Science.gov

Sample records for pneumatic capsule pipeline

  1. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  2. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-05-01

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.

  3. Pneumatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    This unit on pneumatics, for use in postsecondary programs, is organized in eight sections. Each section consists of information sheets with line drawings and multiple-choice questions for each topic in the sections. Answers are provided at the back of the book. The following topics are covered: (1) introduction--pressure, principles of gases,…

  4. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  5. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  6. Development of capsules and pigs for inspection of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hosohara, Y.; Seki, A.; Yasui, K.

    1988-01-01

    To inspect external corrosion of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines precisely, the three major gas companies of Japan have jointly developed inspection capsules (very small pigs) and pigs for the first time in the world. The laboratory test has been completed and the field test is now in progress. The inspection techniques developed are the following two methods: 1. Inspection methods for 2- and 3-inch screw-jointed mains: The inspection capsule is inserted through a launcher into a straight pipeline of 30m length on each side (60m total span) in live condition. The remote-field eddy current method and the impressed-current magnetic leakage flux method were adopted. 2. Inspection methods for weld-joint 4-, 8- and 12-inche mains: The pipeline is cut off (down to less than 300m length), and gas is purged by air. The inspection pigs pass through miter bends, short elbows of 1.5 DR and sleeve joints. The magnetic leakage flux method was adopted, while different methods of travel were adopted by the three contractors.

  7. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A mechanized technique to seal abandoned mines has been used successfully to close 13 openings at Duquesne Light Co.'s mined-out Warwick No. 2 mine, near Greensboro, Pa. The mechanized system, which uses a pneumatic stower and crushed limestone, closed the entries more economically and in less time than it would have taken to install traditional concrete block stopping and clay plug seals, according to John C. Draper. Draper, a mining engineer with Duquesne Light's coal department, was in charge of installing the Warwick seals in a Bureau of Mines-sponsored field test on the pneumatic sealing technique. The lowest estimated cost for installing conventional stopping and plug closures for the 13 Warwick openings was $225,000, says Draper, while the openings were closed using the mechanized system for $245,000. Draper says the newer stopping cost more in the instance because work was stopped often to gather information for the experiment. The experimental closures were installed in 38 days. The job would have taken at least 149 days if traditional closures were being installed, Draper say. To install a traditional concrete block/clay plug closure, the mine opening must be cleaned thoroughly and the roof must be supported for some 3 ft from the outside. Then a solid wall or stopping must be built 25 ft from the surface and the entry must be packed with clay to the surface. Much of this job requires workers to remain underground. In pneumatic stowing, 1 1/2-in. crushed limestone with fines is conveyed through a pipeline and into the mine opening under low air pressure. Watertight seals can be installed by blowing about 10 ft of rock into the opening against the top to act as roof support. Safety posts are installed and about 10 or 15 ft of mine entry is cleaned. About 2 in. of raw cement or bentonite is placed on the floor and limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening.

  8. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  9. Pneumatic Valve Operated by Multiplex Pneumatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Yasutaka; Suzumori, Koichi; Kanda, Takefumi; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    A pneumatic system has several advantages, which are cheapness, lightweight, and reliability to human and environment. These advantages are adapted to some research areas, such as industrial lines, medical and nursing cares, and rehabilitation tools. However, the pneumatic system needs several devices; compressor, air tube, and control valve. This research aim to downsize pneumatic system. In this paper, a new method of multiplex pneumatic transmission for multi-pneumatic servo system is proposed. The valve for this system consists of two vibrators supported by springs, which was designed with simple and cheap structure. The working principle of the valve is vibrators resonance from multiplex pneumatic transmission and it is possible to work as ON/OFF valves without electric wire. Dynamic simulation was used to confirm the working principle of the resonance driving system. A prototype device confirming the principle was designed and developed based on the simulation. The experiments show that this new control system works very well to control two separated valves through single pneumatic tube.

  10. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  11. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  12. Field demonstration of two pneumatic backfilling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dyni, R.C.; Burnett, M.; Philbin, D.

    1995-12-31

    This US Bureau of Mines (USBM) report summarizes a field demonstration of pneumatic backfilling technologies conducted at the abandoned Hillside Coal and Iron Slope in Vandling, PA. Researchers demonstrated two pneumatic backfilling technologies recently developed under the USBM`s Abandoned Mine Reclamation Research Program, the Pneumatic Pipefeeder and the High-Efficiency Ejector. Both systems had previously been evaluated at the USBM`s subsidence abatement investigation laboratory near Fairchance, PA. The objective of the demonstration was to fill 100% of the abandoned tunnel with backfill stone to prevent further subsidence. The pneumatic Pipefeeder was used for 21 days, at a rate of 63 to 124 t/d (69 to 136 st/d), to fill 88% of the tunnel. The High-Efficiency Ejector was used for 2 days, at a rate of 125 to 132 T/d (138 to 146 st/d) to fill the remaining 12% of the tunnel. The backfill placed by both systems was tightly compacted. The major problem encountered was wear on the polyethylene pipeline from the abrasion of the high-velocity backfill. The use of heavier steel pipe minimized the problem. A cost analysis for the entire project is given.

