meteorological conditions, and did not vary between drought and deluge periods. Conversely, zooplankton taxa in fish-populated lakes decreased substantially in biomass during the wet interval, likely due to increased zooplanktivory by fish. The powerful effects of such climatic variability on hydrology and the strong subsequent links to water chemistry and biota indicate that future changes in global climate could result in significant restructuring of aquatic communities. Together these findings suggest that semiarid lakes undergoing temporary climate shifts provide a useful model system for anticipating the effects of global climate change on lake food webs. PMID:23960001

  8. Quantifying UV-B flux over the Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Extinction Event (c. 233-229 Ma).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charlotte; Fraser, Wesley; Jardine, Phil; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The geological record contains numerous episodes of global environmental change associated with pronounced transient perturbations to the global carbon cycle, some of which are closely linked with ocean acidification and mass extinction. Here, we focus on the Late Triassic mass extinction during the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE) which occurred c. 233-229 million-years-ago (Ma). The CPE extinction remains one of the least studied and most controversial biotic crises due primarily to the lack of well-dated sedimentary successions. The CPE interval features a -4 o δ13C excursion, which is interpreted as a massive atmospheric injection of 13C-depleted carbon from the Wrangellia Flood Basalts. The associated increase in atmospheric pCO2 may then have accelerated the hydrological cycle, resulting in increased weathering and enhanced siliciclastic delivery to shallow carbonate basins. Volcanic activity is known to significantly alter the amount of incoming solar UV-B radiation via dimming processes, the destruction of ozone and increased cloud formation via the addition of cloud condensation nuclei to the atmosphere. To reconstruct variations in UV-B flux we have measured the abundance of phenolic components (UV-B absorbing compounds) contained within the cell wall of Ovalipollis pollen grains across the CPE, from samples taken from the Lunz region (Austria). These phenolic components are part of the defensive system of plants, where the abundance of phenolics increases with elevated UV-B flux. Our preliminary data indicate i) that the highest abundance of phenolics occur in the latter stages of the CPE, ii) the abundance of phenolics are highly variable throughout the CPE, and iii) the abundance of phenolics broadly increase towards the end of the Late Triassic. Here we will discuss the significance of the obtained data in terms of palaeoclimatic variability and the impact of volcanism during the Carnian Pluvial Event.

  9. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate pluvial floods risk under changing climate: The case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A; Torresan, S; Gallina, V; Coppola, E; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2016-08-15

    Global climate change is likely to pose increasing threats in nearly all sectors and across all sub-regions worldwide (IPCC, 2014). Particularly, extreme weather events (e.g. heavy precipitations), together with changing exposure and vulnerability patterns, are expected to increase the damaging effect of storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding. Developing climate and adaptation services for local planners and decision makers is becoming essential to transfer and communicate sound scientific knowledge about climate related risks and foster the development of national, regional and local adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the effect of climate change on pluvial flood risk and advice adaptation planning, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice. Based on the integrated analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, RRA allows identifying and prioritizing targets and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood risk due to heavy precipitation events in the future scenario 2041-2050. From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the requests, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. Results of the analysis showed that all targets (i.e. residential, commercial-industrial areas and infrastructures) are vulnerable to pluvial floods due to the high impermeability and low slope of the topography. The spatial pattern of risk mostly reflects the distribution of the hazard and the districts with the higher percentage of receptors' surface in the higher risk classes (i.e. very high, high and medium) are Lido-Pellestrina and Marghera. The paper discusses how risk-based maps and statistics integrate scientific and local knowledge with the final aim to mainstream climate adaptation in the development

  10. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna in Transition from Small to Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna layer of the ovarian follicle forms during the antral stage of follicle development and lies adjacent to and directly outside the follicular basal lamina. It supplies androgens and communicates with the granulosa cells and the oocyte by extracellular signaling. To better understand developmental changes in the theca interna, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from small (3–5 mm, n = 10) and large (9–12 mm, n = 5) healthy antral bovine follicles, representing a calculated >7-fold increase in the amount of thecal tissue. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed no clustering of the theca interna samples into groups depending on follicle size or subcategories of small follicles. From the over 23,000 probe sets analysed, only 76 were differentially expressed between large and small healthy follicles. Some of the differentially expressed genes were associated with processes such as myoblast differentiation, protein ubiquitination, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor β signaling. The most significant pathway affected from our analyses was found to be Wnt signaling, which was suppressed in large follicles via down-regulation of WNT2B and up-regulation of the inhibitor FRZB. These changes in the transcriptional profile could have been due to changes in cellular function or alternatively since the theca interna is composed of a number of different cell types it could have been due to any systematic change in the volume density of any particular cell type. However, our study suggests that the transcriptional profile of the theca interna is relatively stable during antral follicle development unlike that of granulosa cells observed previously. Thus both the cellular composition and cellular behavior of the theca interna and its contribution to follicular development appear to be relatively constant throughout the follicle growth phase examined

  12. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna. PMID:9376476

  13. Carbon isotope records reveal synchronicity between carbon cycle perturbation and the "Carnian Pluvial Event" in the Tethys realm (Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Corso, Jacopo; Gianolla, Piero; Newton, Robert J.; Franceschi, Marco; Roghi, Guido; Caggiati, Marcello; Raucsik, Béla; Budai, Tamás; Haas, János; Preto, Nereo

    2015-04-01

    In the early Late Triassic a period of increased rainfall, named the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE), is evidenced by major lithological changes in continental and marine successions worldwide. The environmental change seems to be closely associated with a negative carbon isotope excursion that was identified in a stratigraphic succession of the Dolomites (Italy) but the temporal relationship between these phenomena is still not well defined. Here we present organic-carbon isotope data from Carnian deep-water stratigraphic sections in Austria and Hungary, and carbonate petrography of samples from a marginal marine section in Italy. A negative 2-4‰ δ13C shift is recorded by bulk organic matter in the studied sections and is coincident with a similar feature highlighted in higher plant and marine algal biomarker carbon-isotope records from the Dolomites (Italy), thus testifying to a global change in the isotopic composition of the reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon. Our new observations verify that sedimentological changes related to the CPE coincide with the carbon cycle perturbation and therefore occurred synchronously within the western Tethys. Consistent with modern observations, our results show that the injection of 13C-depleted CO2 into the Carnian atmosphere-ocean system may have been directly responsible for the increase in rainfall by intensifying the Pangaean mega-monsoon activity. The consequent increased continental weathering and erosion led to the transfer of large amounts of siliciclastics into the basins that were rapidly filled up, while the increased nutrient flux triggered the local development of anoxia. The new carbonate petrography data show that these changes also coincided with the demise of platform microbial carbonate factories and their replacement with metazoan driven carbonate deposition. This had the effect of considerably decreasing carbonate deposition in shallow water environments.

  14. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate vulnerability and risks of pluvial floods under changing climate: the case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Coppola, Erika; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the intensity and frequency of extreme events (e.g. heat waves, drought, heavy precipitations events) leading to increasing natural disasters and damaging events (e.g. storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding) worldwide. Especially in urban areas, disasters risks can be exacerbated by changes in exposure and vulnerability patterns (i.e. urbanization, population growth) and should be addressed by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach. A Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrating climate and environmental sciences with bottom-up participative processes was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice in order to evaluate the potential consequences of climate change on pluvial flood risk in urban areas. Based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risks, the RRA methodology is a screening risk tool to identify and prioritize major elements at risk (e.g. residential, commercial areas and infrastructures) and to localize sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by flood risk due to heavy precipitation events, in the future scenario (2041-2050). From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach to select and score site-specific vulnerability factors (e.g. slope, permeability of the soil, past flooded areas) and to consider the requests and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region, by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. The main outputs of the assessment are risk and vulnerability maps and statistics aimed at increasing awareness about the potential effect of climate change on pluvial flood risks and at identifying hot-spot areas where future adaptation actions should be required to decrease physical-environmental vulnerabilities or building resilience and coping capacity of human society to climate change. The overall risk assessment methodology and the results

  15. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  16. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain. PMID:9376477

  17. Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Medically Intractable Meige Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae-Woong; Son, Byung-chul; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Medical therapies in patients with Meige syndrome, including botulinum toxin injection, have been limited because of incomplete response or adverse side effects. We evaluated a patient with Meige syndrome who was successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus interna (GPi). This case report and other previous reports suggest that bilateral GPi DBS may be an effective treatment for medically refractory Meige syndrome, without significant adverse effects. PMID:25360233

  18. Anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Steg, A

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe an anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy. They show that Denonvilliers' fascia is made up of many membranous layers starting at the bladder. They recall the fact that the preprostatic veins are attached at the bottom, not only to the venae dorsales penis, but also to the venae pudendae internae which runs under the levator ani muscle. These preprostatic veins lie inside a vessel-bearing blade of tissue made of muscular and collagenous tissue derived from the anterior vesical wall. This anatomical study recalls the fact that the interprostatorectal dissection line is behind Denonvilliers' fascia and that the preprostatic vein dissection line is on the anterior aspect of the membranous urethra. PMID:4043160

  19. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  20. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. Paleoseismology from Paleoshorelines: Combining Lidar Data and Geochronology to Resolve Displacement of Pleistocene Pluvial Shorelines along Normal Faults in the Northwestern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.; Ibarra, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoshorelines of pluvial lakes in the Basin and Range are commonly used to determine lake highstands and to assess past climate in a now-arid region. However, because paleoshorelines record a paleohorizontal datum, these features can provide insight into tectonic processes at a variety of scales as well. Deviations of a paleoshorelines from a modern horizontal plane may be caused by isostatic rebound of the crust resulting from lake removal or by offset along faults since a given lake stillstand. While isostatic rebound has a significant effect over large lake basins such as Bonneville and Lahontan, the effect is negligible in smaller lakes that fill a single valley, often within terminal basins. As a result, variability in shoreline elevations can be attributed primarily to offset along normal faults. Pluvial lakes occupied valleys in the Basin and Range between >1 Ma to <12 ka, a time range for which fault slip rates have proven difficult to determine using traditional paleoseismic and geologic records. Trenches provide paleoseismic records across a single fault, but a single valley may contain several seismically active faults, and the time resolution is typically limited by the maximum age of radiocarbon dating and the earthquake recurrence interval. Geologic records typically provide average slip rates over time rather than timing of individual seismic events. In the northwestern Basin and Range, where the strain rate is low and earthquake recurrence intervals are long, it is particularly critical to extend the traditional paleoseismic record as far back as possible. By precisely dating paleoshorelines and using high-resolution topographic data to correlate them across active faults, it is possible to greatly enhance the record of slip rate along normal fault systems. Newly acquired airborne lidar data in Surprise Valley, a small terminal basin in northeastern California, reveals a mappable series of shorelines that occur throughout the valley on both sides

  2. Sub-pluvial Saqqara and its possible impact on ancient Egyptian civilization in the Old Kingdom Period (4600 - 4100 yrs BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welc, Fabian; Marks, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    ). A role of these wet intervals is incontestable and they can represent a sub-pluvial episode with two peaks at about 4600 and 4200 yrs BP, presumably of regional significance for north-eastern Africa. The authors suggest to name this relatively wet period the Saqqara Sub-pluvial. Based on the present knowledge, the extremely dynamic terminal phase of the second peak of the Saqqara Sub-pluvial and the following sudden desertification noted in deposits at archaeological sites in Saqqara and in the adjoining area (Abusir, Giza) should be roughly correlated with global climatic perturbation of the 3rd Bond Event or 4.2 ka Rapid Climate Change. The climate change in that time resulted in a collapse of the Egyptian civilization but also in rapid depopulation of Palestine, disintegration of the Acadian Empire in Mesopotamia and the Harappa Civilization in northwest India. Mechanism of this climate change is investigated within the project funded by National Science Centre in Poland (decision no. DEC-2012/05/B/ST10/00558).

  3. Hydrologic and climatic implications of stable isotope and minor element analyses of authigenic calcite silts and gastropod shells from a mid-Pleistocene pluvial lake, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieniewicz, Johanna M.; Smith, Jennifer R.

    2007-11-01

    Authigenic calcite silts at Wadi Midauwara in Kharga Oasis, Egypt, indicate the prolonged presence of surface water during the Marine Isotope Stage 5e pluvial phase recognized across North Africa. Exposed over an area of ˜ 4.25 km 2, these silts record the ponding of water derived from springs along the Libyan Plateau escarpment and from surface drainage. The δ 18O values of these lacustrine carbonates (- 11.3‰ to - 8.0‰ PDB), are too high to reflect equilibrium precipitation with Nubian aquifer water or water of an exclusively Atlantic origin. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of the silts have a modest negative covariance with silt δ 18O values, suggesting that the water may have experienced the shortest residence time in local aquifers when the water δ 18O values were highest. Furthermore, intra-shell δ 18O, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca analyses of the freshwater gastropod Melanoides tuberculata are consistent with a perennially fresh water source, suggesting that strong evaporative effects expected in a monsoonal climate did not occur, or that dry season spring flow was of sufficient magnitude to mute the effects of evaporation. The input of a second, isotopically heavier water source to aquifers, possibly Indian Ocean monsoonal rain, could explain the observed trends in δ 18O and minor element ratios.

  4. Late Pleistocene ages for the most recent volcanism and glacial-pluvial deposits at Big Pine volcanic field, California, USA, from cosmogenic 36Cl dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Woolford, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Big Pine volcanic field is one of several Quaternary volcanic fields that poses a potential volcanic hazard along the tectonically active Owens Valley of east-central California, and whose lavas are interbedded with deposits from Pleistocene glaciations in the Sierra Nevada Range. Previous geochronology indicates an ˜1.2 Ma history of volcanism, but the eruption ages and distribution of volcanic products associated with the most-recent eruptions have been poorly resolved. To delimit the timing and products of the youngest volcanism, we combine field mapping and cosmogenic 36Cl dating of basaltic lava flows in the area where lavas with youthful morphology and well-preserved flow structures are concentrated. Field mapping and petrology reveal approximately 15 vents and 6 principal flow units with variable geochemical composition and mineralogy. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages for lava flow units from the top, middle, and bottom of the volcanic stratigraphy indicate eruptions at ˜17, 27, and 40 ka, revealing several different and previously unrecognized episodes of late Pleistocene volcanism. Olivine to plagioclase-pyroxene phyric basalt erupted from several vents during the most recent episode of volcanism at ˜17 ka, and produced a lava flow field covering ˜35 km2. The late Pleistocene 36Cl exposure ages indicate that moraine and pluvial shoreline deposits that overlie or modify the youngest Big Pine lavas reflect Tioga stage glaciation in the Sierra Nevada and the shore of paleo-Owens Lake during the last glacial cycle.

  5. Late Pleistocene ages for the most recent volcanism and glacial-pluvial deposits at Big Pine volcanic field, California, USA, from cosmogenic 36Cl dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Woolford, Jeff M

    2015-01-01

    The Big Pine volcanic field is one of several Quaternary volcanic fields that poses a potential volcanic hazard along the tectonically active Owens Valley of east-central California, and whose lavas are interbedded with deposits from Pleistocene glaciations in the Sierra Nevada Range. Previous geochronology indicates an ∼1.2 Ma history of volcanism, but the eruption ages and distribution of volcanic products associated with the most-recent eruptions have been poorly resolved. To delimit the timing and products of the youngest volcanism, we combine field mapping and cosmogenic 36Cl dating of basaltic lava flows in the area where lavas with youthful morphology and well-preserved flow structures are concentrated. Field mapping and petrology reveal approximately 15 vents and 6 principal flow units with variable geochemical composition and mineralogy. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages for lava flow units from the top, middle, and bottom of the volcanic stratigraphy indicate eruptions at ∼17, 27, and 40 ka, revealing several different and previously unrecognized episodes of late Pleistocene volcanism. Olivine to plagioclase-pyroxene phyric basalt erupted from several vents during the most recent episode of volcanism at ∼17 ka, and produced a lava flow field covering ∼35 km2. The late Pleistocene 36Cl exposure ages indicate that moraine and pluvial shoreline deposits that overlie or modify the youngest Big Pine lavas reflect Tioga stage glaciation in the Sierra Nevada and the shore of paleo-Owens Lake during the last glacial cycle.

  6. Spatially variable sedimentary responses to orbitally driven pluvial climate during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5.1, Dakhla Oasis region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    2010-09-01

    Pleistocene basinal sediments (PBS) in the Dakhla region of Egypt's hyperarid Western Desert comprise four facies: (A) fluvio-lacustrine, (B) mixed lacustrine/pluvio-eolian, (C) pluvio-eolian, and (D) mixed eolian/pluvio-eolian. Contiguity of basins containing each facies, and their stratigraphic position between two bajada gravel formations, P/B-II and P/B-III, confirm their equivalence. Facies A and B, with lacustrine components, are attributed to orbitally forced poleward incursion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), resulting in increased summer insolation/temperature/precipitation. Facies C and D, comprising pluvio-eolian and eolian sediments, reflect geologic/topographic influences overprinted on regional 'pluvial' conditions, eliminating lacustrine response. A Th/U age of ˜ 62 ka on lacustrine marl within Facies B is minimal, and an OSL age of 110 ± 18 ka on sediments immediately below Facies B is maximal. Since bajada gravels P/B-III are the youngest Pleistocene formation, they must represent the final strong incursion of the ITCZ into the Dakhla region at MIS 5.1, ˜ 80 ka. Because PBS Facies A pass rapidly up into P/B-III bajada gravels, PBS are assigned to the rising limb of the MIS 5.1 insolation/temperature/precipitation curve, slightly younger than 80 ka.

  7. Delayed cerebritis after bilateral stereotactic implantation of globus pallidus interna electrodes for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Lessig, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew D; Barba, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat an increasing number of movement and psychiatric disorders. However, the risk of infection remains as a problem that can hinder the usefulness of this technology. We report a case of a patient with dystonia who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna electrode and impulse generator (IPG) placement, developed an infection of his IPG, and later cerebritis. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics and partial hardware removal. Follow-up cranial imaging showed an area concerning for cerebritis around one of the intracranial electrodes. The patient was then treated with complete hardware removal followed by a course of intravenous antibiotics. Four-month follow-up imaging showed resolution of the infection. This case demonstrates the importance of following cranial imaging in DBS patients with delayed infection, continued vigilance for infection in implanted patients and that partial hardware removal may not be successful in the setting of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections. PMID:23378545

  8. Impacts of Evolutionary History on Endangerment in a Changing Climate: Miocene upwelling, Holocene Pluvial Cycles and Endemics at the Mouth of the Colorado River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    The environmental conditions communities experienced during their diversification and recent geologic history informs us as to which environmental changes are most likely to impact species in those communities. Three examples follow: 1) Recent compilation of molecular and paleontological data document that higher aspects of the trophic chain in the Pacific Northwest, including the salmon genus Onchoyrhynchus, alcid birds (Auks & Puffins) and crabs of the genus Cancer speciated dramatically in response to enhanced upwelling of the mid Miocene (Jacobs et al. 2004). Consistent with this evolutionary origin, population dynamics and endangerment of these taxa are associated with the changing productivity regime of the Pacific as well as more direct human impacts. 2) Pluvials in the Eurasian and African continent respond to the precession cycle, as a result wetland habitats were much more expansive in the early and middle Holocene. Late Holocene wetland habitat contraction combines with increasing anthropogenic manipulation of these cyclically limited hydrologic resources to yield a suite of endangered taxa across these continents as is statistically documented by analysis of Redbook data. 3) Our recent work documents the evolution of endemic fish and Molluscan taxa in association with the Colorado River Delta. These endemic taxa are then vulnerable to the to impacts on the Colorado Delta where anthropogenic use of water resources combine with the threat of climate provide combined threats to this ecosystem. The Environmental/Evolutionary history of lineages clearly has strong implications for how anthropogenic changes impacts and endangers those lineages. Jacobs D.K. et al. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2004. 32:601 52

  9. Intensified pluvial conditions during the twentieth century in the inland Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Burchardt, Iris; Hu, Xiaoli; Kang, Xingcheng

    2010-06-01

    Past streamflow variability is of special significance in the inland river basin, i.e., the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China, where water shortage is a serious environmental and social problem. However, the current knowledge of issues related to regional water resources management and long-term planning and management is limited by the lack of long-term hydro-meteorological records. Here we present a 1009-year annual streamflow (August-July) reconstruction for the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China based on a well-replicated Qilian juniper ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronology. This reconstruction accounts for 46.9% of the observed instrumental streamflow variance during the period 1958-2006. Considerable multidecadal to centennial flow variations below and above the long-term average are displayed in the millennium streamflow reconstruction. These periods 1012-1053, 1104-1212, 1259-1352, 1442-1499, 1593-1739 and 1789-1884 are noteworthy for the persistence of low-level river flow, and for the fact that these low streamflow events are not found in the observed instrumental hydrological record during the recent 50 years. The 20th century witnessed intensified pluvial conditions in the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China in the context of the last millennium. Comparison with other long-term hydrological reconstructions indicates that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in the twentieth century from different regions could be attributable to regional to large-scale temperature increase during this time. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, the streamflow reconstruction can serve as a robust database for the government to work out more scientific and more reasonable water allocation alternatives for the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.

  10. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  11. Transcriptome Comparisons Identify New Cell Markers for Theca Interna and Granulosa Cells from Small and Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  12. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  13. Preliminary evidence for human globus pallidus pars interna neurons signaling reward and sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nicholas A; Prescott, Ian A; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Voon, Valerie; Hutchison, William D

    2016-07-22

    The globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is a component of the basal ganglia, a network of subcortical nuclei that process motor, associative, and limbic information. While non-human primate studies have suggested a role for the GPi in non-motor functions, there have been no single-unit studies of non-motor electrophysiological behavior of human GPi neurons. We therefore sought to extend these findings by collecting single-unit recordings from awake patients during functional stereotactic neurosurgery targeting the GPi for deep brain stimulation. To assess cellular responses to non-motor information, patients performed a reward task where virtual money could be won, lost, or neither, depending on their performance while cellular activity was monitored. Changes in the firing rates of isolated GPi neurons after the presentation of reward-related stimuli were compared between different reward contingencies (win, loss, null). We observed neurons that modulated their firing rate significantly to the presentation of reward-related stimuli. We furthermore found neurons that responded to visual-stimuli more broadly. This is the first single-unit evidence of human GPi neurons carrying non-motor information. These results are broadly consistent with previous findings in the animal literature and suggest non-motor information may be represented in the single-unit activity of human GPi neurons. PMID:27109924

  14. Carbon cycle perturbations recorded by δ13C of bulk organic matter: the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Dolomites, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Rigo, Manuel; Roghi, Guido; Spötl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    A period of increased rainfall occurred in the Carnian (Late Triassic), known as Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE), which is evidenced by major lithological changes in continental and marine successions at tropical latitudes. Increased continental weathering and erosion led to the supply of large amounts of siliciclastics into the marginal basins of the Tethys. Seawater anoxia is also observed locally in semi-restricted basins. Simultaneously, microbial factories on high-relief carbonate platforms were replaced by metazoan factories, forming low-relief carbonate ramps and mixed low-gradient shelves. This environmental change has been shown to be closely associated with a negative carbon isotope excursion. A negative δ13C shift is recorded by bulk organic matter in the Milieres section (central Dolomites) and parallels a coeval excursion in carbon-isotope records of higher plant and marine algal biomarker, thus testifying a global change in the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ocean. This isotopic excursion was identified in organic carbon records throughout the western Tethys, but so far could not be reproduced convincingly using carbon isotope records from carbonate. A long carbon isotope record was produced from bulk organic matter of the early to late Carnian Milieres - Dibona section in the Dolomites, northern Italy. Carbon isotope analyses of carbonate (limestone and dolomite) were also obtained. This new carbon isotope record illustrates the structure of this complex carbon cycle perturbation related to the CPE. But while sharp carbon isotope oscillations are evident in the bulk organic carbon record, there is no evidence of a similar pattern in carbonate record. It can be shown that the carbon isotope record of carbonates is influenced by fractionation and diagenetic processes that completely obliterated the original δ13C signal. We conclude that the Carnian carbonates of the Dolomites do not

  15. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Wide-Field Photography, and Fundus Autofluorescence Correlation of Posterior Ophthalmomyiasis Interna.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Yannis M; Butler, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Posterior ophthalmomyiasis interna is a rare, potentially devastating infestation of the posterior segment by fly larvae. The authors report the first demonstration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), wide-field angiography (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) and photography, and fundus autofluorescence with temporal progression during a period of 6 months. A 12-year-old white female presented with acute, painless vision loss with hand motions visual acuity. No larva was visible, so she was treated with oral ivermectin. Visual acuity improved to 20/80. OCT demonstrated hyporeflective spaces of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium, which resolved during 1-month period with improved ellipsoid layer by 6 months. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated linear hypoautofluorescent tracks. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:682-685.]. PMID:27434903

  16. Neuronal discharge patterns in the globus pallidus pars interna in a patient with Parkinson's disease and hemiballismus secondary to subthalamotomy.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Daniel; Obeso, José Angel; Merello, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical "motor" circuit activity, have been proposed to explain many features associated with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. We describe the firing pattern of the globus pallidus pars interna in a Parkinson disease's patient who developed Hemichorea-Ballismus subsequent to ipsilateral subthalamotomy, and compare findings to those from PD patients submitted to pallidotomy while in the OFF-medication state. Single units obtained from extracellular recordings were extracted and mean discharge frequency, interspike interval and coefficient of variation (defined as Tonicity Score) were computed. Discharge density histograms, analysis of distribution and spectral analysis were also performed. Mean firing frequency showed no significant difference between PD patients in the OFF state and the patient we report. However, a significant difference in tonicity was found for this patient characterized by a regular, non-bursting firing pattern. The findings indicate that in HB caused by lesions to STN in the parkinsonian state, GPi firing rates can be similar to and firing pattern more regular than those observed in GPi of PD patients OFF-medication with intact STN. PMID:21786135

  17. TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, William R.

    The Hudson River Museum's Environmental Arts and Science Division has published this booklet describing their model educational program, "TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment," a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education utilizing existing curricula. For conducting the program model communities strategically located along the…

  18. Localization of the gene for hyperostosis cranialis interna to chromosome 8p21 with analysis of three candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Borra, V M; Waterval, J J; Stokroos, R J; Manni, J J; Van Hul, W

    2013-07-01

    Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intracranial hyperostosis and osteosclerosis, which is confined to the skull, especially the calvarium and the skull base. The rest of the skeleton is not affected. Progressive bone overgrowth causes nerve entrapment that leads to recurrent facial nerve palsy, disturbance of the sense of smell, hearing and vision impairments, impairment of facial sensibility, and disturbance of balance due to vestibular areflexia. The treatment is symptomatic. Histomorphological investigations showed increased bone formation with a normal tissue structure. Biochemical parameters were normal. Until today the disease has been described in only three related Dutch families with common progenitors and which consist of 32 individuals over five generations. HCI was observed in 12 family members over four generations. Patients are mildly to severely affected. Besides HCI, several bone dysplasias with hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones are known. Examples are Van Buchem disease, sclerosteosis, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, and Camurati-Engelmann disease. However, in these cases the long bones are affected as well. Linkage analysis in a family with HCI resulted in the localization of the disease-causing gene to a region on chromosome 8p21 delineated by markers D8S282 and D8S382. Interesting candidate genes in this region are BMP1, LOXL2, and ADAM28. Sequence analysis of these genes did not reveal any putative mutations. This suggests that a gene not previously involved in a sclerosing bone dysplasia is responsible for the abnormal growth in the skull of these patients. PMID:23640157

  19. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  20. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  1. The Total Irradiance Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The first Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) launched on NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment in 2003 and quickly proved to be the most accurate and stable instrument on orbit for measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TIM’s design improvements over the older classical radiometers helped its selection on many subsequent missions, including NASA’s Glory, NOAA’s TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment, and the series of NASA’s Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor instruments currently underway. I will summarize the status of and differences between each of the TIMs currently on-orbit or in production.