  13. Pneumatically erected rigid habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salles, Bradley

    1992-01-01

    The pneumatically erected rigid habitat concept consists of a structure based on an overexpanded metal bellows. The basic concept incorporates the advantages of both inflatable and rigid structures. The design and erection detail are presented with viewgraphs.

  14. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  15. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  16. Pneumatic conveyance apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Matzolf, Athneal D.; Hera, Kevin R.

    2010-05-04

    A pneumatic nozzle capable of removing dry solid debris, liquids, and mixtures of solid and liquid waste is provided. The pneumatic nozzle uses a pressurized gas stream to push materials through the nozzle. The force of a pressurized gas stream provides a partial vacuum to allow material to be introduced into an opening of a nozzle via a slight suction force. Thereafter, individual particles and materials introduced into the pneumatic nozzle are pushed by a stream of pressurized gas through the nozzle.

  17. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  18. The complication of pneumatic retinopexy.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, G F; Tornambe, P E; Brinton, D A; Flood, T P; Green, S; Grizzard, W S; Hammer, M E; Leff, S R; Mascuilli, L; Morgan, C M

    1990-01-01

    There have been 26 published series with a total of 1274 detachments operated with pneumatic retinopexy. Eighty percent were reattached with a single procedure and 98% with reoperations. New breaks occurred in 13% and PVR in 4%. The complications published in 101 papers on pneumatic retinopexy in the last 5 years are analyzed as to frequency, prevention, management, and results. PMID:2095021

  19. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  20. Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Terra, E R; Guedes, F R; Manzi, F R; Bóscolo, F N

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in the pterygoid process and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, observed on a panoramic radiograph. Conventional radiographs and computerized tomography in axial and coronal sections confirmed the presence of the pneumatization of these structures. PMID:16421265

  1. Capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Navas, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a simple, safe, non-invasive, reliable technique, well accepted and tolerated by the patients, which allows complete exploration of the small intestine. The advent of CE in 2000 has dramatically changed the diagnosis and management of many diseases of the small intestine, such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn’s disease, small bowel tumors, polyposis syndromes, etc. CE has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of most diseases of the small bowel. Lately this technique has also been used for esophageal and colonic diseases. PMID:19340899

  2. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  3. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications. PMID:25909001

  4. PNEUMATIC PUMPING TEST FOR SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. etermination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. ressure propaga...

  5. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  6. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  7. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, Karl T.; King, Edward L.; Follstaedt, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

  8. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

  9. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  10. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  11. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  12. Stability of Betaine Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Stéphanie; Forest, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of its stability were required. Capsule formulations of betaine were developed (160 mg and 625 mg of betaine per capsule). As betaine has no chromophore, an HPLC-ELSD analytical method was also developed. The critical quality attributes of these formulations were evaluated (content assay, content uniformity, and dissolution) as well as their stability. Capsules with acceptable quality attributes were produced. These capsules remained stable for 1 year when stored in airtight containers at controlled room temperature. However, shelf life decreased dramatically in nonairtight containers at 30°C (3 months for the lactose-containing capsules of 160 mg and 6 months for the capsules of 625 mg). PMID:23862077

  13. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  14. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  15. Pneumatic well casing pressure regulating system

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, M.C.

    1987-10-20

    A pneumatic well casing pressure regulating system is described comprising: a hydraulically actuated choke for relieving well casing pressure; a continually running source of pneumatic pressure pulses; first means for applying pulses of hydraulic fluid corresponding to the pneumatic pressure pulses to the choke for opening the choke one step for each pulse of hydraulic fluid when actual casing pressure is higher than a desired casing pressure; and second means for applying pulses of hydraulic fluid corresponding to the pneumatic pressure pulses to the choke for closing the choke one step for each pulse of hydraulic fluid when actual casing pressure is less than a desired casing pressure.

  16. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  1. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  2. Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-02-01

    We presented a tunable optofluidic dye laser with integrated elastomeric air-gap etalon controlled by air pressure. The chip was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via replica molding. It comprises a liquid waveguide and microscale air-gap mirrors providing the feedback. The lasing wavelength is chosen by the interference between two parallel PDMS-air interfaces inside the internal tunable air-gap etalon, of which pneumatic tuning can be realized by inflating the air-gap etalon with compressed air. This dye laser exhibits a pumping threshold of 1.6 μJ/pulse, a lasing linewidth of 3 nm, and a tuning range of 14 nm.

  3. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  4. NIF symmetry capsule modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Caudal Pneumaticity and Pneumatic Hiatuses in the Sauropod Dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Mathew J.; Taylor, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula—those that leave few or no skeletal traces—in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy. PMID:24205162

  6. Construction of an intermittent-motion capsule filling machine simulator.

    PubMed

    Britten, J R; Barnett, M I; Armstrong, N A

    1995-02-01

    A pneumatically operated apparatus is described which simulates the forces generated by and the component movements encountered in a Macofar 13/2 dosator type capsule filling machine. Force transducers are fitted to the dosing piston and dosator tip, and the movement of the dosator piston and the powder bed followed by displacement transducers. Calibration of the transducers is described. The output from the transducers is collated, stored and manipulated by microcomputer. The manufacturing parameters which can be studied using this apparatus are discussed. PMID:7784333

  7. System for the pulsed pneumatic transport of ash from ash-collector bins

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Chernyshev; S.N. Kochurov; V.A. Il'in; V.V. Ermakov

    2007-07-15

    Results of investigations of the dependence of the percentage of voids on the shear force of a layer of ash, on the basis of which the design principle of the subassembly for the feed of ash to a transport pipeline is developed, are examined for optimization of ash flows in a pulsed regime. The schematic of a system of pulsed pneumatic transport of ash from the bins of ash collectors, and results of measurements during experimental operation of the system, as well as relationships for the calculation of its dynamic parameters are presented. Conclusions concerning the high reliability of the removal and pneumatic transport of ash over a distance of more than 80 m with minimal air consumption are drawn on the basis of results of the experimental operation.

  8. Pneumatic transfer of solids into wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R. E.; Freeman, E. R.; Gottschling, J.; Simon, J.

    1985-04-23

    A method for pneumatically transferring particulate solid materials into an earth formation penetrated by a well bore is shown. A gas is flowed into the well bore to establish the desired injection rate and pressure. A particulate solid material is then added to the established gas flow passing into the well bore by flowing a gas containing an entrained particulate solid material into the established gas flow to thereby transfer the solid particulate material pneumatically into the well bore.

  9. Pneumatic fracturing of low permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    Schuring, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Pneumatic fracturing of soils to enhance the removal and treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids is described. The process involves gas injection at a pressure exceeding the natural stresses and at a flow rate exceeding the permeability of the formation. The paper outlines geologic considerations, advantages and disadvantages, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, efficiency, and costs. Five case histories of remediation using pneumatic fracturing are briefly summarized. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  11. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  12. Cesium capsule thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    Double-walled stainless steel capsules, produced by the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF), were designed to facilitate storage of radioactive cesium chloride (CsCl). The capsules were later determined to be a useful resource for irradiation facilities (IFs), and are currently being used at several commercial IFs. A capsule at one of these facilities recently failed, resulting in a release of the CsCl. A thermal analysis of a WESF capsule was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. In this analysis, parametric calculations demonstrates the impact that various parameters have on the temperature distribution within a capsule in a commercial irradiation facility. Specifically, the effect of varying the gas gap conductivity, the exterior heat sink temperatures, the exterior heat transfer distribution, the stainless steel emissivity, and the gamma heating rate were addressed. In addition, a calculation was performed to estimate the highest temperatures likely to have been encountered in one of these capsules. 8 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  14. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  15. Buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2011-10-01

    We investigate buckling of soft elastic capsules under negative pressure or for reduced capsule volume. Based on nonlinear shell theory and the assumption of a hyperelastic capsule membrane, shape equations for axisymmetric and initially spherical capsules are derived and solved numerically. A rich bifurcation behavior is found, which is presented in terms of bifurcation diagrams. The energetically preferred stable configuration is deduced from a least-energy principle both for prescribed volume and prescribed pressure. We find that buckled shapes are energetically favorable already at smaller negative pressures and larger critical volumes than predicted by the classical buckling instability. By preventing self-intersection for strongly reduced volume, we obtain a complete picture of the buckling process and can follow the shape from the initial undeformed state through the buckling instability into the fully collapsed state. Interestingly, the sequences of bifurcations and stable capsule shapes differ for prescribed volume and prescribed pressure. In the buckled state, we find a relation between curvatures at the indentation rim and the bending modulus, which can be used to determine elastic moduli from experimental shape analysis. PMID:22181297