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  4. Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR- ...

  5. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  7. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  8. Total colonoscopy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. B.; Laage, N. J.; Campbell, C. A.; Douglas, J. R.; Walker-Smith, J. A.; Booth, I. W.; Harries, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-three total colonoscopies were performed on 115 children with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years. The major indications were suspected inflammatory bowel disease and unexplained rectal bleeding. Ninety-seven per cent of all procedures were carried out with sedation only. Adult colonoscopes were used in most of the patients but in babies and small children paediatric instruments were preferable. Total colonoscopy was possible in all patients with a patent colon. The terminal ileum was examined in 63 patients. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully carried out in 8 children and multiple haemangiomas were electrocoagulated in one. Total colonoscopy in this paediatric series proved to be at least as easy, rapid, well-tolerated, and safe as in adults. In selected patients as single colonoscopy can give an accurate diagnosis with biopsy proof and sometimes the opportunity for definitive treatment. PMID:7065694

  9. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  10. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  11. Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  12. Total absorption Cherenkov spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovski, E. I.

    2015-05-01

    A short review of 50 years of work done with Cherenkov detectors in laboratories at the Lebedev Physical Institute is presented. The report considers some issues concerning the use of Cherenkov total absorption counters based on lead glass and heavy crystals in accelerator experiments.

  13. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  14. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  15. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  16. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  17. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  18. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  19. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  20. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  1. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  2. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  3. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  4. Guidance for Total Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoose, William H.

    Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

  5. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  6. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  7. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  8. Total Syntheses of Perenniporides.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masao; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    The total syntheses of perenniporide A (1) and related compounds have been achieved. Starting from 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (9), difluorodienone 6 was obtained by oxidative dearomatization, which served as a platform for the high-pressure cycloaddition and for the introduction of the C3-methoxy group. The synthesis allowed access to the natural congeners 2 and 3, enabling assignment of the absolute structures of these natural products. PMID:26555442

  9. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  10. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  11. Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function. PMID:21584206

  12. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  13. Total photoabsorption in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1992-06-01

    The Frascati-Genova collaboration proposes to measure the total photonuclear cross section on a wide range of nuclei between 500 MeV and 2 GeV, to obtain informations on the interaction of baryon resonances with nucleons and on the onset of the shadowing effect. The experiment could be performed in the Hall B as soon as the tagging facility will be ready and before the end of the installation of the CLAS spectrometer. The requirements for the photon beam, like maximum energy, intensity and beam definition, are not so strong so that the experiment would also be a good first test of the tagged photon facility.

  14. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  15. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  16. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position. PMID:26252484

  17. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  18. Total Synthesis of (-)-Exiguolide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigao; Xie, Hengmu; Li, Hongze; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2015-10-01

    A concise total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide has been completed in an overall 2.8% yield over 20 steps in the longest linear path. The key strategies involve (1) Prins cyclization/homobromination of dienyl alcohol with the B ring-substituted aldehyde, prepared by Prins cyclization/bromination, to construct the A ring with excellent cis-Z stereochemical control and (2) an unusual side chain installation/macrocyclization strategy featuring Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by a ring-closing metathesis reaction to deliver the target. PMID:26371396

  19. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration. PMID:11913258

  20. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  1. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  2. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  3. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  4. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  5. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  6. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  7. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Mahanta, Sunayan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years). The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained) hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80°) and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°). Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°). However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25°) of extension (45°) out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100). Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18%) out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head were replaced

  8. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  9. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  10. Endoscopic Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Titus D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT). Methods and Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion: ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible. PMID:20202393

  11. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  12. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented. PMID:21775941

  13. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  14. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  15. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  16. Scheme for total quantum teleportation

    PubMed

    DelRe; Crosignani; Di Porto P

    2000-03-27

    We address the issue of totally teleporting the quantum state of an external particle, as opposed to studies on partial teleportation of external single-particle states, total teleportation of coherent states and encoded single-particle states, and intramolecular teleportation of nuclear spin states. We find a set of commuting observables whose measurement directly projects onto the Bell basis and discuss a possible experiment, based on two-photon absorption, allowing, for the first time, total teleportation of the state of a single external photon through a direct projective measurement. PMID:11018993

  17. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  18. A Choir for Total Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Ruth Ann

    1980-01-01

    The Total Communication Choir of the Saginaw, Michigan, public schools integrates deaf and hearing elementary and junior high students in music performance. All students both sign and sing. Methods used to instruct the choir are described. (SJL)

  19. March 8 Solar Eclipse Totality

    NASA Video Gallery

    The moon passes in front of the sun, creating a total solar eclipse visible in parts of Southeast Asia. This video. taken from a live broadcast from the Exploratorium Science Center, shows the peri...

  20. Pyodermatitis vegetans after total colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Çobanoğlu, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    Pyostomatitis–pyodermatitis vegetans (PPV) is a rare dermatological manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by erythematous, vesiculopustular, exudative, annular, and/or vegetating plaques over the intertriginous regions that may precede or appear at the same time as the mucosal lesions. Systemic corticosteroids, dapsone, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and subtotal/total colectomy are the most common treatment options. A 16-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with a four months history of thickly crusted erosions on his trunk, back, and lower extremity. He had ulcerative colitis for four years and total colectomy was done seven months ago. Clinical and histopathological examination of his lesions were consistent with pyostomatitis vegetans. Although subtotal/total colectomy has been reported as a treatment option for PPV, lesions reappeared three months after total colectomy in our patient. PMID:26904460

  1. Total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A.

    PubMed

    Mergott, Dustin J; Frank, Scott A; Roush, William R

    2004-08-17

    A convergent, highly stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include the transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic pentaene 11 and the transannular Morita-Baylis-Hillman cyclization of 12 that generates tetracycle 26. The total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A was completed by a sequence involving the highly beta-selective glycosidation reaction of 13 and glycosyl imidate 30. PMID:15173590

  2. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  3. Total Irradiance Monitor Observations of Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) is the most recent instrument launched to measure total solar irradiance (TSI) from space. This electrical substitution radiometer has on-orbit degradation tracking to provide very stable long- term measurements of the net solar radiation incident on the Earth, and the instrument continues the 29-year record of this natural driver of Earth climate. Currently flying on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the TIM has been providing stable, low-noise, and accurate measurements of TSI since early 2003. The TIM will next be flying on NASA's Glory climate mission and is one instrument of the Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) selected to continue this important climate record well into the future. The SORCE/TIM has created renewed interest in the TSI absolute value and has acquired the first measurements of the total radiant energy released by large solar flares. Improvements in ground-based calibrations starting with the Glory/TIM will establish traceability linking current to upcoming measurements, solidifying the existing TSI climate data record in the undesirable event of a future data gap.

  4. Total Quality Management Is Total at Fox Valley Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    At Fox Valley Technical College (Wisconsin), application of Total Quality Management (TQM) brought positive outcomes and other effects. Areas in which TQM was used are considered, including admissions, employee safety, customer focus, policy formation, management performance appraisal, student services, creation of a self-managing class, TQM for…

  5. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  6. Biomaterials in total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Katti, Kalpana S

    2004-12-10

    The current state of materials systems used in total hip replacement is presented in this paper. An overview of the various material systems used in total hip replacement reported in literature is presented in this paper. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composites are used in the design of the different components of hip replacement implants. The merits and demerits of these material systems are evaluated in the context of mechanical properties most suitable for total joint replacement such as a hip implant. Current research on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites as novel materials systems for bone replacement is also discussed. This paper examines the current research in the materials science and the critical issues and challenges in these materials systems that require further research before application in biomedical industry. PMID:15556342

  7. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas E; Kim, Hyunjeong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  8. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  9. Total eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans. PMID:17817829

  10. Gap Balanced Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus

    Gap Balanced Total Knee Arthroplasty – SIGMA® with AOX™ You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR-Live, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Planning: A Total Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Harvard's energy conservation plan is presented in detail with the hope that it will suggest practical, cost-effective energy-saving ideas to other institutions, and to dispel frequently-expressed fears concerning the feasibility and acceptance problems of this type of program. The total energy plan incorporates numerous specific elements that…

  12. The Total Cost of Ownership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2000-01-01

    Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided. (GR)

  13. Total Quality Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Malcolm S.; Gaunt, Helen J.

    Education in the United Kingdom has been shaped by the advent of local school management and the rapid growth of grant-maintained schools. Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a new way of looking at management principles and structures by identifying the needs of both internal and external customers. This book applies principles of TQM…

  14. Total Quality Management in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Ways to apply the concepts and processes of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education are discussed in this document. Following the introduction and the preface, chapter 1 provides a historical overview and describes the four cornerstones of TQM--an understanding of systems, psychology, knowledge, and statistics. Chapter 2 describes some of the…

  15. Total Synthesis of Amphirionin-4.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Kwon, Daniel; Taron, Matthew; Britton, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The first total synthesis of amphirionin-4 has been achieved using a combination of cross-coupling strategies to access the polyene side chain and a chlorohydrin-based approach to construct the tetrahydrofuranol core. The remote C9-stereocenter was introduced through a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling that proceeded with remote stereoinduction. PMID:26172382

  16. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  17. The Total Synthesis of Neoamphimedine

    PubMed Central

    LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Bugni, Tim S.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Neoamphimedine, a Pyridoacridine alkaloid from Xestospongia sp., is a potent antitumor agent both in vitro and in vivo. Neoamphimedine can efficiently induce topoisomerase II mediated catenation of plasmid DNA in vitro, and is the only member of more than one hundred pyridoacridines thus far to have this mechanism of action. Herein we report the first total synthesis of Neoamphimedine. PMID:17900144

  18. Total sternectomy for malignant disease.

    PubMed

    París, F; Blasco, E; Tarazona, V; Pastor, J; Zarza, A G; Padilla, J

    1980-09-01

    From 1972 to 1978, six total sternectomies for malignant disease of the sternum were carried out. The clinical data are summarized and the surgical technique is described. After sternectomy, the area of chest wall resection was repaired by suturing a sheet of silicone rubber to the edges of the defect and chest wall stability was assured by using one or two stainless steel struts. Finally the defect was covered with methylmethacrylate prepared and applied inthe operative field. The prosthetic material was shaped until curing by polymerization was complete. We discuss the advantages of this type of reconstruction, the technical details, the use of antibiotics, the surgical drainage, and the need for biopsy prior to carrying out a total sternectomy. PMID:7412352

  19. Formal total synthesis of platencin.

    PubMed

    Varseev, Georgy N; Maier, Martin E

    2009-01-01

    The right bicycle: A concise formal synthesis of platencin was based on an efficient oxygen-mediated palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation of 1 to form a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, and a deoxygenative rearrangement of tosylhydrazone 2 to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane 3. The total yield of the core structure 4 of platencin was 17.5% for 13 steps from a commercially available compound. Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl, TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl, Piv = pivaloyl. PMID:19353600

  20. A Total Synthesis of Paeoveitol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lun; Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Li-Wen; Gao, Ziwei; Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A four-step total synthesis of paeoveitol (1), a recently disclosed norditerpene natural product from Paeonia vetchii, is reported. This highly concise synthetic route was guided by biosynthetic considerations and enabled by an unusual intermolecular ortho-quinone methide [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction, which proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations point to a crucial intermolecular hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction that govern selectivity in this process. PMID:27389027

  1. Diastereoselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Galiellalactone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Han, Young Taek; An, Hongchan; Kim, Kyeojin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Suh, Young-Ger

    2015-12-18

    An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-galiellalactone has been accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involve the highly stereoselective construction of the cis-trisubstituted cyclopentane intermediate by a Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclization, the stereospecific introduction of an angular hydroxyl group by Riley oxidation, and the efficient construction of the tricyclic system of (-)-galiellalactone via a combination of diastereoselective Hosomi-Sakurai crotylation and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). PMID:26544529

  2. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Pironetin

    PubMed Central

    Crimmins, Michael T.; Dechert, Anne-Marie R.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of pironetin has been achieved in 11 steps from known aldehyde 2. The synthesis relies on the formation of 5 out of 6 stereocenters through titanium mediated iterative aldol reactions. Key steps in this synthesis include an acetal aldol reaction to establish the stereochemistry at C8 and C9, an acetate aldol reaction, and “Evans” syn aldol reaction. PMID:19281219

  3. Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Cardona, Francesca; Goti, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A (3) has been accomplished in nine steps and 11% overall yield from carbohydrate-based nitrone 5. The key steps of the synthetic strategy were a high regio- and complete stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkene 6 with nitrone 5, a Tamao-Fleming reaction for replacing the silicon substituent with a hydroxy group with retention of configuration, and a Mitsunobu reaction to establish the correct configuration of the target molecule at C-6. PMID:19835391

  4. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yoshihiko; Murakami, Masahiko; Otsuka, Koji; Saito, Kazuhiko; Saito, Akira; Motegi, Kentaro; Date, Hiromi; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Tomotake; Goto, Satoru; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Fujimori, Akira; Watanabe, Makoto; Aoki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  5. Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Gelrud, Andres; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Dunn, Ty B.; Humar, Abhinav; Morgan, Katherine A.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Rastellini, Cristiana; Rickels, Michael R.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Andersen, Dana K.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. PMID:25599324

  6. Epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chang, Anna Marie; Ho, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shirley H.L.; Yang, Unique

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To understand whether the epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea is corneal or conjunctival in origin. Methods Four cases of total sclerocornea (male:female = 1:3; mean age = 5.4±4.3; 1–11 years old) who received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) at our hospital between 2008 and 2011 were included. Corneal buttons obtained during PKP were used for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as immunoconfocal microscopy for cytokeratins 3, 12, and 13, goblet cell mucin MUC5AC, connexin 43, stem cell markers p63 and ABCG2, laminin-5, and fibronectin. Results After a mean follow-up period of 38.8±14.0 (12–54) months, the grafts remained clear in half of the patients. TEM examination revealed a markedly attenuated Bowman’s layer in the scleralized corneas, with irregular and variably thinned collagen lamellar layers, and disorganization and random distribution of collagen fibrils, which were much larger in diameter compared with a normal cornea. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that keratin 3 was expressed in all four patients, while p63, ABCG2, and MUC5AC were all absent. Cornea-specific keratin 12 was universally expressed in Patients 1 to 3, while mucosa (including conjunctiva)-specific keratin 13 was negative in these patients. Interestingly, keratin 12 and 13 were expressed in Patient 4 in a mutually exclusive manner. Linear expression of laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and similar expression of fibronectin were observed. Conclusions The epithelia in total sclerocornea are essentially corneal in phenotype, but in the event of massive corneal angiogenesis, invasion by the conjunctival epithelium is possible. PMID:24744607

  7. Total Synthesis of Gombamide A.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    The first total synthesis of Gombamide A (1), a cytotoxic cyclic thiopeptide from the sponge Clathria gombawuiensis, has been achieved. Highlights of the convergent synthesis feature a disulfide bond forming cascade to close the 17-membered macrocycle and a selenoazidylation procedure to access the unusual para-hydroxystyrlyamide (pHSA) moiety. The synthesis required 18 steps, 11 steps in its longest linear sequence, and proceeded in 9.1% overall yield. This work will facilitate the study of the biological effects of Gombamide A and provide groundwork to explore the structure-activity relationship around this rare natural product. PMID:27442228

  8. Total Synthesis of the Ammosamides

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Chambers C.; Fenical, William

    2010-01-01

    The ammosamides A-C are chlorinated pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline metabolites isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698. The natural products, which possess a dense array of heteroatoms, were synthesized in 17–19 steps from 4-chloroisatin. That the five nitrogen atoms were introduced at the appropriate time and in a suitable oxidation state was key to the success of the total synthesis. Compared to synthetic deschloro ammosamide B, natural ammosamide B is much less susceptible to oxidative degradation. PMID:20131899

  9. Total Synthesis of Calophyline A.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Xiaoni; Zu, Liansuo

    2016-08-22

    Reported herein is the total synthesis of calophyline A, an indoline natural product possessing distinct ring connectivity which has not been synthesized previously. The synthetic route features several key transformations, including an aza-pinacol rearrangement to construct the nitrogen-containing bridged [3.2.2] bicycle, a Heck cyclization to assemble the fused 6/5/6/5 ring system, and a challenging late-stage aldol reaction to generate both a neopentyl quaternary stereogenic center and an oxygen-containing bridged [3.2.1] bicycle. PMID:27294980

  10. Total Synthesis of the Hamigerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Xue, Dongsheng; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Shuanhu

    2016-08-16

    The first total synthesis of hamigerans D, G, L, and N-Q has been accomplished. A convergent approach was used to build the basic tricarbocyclic ring system bearing a 5-6-6 structure. A sequence of oxidative cleavage, homologation, and ring regeneration provided access to the 5-7-6 skeleton of hamigeran G. Based on the biogenetic hypothesis, elegant and highly efficient biomimetic transformations of hamigeran G into hamigerans D, N-Q, and L were achieved. PMID:27390907

  11. Characterization of total flare energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that the estimates of total energy in the prime flares lie well below the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor upper limits. This is consistent with our knowledge of the energy distribution in solar flares. Insufficient data exist for us to be very firm about this conclusion, however, and major energetic components could exist undetected, especially in the EUV-XUV and optical bands. In addition, the radiant energy cannot quantitatively be compared at this time with non-radiant terms because of even larger uncertainties in the latter.

  12. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  13. Development of a totally implantable total artificial heart controller.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Choi, W W; Min, B G

    1991-01-01

    Using a one chip microcontroller, 87C196 (One chip EPROM), and an erasable and programmable logic device (EPLD), an implantable control system to drive a pendulum type electromechanical total artificial heart was developed. This control system consists of four parts: a main management system, a motor driver with power regulator, a state monitoring system, and a communication portion. The main system has a speed detector, proportional and integral (PI) control, pulse width modulation (PWM) generation, serial communication, and an analog data processor. Two kinds of power system are used, separated by eight photocoupler arrays to improve system stability. When the performance of each compartment was compared with that of the previously used Z80 microprocessor based control system, good correspondence was shown. Logic power consumption was reduced to one third that of the previous controller. Using mock circulation tests, the overall performance of the control system was evaluated. PMID:1751254

  14. CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER INFECTED TOTAL KNEE AND TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Falk; Leichtle, Carmen Ina; Schlumberger, Michael; Leichtle, Ulf Gunther; Wünschel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Infection after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a serious complication which typically leads to a long lasting and intensive surgical and medicamentous treatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence outcome after revision surgery caused by prosthetic infection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 64 patients who had revision surgery between 1989 and 2009 due to periprosthetic infection. We examined a total of 69 joints (TKA: 36%, THA: 64%), follow-up 5.1 years (0.5-21 years) after the initial surgical intervention. The mean patient age at time of surgery was 67 years old (43-79 years old). Clinical data and scores including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC)-Index, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS) were surveyed. Results: There was no difference in clinical scores regarding treatment between a single and a multiple stage treatment regime. Infections with multiple microorganisms and Enterococcus spp. lead to a significantly higher number of interventions. Using a modified Tsukayama system we classified 24% as type I, 34% type II and 42% type III- infections, with no differences in clinical outcome. Overweight patients had a significantly lower HHS and WOMAC-score. Immunosuppression leads to a worse WOMAC and HSS-Score. An increased number of procedures was associated to a limping gait. Conclusion: Thorough surgical technique leads to good clinical results independent of infection-type and treatment philosophy. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:26997914

  15. An assessment of the isotopic (2H/18O) integrity of water samples collected and stored by unattended precipitation totalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzer, Stefan; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Douence, Cedric; Araguas-Araguas, Luis

    2016-04-01

    -in-funnel collector. For the submerged-tube sampler, the evaporative effect depended on the amount of stored water: 100 ml showed unacceptable isotopic enrichment, whereas the SEE of 500 ml stored water was acceptable. These data allowed us to estimate the impact of secondary evaporative enrichment on a device-specific basis as a function of PET. Based on global PET grids (e.g. CGIAR data), and benchmarking the expected SEE against the reasonable uncertainty of isotope spectrometry (< ±0.1‰ for δ18O), these findings reveal the most suitable totalizer device for any given climatic condition. Under extreme conditions (e.g. high aridity, little precipitation vs. high PET), a paraffin-oil based rain totalizer is most appropriate for monthly collections. Submerged-tube samplers may be considered if either a higher frequency of collection were possible, or monthly under pluvial/temperate climate conditions. The use of ball-in-funnel type totalizers are not recommended at all, unless samples could be collected on a daily basis.

  16. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  17. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  18. Total ozone trend over Cairo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, G. K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    A world wide interest in protecting ozone layer against manmade effects is now increasing. Assessment of the ozone depletion due to these activities depends on how successfully we can separate the natural variabilities from the data. The monthly mean values of total ozone over Cairo (30 05N) for the period 1968-1988, have been analyzed using the power spectral analysis technique. The technique used in this analysis does not depend on a pre-understanding of the natural fluctuations in the ozone data. The method depends on increasing the resolution of the spectral peaks in order to obtain the more accurate sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. Also it handles the possible sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. The results show that it is possible to detect some of the well known national fluctuations in the ozone record such as annual, semiannual, quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations. After separating the natural fluctuations from the ozone record, the trend analysis of total ozone over Cairo showed that a decrease of about -1.2% per decade has occurred since 1979.

  19. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    PubMed

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations. PMID:23588878

  20. Total synthesis of maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Lin, Guang; Shao, Wen-Bin; Gong, Jian-Xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Maoecrystal V (1) is a novel diterpenoid, which was originally isolated from the leaves of the Chinese medicinal herb Isodon eriocalyx in 2004 by Sun et al.1 It has been found to be selectively cytotoxic towards HeLa cells, with an IC50 value of 20 ng mL(-1) . Significant research efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of maoecrystal V because of its intriguing biological properties, rarity in nature, and complex structural features. Herein, we describe our recent investigations, which have culminated in the total synthesis of (±)-maoecrystal V. The current strategy involved three key steps for the successful construction of the key tetrahydrofuran oxa-bridge skeleton, including a Wessely oxidative dearomatization, a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and a Rh(II) -catalyzed O - H insertion reaction. PMID:25504983

  1. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  2. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Cristian; Wang, Tina; Spiegel, David A

    2015-10-16

    Glucosepane is a structurally complex protein posttranslational modification that is believed to exist in all living organisms. Research in humans suggests that glucosepane plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both diabetes and human aging, yet comprehensive biological investigations of this metabolite have been hindered by a scarcity of chemically homogeneous material available for study. Here we report the total synthesis of glucosepane, enabled by the development of a one-pot method for preparation of the nonaromatic 4H-imidazole tautomer in the core. Our synthesis is concise (eight steps starting from commercial materials), convergent, high-yielding (12% overall), and enantioselective. We expect that these results will prove useful in the art and practice of heterocyclic chemistry and beneficial for the study of glucosepane and its role in human health and disease. PMID:26472902

  3. NAVIGATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire

    2015-01-01

    Navigation was the most significant advance in instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty over the last decade. It provides surgeons with a precision tool for carrying out surgery, with the possibility of intraoperative simulation and objective control over various anatomical and surgical parameters and references. Since the first systems, which were basically used to control the alignment of bone cutting referenced to the mechanical axis of the lower limb, many other surgical steps have been incorporated, such as component rotation, ligament balancing and arranging the symmetry of flexion and extension spaces, among others. Its efficacy as a precision tool with an effective capacity for promoting better alignment of the lower-limb axis has been widely proven in the literature, but the real value of optimized alignment and the impact of navigation on clinical results and the longevity of arthroplasty have yet to be established. PMID:27026979

  4. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  5. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J.; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M.; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other “Old World” climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the “Old World Drought Atlas” (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability. PMID:26601136

  6. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other "Old World" climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the "Old World Drought Atlas" (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability. PMID:26601136

  7. Comparing modelling techniques for analysing urban pluvial flooding.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, E; van der Meulen, J; Kluck, J; Straatman, J H M

    2014-01-01

    Short peak rainfall intensities cause sewer systems to overflow leading to flooding of streets and houses. Due to climate change and densification of urban areas, this is expected to occur more often in the future. Hence, next to their minor (i.e. sewer) system, municipalities have to analyse their major (i.e. surface) system in order to anticipate urban flooding during extreme rainfall. Urban flood modelling techniques are powerful tools in both public and internal communications and transparently support design processes. To provide more insight into the (im)possibilities of different urban flood modelling techniques, simulation results have been compared for an extreme rainfall event. The results show that, although modelling software is tending to evolve towards coupled one-dimensional (1D)-two-dimensional (2D) simulation models, surface flow models, using an accurate digital elevation model, prove to be an easy and fast alternative to identify vulnerable locations in hilly and flat areas. In areas at the transition between hilly and flat, however, coupled 1D-2D simulation models give better results since catchments of major and minor systems can differ strongly in these areas. During the decision making process, surface flow models can provide a first insight that can be complemented with complex simulation models for critical locations. PMID:24473299

  8. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E.; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan’s (Genghis Khan’s) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia. PMID:24616521

  9. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-03-25

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan's (Genghis Khan's) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia. PMID:24616521

  10. Pluvials, Droughts, the Mongol Empire, and Modern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connections between climate, ecosystems, and society during historical and modern climatic transitions requires annual resolution records with high fidelity climate signals. Many studies link the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate conditions, but few have investigated the connection between climate, surplus energy, and the rise of empires. Inner Asia in the 13th century underwent a major political transformation requiring enormous energetic inputs that altered human history. The Mongol Empire, centered on the city of Karakorum, became the largest contiguous land empire in world history (Fig. 1 inset). Powered by domesticated grazing animals, the empire grew at the expense of sedentary agriculturalists across Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Although some scholars and conventional wisdom agree that dry conditions spurred the Mongol conquests, little paleoenvironmental data at annual resolution are available to evaluate the role of climate in the development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 2600 year tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season, self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), a measure of water balance, derived from 107 live and dead Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees growing on a Holocene lava flow in central Mongolia. Trees growing on the Khorgo lava flow today are stunted and widely spaced, occurring on microsites with little to no soil development. These trees are extremely water-stressed and their radial growth is well-correlated with both drought (scPDSI) and grassland productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)). Our reconstruction, calibrated and validated on instrumental June-September scPDSI (1959-2009) accounts for 55.8% of the variability in the regional scPDSI when 73% of the annual rainfall occurs. Our scPDSI reconstruction places historic and modern social change in Mongolia in the context of the range of climatic variability during the Common Era. Our record, in combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, shows that the climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khaan's (Ghengis Khan) 13th century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. Tree-ring and meteorological data combined suggest that the early 21st century drought was the hottest drought in the last 1000 years, consistent with model projections of warming in Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar 'heat droughts', with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  11. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  12. Hypermnesia and total retrieval time.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2006-05-01

    Recall performance sometimes improves over repeated recall attempts, a phenomenon dubbed hypermnesia. A critical theoretical issue is whether hypermnesia is due to repeated testing per se or increased retrieval time. The present experiments investigated by contrasting five testing conditions. All participants were presented with the same study list followed by either two shorter recall tests or a single longer test. In the multiple test conditions, the tests were either separated by a (filled) 7-minute interval (the multiple-split condition), or presented consecutively, with no break (the multiple-immediate condition). In the single test conditions, the test either began at the start of the recall session, after a (filled) 7-minute delay, or with a 7-minute interruption inserted in the middle. The multiple-split condition produced more reminiscence and hypermnesia than the multiple-immediate condition. More importantly, the multiple-split condition produced greater cumulative recall than any of the other conditions (which did not differ among themselves). That is, single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent. PMID:16766451

  13. ARIZONA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  14. HAWAII CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  15. CALIFORNIA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  16. NEVADA CITIES WITH 1990 & 2000 POPULATION TOTALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with Census 2000 population totals and 1990 Census population totals. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by...