  16. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  17. NIF capsule design update

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, T.R.; Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.; Burnham, A.K.; Strobel, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    We describe several ignition capsule designs, for use in the National Ignition Facility. We will compare these designs for ablator efficiency, ignition margin, implosion and stability performance. This study includes capsule designs driven by x-ray drive profiles with both 300 eV and 250 eV peak temperatures. All of the 300 eV designs are tuned to implode the DT fuel in a nearly identical manner. Capsule designs consist of an ablator material (CH with Br dopant; Be with Cu dopant; and B{sub 4}C) encasing a layer of solid DT. The dopants alter material opacities sufficiently to (1) shield the DT fuel from preheat effects; and (2) develop an ablation front density profile favorable to implosion stability. B{sub 4}C has sufficient opacity at 300 eV that a dopant is not necessary. Issues relating to material properties and fabrication will be described.

  18. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-07-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications.

  19. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  20. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  1. [Posterior capsule opacification].

    PubMed

    Milazzo, S; Grenot, M; Benzerroug, M

    2014-12-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery, with an incidence of 30%. It tends to be considered a normal event in the natural history of cataract surgery. Better understanding of its pathophysiology and advancement of intraocular lens material and design along with the improvement of phacoemulsification technique have contributed to decrease the incidence of PCO. Although treatment by Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is quick and non-invasive, the opening of the posterior capsule may be associated with numerous complications. Prevention remains the best measure for controlling this pathology. PMID:25455552

  2. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  3. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  4. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  9. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Pneumatics. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Troy

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help the following types of students learn introductory technical material related to pneumatics: (1) groups of trade and industrial students with a variety of vocational objectives and (2) homogeneous groups in which the learning levels of individual students vary…

  7. Management of achalasia: surgery or pneumatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2011-06-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder of unknown cause, characterised by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Patients present at all ages, primarily with dysphagia for solids/liquids and bland regurgitation. The diagnosis is suggested by barium esophagram or endoscopy and confirmed by esophageal manometry. Achalasia cannot be cured. Instead, our goal is to relieve symptoms, improve esophageal emptying and prevent the development of megaesophagus. The most successful therapies are pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy. The advantages of pneumatic dilation include an outpatient procedure, minimal pain, return to work the next day, mild if any GERD, and can be performed in any age group and even during pregnancy. Pneumatic dilation does not hinder future myotomy, and all cost analyses find it less expensive than Heller myotomy. Laparoscopic myotomy with a partial fundoplication has the advantage of being a single procedure, dysphagia relief is longer at the cost of more troubling heartburn, and a myotomy may be more effective treatment in adolescents and younger adults, especially men. Over a two year horizon, the clinical success of pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic myotomy are comparable in a recent large European randomised trial. The prognosis for achalasia patients to return to near-normal swallowing and good quality of life are excellent, but few are "cured" with a single treatment and intermittent "touch up" procedures may be required. PMID:21303915

  8. Analysis of fine coal pneumatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Rohatgi, N.D.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many fossil fuel energy processes depend on the movement of solids by pneumatic transport. Despite the considerable amount of work reported in the literature on pneumatic transport, the design of new industrial systems for new products continues to rely to a great extent on empiricism. A pilot-scale test facility has been constructed at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and is equipped with modern sophisticated measuring techniques (such as Pressure Transducers, Auburn Monitors, Micro Motion Mass flowmeters) and an automatic computer-controlled data acquisition system to study the effects of particle pneumatic transport. Pittsburgh Seam and Montana rosebud coals of varying size consist and moisture content were tested in the atmospheric and pressurized coal flow test loops (AP/CFTL and HP/CFTL) at PETC. The system parameters included conveying gas velocity, injector tank pressure, screw conveyor speed, pipe radius, and pipe bends. In the following report, results from the coal flow tests were presented and analyzed. Existing theories and correlations on two-phase flows were reviewed. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from empirically or theoretically derived equations available in the literature, and new correlations were proposed, when applicable, to give a better interpretation of the data and a better understanding of the various flow regimes involved in pneumatic transport. 55 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. PNEUMATIC FRACTIONATOR FOR CLEANING GINNED LINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. Spawned from discussions at a Cotton Incorporated Lint Cleaning Summit and building on 1970s research at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory, an e...

  10. Evaluating a device for pneumatic lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research exploring innovative techniques to clean ginned lint while reducing short fiber and neps has led to evaluations of a pneumatic fractionator. This device is typically used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA cotton ginning research laboratories. No modifications we...