  17. The Total Quality Movement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, John A.; Whitaker, Sheldon V., Jr.

    The total quality movement began as a result of the desire of W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician, to permit the economic system to maintain its edge in a growing global market. The 14 points Deming listed as essential to "total quality management" have recently been adapted to the field of education. The success of the total quality…

  18. Trends in total column ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, F. S.; Angell, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bloomfield, P.; Bojkov, R. D.; Harris, N.; Komhyr, W.; Mcfarland, M.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to ensure the best available data are used in any determination of possible trends in total ozone in order to have the most accurate estimates of any trends and the associated uncertainties. Accordingly, the existing total ozone records were examined in considerable detail. Once the best data set has been produced, the statistical analysis must examine the data for any effects that might indicate changes in the behavior of global total ozone. The changes at any individual measuring station could be local in nature, and herein, particular attention was paid to the seasonal and latitudinal variations of total ozone, because two dimensional photochemical models indicate that any changes in total ozone would be most pronounced at high latitudes during the winter months. The conclusions derived from this detailed examination of available total ozone can be split into two categories, one concerning the quality and the other the statistical analysis of the total ozone record.

  19. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Laçine; Kolay, Erdi; Ağılönü, Yasin; Aslan, Zeyneb; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Thermopsis turcica, endemic to Turkey, is in danger of extinction. Studies on this species are very few due to the fact that it was only discovered in 1983 and grows in a small circumscribed area in Turkey. In this study, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) of methanol (TTM) and acetone (TTA) extracts of T. turcica were measured spectroscopically. Free radical scavenging activity was determined according to the elimination of DPPH radicals and total phenol content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reaction. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured with commercially available kits. Methanol and acetone extracts of T. turcica were found to have a specific radical scavenging effect. This effect was found to be related to the total phenolic content of the extracts. Since the TTA had a higher phenolic content than the methanol extract, it had a stronger radical scavenging effect. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity of the methanol extract was observed to be higher than that of its acetone counterpart. As a result, due to its antioxidative properties, T. turcica is thought to be a natural source of antioxidants. PMID:23961240

  20. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  1. Water-Cooled Total-Temperature Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Reece, Garland D.

    1992-01-01

    Water-cooled supersonic total-pressure, static-pressure, and total-temperature probes developed to study high-temperature jet plumes. Total-temperature probe tested up to 2,000 degrees F incorporates annular cooling system up to thermocouple lead. Lead extends into test chamber to sense temperature of supersonic external flow. Design novel and significant. Applicable in development of jet engines and in research on fast flows of hot gases.

  2. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  3. 75 FR 22418 - FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... samples at FHA's request, and appeals in writing for loss of privilege to use the scorecard. DATES... following information: Title of Proposal: FHA TOTAL Mortgage Scorecard. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0556....

  4. Creating the Total Quality Effective School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

  5. Total Quality Management in Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, Edward

    Quality is at the top of most agendas, and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any institution. In addition, quality is difficult to define or measure. This book, the second edition of "Total Quality Management in Education," introduces the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and demonstrates how they can be put…

  6. Total Solar Irradiance Variability: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit M.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of total solar irradiance from space within the last two decaades convinced the skeptics that total irradiance varies over a wide range of periodicities: from minutes to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Analyses based on these space-borne observations have demonstrated that the irradiance variations are directly related to changes at the photosphere and the solar interior.

  7. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  8. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  9. Comparison of Recent Total Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helizon, R.; Pap, J.

    2002-12-01

    Total solar irradiance has been measured since 1978 from various satellites. Since the absolute accuracy of the current irradiance measurements is about 0.2%, one needs to compile composite irradiance time series to study long-term changes and to establish whether there are any secular variations over the last two and half decades. In this paper we compare the UARS/ACRIM II and SOHO/VIRGO total irradiance data as well as the SOHO/VIRGO and ACRIM III total irradiance. Our main goal is to validate the newly processed ACRIM II total irradiance. Comparison of the SOHO/VIRGO and ACRIM III data will also help to establish whether the high total irradiance values for the maximum of solar cycle 23 represent real solar, rather than, instrumental events.

  10. 2016 Total Solar Eclipse Expedition of KASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Su-Chan; Choi, SeongHwan; Jang, Bi-Ho; Park, Jongyeob; Jeon, Young-Beom; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Chae, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on March 9 along the path through Indonesia and the Pacific. KASI organized an expedition team for total solar eclipse observation. The main purpose of this observation is to test the coronal temperature and outflow velocity diagnostics based on filter observation, which is proposed for the next generation coronagraph. In addition, various white light observations were tried. Although we could not get satisfactory data for the quantitative diagnostics due to system problem and weather, we could get some useful experimental data and nice white light images. We plan next expedition for 2017 total solar eclipse in USA.

  11. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  12. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  13. Outdoor Activities for a Total Lunar Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes several activities involving a total eclipse of the moon. Included are observations with binoculars, naked eye, and telescope; timing activities and observations of color changes during penumbral and umbral phases; and photography activities. (CS)

  14. Concise Enantiospecific Total Synthesis of Tubingensin A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-tubingensin A. Our synthesis features an aryne cyclization to efficiently introduce the vicinal quaternary stereocenters of the natural product and proceeds in only nine steps (longest linear sequence) from known compounds. PMID:24524351

  15. Need total sulfur content? Use chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, S.W.; Campbell, D.N.; DiSanzo, F.P.

    1996-09-01

    Regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency require petroleum refineries to reduce or control the amount of total sulfur present in their refined products. These legislative requirements have led many refineries to search for online instrumentation that can produce accurate and repeatable total sulfur measurements within allowed levels. Several analytical methods currently exist to measure total sulfur content. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), microcoulometry, lead acetate tape, and pyrofluorescence techniques. Sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection (SSCD) has recently received much attention due to its linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolar response. However, its use has been largely confined to the area of gas chromatography. This article focuses on the special design considerations and analytical utility of an SSCD system developed to determine total sulfur content in gasoline. The system exhibits excellent linearity and selectivity, the ability to detect low minimum levels, and an equimolar response to various sulfur compounds. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  17. UNDERSTANDING CHILDREN'S TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that significant portion of total exposure of infants and children to environmental contaminants can result from contamination of food in the home. Children's foods become contaminated through handling and contact with surf...

  18. Evolution Character Analysis of Total Solar Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    The significant periods of total solar irradiance are 35 days and 26 days in solar cycle 23 and 24, respectively. It is inferred that the solar quasi-rotation periods are 35 days and 26 days in solar cycle 23 and 24, respectively. The value of total solar irradiance in solar cycle 24 minimum should be close to the value of Maunder minimum. On short time scales, sunspots should be the main reason to cause variations of total solar irradiance on the scale of one solar rotation cycle to several months, but not the unique one, and the variations of total solar irradiance are notrelated with the Mg II index on the scale of a few days to one solar rotation cycle.

  19. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cutting and removal under the contract. For a cruise sale the purchaser shall not be entitled to a refund... total volume shown in the contract. For a scale sale, if it is determined after all designated...

  20. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cutting and removal under the contract. For a cruise sale the purchaser shall not be entitled to a refund... total volume shown in the contract. For a scale sale, if it is determined after all designated...

  1. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  3. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  4. NEW BEARING SURFACES IN TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is being increasingly indicated for younger and more active patients, in addition to a naturally growing demand for the procedure because of increasing life expectancy among patients. The high costs of this surgery and the controversies regarding implant performance have made this topic the subject of constant research, seeking new materials with better resistance to wear and better biocompatibility. The present article provides a review of new surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27042614

  5. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  6. Total overlay analysis for designing future aligner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magome, Nobutaka; Kawai, Hidemi

    1995-05-01

    We found total overlay with respect to optical lithography using an approach similar to quality control technique employed at a semiconductor factory. This approach involves an aligner performance, process quality, reticle error and overlay measurement. This paper further describes new ides for the number of machines to be used for matching and data collection period. Lastly, improvement on total overlay and a prospective view for a future aligner and its usage are also described.

  7. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  8. Proximal tibial fracture following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Krause, Heike; Dunleavy, Kim

    2011-09-01

    The patient was a 74-year-old man, with a history of total knee arthoplasty 14 years earlier, after having sustained a pathological fracture of the proximal diaphysis of the left tibia following a fall. Given the unstable nature of the fracture and the severe osteolysis noted below the total knee arthroplasty, surgical management 1 day after the fall entailed packing cancellous bone graft into the defect and realigning the fracture. PMID:21885911

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  10. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  11. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  12. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  13. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2001-01-01

    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  14. Total quality management in orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Atta, A E

    1999-12-01

    Quality is the buzz word for the new Millennium. Patients demand it, and we must serve it. Yet one must identify it. Quality is not imaging or public relations; it is a business process. This short article presents quality as a balance of three critical notions: core clinical competence, perceived values that our patients seek and want, and the cost of quality. Customer satisfaction is a variable that must be identified for each practice. In my practice, patients perceive quality as communication and time, be it treatment or waiting time. Time is a value and cost that must be managed effectively. Total quality management is a business function; it involves diagnosis, design, implementation, and measurement of the process, the people, and the service. Kazien is a function that reduces value services, eliminates waste, and manages time and cost in the process. Total quality management is a total commitment for continuous improvement. PMID:10587600

  15. Total artificial hearts: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cohn, William E; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts. PMID:26031698

  16. The US 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Martina B.; Habbal, S. R.; Wind Sherpas, Solar

    2012-05-01

    In preparation for the Total Solar Eclipse that will span across the United States in 2017, multiple eclipse workshops are being planned to bring together professional and amateur researchers, educators, and imagers. Our ultimate goal with these workshops is to maximize the amount and quality of data we can collect during the eclipse as well as to leverage this exciting event to educate and inspire people of all ages. Part of the workshops will be dedicated to discussing the science that can be learned from observing total solar eclipses, and part of the workshops will be dedicated to strategizing about how to mobilize and prepare communities in the path of totality. In this poster, we will share our preliminary results from the inaugural workshop in Maryland, April 2012.

  17. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  18. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1999-01-01

    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  19. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  1. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  2. COMPONENT VERSION IN MODULAR TOTAL HIP REVISION

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Michael A.; Pemberton, Aaron; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Allan, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic changes of the proximal femur make revision total hip arthroplasty challenging. Metaphyseal retroversion and diaphyseal varus are common in this scenario. Twenty-one total hip revisions using a modular femoral prosthesis were examined by obtaining three radiographs (A/P, surgical lateral, and true lateral of the femur) to assemble CAD models for determining the range of modular component positioning. An average of femoral neck anteversion was observed. Seventeen of 21 cases (81%) had retroverted metaphyseal segments (−23.2°+/−17.4°) and/or varus stems (−32.1°+/−13.0°). Neck anteversion averaged 21.4°(+/−10.0°). One of 21 cases (5%) resulted in component orientation similar to a non-modular prosthesis. Modular components provide options to accommodate proximal femoral remodeling not afforded by monobloc stems in total hip revision surgery. PMID:19742077

  3. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1997-01-01

    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  4. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize

  5. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  6. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  7. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  8. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  9. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Hae Wan; Yu, Chang Hee

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare surgical entity without a standard method of repair. With advancements in laparoscopic techniques, successful lumbar herniorrhaphy can be achieved by the creation of a completely extraperitoneal working space and secure fixation of a wide posterior mesh. We present a total extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia, which allowed for minimal invasiveness while providing excellent anatomical identification, easy mobilization of contents and wide secure mesh fixation. A total extraperitoneal method of lumbar hernia repair by laparoscopic approach is feasible and may be an ideal option. PMID:22111086

  10. Employee benefits in a total rewards framework.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jane; Hein, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Benefits represent one of the largest investments a company makes in its talent. However, our tendency can be to design, deliver and communicate benefits programs independently, without fully considering how those programs fit within a bigger picture of total rewards. Sure, we need to manage and execute individual benefit programs--but not at the expense of getting a real return on our more significant investment in talent. This article provides employers with perspectives on the value of managing benefits within the broader framework of total rewards, why it works and, most importantly, how to make it work. PMID:23488085

  11. Biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Berliner, Jonathan L; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an effective procedure for treatment of glenohumeral joint disease among patients with severe rotator cuff deficiency. Improvements in prosthetic design are the result of an evolved understanding of both shoulder and joint replacement biomechanics. Although modern generations of the reverse shoulder prosthesis vary in specific design details, they continue to adhere to Grammont's core principles demonstrated by his original Delta III prosthesis. This review article discusses the biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with a focus on elements of implant design and surgical technique that may affect stability, postoperative complications, and functional outcomes. PMID:25441574

  12. Pollution prevention and total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Both quality management and pollution prevention are paradigms for their respective concepts to be followed and put into effect in industrial production. They each represent a framework for making things better, and for the examination and evaluation of current practices. Both pollution prevention and total quality management welcome innovative thought and the mandate to question the validity of practices. This chapter investigates the similarities of purpose and content of pollution prevention and total quality management techniques for industrial wastes. It also examines the reasons and directions that industry is following to make both paradigms integral parts of conducting business.

  13. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, A. C.; Yung, P. T.; Yang, W.; Ponce, A.; Lee, C.

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  14. Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall Summers);…

  15. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  16. The total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A.

    PubMed

    Dias, L C; Kuroishi, P K; de Lucca, E C

    2015-03-28

    A stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A (1) is described. Key features of the 17-step route include the use of three boron-mediated aldol reaction-reduction sequences to control all stereocenters and an Ando modification of the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination that permitted the installation of the Z double bond of the α-pyrone ring. PMID:25695350

  17. Strainrange partitioning: A total strain range version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures are presented for expressing the Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) method for creep fatigue life prediction in terms of total strain range. Inelastic and elastic strain-range - life relations are summed to give total strain-range - life relations. The life components due to inelastic strains are dealt with using conventional SRP procedures while the life components due to elastic strains are expressed as families of time-dependent terms for each type of SRP cycle. Cyclic constitutive material behavior plays an important role in establishing the elastic strain-range - life relations as well as the partitioning of the inelastic strains. To apply the approach, however, it is not necessary to have to determine the magnitude of the inelastic strain range. The total strain SRP approach is evaluated and verified using two nickel base superalloys, AF2-1DA and Rene 95. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between observed and predicted cyclic lifetimes with 70 to 80 percent of the predicted lives falling within factors of two of the observed lives. The total strain-range SRP approach should be of considerable practical value to designers who are faced with creep-fatigue problems for which the inelastic strains cannot be calculated with sufficient accuracy to make reliable life predictions by the conventional inelastic strain range SRP approach.

  18. Total Quality Management: The Emperor's Tailor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Gary C.; Keeler, Carolyn M.

    Conversations among educators, business leaders, legislators, and educational reformers have generated support for the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education. This paper considers whether TQM is indeed the solution to education's problems. After a brief explanation of TQM theory, the paper is organized around four broad issues…

  19. Total synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A.

    PubMed

    Ruider, Stefan A; Sandmeier, Tobias; Carreira, Erick M

    2015-02-16

    The first total synthesis of the marine polyketide (±)-hippolachnin A has been achieved in nine linear steps and an overall yield of 9%. Rapid access to the oxacyclobutapentalene core structure was secured by strategic application of an ene cyclization. PMID:25476132

  20. [Open total dislocation of the talus].

    PubMed

    Grabski, R S; Sosiński, R

    1992-01-01

    A case of 35 years old patient with open, total, fixed dislocation of the talus reduced with heel traction is presented. The Sudeck syndrome subsided after one year. Weight bearing was not allowed for 7 months. An examination after 2.5 years revealed minor osteoarthritis, full range of movement in the foot but limited walking capability. PMID:7555299

  1. A Campus Is a Total Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the various components of the total college or university community and their associated environmental health and safety problems. Included are food service, insect and rodent control, multi-use athletic facilities, housing, laboratory animal facilities, laboratory biosafety, radiological health, fire protection, and emergency…

  2. Total synthesis of (S)-equol.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Kerrigan, Sean A; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Boulanger, William A

    2006-11-23

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (S)-equol is reported. The described route relies on an Evans alkylation to form the stereocenter and an intramolecular Buchwald etherification to generate the chroman ring. Key features of this method include its brevity, its scalability, and the low cost of starting materials. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17107042

  3. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  4. The total synthesis of pantocin B.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A E; Clardy, J

    2000-02-10

    [reaction: see text] Pantocin B, an unusual antibiotic produced by Erwinia herbicola, effectively controls E. amylovora, the pathogen causing the plant disease fire blight. A total synthesis of pantocin B from L-alanine, glycine, and L-malic acid is reported. PMID:10814312

  5. Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokeley, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

  6. Total Quality: Myth or Management in Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudof, Mark G.; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the Total Quality Management approach looks at elements that can and can not be applied in the university context. The approach is seen to offer a technique and justification for constantly seeking improvement, fostering willingness to change, distributing decision making, promoting positive attitudinal change, and shifting focus…

  7. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of hedyotol A.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Ryo; Akao, Yusuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Inai, Makoto; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Kan, Toshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    The total synthesis of hedyotol A (1), a natural product isolated from Hedyotis lawsoniae (DC.) Wight et Arn. (Rubiaceae), was accomplished in a highly stereocontrolled manner. Key steps include an L-proline-catalyzed cross-aldol reaction and the biomimetic construction of a furofuran lignan skeleton through a quinomethide intermediate. PMID:24660822

  8. Total Synthesis of (±)-Gracilioether F.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shui; Wong, Henry N C

    2016-03-01

    Total synthesis of (±)-gracilioether F was achieved via a pivotal reductive cleavage of 1,2-dioxane from allenic ester in 11 steps. The key 1,2-dioxane species, derived from singlet oxygen and a diene, could be used as a common precursor for a stereocontrolled formation of the crucial 1,4-diol through a reductive cleavage. PMID:26878903

  9. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Rosanna M., Comp.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) brings together the best aspects of organizational excellence by driving out fear, offering customer-driven products and services, doing it right the first time by eliminating error, and maintaining inventory control without waste. Libraries are service organizations which are constantly trying to improve service.…

  10. Coordinating Council. Ninth Meeting: Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the 9th meeting of the STI Coordinating Council. The council listened to the speakers' understanding of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and heard stories of successful applications of these principles. Definitions of quality stated were focused on customer satisfaction. Reports presented by the speakers are also included.

  11. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  12. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael F.

    This document consists largely of paper versions of the transparencies used by the author to give his conference paper on Total Quality Management (TQM) in the college and university setting. An introduction lists a series of definitional phrases, a list of what TQM is not, and 11 fundamental principles describing what TQM is. The three major…

  13. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  14. Application of Total Quality Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, M. S.; Akhtar, M. S.; Ullah, S. Zia; Memon, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet …

  15. In-situ measurements of total carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, W.; Boryta, M.; Nelson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of the equilibration of biotic and pre-biotic materials and of the mechanisms leading to their presence in a planetary context requires knowledge of the relative concentrations of the organic species within a sample. The measurement of these relative concentrations is not practical for many remote sensing and in-situ techniques because of the large number of potential compounds having high variance in (for example) volatility, spectral response and/or molecular weight. One approach is to compare the concentration of identified materials to the total carbon and total organic carbon in a sample. The traditional two-stage approach for this measurement is acidification to convert "inorganic" carbon to CO2 and pyrolysis to convert the remaining "organic" carbon and carbon-based compounds the CO2. Measurement of the evolved CO2 provides a measure of organic and total carbon in the sample. These measurements are relatively successful in a laboratory context, but are difficult to implement robotically, particularly in challenging environments. A variety of alternative approaches for achieving total carbon measurements with acceptable accuracy are examined for feasibility of use in a field or robotic environment, with particular emphasis on soils on Mars.

  16. Total Quality Management. ERIC Digest, Number 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Tyler

    The Japanese success story has made W. Edwards Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory increasingly popular among American managers, from car manufacturers to educational leaders. TQM is based on two tenets: the primacy of customer satisfaction and the necessity of tapping nontraditional sources (especially employee ideas) to institute…

  17. Isolation of total RNA from pollens.

    PubMed

    Bijli, K M; Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Arora, N

    2001-05-01

    Isolation of total RNA from plant materials has been difficult, due to the presence of complex organic substances and the associated pigmentation. In fact, there is a dearth of standardized protocols for isolating total RNA from pollens. To find a simple and reliable method for isolating total RNA from pollen, four methods, viz. phenol/SDS (PS), guanidine HCl (GH), tri-reagent (TR), and modified SDS-betaME (SB) were tested with fresh pollen of Ricinus communis (procured at -70 degrees C) and pollen dried at 30-37 degrees C. The quality and quantity of RNA was superior for the material processed at -70 degrees C. SB gave the highest RNA yield (2.35 mg/g, OD260/280 >2.0), compared to other methods. The results obtained by the SB method were found to be comparable with the widely used tri-reagent method. This was validated with other pollens of Imperata cylindrica and Xanthium strumarium. The yield obtained from graded amounts of pollen was consistent with SB, compared to the TR method. The RNA isolated by SB gave good quality mRNA for synthesizing cDNA. The SDS-betaME method is simple, efficient, and uses less expensive reagents. Hence, we recommend the modified SDS-betaME method for isolating total RNA from pollens. PMID:11426703

  18. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the CardioWest is connected to an outside power source and the AbioCor isn't. The CardioWest ... run from inside the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart ...

  19. Total Synthesis of (±)-Maoecrystal V

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of racemic maoecrystal V has been accomplished. Key steps include an intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization to rapidly construct the core system from simple starting materials and the creation of the A–C ring trans-fusion through intramolecular delivery of a hydrogen to the hindered β-face of the ring system. PMID:23126440

  20. GGOT total pressure loss control concept evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, R. F.

    1993-07-01

    Total pressure loss is one of the most important parameters in the design of a turbine. This parameter effects not only the turbine performance, but consequently the engine power balance and engine performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be an effective tool in predicting turbine total pressure loss, and also for performing sensitivity studies to achieve an optimal design with respect to pressure loss. In the present study, the AEROVISC code was used to predict the total pressure loss in the Turbine Technology Team Gas Generator Oxidizer Turbine (GGOT). The objectives in this study are two-fold. It is first necessary to determine an optimal methodology in predicting total pressure loss. The type of grid, grid density and distribution are parameters which may affect the loss prediction. Also, the effect of using a standard K-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions versus a two-layer turbulence model needs to be investigated. The use of grid embedding to resolve areas with high flow gradients needs to be explored. The second objective of the study is to apply the optimal methodology toward evaluating different tip leakage control concepts.

  1. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total payment. 5461.3 Section 5461.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Contract Payments § 5461.3...

  2. 43 CFR 5461.3 - Total payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total payment. 5461.3 Section 5461.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION Contract Payments § 5461.3...

  3. Total Quality Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Lawrence A.; Lozier, G. Gredgory

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management, based on theories of W. Edward Deming and others, is a style of management using continuous process improvement characterized by mission and customer focus, a systematic approach to operations, vigorous development of human resources, long-term thinking, and a commitment to ensuring quality. The values espoused by this…

  4. Applying Total Quality Management in Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Lippert, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    South Carolina's Agricultural Service Laboratory received responses from 252 of 500 farmers who currently use the soil testing service; 97% were pleased with accuracy, 89% with turnaround time, 18% thought the fee too high. Nonusers (100 of 520) were mainly dissatisfied with turnaround time. Total quality management methods were used to improve…

  5. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. Total Energy Management for Minnesota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Energy, Planning and Development, St. Paul.

    Total Energy Management (TEM) is a unified, planned approach to reducing the energy use and costs of an individual school or school district. The program increases energy awareness and improves school energy efficiency through: (1) careful energy accounting; (2) changes in operations and maintenance procedures; (3) modifications in the building…

  7. Total Quality Management in Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Denise G.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is "a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers." Key components of TQM are employee involvement and training, problem-solving teams, statistical methods, long-term goals and thinking, and recognition that the system, not people, produces…

  8. Total synthesis: Towards artificial terpene cyclases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willot, Matthieu; Christmann, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    The plant-derived sesquiterpene englerin A is a potent inhibitor of several renal cancer cell lines. Two recent total syntheses have utilized cationic gold(I)-complexes to coax readily available open-chain precursors into englerin's challenging oxotricyclic core with enzyme-like precision.

  9. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  10. Total Synthesis of (-)-Nemorosone and (+)-Secohyperforin.

    PubMed

    Sparling, Brian A; Tucker, James K; Moebius, David C; Shair, Matthew D

    2015-07-17

    A general strategy for the synthesis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols is described in which a scalable, Lewis acid catalyzed epoxide-opening cascade cyclization is used to furnish common intermediate 4. The utility of this approach is exemplified by the total syntheses of both ent-nemorosone and (+)-secohyperforin, which were each accomplished in four steps from this intermediate. PMID:26125288

  11. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26571050

  12. Early Predictors of Hypocalcemia After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Genther, Dane J.; Lopez, Michael; Agrawal, Nishant; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy, and perioperative monitoring of serum calcium levels is arguably the primary reason for overnight hospitalization. Confidently predicting which patients will not develop significant hypocalcemia may allow for a safe earlier discharge. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics with hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) level after total thyroidectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy by a single high-volume surgeon between February 1, 2010, and November 30, 2012. Postoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), calcium, and IPTH levels were tested within 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Mild hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.4 to 8.0 mg/dL. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.0 mg/dL or the development of hypocalcemia-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS Total thyroidectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory values with postoperative mild and significant hypocalcemia were examined using univariate analysis, and independent predictors of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and IPTH level were determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Overall, 304 total thyroidectomies were performed. Mild and significant hypocalcemia occurred in 68 (22.4%) and 91 (29.9%) patients, respectively, of which the majority were female (P = .003). The development of significant hypocalcemia was associated with postoperative IPTH level (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, males had a decreased risk of developing mild (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16–0.85]) and significant (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.09–0.78]) hypocalcemia. Every 10-pg/mL increase in postoperative IPTH level

  13. Temporal bone chondroblastoma totally invisible on MRI.

    PubMed

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Norio; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone chondroblastoma that was totally invisible on MRI. The patient was a 64-year-old man who presented with several months history of vertigo. The CT scan with bone window setting showed destruction of the temporomandibular joint, the floor of the middle cranial fossa, and the superior semicircular canal. Calcific foci were seen within the tumor. On MR imaging, the tumor, situating mainly medial to the temporomandibular joint, showed no signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was not enhanced with gadolinium. In summary, the tumor was totally signal negative or "invisible" on pre- and postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. The tumor was resected through transpetrosal - transzygomatic approach. PMID:26743837

  14. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  15. Generalized Higher Degree Total Variation (HDTV) Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Ongie, Greg; Ramani, Sathish; Jacob, Mathews

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called generalized higher degree total variation (HDTV). These penalties further extend our previously introduced HDTV penalties, which generalize the popular total variation (TV) penalty to incorporate higher degree image derivatives. We show that many of the proposed second degree extensions of TV are special cases or are closely approximated by a generalized HDTV penalty. Additionally, we propose a novel fast alternating minimization algorithm for solving image recovery problems with HDTV and generalized HDTV regularization. The new algorithm enjoys a ten-fold speed up compared to the iteratively reweighted majorize minimize algorithm proposed in a previous work. Numerical experiments on 3D magnetic resonance images and 3D microscopy images show that HDTV and generalized HDTV improve the image quality significantly compared with TV. PMID:24710832

  16. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy (TIRFM) is an elegant optical technique that provides for the excitation of fluorophores in an extremely thin axial region (‘optical section’). The method is based on the principle that when excitation light is totally internally reflected in a transparent solid (e.g., coverglass) at its interface with liquid an electromagnetic field, called the evanescent wave, is generated in the liquid at the solid-liquid interface and is the same frequency as the excitation light. Since the intensity of the evanescent wave exponentially decays with distance from the surface of the solid, only fluorescent molecules within a few hundred nanometers of the solid are efficiently excited. This unit will briefly review the history, optical theory, and the different hardware configurations used in TIRFM. In addition, it will provide experimental details and methodological considerations for studying receptors at the plasma membrane in neurons. PMID:19816922

  17. Fall 2010 Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. S.; Socker, D. G.; Willson, R. C.; Kopp, G.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a NASA-Sponsored program to understand the differences in Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) results reported by various space-based radiometers, the Naval Research Laboratory is hosting a Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Workshop. This workshop is a follow-on meeting to a similar workshop hosted by the National Institute for Standards and Technology in 2005. These workshops have been attended by many of the PI teams of the past and current TSI measuring instruments. The discussions at these workshops have addressed calibration methods and the numerous instrumental differences that need to be understood in order to bring the complete ensemble of results onto a common scale. In this talk we will present an overview of the NRL Calibration Workshop which will include results of recent calibration studies at various laboratories and have involved several TSI instruments.

  18. Total variation projection with first order schemes.

    PubMed

    Fadili, Jalal M; Peyre, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to compute the projection on the set of images whose total variation is bounded by a constant. The projection is computed through a dual formulation that is solved by first order non-smooth optimization methods. This yields an iterative algorithm that applies iterative soft thresholding to the dual vector field, and for which we establish convergence rate on the primal iterates. This projection algorithm can then be used as a building block in a variety of applications such as solving inverse problems under a total variation constraint, or for texture synthesis. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the usefulness and potential applicability of our TV projection algorithm on various examples including denoising, texture synthesis, inpainting, deconvolution and tomography problems. We also show that our projection algorithm competes favorably with state-of-the-art TV projection methods in terms of convergence speed. PMID:20876024

  19. A Modern Approach to Total Wellbeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, Maja; Chen, Meifania; Brouwer, Rick; Dillon, Tharam

    The events of the last decades have impacted our lives and our health significantly. We expected that the technology boom will improve our lives. While this may be true in a specific context, generally speaking our societies are suffering from moral decays, terrorism fears, wars, financial crisis and unpredictable acts of nature that are increasing in frequency and in intensity. The complex nature of the world we live is impacting our health and wellbeing considerably. Our health is not only determined by our physical health but is the end product of the interplay of the physical, mental, emotional, financial, relational and spiritual events of a lifetime. In this paper we develop a framework that will help us define and measure total wellbeing of individuals in our volatile societies. This framework will help us better understand the complex nature of total wellbeing and develop effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. Pain Management After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Lisa T; Corbiere, Nicole C; DeLisle, Jay A; Clark, Alexander Martin; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2016-06-01

    Controlling pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is critical to minimizing complications, decreasing costs, and expediting patients' return to function. We implemented a TJA multimodal pain management protocol at a Level III trauma center in a small, rural community in New York. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patient charts and collected patient demographics, pain management information, and discharge data. Our primary goals were to quantify the total number of narcotic medication doses used and length of hospital stay. The multimodal pain management protocol significantly reduced the number of narcotic doses used (P < .01). Hospital length of stay decreased slightly; although not statistically significant (P = .25), this may be clinically significant. Gender, age, and type of arthroplasty (ie, knee, hip) were not significant factors. A multimodal approach to pain management after TJA can reduce narcotic use and hospital length of stay, thereby also reducing the incidence of side effects from narcotics. PMID:27234795

  1. Total synthesis of palau'amine

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kaihara, Yukari; Oda, Masataka; Nakayama, Akira; Nakayama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanino, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane skeleton at a middle stage of total synthesis. The ABDE tetracyclic ring core is constructed by a cascade reaction of a cleavage of the N–N bond, including simultaneous formation of imine, the addition of amide anion to the resulting imine (D-ring formation) and the condensation of pyrrole with methyl ester (B-ring formation) in a single step. The synthetic palau'amine is confirmed to exhibit excellent immunosuppressive activity. The present synthetic route has the potential to help elucidate a pharmacophore as well as the mechanistic details of immunosuppressive activity. PMID:26530707

  2. Kelvin waves in total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Tropical Kelvin waves have been observed previously in ozone mixing ratio data from the SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) instruments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite. Kelvin wave features in total column ozone, using version 6 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument (also on board Nimbus-7) are investigated. Results show eastward-propagating zonal waves 1-2 with periods approximately 5-15 days, amplitudes approximately 3-5 DU, and latitudinal symmetry typical of Kelvin waves. A simplified model calculation suggests that the primary source for the perturbations is slow Kelvin waves in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. Maximum Kelvin wave signatures occur in conjunction with westward lower-to-middle stratospheric equatorial zonal winds (a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind modulation effect).

  3. Fast total focusing method for ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcreff, Ewen; Dao, Gavin; Braconnier, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and total focusing method (TFM) have become popular tools in the field of ultrasonic non destructive testing. In particular, they are employed for detection and characterization of flaws. From data acquired with a transducer array, those techniques aim at reconstructing an image of the inspected object from coherent summations. In this paper, we make a comparison between the standard technique and a migration approach. Using experimental data, we show that the developed approach is faster and offers a better signal to noise ratio than the standard total focusing method. Moreover, the migration is particularly effective for near-surface imaging where standard methods used to fail. On the other hand, the migration approach is only adapted to layered objects whereas the standard technique can fit complex geometries. The methods are tested on homogeneous pieces containing artificial flaws such as side drilled holes.

  4. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  5. Bilateral total deafness due to pontine haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C A; Davies, L; Halmagyi, G M

    1996-01-01

    A 64 year old woman with a predominantly midline pontine tegmental haemorrhage presented with bilateral total deafness. One week later reasonable pure-tone thresholds appeared but she still had total bilateral loss of speech discrimination. At that time contralateral acoustic reflexes were bilaterally absent, whereas ipsilateral acoustic reflexes and waves IV and V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential were bilaterally preserved. It is proposed that this patient's hearing deficit was due to inactivation of the ventral acoustic striae decussating in the trapezoid body. This case supports the contention that in humans the ventral pontine acoustic decussation carries most of the neural signals required for hearing and perhaps all the neural signals required for speech perception. Images PMID:8971114

  6. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  7. Generalized Principles of Unchanging Total Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Peter A.; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2008-01-01

    We consider transport of multiple reacting species under the continuum assumption in situations such as those that frequently arise in electroanalytical chemistry. Under certain limitations, it has been shown that the total species concentration (as defined by Oldham and Feldberg1) of such a system is uniform and constant. In this work, we extend the limits of the previous analysis to enable greater applicability. This is accomplished by using either of two new dependent variables, which are generalizations of the concept of total concentration. Then conditions are determined under which the dependent variable will be uniform, and constant in time. From a practical viewpoint, the described formalism allows one to simplify the multispecies transport problem formulation by eliminating one equation from the system of governing equations. PMID:16853140

  8. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML.

  9. Gravitation experiments during the total solar eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Kuusela, T.; Jaeykkae, J.; Kiukas, J.; Multamaeki, T.; Ropo, M.; Vilja, I.

    2006-12-15

    The variations of the apparent vertical direction of the gravity field were measured with horizontal gravimeters acting as tilt meters during the total solar eclipse in Turkey in March 29, 2006. Three separated locations within the path of totality were chosen for observations, two spaced apart along the center line, and one off the center line. No anomaly was observed at the furthest location from the center line. Aperiodic oscillations in tilt were recorded at the two locations on the center line. These may be related to the eclipse phenomenon. The average tilt amplitude deviation during the eclipse over all locations and in all directions was 150 nrad, which can be regarded as a mean upper limit for the eclipse related changes in the tilt.

  10. Total Cellular RNA Modulates Protein Activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Subhabrata; DeMott, Christopher M; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    RNA constitutes up to 20% of a cell's dry weight, corresponding to ∼20 mg/mL. This high concentration of RNA facilitates low-affinity protein-RNA quinary interactions, which may play an important role in facilitating and regulating biological processes. In the yeast Pichia pastoris, the level of ubiquitin-RNA colocalization increases when cells are grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol instead of methanol as the sole carbon source. Total RNA isolated from cells grown in methanol increases β-galactosidase activity relative to that seen with RNA isolated from cells grown in the presence of dextrose and methanol. Because the total cellular RNA content changes with growth medium, protein-RNA quinary interactions can alter in-cell protein biochemistry and may play an important role in cell adaptation, critical to many physiological and pathological states. PMID:27456029

  11. Total Synthesis of the Akuammiline Alkaloid Picrinine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the first total synthesis of the complex akuammiline alkaloid picrinine, which was first isolated nearly five decades ago. Our synthetic approach features a concise assembly of the [3.3.1]-azabicyclic core, a key Fischer indolization reaction to forge the natural product’s carbon framework, and a series of delicate late-stage transformations to complete the synthesis. Our synthesis of picrinine also constitutes a formal synthesis of the related polycyclic alkaloid strictamine. PMID:24597784

  12. Active Robotics for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dungy, Danton S; Netravali, Nathan A

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and computer-assisted navigation have been developed to increase the accuracy of hip implant placement and improve long-term outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA). These technologies have shown significant improvements in implant positioning when compared to conventional techniques. Currently, 3 robotic systems are cleared for use for THA in the US. The lead author (DSD) describes his preferred technique for using one of these systems, the TSolution One® (Think Surgical, Inc.). PMID:27327918

  13. Total π-electron and HOMO energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Ivan; Radenković, Slavko; Ðorđević, Slađana; Milovanović, Igor Ž.; Milovanović, Emina I.

    2016-04-01

    A relation is obtained between the total π-electron energy Eπ and the HOMO energy EHOMO, valid within the HMO approximation. This seems to be the very first relation between Eπ and EHOMO ever established. It enables a much more accurate assessment of Eπ of alternant conjugated hydrocarbons than that based on McClelland's formula and on other (n, m)-type approximate expressions.

  14. Renal function after elective total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren; Petersen, Morten B

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013 ). Results - 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3-5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3-5, indicating moderately to severely reduced kidney function, was seen in 374 individuals (11%). Interpretation - Development of acute kidney injury appears to be a substantial problem compared to other complications related to elective total hip arthroplasty, i.e. luxation and infection. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease may be especially vulnerable. The clinical impact of acute kidney injury in an elective orthopedic population remains to be elucidated. PMID:26937782

  15. The Anterior Approach for Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Hochfelder, Jason P; Davidovitch, Roy I

    2016-03-01

    The anterior approach for total hip replacements has recently gained popularity. Some authors report faster recoveries and decreased dislocation rated with no increased risk of complications. However others claim no difference in outcomes when compared to other approaches yet an increase in complication rates. This paper provides a brief history of the approach, discusses various indications and contraindications, preoperative considerations, surgical techniques, and postoperative protocols. PMID:26977549

  16. Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (−)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl promoted, highly stereoselective susbtrate controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high risk dia-stereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

  17. Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc.

    PubMed

    Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2015-12-15

    The total baroreflex arc [the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP)] is known to exhibit nonlinear behaviors. However, few studies have quantitatively characterized its nonlinear dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop a nonlinear model of the sympathetically mediated total arc without assuming any model form. Normal rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned, the carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump, and the AP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were measured. CSP was perturbed using a Gaussian white noise signal. A second-order Volterra model was developed by applying nonparametric identification to the measurements. The second-order kernel was mainly diagonal, but the diagonal differed in shape from the first-order kernel. Hence, a reduced second-order model was similarly developed comprising a linear dynamic system in parallel with a squaring system in cascade with a slower linear dynamic system. This "Uryson" model predicted AP changes 12% better (P < 0.01) than a linear model in response to new Gaussian white noise CSP. The model also predicted nonlinear behaviors, including thresholding and mean responses to CSP changes about the mean. Models of the neural arc (the system relating CSP to SNA) and peripheral arc (the system relating SNA to AP) were likewise developed and tested. However, these models of subsystems of the total arc showed approximately linear behaviors. In conclusion, the validated nonlinear model of the total arc revealed that the system takes on an Uryson structure. PMID:26354845

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Psiguadial B.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lauren M; Beck, Jordan C; Wu, Linglin; Reisman, Sarah E

    2016-08-10

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of the cytotoxic natural product (+)-psiguadial B is reported. Key features of the synthesis include (1) the enantioselective preparation of a key cyclobutane intermediate by a tandem Wolff rearrangement/asymmetric ketene addition, (2) a directed C(sp(3))-H alkenylation reaction to strategically forge the C1-C2 bond, and (3) a ring-closing metathesis to build the bridging bicyclo[4.3.1]decane terpene framework. PMID:27452034

  19. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Callyspongiolide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingjing; Gao, Bowen; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Total synthesis of four callyspongiolide stereoisomers led to unambiguous assignment of relative and absolute stereochemistry of the natural product. Key features of the convergent, fully stereocontrolled route include the use of Krische allylation, Kiyooka Aldol reaction, Kociénski-Julia olefination, Still-Gennari olefination, Yamaguchi macrocyclization, and Sonogashira coupling reaction. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds against an array of cancer cells revealed that the stereochemistry of the macrolactone core played an important role. PMID:27227371

  20. Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin.

    PubMed

    Shimomaki, Katsuya; Kusama, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-07-11

    The total synthesis of (±)-integrifolin has been achieved for the first time through the stereoselective preparation of the bicyclo[5.3.0]decane skeleton based on the tungsten-catalyzed cyclization of acyclic trienynes under photoirradiation conditions. Further key transformations of the cyclized product are the Tamao oxidation through cyclic silyl ether, the introduction of two oxygen functionalities by the oxidation of the diene and the construction of three exo-methylene moieties. PMID:27147582

  1. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the accomplishments of NASA as a result of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM). The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories of TQM discussed here are top management leadership and support, strategic planning, focus on the customer, employee training and recognition, employee empowerment and teamwork, measurement and analysis, and quality assurance.

  2. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-bin; Shao, Wen-bin; Li, Fu-zhuo; Gong, Jian-xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-maoecrystal V, a novel cytotoxic pentacyclic ent-kaurane diterpene, has been accomplished. Key steps of the current strategy involve an early-stage semipinacol rearrangement reaction for the construction of the C10 quaternary stereocenter, a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular O-H insertion reaction, and a sequential Wessely oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to forge the pentacyclic framework of maoecrystal V. PMID:26136342

  3. Measurement of total organic concentration in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, E.

    1978-01-01

    Instrument for determining total organic concentration in water uses no corrosive reagents or gases. Instead continuous ultraviolet photolysis process converts organic compounds to carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 electrode is used to measure CO2 content. Only reagent necessary is oxygen, generated in situ by electrolyzing some water. In addition to application in aerospace industry, system has potential uses in pollution monitoring and in laboratory analyses.

  4. Techniques in Total Mesorectal Excision Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lichliter, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the surgical management of rectal cancer have placed the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) as the major predictor in overall survival. A standardized TME technique along with quality increases the percentage of patients undergoing a complete TME. Quality measurements of TME will place increasing demands on surgeons maintaining competence with present and future techniques. These efforts will improve the outcome of the rectal cancer patients. PMID:25733970

  5. NASA total quality management 1990 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's efforts in Total Quality Management are based on continuous improvement and serve as a foundation for NASA's present and future endeavors. Given here are numerous examples of quality strategies that have proven effective and efficient in a time when cost reduction is critical. These accomplishment benefit our Agency and help to achieve our primary goal, keeping American in the forefront of the aerospace industry.

  6. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren; Petersen, Morten B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013). Results 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7–2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3–5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3–5, indicating moderately to severely reduced kidney function, was seen in 374 individuals (11%). Interpretation Development of acute kidney injury appears to be a substantial problem compared to other complications related to elective total hip arthroplasty, i.e. luxation and infection. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease may be especially vulnerable. The clinical impact of acute kidney injury in an elective orthopedic population remains to be elucidated. PMID:26937782

  7. Total Hip Joint Replacement Biotelemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Luntz, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a biotelemetry system that is hermetically sealed within a total hip replacement implant is reported. The telemetry system transmits six channels of stress data to reconstruct the major forces acting on the neck of the prosthesis and uses an induction power coupling technique to eliminate the need for internal batteries. The activities associated with the telemetry microminiaturization, data recovery console, hardware fabrications, power induction systems, electrical and mechanical testing and hermetic sealing test results are discussed.

  8. Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and

  9. Short, Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Chatancin**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of the polycyclic diterpene chatancin (1), a potent PAF antagonist, is reported. Proceeding in seven steps from dihydrofarnesal, this synthetic route was designed to circumvent macrocyclization-based strategies to complex, cyclized cembranoids. The described synthesis requires only six chromatographic purifications, is high yielding, and avoids protecting group chemistry. An X-ray crystal structure of this fragile marine natural product was obtained. PMID:25470723

  10. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  11. [Total temporomandibular joint replacement with alloplastic prosthesis].

    PubMed

    García-Huerta, Marco Antonio; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Mena-Gómez, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Three total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement surgeries were performed on two patients with TMJ ankylosis using W. Lorenz system. The first surgery was performed on a female patient with osseous ankylosis who had no mandibular movement since she was 18 months old. The second surgery was on a patient with fibrous ankylosis who had an interincisive opening distance of 12 mm. Her condition was the result of a three year old subcondylar fracture which didn't receive any treatment. The first patient had total replacement of both TMJs, while the other just one TMJ. The follow up until today has been of eight months with an interincisive opening of 29 mm in the first patient and 34 mm in the other. There has not been any mandibular deviation during opening, nor postoperative pain in both cases. Facial nerve affection was not permanent in both patients. For all of this, we can conclude that total TMJ replacement is an effective treatment with stable results in patients with TMJ ankylosis. PMID:23234748

  12. Liver failure in total artificial heart therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Dapunt, Otto; Knez, Igor; Wasler, Andrae; Oberwalder, Peter; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Background Congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute liver failure (ALF) are common among biventricular heart failure patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of total artificial heart (TAH) therapy on hepatic function and associated clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 31 patients received a Syncardia Total Artificial Heart. Preoperatively 17 patients exhibited normal liver function or mild hepatic derangements that were clinically insignificant and did not qualify as acute or chronic liver failure, 5 patients exhibited ALF and 9 various hepatic derangements owing to CH. Liver associated mortality and postoperative course of liver values were prospectively documented and retrospectively analyzed. Results Liver associated mortality in normal liver function, ALF and CH cases was 0%, 20% (P=0.03) and 44.4% (P=0.0008) respectively. 1/17 (5.8%) patients with a normal liver function developed an ALF, 4/5 (80%) patients with an ALF experienced a markedly improvement of hepatic function and 6/9 (66.6%) patients with CH a significant deterioration. Conclusions TAH therapy results in recovery of hepatic function in ALF cases. Patients with CH prior to surgery form a high risk group with increased liver associated mortality. PMID:27499942

  13. TSIS: The Total Solar Irradiance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparn, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Harder, J.; Kopp, G.; Richard, E.; Fontenla, J.; Woods, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) is a dual-instrument package that will acquire solar irradiance in the next decade on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Originally de-manifested during the 2006 NPOESS restructuring, TSIS was restored following a decision by the NPOESS Executive Committee earlier this year because of its critical role in determining the natural forcings of the climate system and the high priority given it by the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey. TSIS is comprised of the Total Irradiance Monitor, or TIM, which measures the total solar irradiance (TSI) that is incident at the boundaries of the atmosphere; and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor, or SIM, which measures solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from 200 nm to 2400 nm (96 percent of the TSI). The TSIS TIM and SIM are heritage instruments to those currently flying on the NASA Solar Irradiance and Climate Experiment (SORCE). Both were selected as part of the TSIS because of their unprecedented measurement accuracy and stability, and because both measurements are essential to constraining the energy input to the climate system and interpreting the response of climate to external forcing. This paper will describe those attributes of TSIS which uniquely define its capability to continue the 30-year record of TSI and to extend the new 5-year record of SSI. The role of the solar irradiance data record in the present climate state, as well as in past and future climate change, will also be presented.

  14. The Error in Total Error Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Witnauer, James E.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modelling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. PMID:23891930

  15. Total hip arthroplasty revision in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gasbarra, Elena; Perrone, Fabio Luigi; Celi, Monica; Rao, Cecilia; Feola, Maurizio; Cuozzo, Nicola; Tarantino, Umberto

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, the number of total hip arthroplasty is increased both in young patients and elderly with a poor bone quality due to extension of surgical indications. According to this trend, also revision surgery showed a growth of its number, especially in elderly patients, because of implant loosening, failed osseointegration of prosthetic components, errors in biomechanical restoration and infections. The aim of this study is to analyze life quality improvement through evaluation of articular functionality and postoperative pain, and to examine osseointegration of implant components with periprosthetic bone. During total hip arthroplasty revision, the orthopedic surgeon often has to face complex cases, especially in elderly patients with a preexisting status of poor bone quality and sarcopenia. In these cases, a correct planning and a surgical procedure well-executed are able to ensure a good outcome that led to pain relief and functional recovery. Furthermore anti-osteoporotic therapy surely represents a useful resource both in primary total hip arthroplasty and in revisions, mainly for elderly patients with a poor bone quality. PMID:24046034

  16. Deprivation and outcome of total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Murray, James R D; Birdsall, Paul D; Sher, J Lester; Deehan, David J

    2006-03-01

    Deprivation correlates with poor health and psychosocial variables can affect the symptoms of knee arthritis. Our aim was to determine the effect of deprivation on the level of knee function and health-related quality of life at the time of arthroplasty and 12 months after total knee replacement. From our database of over 2500 knee replacements, we analysed both clinical and quality of life outcome measures. We analysed the relationship between deprivation (by Townsend score), knee function (Knee Society Score) and health-related quality of life (Nottingham Health Profile) before total knee replacement (TKR) and at 12 months post-operation. There was no significant correlation between Townsend score, Knee Society Score and Nottingham Health Profile preoperatively or at 12 months after knee replacement, thus showing that there was no association between deprivation and the severity of knee arthritis at the time of joint replacement nor was there a relationship between deprivation and the short-term outcome from total knee replacement. PMID:16469499

  17. Total quality management -- Remedial actions planning program

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.

  18. Ceramic/ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bizot, P; Nizard, R; Lerouge, S; Prudhommeaux, F; Sedel, L

    2000-01-01

    Alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty has been used for 30 years, mainly in Europe. The theoretical advantages of this combination are represented by its remarkable sliding characteristics, its very low wear debris generation, and its sufficient fracture toughness. These advantages are achieved if the material is properly controlled with high density, high purity, and small grains. The authors summarize the results obtained with ceramic/ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Information is provided about in vivo behavior regarding wear debris characterization and quantification, and histological tissue examinations for inflammatory reactions, which were not encountered except when alumina debris was mixed with metal or cement. Modification of socket fixation resulted in improved clinical outcomes. With a press-fit metal shell and an alumina liner utilized for 10 years, the results are excellent especially in a young and active population. Alumina-on-alumina seems at the moment to be one of the best choices when a total hip arthroplasty has to be performed in young and active patients. PMID:11180930

  19. Total quantum coherence and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Yang, Si-ren; Guo, Bao-qing

    2016-06-01

    Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and l_2 norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive l_2 norm are also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.

  20. Physical Activity After Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Laura A.; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Basti, John J.; Levine, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common surgical option to treat painful degenerative joint disease. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after TJA or how physical activity level affects the rate of revision surgery. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding physical or athletic activity after TJA was performed to determine current clinical opinion and recommendations regarding appropriate activity levels after TJA, as well as variables affecting successful surgery and improved outcomes. Results: Many studies in the literature regarding athletic activity after TJA focus on total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The literature reports contradictory results regarding rates of physical activity after TJA as well as the relationship between physical activity and rates of revision surgery. The current trend in expert opinion shows more liberal recommendations for patients to engage in athletic activity after TJA. Conclusions: Individual characteristics, lifestyle, and patient preferences must be taken into account when one considers appropriate recommendations for athletic activity after TJA. Current trends in clinical opinion favor a higher level of athletic activity after TJA, but clinicians should caution patients not to participate in contact sports or sports that create high joint loads in the replaced joint. PMID:23016041

  1. Total displacement functions for SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, W. J.; Williford, R. E.; Sickafus, K. E.

    1997-04-01

    Numerical solutions for the displacement functions in SiC are determined from the coupled integro-differential equations governing the total number of type- j atoms displaced in the collision cascade initiated by a primary knock-on atom (PKA) of type- i and energy E. Atomic scattering cross sections based on either the inverse power law screening potentials or the Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmark (ZBL) universal screening potential are used in the calculation of the displacement functions. The electronic stopping powers used in the calculations are either derived from the LSS and Bethe-Bloch theories or generated from the SRIM-96 electronic stopping power data base. The displacement functions determined using LSS/Bethe-Bloch electronic stopping powers are 25 to 100% larger than the displacement functions determined using the electronic stopping powers generated by SRIM-96. The total number of displaced atoms determined numerically for each PKA type, based on ZBL scattering cross sections and SRIM-96 electronic stopping powers, is in excellent agreement, over the entire range of PKA energies (10 eV to 10 MeV), with the total number of displacements determined by full cascade Monte Carlo simulations using the TRIM code in SRIM-96.

  2. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  3. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability. 3.340 Section 3.340 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Service Connection §...

  4. Observation of the total solar eclipsis. L'observation des eclipses totales solaires

    SciTech Connect

    Koutchmy, S.

    1987-03-01

    A brief historical account of the solar-total-eclipses events is presented to show their importance, including their use for the scientific analysis of the solar corona, since 1848. The main parameters and a schema of the eclipses are given. Several examples of investigations performed during a solar total eclipse are discussed.

  5. Hypoparathyroidism after Total Thyroidectomy: Incidence and Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Kathryn; Elfenbein, Dawn; Schneider, David; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are often measured after thyroid surgery and are used to detect patients at risk for postoperative hypoparathyroidism. However, there is a lack of consensus in the literature about how to define the recovery of parathyroid gland function and when to classify hypoparathyroidism as permanent. The goals of this study were to determine the incidence of low postoperative PTH in total thyroidectomy patients and to monitor their time course to recovery of parathyroid gland function. Methods We identified 1054 consecutive patients who underwent a total or completion thyroidectomy from 1/2006 to 12/2013. Low PTH was defined as a PTH measurement <10 pg/mL immediately after surgery. Patients were considered to be permanently hypoparathyroid if they had not recovered within 1 year. Recovery of parathyroid gland function was defined as PTH ≥10 pg/mL and no need for therapeutic calcium or activated vitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation to prevent hypocalcemic symptoms. Results Of 1054 total thyroidectomy patients, 189 (18%) had a postoperative PTH <10 pg/mL. Of those 189 patients, 132 (70%) showed resolution within 2 months of surgery. Notably, 9 (5%) resolved between 6–12 months. At 1 year, 20 (1.9%) were considered to have permanent hypoparathyroidism. Surprisingly, 50% of those patients had recovery of PTH levels yet still required supplementation to avoid symptoms. Conclusions Most patients with a low postoperative PTH recover function quickly, but it can take up to 1 year for full resolution. Hypoparathyroidism needs to be defined not only by PTH levels, but also by medication requirements. PMID:25982044

  6. Mesh Excision: Is Total Mesh Excision Necessary?

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gillian F; Winters, J Christian; Krlin, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Nearly 29% of women will undergo a secondary, repeat operation for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptom recurrence following a primary repair, as reported by Abbott et al. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 210:163.e1-163.e1, 2014). In efforts to decrease the rates of failure, graft materials have been utilized to augment transvaginal repairs. Following the success of using polypropylene mesh (PPM) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the use of PPM in the transvaginal repair of POP increased. However, in recent years, significant concerns have been raised about the safety of PPM mesh. Complications, some specific to mesh, such as exposures, erosion, dyspareunia, and pelvic pain, have been reported with increased frequency. In the current literature, there is not substantive evidence to suggest that PPM has intrinsic properties that warrant total mesh removal in the absence of complications. There are a number of complications that can occur after transvaginal mesh placement that do warrant surgical intervention after failure of conservative therapy. In aggregate, there are no high-quality controlled studies that clearly demonstrate that total mesh removal is consistently more likely to achieve pain reduction. In the cases of obstruction and erosion, it seems clear that definitive removal of the offending mesh is associated with resolution of symptoms in the majority of cases and reasonable practice. There are a number of complications that can occur with removal of mesh, and patients should be informed of this as they formulate a choice of treatment. We will review these considerations as we examine the clinical question of whether total versus partial removal of mesh is necessary for the resolution of complications following transvaginal mesh placement. PMID:26905696

  7. [Dosimetry of total skin electron irradiation

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Németh, György

    2000-07-01

    Elaboration of such a simple technique for total skin electron irradiation which ensures good dose homogeneity and minimal x-ray background dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We started large electron field irradiations with the Neptun 10p linear accelerator in the National Institute of Oncology -Budapest in 1986. After the installation of the Siemens Mevatron KD linear accelerator it was possible to introduce the modified Stanford technique. This technique satisfies better the requirements given in the objective. The required field size of 200x75 cm is produced as a result of two fields with 30 degrees angular separation (dual field) at a source skin distance of 465 cm. The patient's body is exposed to six dual electron fields. The electron energy is 6 MeV. Despite the long source skin distance the treatment time is relatively short due to the high dose rate (940 mu/min) capability of our Mevatron KD. The in air dose profiles were measured in miniphantom with semiconductor detector. Depth dose curves were measured in water and in polystyrene phantom with semiconductor detector and with films. RESULTS: The measured dose homogeneity of the 6 MeV energy dual field with 30 degrees angular separation is within +/- 5%in a 200x75cm plane field. The depth of dose maximum of the resulting dose distribution of six dual field irradiation is between 2 mm and 5 mm, while the depth of 80% isodose curve is about 8 mm. The total body x-ray background dose is less than 1% of the skin dose. CONCLUSION: The modified Stanford technique adapted to our Mevatron KD linear accelerator is suitable for total skin electron beam therapy. PMID:12050758

  8. Introduction of total knee arthroplasty in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. Methods The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. Results We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Interpretation Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated. PMID:19297790

  9. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  10. Total synthesis of (+)-zaragozic acid C.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, A; Barsanti, P A; Jones, L H; Ahmed, G

    2000-10-20

    A total synthesis of (+)-zaragozic acid C is described. Key features of the synthesis are the use of a double Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction of diene 6 to control stereochemistry at four contiguous stereocenters from C3 to C6; the introduction of the C1-side chain by reaction between the anion derived from the dithiane monosulfoxide 27 and the core aldehyde 12; a high yielding, acid-mediated simultaneous acetonide deprotection-dithiane removal-ketalization procedure leading exclusively to the 2, 8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core 34; and a novel triple oxidation procedure allowing installation of the tricarboxylic acid. PMID:11031024

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  12. Total Ankle Arthroplasty: An Imaging Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Rae; Potter, Hollis G.; Li, Angela E.; Chun, Ka-Young; Jung, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin-Su; Young, Ki-Won

    2016-01-01

    With advances in implant technology, total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has become an increasingly popular alternative to arthrodesis for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis. However, reports in the literature do not focus on the imaging features of TAA. Through a literature review, we demonstrate basic design features of the current ankle arthroplasty system, and the normal and abnormal postoperative imaging features associated with such devices. Pre- and postoperative evaluations of ankle arthroplasty mainly include radiography; in addition, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide further characterization of imaging abnormalities. Familiarization with multimodal imaging features of frequent procedural complications at various postoperative intervals is important in radiological practice. PMID:27134529

  13. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  14. Program planning: a total quality approach.

    PubMed

    Dees, J P; Garcia, M A

    1995-05-01

    1. Deming's concepts for total quality management/continuous quality improvement are the basis for a tool occupational health nurses can apply in health program planning. 2. The program planning model provides a framework for systematically implementing, evaluating, and improving products and services. In the current business environment, this is critical to success and to demonstration of the value of occupational health services to a company. 3. A case study describing implementation of a medical case management program illustrates application of the model in a real life situation. PMID:7766248

  15. Total synthesis of brasoside and littoralisone.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Ian K; MacMillan, David W C

    2005-03-23

    The first total syntheses of littoralisone (1) and brasoside (2) have been achieved in 13 overall steps. Both natural products are forged from a common intermediate which is rapidly assembled using organocatalytic technology, including a proline-catalyzed alpha-aminoxylation and a contra-thermodynamic intramolecular Michael addition. Application of the two-step carbohydrate synthesis technology has enabled to access a selectively substituted glucose derivative for use as an intramolecular cycloaddition tether. This synthesis culminates with an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition that serves to support the proposed biosynthetic origins of 1 from 2. PMID:15771494

  16. Soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MELONI, MARIA CHIARA; HOEDEMAEKER, RUSSALKA W.; VIOLANTE, BRUNO; MAZZOLA, CLAUDIO

    2014-01-01

    A good outcome in total knee arthroplasty depends on many factors: joint alignment, range of motion, patellar tracking and ligament stability. A correct soft tissue balance keeps the joint aligned in flexion and extension, and therefore constitutes the most important factor for durability of the implant. Indeed, incorrect soft tissue balancing is the primary cause of early implant failure necessitating revision surgery. Soft tissue releases, serving to correct imbalances, are performed until the flexion and extension gaps appear symmetrical and balanced. A knee is considered perfectly balanced when the flexion and extension gaps are perfectly rectangular and all the measurements are absolutely equal. PMID:25606540

  17. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Löffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Niepötter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18 steps with 8% overall yield. PMID:26447631

  19. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  20. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IH.

    PubMed

    O'heireamhoin, S; Bayer, T; Mulhall, K J

    2011-01-01

    Children affected by mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IH (Hurler Syndrome), an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, are known to experience a range of musculoskeletal manifestations including spinal abnormalities, hand abnormalities, generalised joint stiffness, genu valgum, and hip dysplasia and avascular necrosis. Enzyme therapy, in the form of bone marrow transplantation, significantly increases life expectancy but does not prevent the development of the associated musculoskeletal disorders. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with a diagnosis of Hurler syndrome with a satisfactory result following uncemented total hip arthroplasty. PMID:23259102

  1. An Efficient Total Synthesis of Ammosamide B

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. V. Narasimha; Banerjee, Biplab; Cushman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of ammosamide B, a metabolite of the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698, has been executed in nine steps and 6.9% overall yield. The key step involves the condensation of a 4,6-diBoc protected 1,3,4,6-tetraaminobenzene derivative with dimethyl 2-ketoglutaconate, which effectively constructs the pyrrolidinone ring and the quinoline ring in a single step. This contributes a unique approach to the synthesis of pyrroloquinoline alkaloids that offers the advantages of brevity and relatively high overall yield. PMID:20515072

  2. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Liphagal**

    PubMed Central

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.; Kolding, Helene; Alleva, Jennifer L.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwave-assisted metal catalysis, and an intramolecular aryne capture cyclization reaction. Pivotal to the successful completion of the synthesis was a sequence involving ring expansion from a [6-5-4] tricycle to a [6-7] bicyclic core followed by stereoselective hydrogenation of a sterically occluded tri-substituted olefin to establish the trans homodecalin system found in the natural product. PMID:21671325

  3. Total skin electron irradiation techniques: a review

    PubMed Central

    Milecki, Piotr; Skórska, Małgorzata; Fundowicz, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) has been employed as one of the methods of mycosis fungoides treatment since the mid-twentieth century. In order to improve the effects and limit the complications following radiotherapy, a number of varieties of the TSEI method, frequently differing in the implementation mode have been developed. The paper provides a systematic review of the different varieties of TSEI. The discussed differences concerned especially: (i) technological requirements and geometric conditions, (ii) the alignment of the patient, (iii) the number of treatment fields, and (iv) dose fractionation scheme. PMID:24278046

  4. Vocal Rehabilitation after Partial or Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Thomas C.; Zwitman, Daniel H.

    1972-01-01

    One of the paramount concerns of a patient who must undergo surgical intervention for laryngeal cancer is the effect on his speech. The type of operation is based on the anatomic extent of the cancer, but each procedure presents inherent problems in vocal rehabilitation. Glottic incompetence is the primary deficit to be overcome following hemilaryngectomy, whereas the aspirate voice is the principal problem with supraglottic laryngectomy. When the larynx must be sacrificed by total laryngectomy, the patient attempts to learn esophageal speech. If this fails, a vibrating sound source for speech can be acquired, either by the construction of a trachealpharyngeal communication or by use of a manual electric vibrator. PMID:5052051

  5. Total Syntheses of Periconiasins A-E.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chong; Lei, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yuanhao; Dong, Zhen; Liu, Gang; Tang, Yefeng

    2016-06-01

    The first and collective total syntheses of periconiasins A-E, a group of naturally occurring cytochalasans, were achieved by a series of rationally designed or bioinspired transformations. Salient features of the syntheses include a tandem aldol condensation/Grob fragmentation to assemble the linear polyketide-amino acid hybrid precursor, a Diels-Alder macrocylization to construct the 9/6/5 tricyclic core of periconiasins A-C, and a transannular carbonyl-ene reaction to forge the polycyclic framework of periconiasins D and E. PMID:27121397

  6. Time Economical Total Synthesis of (-)-Oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Ogasawara, Shin

    2016-07-15

    A time economical 60 min total synthesis of (-)-oseltamivir was accomplished in a single reaction vessel over five steps. One of the key issues is reduction in the number of steps by eliminating lengthy reaction steps with substitution of a rapid epimerization step. A catalytic system consisting of three reagents, namely, diphenylprolinol silyl ether, thiourea, and acid, was developed for a rapid asymmetric Michael reaction with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. All reactions were optimized in terms of not only yield and selectivity but also reaction time. PMID:27378379

  7. Biomimetic total synthesis of santalin Y.

    PubMed

    Strych, Sebastian; Journot, Guillaume; Pemberton, Ryan P; Wang, Selina C; Tantillo, Dean J; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-04-20

    A biomimetic total synthesis of santalin Y, a structurally complex but racemic natural product, is described. The key step is proposed to be a (3+2) cycloaddition of a benzylstyrene to a "vinylogous oxidopyrylium", which is followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. This cascade generates the unique oxafenestrane framework of the target molecule and sets its five stereocenters in one operation. Our work provides rapid access to santalin Y and clarifies its biosynthetic relationship with other colorants isolated from red sandalwood. PMID:25858797

  8. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  9. Total quality management approach improves medication replacement.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L K

    1994-07-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is based on understanding customer needs, improving key processes that affect customer satisfaction, and creating cross-functional teams to resolve process problems. This article describes application of TQM principles and problem-solving processes to improve one OR's medication exchange system. The problem was excessive monthly pharmacy medication replacement costs. The goal was to reduce the monthly medication replacement costs by 50%. Within four months, monthly medication replacement charges decreased from $656 to $302, and by one year, monthly charges decreased to $160. The new process had fewer steps, fewer staff members involved, and fewer delays in medication replacement. PMID:8085806

  10. Total Elbow Arthroplasty for Distal Humerus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Luke S; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty is a good treatment alternative for selected patients with distal humerus fractures. Its attractiveness is related to several factors, including the possibility of performing the procedure; leaving the extensor mechanism intact; faster, easier rehabilitation compared with internal fixation; and overall good outcomes reported in terms of both pain relief and function. Implant failure leading to revision surgery does happen, and patients must comply with certain limitations to extend the longevity of their implant. Development of high-performance implants may allow expanding the indications of elbow arthroplasty for fractures. PMID:26498549

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Terengganensine A.

    PubMed

    Piemontesi, Cyril; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-05-23

    A seven-step enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-terengganensine A, a complex heptacyclic monoterpene indole alkaloid, was accomplished. Key steps included: a) Noyori's catalytic enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the iminium salt to set up the absolute configuration at the C21 position; b) a highly diastereoselective C7 benzoyloxylation with dibenzoyl peroxide under mild conditions; and c) an integrated one-pot oxidative cleavage of cyclopentene/triple cyclization/hydrolysis sequence for the construction of the dioxa azaadamantane motif with complete control of four newly generated stereocenters. PMID:27094030

  12. Dual mobility in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Darren R; Haughom, Bryan D; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-01-01

    Dual-mobility articulations have shown promising results. Postoperative instability remains the most common reason for revision of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Dual-mobility cups have been shown to decrease the rate of dislocation in primary THA and have been used to treat and prevent instability in revision THA. Greater range of motion and a greater head-to-neck ratio and a greater jump distance are achieved, resulting in a lower risk of instability. Concerns with dual-mobility cups include wear and intraprosthetic dislocation. Specific design modifications have aimed to improve cup fixation and decrease polyethylene wear and the risks of intraprosthetic dislocation. PMID:24267202

  13. [Bilateral vocal cord paresis after total thyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Neu, J; Musholt, T J; Nies, C

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient complained of hoarseness and dyspnea under exertion following total thyroidectomy. Due to a faulty operating technique both nerves to the vocal cords were damaged. From the operation report it emerged that the dissection was carried out by protecting the border lamellae but the recurrent laryngeal nerve could not be found on both sides. This article presents the external expert opinion, the decision of the arbitration board and the assessment of the case by two specialist physicians. PMID:26683653

  14. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  15. Solar Total Energy Project final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 October through 31 December of 2005. Graphical analysis of blast patterns according to drill monitor data is continuing. Multiple linear regression analysis of 16 mine and mill variables (powder factor, two modeled size fractions, liberation index, predicted grind, total crude Fe, Satmagan Fe, sat ratio, DSC, geologic blend, ambient temperature, cobbing hours, feeder plugs, and percent feeder run time-of-mill time) indicates that December variations in plant performance are generally predictable (Figure 1). The outlier on December 28th coincides with low cobbing availability and equipment downtime. Mill productivity appeared to be most influenced, as usual, by ore quality as indicated by the liberation index--the higher the liberation index, the lower the throughput. The upcoming quarter will be concerned with wrapping up the work in progress, such as the detailed statistical analyses, and writing a final report. Hibtac Mine engineers are evaluating neural network software to determine its utility for modeling, and eventually predicting, mill throughput.

  17. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  18. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)-Ryanodol and (+)-Ryanodine.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masaki; Nagatomo, Masanori; Inoue, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    (+)-Ryanodine (1) is the ester derivative of 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and the complex terpenoid (+)-ryanodol (2), which possesses eleven contiguous stereogenic centers on the ABCDE-ring system. Compound 1 is known to be a potent modulator of intracellular calcium release channels, whereas the activity of 2 is significantly weaker. To chemically construct 1, the multiple oxygen functional groups must be installed on the fused pentacycle in stereoselective fashions and the extremely hindered C3-hydroxy group must be acylated in a site-selective manner. First, the total synthesis of 2 was accomplished by introducing the five stereocenters from the previously prepared enantiopure ABDE-ring 7. Stereoselective construction of the C3-secondary, C2- and C6-tertiary alcohols was achieved by three nucleophilic reactions. The C9- and C10-trisubstituted carbon centers were regio- and stereoselectively introduced by hydroboration/oxidation of the six-membered C-ring, which was formed by the ring-closing metathesis reaction. Direct esterification of the C3-alcohol with pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid proved unsuccessful; therefore, we developed a new, two-step protocol for attachment of the pyrrole moiety. The C3-hydroxy group was first converted into the less sterically cumbersome glycine ester, which was then transformed into the pyrrole ring through condensation with 1,3-bis(dimethylamino)allylium tetrafluoroborate. This procedure resulted in the first total synthesis of 1. PMID:26616265

  19. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gstoettner, Michaela; Michaela, Gstoettner; Heider, Denise; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael; Bach, Christian Michael; Michael, Bach Christian

    2008-11-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  20. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Michaela, Gstoettner; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  1. Periprosthetic Fractures Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality. PMID:25750888

  2. Surgical approaches for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Demesugh, Daniel Mue; Agarwal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    There are various surgical approaches to the knee joint and its surrounding structures and such approaches are generally designed to allow the best access to an area of pathology whilst safeguarding important surrounding structures. Controversy currently surrounds the optimal surgical approach for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The medial parapatellar arthrotomy, or anteromedial approach, has been the most used and has been regarded as the standard approach for exposure of the knee joint. It provides extensive exposure and is useful for open anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, total knee replacement, and fixation of intra-articular fractures. Because this approach has been implicated in compromise of the patellar circulation, some authors have advocated the subvastus, midvastus, and trivector approaches for exposure of the knee joint. While these approaches expose the knee from the medial side, the anterolateral approach exposes the knee joint from the lateral side. With careful planning and arthrotomy selection, the anterior aspect of the joint can be adequately exposed for TKA in different clinical scenarios. PMID:27182142

  3. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal Hernia Repair Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has become increasingly popular as an alternative to open surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the laparoscopic total extraperitoneal procedure with the use of staple fixation and polypropylene mesh. Methods: A retrospective chart review examined outcomes of 1240 laparoscopic hernia operations in 783 patients, focusing on intraoperative and early postoperative complications, pain, and time until return to work and normal physical activities. Results: There were no intraoperative complications in this series; 106 patients experienced early postoperative complications across 8 evaluated categories: urinary retention (4.1%), seroma (3.0%), testicular/hemiscrotal swelling (1.9%), testicular atrophy (0%), hydrocele (0.6%), mesh infection (0.1%), and neurological symptoms (transient, 1.0%; persistent, 0.2%). Patients used an average of 5.6 Percocet pills after the procedure, and mean times until return to work and normal activities, including their routine exercise regimen, were 3.0 and 3.8 days, respectively. Conclusion: Complication rates and convalescence times were considered equivalent or superior to those found in other studies assessing both laparoscopic and open techniques. The usage of multiple Endostaples did not result in increased neurologic complications in the early postoperative period when compared with findings in the literature. In the hands of an experienced surgeon, total extraperitoneal repair is a safe, effective alternative to open inguinal hernia repair. PMID:27493471

  4. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  5. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended. PMID:25738720

  6. Postoperative Autologous Reinfusion in Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Crescibene, A.; Martire, F.; Gigliotti, P.; Rende, A.; Candela, M.

    2015-01-01

    Surgeries for total knee replacement (TKR) are increasing and in this context there is a need to develop new protocols for management and use of blood transfusion therapy. Autologous blood reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and the aim of the present study was to verify the safety and the clinical efficacy. An observational retrospective study has been conducted on 124 patients, undergoing cemented total knee prosthesis replacement. Observed population was stratified into two groups: the first group received reinfusion of autologous blood collected in the postoperative surgery and the second group did not receive autologous blood reinfusion. Analysis of data shows that patients undergoing autologous blood reinfusion received less homologous blood bags (10.6% versus 30%; p = 0.08) and reduced days of hospitalization (7.88 ± 0.7 days versus 8.96 ± 2.47 days for the control group; p = 0.03). Microbiological tests were negative in all postoperatively salvaged and reinfused units. Our results emphasize the effectiveness of this procedure and have the characteristics of simplicity, low cost (€97.53 versus €103.79; p < 0.01), and easy reproducibility. Use of autologous drainage system postoperatively is a procedure that allows reducing transfusion of homologous blood bags in patients undergoing TKR. PMID:26442168

  7. Kelvin waves in total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical Kelvin waves have been observed previously in ozone mixing ratio data from the SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) instruments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite. The present study investigates Kelvin wave features in total column ozone, using version 6 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument (also on Nimbus-7). Results show eastward-propagating zonal waves 1-2 with periods approx. 5-15 days, amplitudes approx. 3-5 Dobson Units (1-2% of the time mean), and latitudinal symmetry typical of Kelvin waves. The analyses and a linear model in this study suggest that the primary source of the perturbations is slow Kelvin waves in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. Maximum Kelvin wave signatures occur in conjunction with westward lower-to-middle stratospheric equatorial zonal winds (a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind modulation effect). The significance of these results is that the TOMS data are shown to be useful for investigations with global coverage of a major component of tropical stratospheric dynamics, Kelvin waves. The TOMS data set with its excellent coverage and high quality should be useful in validating model studies in the relatively data sparse and dynamically difficult tropical region.

  8. Calculation of the total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I. ); Stelbovics, A.T. )

    1994-04-01

    The total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen are calculated by applying the convergent-close-coupling method to the model where positronium-formation channels are omitted. This model accurately describes the physics of the scattering whenever the positronium formation cross section is negligible, in particular, above 100 eV for this system. The total ionization cross section results in this energy region are in excellent agreement with the recent measurements of Jones [ital et] [ital al]. [J. Phys. B 26, L483 (1993)], and so lie below the earlier measurements of Spicher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1019 (1990)], and the recent calculations of Acacia [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)]. The total cross section is in very good agreement with the recent measurements of Zhou [ital et] [ital al]. (unpublished) down to 30 eV.

  9. MEASUREMENT AND DECOMPOSITION OF TOTAL EXPOSURE USING THE TOTAL-ISOLATED-BY-MICROENVIRONMENT-EXPOSURE (TIME) MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new, highly compact and lightweight monitor that directly measures personal exposure resolved into four microenvironments. he device is the "Total-Isolated-by-Microenvironment-Exposure (TIME)" monitor. he monitor can identify electronically a subject's micr...

  10. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-28

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.

  11. Neck after total laryngectomy: CT study

    SciTech Connect

    DiSantis, D.J.; Balfe, D.M.; Hayden, R.E.; Sagel, S.S.; Sessions, D.; Lee, J.K.T.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomographic scans in 23 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were analyzed retrospectively to determine normal postoperative appearance and to evaluate the role of CT in assessing recurrent neoplasm. Nine patients without clinical evidence of recurrence illustrated the normal postoperative changes: a round or ovoid neopharynx connecting the base of the tongue with the cervical esophagus and intact fat planes surrounding the neopharynx, neurovascular bundles, and sternocleidomastoid muscles. In the 12 patients with recurrent neoplasm, the CT manifestations included masses involving the internal jugular lymph node chain, tracheostomy site, or paratracheal region. CT supplemented physical examination and indirect mirror examination, providing data regarding presence and extent of recurrent tumor and aiding in planning the mode and scope of therapy.

  12. Total synthesis of pamamycin-649B.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Gruner, Margit; Jäger, Anne; Kataeva, Olga; Metz, Peter

    2011-11-18

    The first total synthesis of the macrodiolide antibiotic pamamycin-649B (1) was achieved by using sultone methodology. The diethyl substituted larger hydroxy acid fragment was constructed in a concise fashion through domino elimination/alkoxide-directed 1,6-additions of ethyllithium to sultones derived from intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of furan-containing vinylsulfonates. Intermolecular Yamaguchi esterification of the two hydroxy acid building blocks and subsequent Yamaguchi cyclization eventually provided the target macrocycle 1. Since the final lactonization with formation of the ester linkage between C1' and the C8 oxygen proceeded with complete C2' epimerization, the more readily available C2' epimeric smaller fragment could be used to streamline the synthetic sequence. PMID:22012748

  13. Total Quality Management and Cost of Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjicostas, Evsevios

    Before we start analysing the philosophy of Total Quality Management it is worthwhile going back to the early days of quality and the quality movement. In fact, the quality concept dates back to the creation of Adam and Eve: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good”. (Genesis A 31). It is remarkable that at the end of each day, looking at his creations God was saying, “This is good”. However, at the end of the sixth day, after he finished the creation of human beings, he said, “This is very good”. It is amazing that he did not say, “This is excellent”. This is because excellence is something that we gain after tireless effort. God left room for improvement in order to challenge us and make our life more attractive, which has really happened!

  14. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal. PMID:27595070

  15. Potential Modulation on Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Niu, Yu; Viana, A S; Correia, Jorge P; Jin, Gang

    2016-03-15

    Electrochemical-total internal reflection ellipsometry (EC-TIRE) has been proposed as a technique to observe the redox reactions on the electrode surface due to its high phase sensitivity to the electrolyte/electrode interface. In this paper, we mainly focus on the influence of the potential modulation on the TIRE response. The analysis suggests that both dielectric constant variation of gold and the electric double layer transformation would modulate the reflection polarization of the surface. For a nonfaradaic process, the signal of TIRE would be proportional to the potential modulation. To testify the analysis, linear sweep voltammetry and open circuit measurement have been performed. The results strongly support the system analysis. PMID:26889871

  16. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  17. The total synthesis of Isodon diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Lazarski, Kiel E; Moritz, Benjamin J; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-09-26

    Families of structurally related molecules often provide stimulating targets for organic chemists that are engaged in the development of new methods and strategies for natural product synthesis. While typically focused on specific molecules, these synthetic investigations often lead to generalizable concepts and significant opportunities for learning in a greater sense. Historically well-investigated families of natural products, such as the prostanoids, indole alkaloids, and macrolide antibiotics, provide ample evidence for the enduring value of these collective activities. In this Minireview, we turn our attention to the polycyclic family of diterpenes isolated from the Isodon genus of plants and provide an account of the recent methods and strategies utilized for their total synthesis. PMID:25159338

  18. Total-pressure averaging in pulsating flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a nonsteady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered with the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles.

  19. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Betty P. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    NASA and contractor employees achieved many notable improvements in 1989. The highlights of those improvements, described in this seventh annual Accomplishments Report, demonstrate that the people who support NASA's activities are getting more involved in quality and continuous improvement efforts. Their gains solidly support NASA's and this Nation's goal to remain a leader in space exploration and in world-wide market competition, and, when communicated to others through avenues such as this report, foster improvement efforts across government and industry. The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories in this report reflect NASA principles set forth in the 1980's and are more commonly known today as Total Quality Management (TQM): top management leadership and support; strategic planning; focus on the customer; employee training and recognition; employee empowerment and teamwork; measurement and analysis; and quality assurance.

  20. Total hip arthroplasty after rotational acetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideya; Takatori, Yoshio; Moro, Toru; Oshima, Hirofumi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether the outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) after rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) are equal to those of primary THA, and to elucidate the characteristics of THA after RAO. The clinical and radiographic findings of THA after RAO (44 hips), with minimum 24 months of follow-up, were compared with a matched control group of 58 hips without prior RAO. We found that the outcomes in terms of functional scores and complication rates did not differ between THA after RAO and THA without previous pelvic osteotomy, indicating that the results of THA after RAO are equivalent to those of primary THA. Although THA after RAO requires technical considerations, similar clinical outcomes to primary THA can be expected. PMID:25456635

  1. p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter where the gate voltage is proportional to the incident radiation dose. It is configured in an n-WELL of a p-BODY substrate. It is operated in the saturation region which is ensured by connecting the gate to the drain. The n-well is connected to zero bias. Current flow from source to drain, rather than from peripheral leakage, is ensured by configuring the device as an edgeless MOSFET where the source completely surrounds the drain. The drain junction is the only junction not connected to zero bias. The MOSFET is connected as part of the feedback loop of an operational amplifier. The operational amplifier holds the drain current fixed at a level which minimizes temperature dependence and also fixes the drain voltage. The sensitivity to radiation is made maximum by operating the MOSFET in the OFF state during radiation soak.

  2. Patellar meniscus in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Sheldon, Daniel A; Hernández, Victor H; D'Apuzzo, Michele R; Lee, David J; Krackow, Kenneth A; Hungerford, David S

    2007-04-01

    Twenty-four clinically successful, autopsy retrieved porous-coated anatomic total knee arthroplasty (TKA) specimens were evaluated to determine the structure and function of the patellar meniscus. Mean implant duration was 76 months (range: 11-135 months). Histological examination showed the patellar meniscus to be composed of dense fibrous tissue with scattered regions of chronic granulomatous response to polyethylene debris. Patellar wear and polyethylene exposed patellar surface area were correlated with implant duration (r = 0.47, P = .03; r = 0.52, P = .06). Postoperative patellar tilt was also associated with patellar component wear (r = 0.64, P = .03). No other clinical measures were significantly associated with patellar wear or exposed surface area. Additional research is needed to determine what role, if any, the patellar meniscus plays in TKA outcomes. PMID:17486906

  3. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  4. [Total debranching through mini-sternotomy].

    PubMed

    Ujihira, Kosuke; Morishita, Kiyofumi; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Saga, Toshifumi; Baba, Toshio; Mawatari, Toru

    2013-10-01

    Aneurysms of the aortic arch are technically challenging to repair with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). Various optional techniques such as debranching or hybrid TEVAR enable landing zones to extend, however, there is still room for improvement. We have performed total debranching to facilitate TEVAR with adequate central neck length more than 2.5 cm. In summary our procedure has 3 features:mini-thoracotomy to minimize its surgical stress which might cause post-operative respiratory failure, side-to-side anastomosis of trifurcated graft with ascending aorta to avoid its kinking after chest closure, and the usage of Pruitt-Inahara shunt tube during anastomoses of the carotid artery. PMID:24105115

  5. Choosing the socket in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Davey, J R

    1995-02-01

    Significant improvements have been made in the long-term results of cemented femoral components, but there has been little improvement in the results of cemented acetabular components. Polyethylene wear debris has been proposed as the most important factor causing loosening of cemented acetabular components. Polyethylene thickness and femoral-head size affect the rate of acetabular wear and loosening. The early results of total hip arthroplasty with noncemented acetabular components are promising, and many feel that they represent the state of the art. The hemispheric components with a porous coating have proven superior to most of the screw ring designs. There are potential disadvantages with the use of screws to augment fixation of the hemispheric components, and recently it has become popular to under-ream the acetabulum and press-fit the oversized acetabular component without the use of screws. PMID:7874628

  6. Total Laryngectomy – Past, Present, Future

    PubMed Central

    CEACHIR, Octavian; HAINAROSIE, Razvan; ZAINEA, Viorel

    2014-01-01

    In a period in which therapeutic approaches for malignant laryngeal tumors are focused on the principle of "organ preservation", total laryngectomy is a well coded surgical procedure, addressed to the advanced laryngeal cancer which is not suitable for conservative techniques or in case of their failure. The main objective of this work is to summarize the important events that have marked the evolution of this surgical technique to the current formula. Also this paper aims to identify, in our own casuistry, some elements of strategy and surgical technique required, in our opinion, for a successful therapeutic intervention. The fundamental significance of the study is that we must learn from the past, perform our surgeries at contemporary standards and look to the future for new solutions and approaches of the advanced laryngeal malignancies. PMID:25705281

  7. Fracture Blisters After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Halawi, Mohamad J

    2015-08-01

    Fracture blisters are tense vesicles that arise on markedly swollen skin overlying traumatized soft tissue. While this relatively uncommon complication has been well described in the trauma literature, this article reports for the first time a case of fracture blisters after primary total knee arthroplasty. The fracture blisters developed within 36 hours of surgery and were associated with profound swelling and erythema. There was no evidence of vascular injury, compartment syndrome, iatrogenic fracture, or deep venous thrombosis. The patient was treated with leg elevation, loosely applied nonadhesive dressings, and a short course of oral antibiotics after skin desquamation. Blood-filled blisters required longer time to reepithelialization than fluid-filled blisters. Knee stiffness developed because of pain and fear of participation with physical therapy, but the patient was able to resume intensive rehabilitation after resolution of the blisters. Patient factors, surgical factors, and review of the literature are discussed. PMID:26251947

  8. Total synthesis of diterpenoid steenkrotin A.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saiyong; Xuan, Jun; Gao, Beiling; Zhu, An; Ding, Hanfeng

    2015-06-01

    A concise and diastereoselective total synthesis of the diterpenoid (±)-steenkrotin A is described for the first time. The strategy mainly features three key ring formations: 1) a rhodium-catalyzed O-H bond insertion followed by an intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction to build up the tetrahydrofuran subunit; 2) sequential SmI2 -mediated Ueno-Stork and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to construct the [5,7] spirobicyclic skeleton; and 3) an intramolecular aldol condensation/vinylogous retro-aldol/aldol sequence to form the final six-membered ring with inversion of the relative configuration at the C7 position. PMID:25891977

  9. The Total Synthesis of Inostamycin A.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangri; Jung, Byunghyuck; Lee, Hee-Seung; Kang, Sung Ho

    2016-02-12

    The first total synthesis of inostamycin A is described. With efficient and stereoselective synthetic routes to aldehyde 3 and ketone 4 developed through asymmetric aldol reactions, addition reactions and reduction, and with chiral building blocks, the two large fragments were coupled with remarkable anti stereoselectivity and efficiency by aldol condensation. The coupling reaction provided the complete carbon skeleton with all the requisite functional groups and stereogenic centers for inostamycin A. The two quaternary carbons at C20 and C16 of ketone 4 were elaborated in a highly stereocontrolled manner by addition reactions of the transmetallated 5 to ethyl ketone 6 and the transmetallated 7 to methyl ketone 8, respectively, in which the use of LaCl3 for transmetallation was critical for high coupling efficiency. PMID:26800259

  10. Alternative bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inzerillo, V Christopher; Garino, Jonathan P

    2003-01-01

    Polyethylene wear and extension of indications of total hip arthroplasty into younger and younger age groups have pushed manufacturers to develop more durable bearing surfaces. Standard polyethylene, the plastic used for the first 3 decades of hip replacement, virtually ceases to exist in its original form. Modifications of the processing, including sterlization in an inert environment and cross-linking, have demonstrated some improvements in wear. Hard-on-hard bearings such as ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal also have demonstrated extremely low wear. This article reviews the pros and cons of the alternative bearing options available to assist in the proper bearing selection for a particular patient. PMID:12882250

  11. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  12. Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.

  13. Subwavelength total acoustic absorption with degenerate resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Meng, Chong; Fu, Caixing; Li, Yong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental realization of perfect sound absorption by sub-wavelength monopole and dipole resonators that exhibit degenerate resonant frequencies. This is achieved through the destructive interference of two resonators' transmission responses, while the matching of their averaged impedances to that of air implies no backscattering, thereby leading to total absorption. Two examples, both using decorated membrane resonators (DMRs) as the basic units, are presented. The first is a flat panel comprising a DMR and a pair of coupled DMRs, while the second one is a ventilated short tube containing a DMR in conjunction with a sidewall DMR backed by a cavity. In both examples, near perfect absorption, up to 99.7%, has been observed with the airborne wavelength up to 1.2 m, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the composite absorber. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  14. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  15. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  16. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Lin, Youzuo

    2008-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  17. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal. PMID:27595070

  18. Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Suguru; Takahashi, Ryo; Hida, Koya; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-06-01

    Although laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been gaining acceptance with the gradual accumulation of evidence, it remains a technically demanding procedure in patients with a narrow pelvis, bulky tumors, or obesity. To overcome the technical difficulties associated with laparoscopic rectal dissection and transection, transanal endoscopic rectal dissection, which is also referred to as transanal (reverse, bottom-up) total mesorectal excision (TME), has recently been introduced. Its potential advantages include the facilitation of the dissection of the anorectum, regardless of the patient body habitus, and a clearly defined safe distal margin and transanal extraction of the specimen. This literature review shows that this approach seems to be feasible with regard to the operative and short-term postoperative outcomes. In experienced hands, transanal TME is a promising method for the resection of mid- and low-rectal cancers. Further investigations are required to clarify the long-term oncological and functional outcomes. PMID:26055500

  19. Total Synthesis of Alkaloid 205B

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concise and highly stereocontrolled total syntheses of racemic and enantiopure frog alkaloid 205B (1) were accomplished in 11 steps from 4-methoxypyridines 6 and 7 in overall yields of 8 and 8%, respectively. The assembly of the core of the natural product relies on a stereoselective Tsuji–Trost allylic amination reaction and a ring-closing metathesis. The synthesis features the use of an N-acylpyridinium salt reaction to introduce the first stereocenter and an unprecedented trifluoroacetic anhydride-mediated addition of an allylstannane to a vinylogous amide with complete facial selectivity. Deoxygenation of the C4 ketone proved difficult but was accomplished via a modified Barton–McCombie reaction in the presence of a catalytic amount of diphenyl diselenide. PMID:25180567

  20. Total Percutaneous Aortic Repair: Midterm Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Fotiadis, Nikolas; Renfrew, Ian; Walsh, Michael; Brohi, Karim; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and midterm outcomes of percutaneous endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic pathology. Between December 2003 and June 2005, 21 patients (mean age: 60.4 {+-} 17.1 years; 15 males, 6 females) underwent endovascular stent-graft insertion for thoracic (n = 13) or abdominal aortic (n = 8) pathology. Preprocedural computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to assess the suitability of aorto-iliac and common femoral artery (CFA) anatomy, including the degree of CFA calcification, for total percutaneous aortic stent-graft repair. Percutaneous access was used for the introduction of 18- to 26-Fr delivery devices. A 'preclose' closure technique using two Perclose suture devices (Perclose A-T; Abbott Vascular) was used in all cases. Data were prospectively collected. Each CFA puncture site was assessed via clinical examination and CTA at 1, 6, and 12 months, followed by annual review thereafter. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. Outcome measures evaluated were rates of technical success, conversion to open surgical repair, complications, and late incidence of arterial stenosis at the site of Perclose suture deployment. A total of 58 Perclose devices were used to close 29 femoral arteriotomies. Outer diameters of stent-graft delivery devices used were 18 Fr (n = 5), 20 Fr (n = 3), 22 Fr (n = 4), 24 Fr (n = 15), and 26 Fr (n = 2). Percutaneous closure was successful in 96.6% (28/29) of arteriotomies. Conversion to surgical repair was required at one access site (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 50 {+-} 8 months. No late complications were observed. By CT criteria, no patient developed a >50% reduction in CFA caliber at the site of Perclose deployment during the study period. In conclusion, percutaneous aortic stent-graft insertion can be safely performed, with a low risk of both immediate and midterm access-related complications.

  1. Total Sleep Time Severely Drops during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Damien; Beck, François; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST) in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. Purpose To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS) and non schooldays (TSTN) and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. Methods Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations) was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN – TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2). Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. Results A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001) and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001). Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001). Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age. PMID:23082111

  2. Development of a totally implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Rowles, J R; Khanwilkar, P S; Diegel, P D; Hansen, A C; Bearnson, G B; Smith, K D; Tatsumi, E; Olsen, D B

    1992-01-01

    The first generation of an integrated, totally implantable electrohydraulic total artificial heart was designed for long-term cardiac replacement. The system consists of an elliptical blood pump with an interatrial shunt, Medtronic-Hall 27 mm and 25 mm inflow and outflow valves, respectively, an energy converter consisting of an axial-flow, hydraulic pump driven by a brushless DC motor, and an electronics system with transcutaneous energy transmission and telemetry. Energy is supplied by internal nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that supply power for 20 min and external silver-zinc batteries that are designed to supply energy to run the system for 5 hr. The blood pump consists of a single layer diaphragm cast from Biolon, with joined right and left ventricles sharing a common base. The dynamic stroke volume is 84 ml, and maximum cardiac output is 9.2 L/min at a heart rate of 110 beats/min on the mock circulation. A 4.3 mm diameter interatrial shunt is used to balance the volumetrically coupled ventricles. The energy converter pumps hydraulic fluid alternately between ventricles, with controlled, active filling in one ventricle during the systolic phase of the other ventricle. Internal or external controllers adjust the heart rate and motor speed to maintain normal atrial filling pressures and full stroke. Electromagnetic induction is used to transfer energy through the skin and a bidirectional infrared data link incorporated within the transcutaneous energy transmission coils is used to transmit information. The entire system is being assembled and refined for long-term animal implant studies. PMID:1457955

  3. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: in opposition.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2004-06-01

    At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable. PMID:15190556

  4. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E. . E-mail: Schultheiss@coh.org; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862....1470 Lipid (total) test system. (a) Identification. A lipid (total) test system is a device intended to measure total lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in serum and plasma. Lipid (total) measurements...

  8. Efficient oil palm total RNA extraction with a total RNA extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Habib, S H; Saud, H M; Kausar, H

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm tissues are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites; these can co-precipitate with RNA, causing problems for downstream applications. We compared two different methods (one conventional and a kit-based method - Easy-Blue(TM) Total RNA Extraction Kit) to isolate total RNA from leaves, roots and shoot apical meristems of tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome somaclonal oil palm seedlings. The quality and quantity of total RNA were compared through spectrophotometry and formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The specificity and applicability of the protocols were evaluated for downstream applications, including cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the conventional method gave higher yields of RNA but took longer, and it was contaminated with genomic DNA. This method required extra genomic DNA removal steps that further reduced the RNA yield. The kit-based method, on the other hand, produced good yields as well as well as good quality RNA, within a very short period of time from a small amount of starting material. Moreover, the RNA from the kit-based method was more suitable for synthesizing cDNA and RT-PCR amplification than the conventional method. Therefore, we conclude that the Easy-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit method is suitable and superior for isolation of total RNA from oil palm leaf, root and shoot apical meristem. PMID:24781991

  9. Calibration of the Total Irradiance Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Lawrence, G.; Rottman, G.

    2001-05-01

    We present an overview of the calibrations of the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM), a total solar irradiance (TSI) instrument designed to achieve a relative standard uncertainty (1 σ accuracy) of 100 parts per million (ppm) and a precision and long-term uncertainty of 10 ppm/year. This instrument is one of four on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE, http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce), a satellite mission scheduled for launch in July of 2002. The TIM will report four TSI measurements daily, continuing a 22-year record of solar irradiance through SORCE's goal 5-year mission life. Precision detection of TSI by the TIM follows the basic concepts of electrical substitution radiometry, but employs state-of-the-art electronics and materials. The instrument uses four electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs), each behind a precision aperture, to measure TSI while providing instrument redundancy and sensor degradation detection. The absorptive cavities are used in pairs, one as the active sensor and the other providing a thermal reference. The black absorbing surfaces of diffuse nickel phosphorous (NiP) provide good thermal conductivity, robustness against hard radiation, and low intrinsic outgassing. A shutter modulates incident sunlight to the active ESR, while electrical heater power maintains constant cavity temperature despite the fluctuations in absorbed sunlight. Phase-sensitive detection of the electrical power supplied to the active cavity at the shutter frequency determines cavity absorption and hence TSI. Additionally, this DSP-controlled phase-sensitive detection and thermal control reduces sensitivity to thermal drifts and noise, enabling the instrument's high precision. The TIM's ability to achieve the desired relative standard uncertainty results from component-level calibrations and characterizations to better than 100 ppm. NIST measured the precision apertures to stated accuracies of 25 ppm. LASP measured the ESR reflectances at several

  10. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient’s satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases

  11. Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.

    2014-12-01

    Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and 2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant 0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project, www.soteria-space.eu). SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by

  12. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. PMID:23638329

  13. Hiatal Hernia as a Total Gastrectomy Complication

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Bruna do Nascimento; de Oliveira, Marcos Belotto; Peixoto, Renata D'Alpino

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer, gastric cancer is the third leading cause of death among men and the fifth among women in Brazil. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. The most serious complications associated with surgery are fistulas and dehiscence of the jejunal-esophageal anastomosis. Hiatal hernia refers to herniation of elements of the abdominal cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm, though this occurrence is rarely reported as a complication in gastrectomy. Case Report A 76-year-old man was diagnosed with intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma. He underwent a total laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy on May 19, 2015. The pathology revealed a pT4pN3 gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient became clinically stable and was discharged 10 days after surgery. He was subsequently started on adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy; however, 9 days after the second cycle, he was brought to the emergency room with nausea and severe epigastric pain. A CT scan revealed a hiatal hernia with signs of strangulation. The patient underwent emergent repair of the hernia and suffered no postoperative complications. He was discharged from the hospital 9 days after surgery. Conclusion Hiatal hernia is not well documented, and its occurrence in the context of gastrectomy is an infrequent complication.

  14. SynCardia: the total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Anelechi; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) currently provides the most definitive option for patients with biventricular failure who are not candidates for isolated left ventricular (LV) assist device placement. The techniques for implantation are adaptable to almost all patients with advanced heart failure, including those with severe biventricular cardiomyopathy, complex congenital heart disease, failed LV assist devices, failed transplantations, and acquired structural heart defects that have failed or are not amenable to conventional surgical treatment. Over the years, the implantation technique has evolved in order to minimize the surgical invasiveness of the procedure, in anticipation of additional future surgery. Meticulous hemostasis with double layer sutures, use of Gore-Tex sheets around the TAH and the pericardial cavity, and use of tissue expanders to avoid contraction of pericardial cavity around the device are discussed in detail in the following report. Additionally, we will provide our experience with implantation of TAH in various challenging scenarios, such as patients with a small chest cavity, congenital heart defects, and simultaneous use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). PMID:25512904

  15. TREATMENT OF INFECTION AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Ricardo de Paula Leite; Cinagawa, Eduardo Hitoshi Tsuge; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Klautau, Giselle Burlamaqui; Salles, Mauro José Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To identify and compare the rate of success of therapeutic modalities applied in surgeries for the treatment of infections associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to evaluate the functional outcome and pain in different therapeutic modalities by means of quality of life scores. Methods: We evaluated all patients who developed periprosthetic infection after TKA for primary or secondary osteoarthritis, in the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2010. Results: In the study period, 29 patients with TKA had infection, and 12 of these underwent debridement and retention of the prosthesis (D+R), seven received two-stage and six one-stage exchange arthroplasties, and four patients were treated with suppressive antibiotic therapy because they could not undergo another surgical procedure. Conclusion: The D+R, one-stage revision and two-stage revision success rates were 75%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. The best results of quality of life (QoL) and function occur in patients undergoing D+R. In contrast, the worst QoL and functional results were obtained in patients treated with two-stage revision arthroplasty. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic Studies - Investigating the Effect of a Patient Characteristic on the Outcome of Disease. PMID:26981029

  16. Recursive total-least-squares adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Eric M.; DeGroat, Ronald D.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper a recursive total least squares (RTLS) adaptive filter is introduced and studied. The TLS approach is more appropriate and provides more accurate results than the LS approach when there is error on both sides of the adaptive filter equation; for example, linear prediction, AR modeling, and direction finding. The RTLS filter weights are updated in time O(mr) where m is the filter order and r is the dimension of the tracked subspace. In conventional adaptive filtering problems, r equals 1, so that updates can be performed with complexity O(m). The updates are performed by tracking an orthonormal basis for the smaller of the signal or noise subspaces using a computationally efficient subspace tracking algorithm. The filter is shown to outperform both LMS and RLS in terms of tracking and steady state tap weight error norms. It is also more versatile in that it can adapt its weight in the absence of persistent excitation, i.e., when the input data correlation matrix is near rank deficient. Through simulation, the convergence and tracking properties of the filter are presented and compared with LMS and RLS.

  17. No gut syndrome: near total enterectomy.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Sergio; Kukreja, Sachin; Carter, Kristen; Butler, Dale

    2015-05-01

    In adult patients, removal of the entire jejunum and ileum (a near total enterectomy (NTE)) is considered a non-survivable event as patients undergoing this procedure might also suffer from an underlying illness that will lead to bowel necrosis such as septic or cardiac shock and respiratory failure. Parenteral nutrition (PN) dependency with its associated complications and quality of life issues further complicates management decisions in this group of patients. In the following report, we discuss our institutional experience with NTE and present a comprehensive review of the literature with patients undergoing NTE with the establishment of bowel continuity and successful outcomes even in cases dating as far back as the 1950s, over a decade prior to the implementation of PN. Review of the literature revealed 26 cases of NTE. Most of these patients are young (46.7 years old), and 57 % are women. These patients were reported to be alive at 21 months of follow-up. In this report, we present an individual 51 months following NTE. We also document the oldest patient receiving an NTE (76 years old). Both of these patients are alive on home PN. In cases where there is hemodynamic stability and patients request to continue with further care, the possibility of a NTE with bowel continuity and life-long PN might be entertained. PMID:25791906

  18. The Cruciate Ligaments in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parcells, Bertrand W; Tria, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    The early knee replacements were hinge designs that ignored the ligaments of the knee and resurfaced the joint, allowing freedom of motion in a single plane. Advances in implant fixation paved the way for modern designs, including the posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that sacrifices both cruciate ligaments while substituting for the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and the cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA designs that sacrifice the anterior cruciate ligament but retain the PCL. The early bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA designs suffered from loosening and early failures. Townley and Cartier designed BCR knees that had better clinical results but the surgical techniques were challenging.Kinematic studies suggest that normal motion relies on preservation of both cruciate ligaments. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty retains all knee ligaments and closely matches normal motion, while PS and CR TKA deviate further from normal. The 15% to 20% dissatisfaction rate with current TKA has renewed interest in the BCR design. Replication of normal knee kinematics and proprioception may address some of the dissatisfaction. PMID:27327919

  19. Perioperative complications following total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Talmo, Carl T; Aghazadeh, Mehran; Bono, James V

    2012-08-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a safe and highly effective treatment for moderate to severe osteoarthritic symptoms and other causes of joint derangement in the elderly population. Significant improvements in pain, function, and quality of life are nearly universal, with a low rate of complications and adverse outcomes. Because of its success and cost-effectiveness, the rate of utilization of TJR is increasing, and all health care providers must be familiar with the potential complications and perioperative management of these patients. Elderly patients may be at a higher risk for postoperative medical complications; however, the majority of these complications are minor and many are avoidable with appropriate preoperative screening and careful postoperative management. As with all patients undergoing TJR, patients should be prophylactically treated for infection and thromboembolism and carefully followed for the development of these potential complications as well as fracture, hip dislocation, and neurovascular dysfunction. Postoperative delirium may be minimized and prophylactically treated in appropriate elderly patients to maximize recovery and promote safety. PMID:22840309

  20. Total quality management in blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Smit-Sibinga, C T

    2000-01-01

    Quality management is an ongoing development resulting in consistency products and services and ever increasing customer satisfaction. The ultimum is Total Quality Management. Quality systems and quality management in transfusion medicine have gained considerable attention since the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic. Where product orientation has long been applied through quality control, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles were introduced, shifting the developments in the direction of process orientation. Globally, and particularly in the more industrialised world people and system orientation has come along with the introduction of the ISO9001 concept. Harmonisation and a degree of uniformity are needed to implement a universally applicable Quality System and related Quality Management. Where the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) is the professional organisation with the most extensive experience in quality systems in blood transfusion, the European Union and the Council of Europe now are in the process to design a quality system and management applicable to a larger variety of countries, based on a hybrid of current GMP and ISO9001 principles. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has developed a more universally to implement Quality Manual, with a pilot project in Honduras. It is recommendable to harmonise the various designs and bring the approaches under one common denominator. PMID:10938970

  1. Total scalp irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Nigel . E-mail: nporton@facstaff.wisc.edu; Jaradat, Hazim; Welsh, James; Tome, Wolfgang

    2005-09-30

    Homogeneous irradiation of the scalp poses technical and dosimetric challenges due to the extensive, superficial, curved treatment volume. Conventional treatments on a linear accelerator use multiple matched electron fields or a combination of electron and photon fields. Problems with these techniques include dose heterogeneity in the target due to varying source-to-skin distance (SSD) and angle of beam incidence, significant dose to the brain, and the potential for overdose or underdose at match lines between the fields. Linac-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans have similar problems. This work presents treatment plans for total scalp irradiation on a helical tomotherapy machine. Helical tomotherapy is well-suited for scalp irradiation because it has the ability to deliver beamlets that are tangential to the scalp at all points. Helical tomotherapy also avoids problems associated with field matching and use of more than one modality. Tomotherapy treatment plans were generated and are compared to plans for treatment of the same patient on a linac. The resulting tomotherapy plans show more homogeneous target dose and improved critical structure dose when compared to state-of-the-art linac techniques. Target equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for the best tomotherapy plan was slightly higher than for the linac plan, while the volume of brain tissue receiving over 30 Gy was reduced by two thirds. Furthermore, the tomotherapy plan can be more reliably delivered than linac treatments, because the patient is aligned prior to each treatment based on megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)

  2. SynCardia: the total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, Gianluca; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-11-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) currently provides the most definitive option for patients with biventricular failure who are not candidates for isolated left ventricular (LV) assist device placement. The techniques for implantation are adaptable to almost all patients with advanced heart failure, including those with severe biventricular cardiomyopathy, complex congenital heart disease, failed LV assist devices, failed transplantations, and acquired structural heart defects that have failed or are not amenable to conventional surgical treatment. Over the years, the implantation technique has evolved in order to minimize the surgical invasiveness of the procedure, in anticipation of additional future surgery. Meticulous hemostasis with double layer sutures, use of Gore-Tex sheets around the TAH and the pericardial cavity, and use of tissue expanders to avoid contraction of pericardial cavity around the device are discussed in detail in the following report. Additionally, we will provide our experience with implantation of TAH in various challenging scenarios, such as patients with a small chest cavity, congenital heart defects, and simultaneous use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). PMID:25512904

  3. Total Artificial Heart and Physical Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the total artificial heart (TAH) device as a bridge to heart transplantation (BTT), and related physical therapy management, while comparisons to left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are made. Summary: The SynCardia CardioWest Temporary TAH System is the only TAH approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Canada and Consultants Europe (CE) for BTT. CardioWest implantation involves cardiectomy thus avoiding pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, inotropic or anti-arrhythmic agents, myocardial and valve related problems. CardioWest has a fixed beat rate and cardiac output is dependent upon venous return and preload. Both TAH and LVADs are adaptive with exercise, increasing cardiac output during activities, allowing for conditioning to occur peripherally. Left ventricular assist devices have portable drivers permitting discharge home, while the CardioWest's large driver console necessitates inpatient therapy. Exercise progression, positioning, and monitoring of exercise intolerance are similar with LVAD and TAH. Ventricular fill volumes in TAH dictate cardiac output and require close attention. Cardiectomy in TAH prevents electrocardiography, telemetry, and native pulse rate monitoring. Conclusion: While mechanical differences exist between TAH and LVAD, physical therapists can provide evidence-based treatment for patients with TAH using previously established guidelines for patients with heart failure and mechanical circulatory support. PMID:20520759

  4. Acetabular Reconstruction in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Siva Swaminathan; Choi, Jung Woo

    2016-01-01

    The difficulties encountered in dealing with the bone deficient acetabulum are amongst the greatest challenges in hip surgery. Acetabular reconstruction in revision total hip arthroplasty can successfully be achieved with hemispherical components featuring a porous or roughened ingrowth surface and options for placement of multiple screws for minor acetabular defect. Acetabular component selection is mostly based on the amount of bone loss present. In the presence of combined cavitary and segmental defects without superior acetabular coverage, reconstructions with a structural acetabular allograft protected by a cage or a custom-made triflange cage have been one of preferred surgical options. The use of a cage or ring over structural allograft bone for massive uncontained defects in acetabular revision can restore host bone stock and facilitate subsequent rerevision surgery to a certain extent. But high complication rates have been reported including aseptic loosening, infection, dislocation and metal failure. On the other hand, recent literature is reporting satisfactory outcomes with the use of modular augments combined with a hemispherical shell for major acetabular defect. Highly porous metals have been introduced for clinical use in arthroplasty surgery over the last decade. Their higher porosity and surface friction are ideal for acetabular revision, optimizing biological fixation. The use of trabecular metal cups in acetabular revision has yielded excellent clinical results. This article summarizes author's experience regarding revision acetabular reconstruction options following failed hip surgery including arthroplasty. PMID:27536638

  5. Total Solar Eclipse to Introduce Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    We are designing an experiment to record time lapse slit-less flash spectra of solar chromosphere and corona before, during and after the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE). As the moon gradually covers different heights of chromosphere and corona, the time lapse spectra would provide high hight-resolution information about the line formation starting at very close proximity to the solar limb. The flash spectrum will be recored with a slit-less spectrograph consisting of a transmission grating of 300 lines/mm, blazed at 5000 Å, and an 135 mm f/3.5 telephoto lens. Based on earlier such instruments, the system's efficiency is expected to be about 60% at 5303 Å (Fe XIV emission line) and 20% at 6374 Å (Fe X emission line) (Voulgaris, 2010). We shall place the grating before the telephoto lens on a wedge shaped. The full range of the visible spectrum, from 3900 Å to 6700 Å will be projected on the CCD sensor of the digital camera. The resolution of the spectrograph is expected to be 0.5 Å/pixel at 5215 Å. The diameter of the Sun would corresponded to 275 pixels or 6.87''/pixel. By turning the grating, the direction of the ruling shall be set parallel to the direction of the last visible elongated crescent of the Sun; which will play the role of the "slit" in the slitless spectrograph. The spectrograph will be mounted on a solar tracker to observe the sun during TSE.

  6. Periprosthetic Osteolysis after Total Wrist Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Boeckstyns, Michel E. H.; Herzberg, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Background and Literature Review Periprosthetic osteolysis (PPO) after second- or third-generation total wrist arthroplasty (TWA), with or without evident loosening of the implant components, has previously been reported in the literature, but rarely in a systematic way. Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence, location, and natural history of PPO following a TWA and to determine whether this was associated with prosthetic loosening. Patients and Methods We analyzed 44 consecutive cases in which a RE-MOTION TWA (Small Bone Innovations Inc., Morrisville, PA, USA) had been done. Results We found significant periprosthetic radiolucency (more than 2 mm in width) at the radial component side in 16 of the cases and at the carpal component side in 7. It developed gradually juxta-articularly around the prosthetic components regardless of the primary diagnosis, and seemed to stabilize in most patients after 1–3 years. In a small percentage of the patients, the periprosthetic area of bone resorption was markedly larger. In general, radiolucency was not related to evident loosening of the implant components, and only five carpal components and one radial had subsided or tilted. Conclusion Periprosthetic loosening is frequent following a TWA. In our series it was not necessarily associated with implant loosening and seemed to stabilize within 3 years. Close and continued observation is, however, recommended. Level of Evidence Therapeutic IV PMID:25032076

  7. Total Synthesis of Rubriflordilactone B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Yao, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Yong; Li, Ang

    2016-06-01

    Taking advantage of a 6π electrocyclization-aromatization strategy, we accomplished the first and asymmetric total synthesis of rubriflordilactone B, a heptacyclic Schisandraceae bisnortriterpenoid featuring a tetrasubstituted arene moiety. The left-hand fragment was accessed through a chiral-pool-based route, and linked to the right-hand fragment by a Sonogashira coupling. The cis geometry of the electrocyclization substrates was established by hydrogenation or hydrosilylation of the alkyne. An electrocyclization-aromatization sequence finally built the multisubstituted arene. The hydrosilylation approach was of significant advantage in terms of reaction scale, reproducibility, and intermediate stability. The structure of synthetic rubriflordilactone B was validated by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and found to be consistent with that reported for the authentic natural product based on an independent X-ray crystallographic analysis. However, obvious differences in the NMR spectra of the synthetic and authentic samples suggest that the authentic samples subjected to X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy were two different compounds. PMID:27121027

  8. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  9. A straightforward total synthesis of (-)-chaetominine.

    PubMed

    Malgesini, Beatrice; Forte, Barbara; Borghi, Daniela; Quartieri, Francesca; Gennari, Cesare; Papeo, Gianluca

    2009-08-10

    A total synthesis of the tripeptide alkaloid (-)-chaetominine (1) was achieved in 9.3% overall yield starting from commercially available D-tryptophan methyl ester, based on a short and straightforward (nine steps) sequence. The early stage introduction (first step) of the quinazolinone moiety and the late stage introduction (penultimate step) of the hydroxy group allowed a synthetic strategy devoid of protective groups. The key step of the process is the a-c tricyclic ring construction via an unprecedented NCS-mediated N-acyl cyclization on an indole ring to give tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole 11. In the penultimate step, oxidation of the tetracyclic intermediate 14 with oxaziridine 15 gave only one of the four possible diastereoisomers, the cis-diastereoisomer 16 resulting from the attack of the oxaziridine to the double bond face opposite to the c-d ring substituents. In the last step, the complete stereocontrol of the Et(3)SiH/TFA reduction of compound 16, probably involving a N-acyliminium ion, can be attributed to ring constrain, which forces the b-c ring junction in the more stable cis-orientation. (-)-Chaetominine (1) showed a negligible inhibitory activity on several cancer cell lines. PMID:19562787

  10. [Hirschsprung disease. (Except total forms) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    This panel discussion was considered for paediatricians attending a specialisation conference. The study eliminates total colonictypes. The first part is devoted to clinical study of symptoms in neonates and enterocolitis. Two different types are advocated, due to different aetiologies : The first to obstruction. The second one to Schwartzman reaction similar as Necrotizing enterocolitis of the premature baby. The second part analyzes the methods of diagnosis. No discussion about pathology and X. Ray. Pellerin trust mainly pressure studies, while Carcassonne never operates on a cases without a biopsy, even if the manometry, is positive. About biopsy he used for 4 years now, the Helen Noblett device with great confidence. Polonovski discusses the differential diagnosis with so called pseudo and false Hirschprung. The third part gives the different trends of the authors in matter of treatment: --Pellerin studies the indications for nursing, while Jaubert analyses his series of Colostomies. -- The curative procedures are shortly discussed : Pellerin using the Swenson-Pellerin procedure, Jauber spliting himself between Senson and Soave, Carcassone using Swenson. Two series of immediate and late results are assessed that prove an improvement of the results with the experience of the surgeons. PMID:729134

  11. Capillary electrophoresis for total glycosaminoglycan analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ucakturk, Ebru; Cai, Chao; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of disaccharides derived from heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronan and keratan sulfate. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were first depolymerized with the mixture of GAG lyases (heparinase I, II, III and chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC II) and GAG endohydrolase (keratinase II) and the resulting disaccharides were derivatized by reductive amination with 2-aminoacridone. Nineteen fluorescently labeled disaccharides were separated using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) under reversed polarity at 25 kV. Using these conditions, all the disaccharides examined were baseline-separated in less then 25 min. This CZE-LIF method gave good reproducibility both migration time (≤ 1.03% for intra-day and ≤ 4.4% for inter-day) and the peak area values (≤ 5.6% for intra- and ≤ 8.69% for inter-day). This CZE-LIF method was used for profiling and quantification of GAG derivative disaccharides in bovine cornea. The results shows that the current CZE-LIF method offers fast, simple, sensitive, reproducible determination of disaccharides derived from total GAGs in a single run. PMID:24817364

  12. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sakes, Aimée; Regar, Evelyn; Dankelman, Jenny; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the "last frontier" of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the inability to actively navigate through the CTO. To improve the success rate and to identify future research pathways, this study systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of all existing and invented devices for crossing occlusions. The literature search was executed in the databases of Scopus and Espacenet using medical and instrument-related keyword combinations. The search yielded over 840 patents and 69 articles. After scanning for relevancy, 45 patents and 16 articles were included. The identified crossing devices were subdivided based on the determinant for the crossing path through the occlusion, which is either the device (straight and angled crossing), the environment (least resistance, tissue selective, centerline, and subintimal crossing) or the user (directly steered and sensor enhanced crossing). It was found that each crossing path is characterized by specific advantages and disadvantages. For a future crossing device, a combination of crossing paths is suggested were the interventionist is able to exert high forces on the CTO (as seen in the device approach) and actively steer through the CTO (user: directly steered crossing) aided by intravascular imaging (user: sensor enhanced crossing) or an intrinsically safe device following the centerline or path of least resistance (environment: centerline crossing or least resistance crossing) to reach the distal true lumen. PMID:26831298

  13. TOTAL ANKLE REPLACEMENT: WHY, WHEN AND HOW?

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Dettoni, Federico; Femino, John E; Phisitkul, Phinit; Germano, Margherita; Amendola, Annunziato

    2010-01-01

    Total ankle replacement (TAR) was first attempted in the 1970s, but poor results led to its being considered inferior to ankle fusion until the late 1980s and early 1990s. By that time, newer designs which more closely replicated the natural anatomy of the ankle, showed improved clinical outcomes.1 Currently, even though controversy still exists about the effectiveness of TAR compared to ankle fusion, TAR has shown promising mid-term results and should no longer be considered an experimental procedure. Factors related to improved TAR outcomes include: 1) better patient selection, 2) more precise knowledge and replication of ankle biomechanics, 3) the introduction of less-constrained designs with reduced bone resection and no need for cementation, and 4) greater awareness of soft-tissue balance and component alignment. When TAR is performed, a thorough knowledge of ankle anatomy, pathologic anatomy and biomechanics is needed along with a careful pre-operative plan. These are fundamental in obtaining durable and predictable outcomes. The aim of this paper is to outline these aspects through a literature review. PMID:21045984

  14. Cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, T

    2014-09-01

    The "optimal" positioning of the cup in total hip arthroplasty can improve hip function and reduce wear, impingement and dislocation. The cup position is described as the spatial relation between the hip rotation centre and the pelvis and, as the cup orientation around the rotation centre. The first parameter affects hip balance and, if not managed properly, might result in poor function and leg length discrepancy. The second parameter is often "silent", unless impingement or dislocation occurs. However, inappropriate cup orientation can accelerate wear and cause early failure. As such, it is mandatory to get both right, taking into account multiple parameters: the stem position, the approach, the bearing surface, the cup coverage and the pelvic orientation during loading. In most cases a "standard" cup position is adequate. However, specific anatomic features might require an individualized approach. This paper aims at reviewing the parameters that impact on the optimal cup position. This should allow for more judicious choices in those particular cases. PMID:26280607

  15. Current concepts in total femoral replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo BP; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20th century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing literature is mainly composed of a rather heterogeneous mix of retrospective case series and a wide assortment of case reports. Numerous TFR prostheses are currently available and the surgeon must understand the unique implications of each implant design. Long-term functional outcomes are dependent on adherence to proper technique and an appropriate physical therapy program for postoperative rehabilitation. Revision TFR is mainly performed for periprosthetic infection and the severe femoral bone loss associated with aseptic revisions. Depending on the likelihood of attaining infection clearance, it may sometimes be advisable to proceed directly to hip disarticulation without attempting salvage of the TFR. Other reported complications of TFR include hip joint instability, limb length discrepancy, device failure, component loosening, patellar maltracking and delayed wound healing. Further research is needed to better characterize the long-term functional outcomes and complications associated with this complex procedure. PMID:26716087

  16. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices. PMID:25528687

  17. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  18. Robot-assisted total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffery J; Elmallah, Randa K; Pierce, Todd P; Jauregui, Julio J; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate biomechanical reconstruction during total hip arthroplasty (THA) is essential for durable long-term survivorship. Accurate fit of cementless hip implants is also crucial to reduce micromotion between the bone-implant interfaces to allow for stable osseointegration. Robotic technology aims to minimize potential human errors and improve implant alignment and fit, and address persisting concerns with modern-day cementless THA. Although robotic THA dates back to the early 1990s, concerns with increased operating times, costs, and complications led to its withdrawal. However, semi-active systems have renewed interest in robot-assisted joint arthroplasty. We reviewed the current technology, its potential benefits, and the reported clinical and radiographic outcomes. Early evidence suggests that robotic use may lead to more accurate reconstruction of radiographic parameters, such as implant positioning, fit, center-of-rotation, and leg-length discrepancy. Further research is needed to determine if these will translate into better outcomes and improved implant longevity to justify increased costs. PMID:26592900

  19. Total respiratory impedance and early emphysema.

    PubMed

    Govaerts, E; Demedts, M; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1993-09-01

    It can be postulated that patients in early stages of pulmonary emphysema have normal values of total respiratory resistance and reactance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema, detected functionally by a decrease of the single breath diffusing capacity (DLCO) by at least 25% of predicted, and an increase of the static lung compliance (CLst) by at least 50% of predicted, can be accompanied by normal values of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), measured between 2 and 24 Hz by the forced oscillation technique. In a prospective study, we determined CLst in 26 patients, who had been selected on the basis of normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a DLCO of less than 75% of predicted. In 17 of these patients, CLst was more than 150% of predicted. Since there were only minor abnormalities on routine lung function tests and chest X-ray, it is likely that these patients presented early emphysema. In the nine other patients, CLst was within normal limits: four suffered from interstitial lung disease; the remaining five were probably in a preliminary stage of early emphysema. In conclusion, early emphysema should systematically be considered as the first diagnosis in patients with normal values of Rrs and Xrs, and a decrease of DLCO. Onset of interstitial lung disease is a possible alternative. PMID:8224134

  20. Uncemented total shoulder arthroplasty. A review.

    PubMed

    Cofield, R H

    1994-10-01

    Clinicians have had much experience with uncemented humeral components. A press-fitted humeral component will usually remain stable in the absence of a glenoid component. From the information available, surgeons should not continue to use press-fitted humeral components for total shoulder arthroplasty. Tissue ingrowth humeral components offer promise; however, the reports to date have short or intermediate length followup, and radiographic results do not equal those of cemented components. Early clinical results with tissue ingrowth glenoid components are excellent; radiographically evident changes occur much less frequently than they do following cement fixation. However, their disadvantage is the possibility of accelerated polyethylene wear and subsequent metal-induced synovitis. As such, there are no clear cut indications for cement fixation versus tissue ingrowth fixation for the glenoid component other than those intuitively based on bone quality and quantity in the glenoid fossa. Accruing experience will help to define the indications better, but given the similarity of clinical outcomes to date, distinction between the options may be difficult. PMID:7924051

  1. Patient Satisfaction after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful and effective surgical options to reduce pain and restore function for patients with severe osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article was to review and summarize the recent literatures regarding patient satisfaction after TKA and to analyze the various factors associated with patient dissatisfaction after TKA. Patient satisfaction is one of the many patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Patient satisfaction can be evaluated from two categories, determinants of satisfaction and components of satisfaction. The former have been described as all of the patient-related factors including age, gender, personality, patient expectations, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, patient's diagnosis leading to TKA and severity of arthropathy. The latter are all of the processes and technical aspects of TKA, ranging from the anesthetic and surgical factors, type of implants and postoperative rehabilitations. The surgeon- and patient-reported outcomes have been shown to be disparate occasionally. Among various factors that contribute to patient satisfaction, some factors can be managed by the surgeon, which should be improved through continuous research. Furthermore, extensive discussion and explanation before surgery will reduce patient dissatisfaction after TKA. PMID:26955608

  2. Patellar malalignment treatment in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giorgio; Familiari, Filippo; Ranuccio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Summary The patella, with or without resurfacing, plays a fundamental role in the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patellofemoral joint complications are due to problems related to the patient, to the surgical technique, or to the design of the components. Patellar tracking is influenced by several factors: a severe preoperative valgus, the presence of pre-existing patellofemoral dysplasia, the design of the femoral component, the surgical approach, the Q angle, the mechanical alignment of the limb, the tightness of the lateral retinaculum, the positioning of the patellar component in the proximal-distal and medial-lateral directions, the patella height, the patella (native or resurfaced) thickness, the size of the femoral and the tibial components, and the alignment and rotation of the components. Several factors are crucial to prevent patellar maltracking in TKA: the use of an anatomical femoral component, a meticulous surgical technique, careful dynamic intraoperative assessment of patellar tracking, and, if necessary, the achievement of an adequate lateral release. PMID:25606506

  3. Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S

    2016-04-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from many chemists and biologists owing to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters. Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogues has relied on isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies, owing to its complexity and unusual placement of oxygen atoms. Purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive, and biological synthesis has not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently, the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes, germacrenes, taxanes and ingenanes have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis in which powerful C-C bond constructions and C-H bond oxidations go hand in hand. Here we implement a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy to achieve enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this synthesis route is not to displace isolation or semisynthesis as a means of generating the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogues containing unique placements of oxygen atoms that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  4. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged.

  5. [Total trapezometacarpal prostheses: concepts and classification study].

    PubMed

    Comtet, J J; Rumelhart, C

    2001-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to classify the different types of trapezio-metacarpal total prostheses according to their bio-mechanical principle and to compare the bio-mechanics of these prostheses to that of the normal trapeziometacarpal joint. The trapeziometacarpal joint has two approximate centres of rotation (one in the proximal metacarpal, one in the trapezium), two degrees of freedom and two arc of mobility about 70 degrees. The mechanical model of the trapeziometacarpal joint is a universal-joint called "cardan" with three constraint forces (one axial compression force, and two shear forces, radial and posterior) and one constraint moment around the longitudinal axis. The trapeziometacarpal prostheses may be classified in two main categories: the most frequently used are the "ball and socket" prostheses. Several prostheses, including the surface replacement prostheses have the mechanical characteristics of an universal joint (cardan). Ball and socket prostheses have one centre of rotation, 3 degrees of freedom, three constraint forces in three directions and no constraint moment when "cardan" or surface prostheses have two centres of rotation and 2 degrees of freedom; three constraint forces and one constraint moment. Trapeziometacarpal prostheses may also be classified according to their arc of mobility, or according to their mode of primary fixation (cemented, non-cemented), "press-fit", expansion and to their secondary fixation (hydroxyapatite). PMID:11291318

  6. Acetabular Reconstruction in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shon, Won Yong; Santhanam, Siva Swaminathan; Choi, Jung Woo

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties encountered in dealing with the bone deficient acetabulum are amongst the greatest challenges in hip surgery. Acetabular reconstruction in revision total hip arthroplasty can successfully be achieved with hemispherical components featuring a porous or roughened ingrowth surface and options for placement of multiple screws for minor acetabular defect. Acetabular component selection is mostly based on the amount of bone loss present. In the presence of combined cavitary and segmental defects without superior acetabular coverage, reconstructions with a structural acetabular allograft protected by a cage or a custom-made triflange cage have been one of preferred surgical options. The use of a cage or ring over structural allograft bone for massive uncontained defects in acetabular revision can restore host bone stock and facilitate subsequent rerevision surgery to a certain extent. But high complication rates have been reported including aseptic loosening, infection, dislocation and metal failure. On the other hand, recent literature is reporting satisfactory outcomes with the use of modular augments combined with a hemispherical shell for major acetabular defect. Highly porous metals have been introduced for clinical use in arthroplasty surgery over the last decade. Their higher porosity and surface friction are ideal for acetabular revision, optimizing biological fixation. The use of trabecular metal cups in acetabular revision has yielded excellent clinical results. This article summarizes author's experience regarding revision acetabular reconstruction options following failed hip surgery including arthroplasty. PMID:27536638

  7. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  8. Total ankle replacement for posttraumatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Weme, Rebecca A Nieuwe; van Solinge, Guido; N Doornberg, Job; Sierevelt, Inger; Haverkamp, Daniël; Doets, H Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Most studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) have used a case mix of patients. We evaluated the outcome of TAR performed for end-stage arthritis either because of fracture or ligamentous injury. Patients and methods We prospectively followed 88 consecutive patients (50 postfracture ankles and 40 ankles with instability arthritis (2 bilateral)) who underwent TAR between 2001 and 2009. Mean follow-up for both groups was 5 years. Results Preoperative varus deformity of 10° or more was present in 23 ankles in the instability group. At 6 years, survival with revision or salvage fusion as an endpoint was 87% (95% CI: 74–99) in the postfracture group and 79% (95% CI: 63–94) in the instability group. Progressive periprosthetic osteolysis was seen in 23 ankles, and required salvage fusion in 6. The number of reoperations was similar in both groups. Clinical outcome, as assessed with 2 ankle scores and 2 questionnaires, showed good results and was similar at the latest follow-up. Interpretation The outcome was similar in the postfracture and instability groups and also similar to that reported in series including a case mix of patients. In contrast to earlier reports, preoperative frontal plane deformity in this series was not identified as a risk factor for failure. PMID:25772269

  9. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  10. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using /sup 15/N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats.

  11. Mortality after total hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berstock, J. R.; Beswick, A. D.; Lenguerrand, E.; Whitehouse, M. R.; Blom, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Total hip replacement causes a short-term increase in the risk of mortality. It is important to quantify this and to identify modifiable risk factors so that the risk of post-operative mortality can be minimised. We performed a systematic review and critical evaluation of the current literature on the topic. We identified 32 studies published over the last 10 years which provide either 30-day or 90-day mortality data. We estimate the pooled incidence of mortality during the first 30 and 90 days following hip replacement to be 0.30% (95% CI 0.22 to 0.38) and 0.65% (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), respectively. We found strong evidence of a temporal trend towards reducing mortality rates despite increasingly co-morbid patients. The risk factors for early mortality most commonly identified are increasing age, male gender and co-morbid conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular complications appear to have overtaken fatal pulmonary emboli as the leading cause of death after hip replacement. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:175–82. PMID:24894596

  12. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies. PMID:26055025

  13. The Difficult Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Malkani, Arthur L; Hitt, Kirby D; Badarudeen, Sameer; Lewis, Courtland; Cherian, Jeffrey; Elmallah, Randa; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for the treatment of knee arthritis has substantially increased over the past decade. Because of its success, the indications for primary TKA have expanded to include younger patients who are more active, elderly patients who have multiple comorbidities, and patients who have more complex issues, such as posttraumatic arthritis and severe deformity. TKA also has been used to salvage failed unicondylar arthroplasty and osteotomies about the knee. Exposure may be challenging and outcomes may not be as successful in patients with soft-tissue contractures, such as a stiff knee, who undergo TKA. Bone graft or augments may be required to correct deformity and attain proper knee alignment in patients who have a substantial varus or valgus deformity. TKA is somewhat challenging in patients who have deformity, bone loss, contracture, or multiple comorbidities, or have had prior surgery; therefore, it is necessary for surgeons to be aware of some general principles that may help minimize complications and improve outcomes. PMID:27049194

  14. Durability of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dion, Neil T; Bragdon, Charles; Muratoglu, Orhun; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the history of the development of highly cross-linked polyethylene and provides an in-depth review of the clinical results regarding the durability of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The use of polyethylene as a bearing surface has contributed to the success of THA and TKA; however, polyethylene wear and osteolysis can lead to failure. Ongoing clinical and retrieval studies are required to analyze outcomes at longer-term follow-up. PMID:26043046

  15. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  16. 20 CFR 410.412 - “Total disability” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.412 “Total disability” defined. (a) A miner shall be considered totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis if:...

  17. 20 CFR 410.412 - “Total disability” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.412 “Total disability” defined. (a) A miner shall be considered totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis if:...

  18. Implantation of the syncardia total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Tang, Daniel G; Shah, Keyur B; Hess, Micheal L; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2014-01-01

    With advances in technology, the use of mechanical circulatory support devices for end stage heart failure has rapidly increased. The vast majority of such patients are generally well served by left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). However, a subset of patients with late stage biventricular failure or other significant anatomic lesions are not adequately treated by isolated left ventricular mechanical support. Examples of concomitant cardiac pathology that may be better treated by resection and TAH replacement includes: post infarction ventricular septal defect, aortic root aneurysm / dissection, cardiac allograft failure, massive ventricular thrombus, refractory malignant arrhythmias (independent of filling pressures), hypertrophic / restrictive cardiomyopathy, and complex congenital heart disease. Patients often present with cardiogenic shock and multi system organ dysfunction. Excision of both ventricles and orthotopic replacement with a total artificial heart (TAH) is an effective, albeit extreme, therapy for rapid restoration of blood flow and resuscitation. Perioperative management is focused on end organ resuscitation and physical rehabilitation. In addition to the usual concerns of infection, bleeding, and thromboembolism common to all mechanically supported patients, TAH patients face unique risks with regard to renal failure and anemia. Supplementation of the abrupt decrease in brain natriuretic peptide following ventriculectomy appears to have protective renal effects. Anemia following TAH implantation can be profound and persistent. Nonetheless, the anemia is generally well tolerated and transfusion are limited to avoid HLA sensitization. Until recently, TAH patients were confined as inpatients tethered to a 500 lb pneumatic console driver. Recent introduction of a backpack sized portable driver (currently under clinical trial) has enabled patients to be discharged home and even return to work. Despite the profound presentation of these sick

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  20. Countrywise results of total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose An earlier Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) report on 280,201 total hip replacements (THRs) based on data from 1995–2006, from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, was published in 2009. The present study assessed THR survival according to country, based on the NARA database with the Finnish data included. Material and methods 438,733 THRs performed during the period 1995–2011 in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate survival probabilities with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cox multiple regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and diagnosis, was used to analyze implant survival with revision for any reason as endpoint. Results The 15-year survival, with any revision as an endpoint, for all THRs was 86% (CI: 85.7–86.9) in Denmark, 88% (CI: 87.6–88.3) in Sweden, 87% (CI: 86.4–87.4) in Norway, and 84% (CI: 82.9–84.1) in Finland. Revision risk for all THRs was less in Sweden than in the 3 other countries during the first 5 years. However, revision risk for uncemented THR was less in Denmark than in Sweden during the sixth (HR = 0.53, CI: 0.34–0.82), seventh (HR = 0.60, CI: 0.37–0.97), and ninth (HR = 0.59, CI: 0.36–0.98) year of follow-up. Interpretation The differences in THR survival rates were considerable, with inferior results in Finland. Brand-level comparison of THRs in Nordic countries will be required. PMID:24650019

  1. Patient injuries in primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Helkamaa, Teemu; Hirvensalo, Eero; Huhtala, Heini; Remes, Ville

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Although the results of primary total hip replacements (THRs) are generally excellent, sometimes serious complications arise. Some of these severe complications are considered to be patient injuries. We analyzed primary THR-related patient injuries in a nationwide setting. Patients and methods - We evaluated all the primary THR-related patient injury claims in Finland between 2008 and 2010. We used the original medical records and 2 nationwide registries, the Care Register for Social Welfare and Health Care and the Patient Injury Claim Register. Results - We identified 563 claims, 44% of which were compensated (n = 250). Of these 250 compensated claims, 79% were considered to be avoidable (treatment injuries) and 21% were severe unexpected infections (with a preoperative infection risk of less than 2%). The most common type of technical error was cup malposition (31%). High-volume hospitals (with an annual primary THR volume ≥ 400) had a lower patient injury rate. In lower-volume hospitals (with an annual primary THR volume of < 400), the relative risks (RRs) of patient injury for any reason, due to technical errors, or because of cup malposition were 2-fold (95% CI: 1.6-3.1), 4-fold (95% CI: 2.3-6.2), and 9-fold (95% CI: 3-28), respectively, compared to high-volume hospitals. Interpretation - Our study provides the first comprehensive nationwide data on THR-related patient injury types. Hospital volume was associated with the quality and quantity of errors detected. An annual hospital volume of ≥ 400 primary THRs was established as a protective factor against patient injuries. PMID:26808350

  2. Backside wear in modern total knee designs.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Furman, Bridgette D; Cottrell, Jocelyn M; Wright, Timothy M

    2007-02-01

    Although modularity affords various options to the orthopedic surgeon, these benefits come at a price. The unintended bearing surface between the back surface of the tibial insert and the metallic tray results in micromotion leading to polyethylene wear debris. The objective of this study was to examine the backside wear of tibial inserts from three modern total knee designs with very different locking mechanisms: Insall-Burstein II (IB II), Optetrak, and Advance. A random sample of 71 inserts were obtained from our institution's retrieval collection and examined to assess the extent of wear, depth of wear, and wear damage modes. Patient records were also obtained to determine patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and reason for revision. Modes of wear damage (abrasion, burnishing, scratching, delamination, third body debris, surface deformation, and pitting) were then scored in each zone from 0 to 3 (0 = 0%, 1 = 0-10%, 2 = 10-50%, and 3 = >50%). The depth of wear was subjectively identified as removal of manufacturing identification markings stamped onto the inferior surface of the polyethylene. Both Advance and IB II polyethylene inserts showed significantly higher scores for backside wear than the Optetrak inserts. All IB II and Advance implants showed evidence of backside wear, whereas 17% (5 out of 30) of the retrieved Optetrak implants had no observable wear. There were no significant differences when comparing the depth of wear score between designs. The locking mechanism greatly affects the propensity for wear and should be considered when choosing a knee implant system. PMID:18751767

  3. Infection after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie; Hartman, Zach; Noshchenko, Andriy; Cruse, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    The number of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed in the United States each year continues to climb, as does the incidence of infectious complications. The changing profile of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has made preventing and treating primary THA infections increasingly complex. The goal of this review was to summarize (1) the published data concerning the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after primary THA by type of bacteria and (2) the effect of potentially modifying factors. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed were searched. Studies dated between 2001 and 2011 examining primary THA in adults were included. Meta-analysis of the collected data was performed. The pooled SSI rate was 2.5% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.4%-4.4%; P<.001; n=28,883). The pooled deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI) rate was 0.9% (95% Cl, 0.4%-2.2%; P<.001; n=28,883). The pooled rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSI was 0.5% (95% Cl, 0.2%-1.5%; P<.001; n=26,703). This is approximately 20% of all SSI cases. The pooled rate of intraoperative bacterial wound contamination was 16.9% (95% Cl, 6.6%-36.8%; P=.003; n=2180). All these results had significant heterogeneity. The postoperative risk of SSI was significantly associated with intraoperative bacterial surgical wound contamination (pooled rate ratio, 2.5; 95% Cl, 1.4%-4.6%; P=.001; n=19,049). PMID:24762833

  4. Minnows can acclimate to total residual chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    Observations in a chlorine-contaminated stream in eastern Tennessee revealed several species of fish in areas where total residual chlorine (TRC) concentrations were often great enough to be lethal, based on the results of other studies. The authors used in situ and laboratory experiments to test the hypothesis that minnows could acclimate to TRC. Acclimation was assessed by time-to-death for fish exposed to a single lethal regime of TRC. In in situ experiments, striped shiner and central stoneroller minnows collected from East Fork Poplar Creek at a TRC-contaminated site and a site farther downstream, where TRC was below detection, were caged at sites in the stream where TRC concentrations were either nil or great enough to be lethal. At the cage with high TRC, minnows collected from the ``TRC-free`` site survived two to four times longer (15.8 h vs. 6.1 h) than the same species from the ``TRC-free`` site. In laboratory experiments, golden shiner minnows were exposed to TRC in a stepwise increasing concentration regime (0.04 mg/L during week 1, 0.08 mg/L during week 2, and 0.12 mg/L during week 3) before being challenged-tested with a lethal concentration of TRC. Minnows that had been previously exposed to TRC survived longer than controls in each test, and the magnitude of the mean time to death increased as the TRC concentration and duration of exposure increased (1.2-, 2.5-, and 3.9-fold increases for weeks 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Another experiment with golden shiner minnows showed that a 21-d exposure to TRC at a low concentration (0.04 mg/L) only slightly increased their tolerance to TRC. Thus, several minnow species apparently can acclimate, fairly rapidly, to TRC. This study may help explain why fish kills are less common than expected in TRC-contaminated streams.

  5. Heterotopic ossification following lumbar total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Jun; Kang, Kyung-Jung; Shin, Seong-Kee; Chung, Sung-Soo; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2011-08-01

    The main goal of total disc replacement (TDR) is to preserve motion. Despite reports of good clinical outcomes, various degrees of heterotopic ossification after TDR have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and its clinical relevance of heterotopic ossification. We evaluated 65 consecutive patients (82 segments) with mean follow-up duration of 45 months (range, 12-88 months). Two kinds of prosthesis, ProDisc® for 75 segments (91.5%) and CHARITE™ for seven segments (8.5%), were used. Patients with heterotopic ossification were compared with those without heterotopic ossification with regard to segmental flexion-extension ROM, VAS and ODI. We analysed the occurrence site by nine zones. Heterotopic ossification was detected in 25 out of 82 segments (30.5%) at a mean follow-up of 17 months. According to McAfee's classification, there was Class-I heterotopic ossification in eight segments (9.8%), Class-II in 12 segments (14.6%), and Class-III in five segments (6.1%). There was no Class-IV heterotopic ossification. There were no significant differences in the segmental ROM, VAS and ODI between the patients with Class-I or Class-II heterotopic ossification and those without heterotopic ossification The segmental ROM in the patients with Class-III heterotopic ossification was significantly decreased compared with the patients without heterotopic ossification (p = 0.018). But VAS and ODI were not significantly different compared with those of patients with no heterotopic ossification. Most heterotopic ossification (82.5%) was detected in the anterior and posterior aspects. In conclusion, most of the heterotopic ossification (Classes I and II) did not affect segmental ROM and clinical outcomes such as pain or function. In Class-III heterotopic ossification segmental ROM was decreased, but it did not affect clinical outcomes. PMID:20652248

  6. Future Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements

  7. Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements

  8. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Daniel Godoy; Iserson, Kenneth V.; Jauregui, José; Musso, Carlos; Piccaluga, Francisco; Buttaro, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to determine the dislocation and reoperation rate, functional outcomes, and the survival rate of the unique subset of very old but lucid and independent patients with hip fractures following a total hip arthroplasty (THA) and geriatric team-coordinated perioperative care. Method: Between 2000 and 2006, previously independent ambulatory patients ≥80 years old presenting with an intracapsular hip fracture were given THAs under the care of an integrated orthopedic surgery–geriatric service. Their fracture-related complications, ambulation, mental status, and survival were followed for 5 to 11 years postinjury. Results: Five years postinjury, 57 (61.3%) patients of the original study group were living. In all, 3 (3.2%) patients had postoperative hip dislocations (and 2 patients had dislocation twice) and 2 reoperations were needed within the first postoperative month. There were no hip dislocations or reoperations after the first year. Radiographs obtained on 88% of the surviving patients at 5 years postoperatively showed that all remained unchanged from their immediate postoperative images. Nearly half of the patients were still able to ambulate as they did preoperatively and their mixed-model equation was statistically unchanged. Conclusion: This study of patients >80 years old with previously good functional status demonstrates that with appropriate surgical (best prosthesis, good operating technique, and regional anesthesia) and geriatric (pre- and postoperative assessments, close follow-up, medication adjustments, and fall-prevention instruction) care, they have few hip dislocations and reoperations, survive postfracture at least as long as their noninjured contemporaries, and continue to function and ambulate as they did prior to their injury. PMID:24660092

  9. [Total parenteral nutrition. History. Present time. Future].

    PubMed

    Wretlind, A; Szczygieł, B

    1998-04-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been available for only 30 years. However, history in this field goes back more than 350 years with the first landmark being the description of general blood circulation by William Harvey in 1628. His discovery is the anatomical basis for intravenous infusions. Many investigations were performed during the following centuries showing that solutions containing electrolytes and glucose could be given intravenously in man. The accumulated knowledge of protein metabolism formed the basis for studies on intravenous nutrition with protein hydrolysates, peptides and amino acids. The observation in the late 30-s by Robert Elman that amino acids in the form of protein hydrolysate could be safely administered intravenously in man was the first major step toward TPN. During the following years, major efforts were made to find methods to prepare infusion solutions with a high energy content and low osmotic pressure. The most realistic alternative seemed to be fat in the form of an emulsion. Many studies of a large number of various fat emulsions were made however, all of these emulsions caused severe adverse reactions in man. The first safe fat emulsion, intralipid, was made available in the early 60s. This was the second major step toward TPN. It was then no problem to include vitamins, electrolytes and trace elements in the fat emulsions and the solutions of amino acids and glucose. A few years later it was shown that a central venous catheter could be used to administer the infusion fluid intravenously. Many clinical investigations and reports have shown that the newly developed intravenous nutritional regimens are adequate alternatives to the ordinary diet. In this way it has been possible to maintain or obtain a good nutritional condition in most situations when oral or tube feeding can not be used. TPN has been shown to be of very great clinical importance to prevent and treat starvation often related to high morbidity and mortality

  10. Implantation of the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Daniel G.; Shah, Keyur B.; Hess, Micheal L.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2014-01-01

    With advances in technology, the use of mechanical circulatory support devices for end stage heart failure has rapidly increased. The vast majority of such patients are generally well served by left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). However, a subset of patients with late stage biventricular failure or other significant anatomic lesions are not adequately treated by isolated left ventricular mechanical support. Examples of concomitant cardiac pathology that may be better treated by resection and TAH replacement includes: post infarction ventricular septal defect, aortic root aneurysm / dissection, cardiac allograft failure, massive ventricular thrombus, refractory malignant arrhythmias (independent of filling pressures), hypertrophic / restrictive cardiomyopathy, and complex congenital heart disease. Patients often present with cardiogenic shock and multi system organ dysfunction. Excision of both ventricles and orthotopic replacement with a total artificial heart (TAH) is an effective, albeit extreme, therapy for rapid restoration of blood flow and resuscitation. Perioperative management is focused on end organ resuscitation and physical rehabilitation. In addition to the usual concerns of infection, bleeding, and thromboembolism common to all mechanically supported patients, TAH patients face unique risks with regard to renal failure and anemia. Supplementation of the abrupt decrease in brain natriuretic peptide following ventriculectomy appears to have protective renal effects. Anemia following TAH implantation can be profound and persistent. Nonetheless, the anemia is generally well tolerated and transfusion are limited to avoid HLA sensitization. Until recently, TAH patients were confined as inpatients tethered to a 500 lb pneumatic console driver. Recent introduction of a backpack sized portable driver (currently under clinical trial) has enabled patients to be discharged home and even return to work. Despite the profound presentation of these sick

  11. Patient injuries in primary total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Helkamaa, Teemu; Hirvensalo, Eero; Huhtala, Heini; Remes, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Although the results of primary total hip replacements (THRs) are generally excellent, sometimes serious complications arise. Some of these severe complications are considered to be patient injuries. We analyzed primary THR-related patient injuries in a nationwide setting. Patients and methods We evaluated all the primary THR-related patient injury claims in Finland between 2008 and 2010. We used the original medical records and 2 nationwide registries, the Care Register for Social Welfare and Health Care and the Patient Injury Claim Register. Results We identified 563 claims, 44% of which were compensated (n = 250). Of these 250 compensated claims, 79% were considered to be avoidable (treatment injuries) and 21% were severe unexpected infections (with a preoperative infection risk of less than 2%). The most common type of technical error was cup malposition (31%). High-volume hospitals (with an annual primary THR volume ≥ 400) had a lower patient injury rate. In lower-volume hospitals (with an annual primary THR volume of < 400), the relative risks (RRs) of patient injury for any reason, due to technical errors, or because of cup malposition were 2-fold (95% CI: 1.6–3.1), 4-fold (95% CI: 2.3–6.2), and 9-fold (95% CI: 3–28), respectively, compared to high-volume hospitals. Interpretation Our study provides the first comprehensive nationwide data on THR-related patient injury types. Hospital volume was associated with the quality and quantity of errors detected. An annual hospital volume of ≥ 400 primary THRs was established as a protective factor against patient injuries. PMID:26808350

  12. Pain Characteristics after Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Bum; Kang, Kyeongjin; Song, Mi Kyung; Seok, Suhyun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ji Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) causes various types of postoperative pain, and the pain pattern has not been evaluated in detail to date. This prospective observational study investigated the types of postoperative pain, intensity in the course of time, and pain characteristics during the first postoperative 72 hr after TLH. Methods. Sixty four female patients undergoing TLH were enrolled, which finally 50 patients were included for the data analyses. The locations of pain included overall pain, abdominal visceral and incisional pains, shoulder pain, and perineal pain. Assessments were made at rest and in motion, and pain level was scored with the use of the 100 mm visual analog scale. The pain was assessed at baseline, and at postoperative 30 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 24 hr, 48 hr, and 72 hr. Results. Overall, visceral, and incisional pains were most intense on the day of operation and then decreased following surgery. In contrast, shoulder pain gradually increased, peaking at postoperative 24 hr. Shoulder pain developed in 90% of all patients (44/50). It was not more aggravated in motion than at rest, in comparison with other pains, and right shoulder pain was more severe than left shoulder pain (p=0.006). In addition, the preoperative exercise habit of patients increased the threshold of shoulder pain. Most patients (46/50) had perineal pain, which was more severe than abdominal pain in approximately 30% of patients (17/50). Conclusion. Pain after TLH showed considerably different duration, severity, and characteristics, compared with other laparoscopic procedures. Shoulder pain was most intense at postoperative 24 hr, and the intensity was associated with the prior exercise habit of patients and the high level of analgesic request. PMID:27499688

  13. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  14. First Total Synthesis of Gliomasolide C and Formal Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    PubMed

    Seetharamsingh, B; Khairnar, Pankaj V; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Syntheses of two 14-membered macrolides Sch-725674 and Gliomasolide C are described here. The first total synthesis of Gliomasolide C, the short synthesis of Sch-725674, and regioselective Wacker oxidation of internal olefin are the highlights of this disclosure. In addition, a key macrocycle with orthogonal functionalities was designed and synthesized on a gram scale for the generation of analogues. PMID:26633579

  15. Solar total irradiance in cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Schmutz, W.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The most recent minimum of solar activity was deeper and longer than the previous two minima as indicated by different proxies of solar activity. This is also true for the total solar irradiance (TSI) according to the PMOD composite. Aims: The apparently unusual behaviour of the TSI has been interpreted as evidence against solar surface magnetism as the main driver of the secular change in the TSI. We test claims that the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field does not reproduce the observed TSI in cycle 23. Methods: We use sensitive, 60-min averaged MDI magnetograms and quasi-simultaneous continuum images as an input to our SATIRE-S model and calculate the TSI variation over cycle 23, sampled roughly every two weeks. The computed TSI is then compared with the PMOD composite of TSI measurements and with the data from two individual instruments, SORCE/TIM and UARS/ACRIM II, that monitored the TSI during the declining phase of cycle 23 and over the previous minimum in 1996, respectively. Results: Excellent agreement is found between the trends shown by the model and almost all sets of measurements. The only exception is the early, i.e. 1996 to 1998, PMOD data. Whereas the agreement between the model and the PMOD composite over the period 1999-2009 is almost perfect, the modelled TSI shows a steeper increase between 1996 and 1999 than implied by the PMOD composite. On the other hand, the steeper trend in the model agrees remarkably well with the ACRIM II data. A closer look at the VIRGO data, which are the basis of the PMOD composite after 1996, reveals that only one of the two VIRGO instruments, the PMO6V, shows the shallower trend present in the composite, whereas the DIARAD measurements indicate a steeper trend. Conclusions: Based on these results, we conclude that (1) the sensitivity changes of the PMO6V radiometers within VIRGO during the first two years have very likely not been correctly evaluated; and that (2) the TSI variations over cycle 23

  16. Total radical yields from tropospheric ethene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammed S; Camredon, Marie; Rickard, Andrew R; Carr, Timo; Wyche, Kevin P; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

    2011-06-21

    The gas-phase reactions of ozone with alkenes can be significant sources of free radicals (OH, HO(2) and RO(2)) in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study the total radical production and degradation products from ethene ozonolysis have been measured, under conditions relevant to the troposphere, during a series of detailed simulation chamber experiments. Experiments were carried out in the European photoreactor EUPHORE (Valencia, Spain), utilising various instrumentation including a chemical-ionisation-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) measuring volatile organic compounds/oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs/OVOCs), a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system for measuring HO(2) radical products and a peroxy radical chemical amplification (PERCA) instrument measuring HO(2) + ΣRO(2). The ethene + ozone reaction system was investigated with and without an OH radical scavenger, in order to suppress side reactions. Radical concentrations were measured under dry and humid conditions and interpreted through detailed chemical chamber box modelling, incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1) degradation scheme for ethene, which was updated to include a more explicit representation of the ethene-ozone reaction mechanism.The rate coefficient for the ethene + ozone reaction was measured to be (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, and a stabilised Criegee intermediate yield of 0.54 ± 0.12 was determined from excess CO scavenger experiments. An OH radical yield of 0.17 ± 0.09 was determined using a cyclohexane scavenger approach, by monitoring the formation of the OH-initiated cyclohexane oxidation products and HO(2). The results highlight the importance of knowing the [HO(2)] (particularly under alkene limited conditions and high [O(3)]) and scavenger chemistry when deriving radical yields. An averaged HO(2) yield of 0.27 ± 0.07 was determined by LIF/model fitting. The observed yields are interpreted in terms of

  17. Computer-Navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty Utilization.

    PubMed

    Bala, Abiram; Penrose, Colin Thomas; Seyler, Thorsten Markus; Mather, Richard Chad; Wellman, Samuel Secord; Bolognesi, Michael Paul

    2016-07-01

    Computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (CN-TKA) has been used to improve component alignment, though the evidence is currently mixed on whether there are clinically significant differences in long-term outcomes. Given the established increased costs and operative time, we hypothesized that the utilization rate of CN-TKA would be decreasing relative to standard TKA in the Medicare population given the current health care economic environment. We queried 1,914,514 primary TKAs performed in the entire Medicare database from 2005 to 2012. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify and separate CN-TKAs. Utilization of TKA was compared by year, gender, and region. Average change in cases per year and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) were used to evaluate trends in utilization of the procedure. We identified 30,773 CN-TKAs performed over this time period. There was an increase in utilization of CN-TKA per year from 984 to 5,352 (average = 572/year, R (2) = 0.85, CAGR = 23.58%) from 2005 to 2012. In contrast, there was a slight decrease in overall TKA utilization from 264,345 to 230,654 (average = 4297/year, R (2) = 0.74, CAGR = - 1.69%). When comparing proportion of CN-TKA to all TKAs, there was an increase from 0.37 to 2.32% (average 0.26%/year, R (2) = 0.88, CAGR = 25.70%). CN-TKA growth in males and females was comparable at 24.42 and 23.11%, respectively. The South region had the highest growth rate at 28.76%, whereas the Midwest had the lowest growth rate at 15.51%. The Midwest was the only region that peaked (2008) with a slow decline in utilization until 2012. Despite increased costs with unclear clinical benefit, CN-TKA is increasing in utilization among Medicare patients. Reasons could include patient preference, advertising, proper of coding the procedure, and increased publicly available information about

  18. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-05-15

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 January through 31 March of 2006. (1) Work in Progress: Minntac Mine--Graphical analysis of drill monitor data moved from two-dimensional horizontal patterns to vertical variations in measured and calculated parameters. The rock quality index and the two dimensionless ({pi}) indices developed by Kewen Yin of the University of Minnesota are used by Minntac Mine to design their blasts, but the drill monitor data from any given pattern is obviously not available for the design of that shot. Therefore, the blast results--which are difficult to quantify in a short time--must be back-analyzed for comparison with the drill monitor data to be useful for subsequent blast designs. {pi}{sub 1} indicates the performance of the drill, while {pi}{sub 2} is a measure of the rock resistance to drilling. As would be expected, since a drill tends to perform better in rock that offers little resistance, {pi}{sub 1} and {pi}{sub 2} are strongly inversely correlated; the relationship is a power function rather than simply linear. Low values of each Pi index tend to be quantized, indicating that these two parameters may be most useful above certain minimum magnitudes. (2) Work in Progress: Hibtac Mine--Statistical examination of a data set from Hibtac Mine (Table 1) shows that incorporating information on the size distribution of material feeding from the crusher to the autogenous mills improves the predictive capability of the model somewhat (43% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), but a more important component is production data from preceding days (26% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), determined using exponentially weighted moving average predictive variables. This lag effect likely reflects the long and varied residence times of the different size fragments in the grinding mills. The rock sizes are also correlated with the geologic

  19. The satellite total solar irradiance database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    A precise knowledge of the total solar irradiance (TSI) over time is essential to understanding the physics of solar luminosity variation and its impact on the Earth in the form of climate change. A National Research Council study found that sustained trends as small as 0.25% per century were the most likely forcing for ‘little ice age’ climate minima during the 12th - 19th centuries. Recent phenomenological analyses of TSI observations and proxies indicate that TSI variation is an important climate change forcing on many timescales including the industrial era. The profound sociological and economic implications of understanding the relative climate change contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcings makes it essential that the satellite TSI database be precisely sustained into the foreseeable future. There are currently three satellite TSI monitoring experiments in operation: SOHO/VIRGO, ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 and SORCE/TIM, in order of deployment (1996, 2000 and 2003, resp.). Results reported on their ‘native scales show the same basic variations in TSI over time, yet some smaller variations detected by ACRIM3 are less well defined or absent in the results of VIRGO and TIM. There is also a scale difference issue: TIM results are 0.35% lower than those of ACRIM3 and VIRGO, outside the ± 0.1% uncertainty bounds predicted for ACRIM3 and VIRGO, and well outside TIM’s ± 0.01% uncertainty design goal. TIM’s failure to achieve 0.01% uncertainty in flight demonstrates that the TSI monitoring paradigm shift of relying on measurement accuracy rather than a redundant/overlap strategy to provide long term traceability cannot be realized with current ‘ambient temperature’ technology. The only viable monitoring approach for the foreseeable future continues to be the redundant/overlap strategy that has provided the 31 year satellite TSI database to date with useful traceability. Intercomparisons of flight experiments at their levels of mutual precision can

  20. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2-60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of -3 to -4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for an early surgical