  11. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  12. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L; Benson, Roger B J; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  13. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  14. Pneumatic hammer in aerostatic thrust bearings with single orifice compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Zhongke; Tao, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    In dealing with the phenomenon of the pneumatic hammer in aerostatic thrust bearings, the vibrant model of the one-single freedom system has been established to study the pneumatic hammer from the point of sympathetic vibration. It is found that the bearings show a tendency to result in the pneumatic hammer with the increase of air supply pressure, and the occurrence probability of the pneumatic hammer will be reduced when the gas film thickness is maintained within a certain range. Meanwhile, the existence of the pneumatic hammer, which is caused by sympathetic vibration, is experimentally verified, and it is found that gas bearings undergo certain disturbance, which causes the system to produce micro breadth vibration. Accordingly, the micro breadth vibration causes the gas film and thrust face to form flow/structure coupled to excite the pneumatic hammer. Therefore, it provides another path to study the pneumatic hammer and is of academic value.

  15. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  16. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  17. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  18. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  19. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  20. Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Mumm, Eric; Shasho, Jeffrey; Chu, Philip; Kumar, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Heat flow is a fundamental property of a planet, and provides significant constraints on the abundance of radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the lithosphere. Heat-flow measurements are also essential in achieving at least four of the goals set out by the National Research Council for future lunar exploration. The heat-flow probe therefore directly addresses the goal of the Lunar Geophysical Network, which is to understand the interior structure and composition of the Moon. A key challenge for heat flow measurement is to install thermal sensors to the depths approximately equal to 3 m that are not influenced by the diurnal, annual, and longer-term fluctuations of the surface thermal environment. In addition, once deployed, the heat flow probe should cause little disturbance to the thermal regime of the surrounding regolith. A heat-flow probe system was developed that has two novel features: (1) it utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach, excavates a hole by lofting the lunar soil out of the hole, and (2) deploys the heat flow probe, which utilizes a coiled up tape as a thermal probe to reach greater than 3-meter depth. The system is a game-changer for small lunar landers as it exhibits extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment. The pneumatic system takes advantage of the helium gas used for pressurizing liquid propellant of the lander. Normally, helium is vented once the lander is on the surface, but it can be utilized for powering pneumatic systems. Should sufficient helium not be available, a simple gas delivery system may be taken specifically for the heat flow probe. Either way, the pneumatic heat flow probe system would be much lighter than other systems that entirely rely on the electrical power of the lander.

  1. Feasibility tests of pipeline pigs for cryogenic pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.

    The cryogenic pig experiment was designed to test the concept of using a pneumatically driven pipeline pig to force cryogenic fluid through a long, large diameter pipe, which is one of the key features of the proposed large-scale Spill Safety Test Facility. The Spill Safety Test Facility will spill materials such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ammonia, and other liquefied gases under controlled conditions so that atmospheric dispersion of these materials can be better understood. Three pig design concepts were tested: (1) commercially available, bullet-shaped polyurethane foam pigs, (2) close-fitting spherical metal pigs with sufficient clearance to pass through the pipe at cryogenic temperatures. Three different sizes were tested to determine the effect of a loose fit, and (3) cylindrical metal pigs with flexible wipers at each end which would maintain a seal during transit through the pipe. The most effective pigs in removing liquid from the pipe were the polyurethane foam pig and the cylindrical wiper pig.

  2. Feasibility tests of pipeline pigs for cryogenic pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The cryogenic pig experiment reported here was designed to test the concept of using a pneumatically driven pipeline pig to force cryogenic fluid through a long, large-diameter pipe, which is one of the key features of the proposed large-scale Spill Safety Test Facility. The Spill Safety Test Facility will spill materials such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ammonia, and other liquefied gases under controlled conditions so that atmospheric dispersion of these materials can be better understood. Three pig design concepts were tested: (1) commercially available, bullet-shaped polyurethane foam pigs, (2) close-fitting spherical metal pigs with sufficient clearance to pass through the pipe at cryogenic temperatures. Three different sizes were tested to determine the effect of a loose fit, and (3) cylindrical metal pigs with flexible wipers at each end which would maintain a seal during transit through the pipe. The most effective pigs in removing liquid from the pipe were the polyurethane foam pig and the cylindrical wiper pig. For the LN/sub 2/ tests these two pigs left no liquid in the pipe, and for the water tests they left 1% of pipe volume. The large sphere was the next best pig, leaving 2 to 3% of pipe volume during the LN/sub 2/ tests and about 3% of pipe volume during the water tests.

  3. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  4. MANUAL DEGATING OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY SLEDGEHAMMERS AND PNEUMATIC WEDGE SEPARATORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANUAL DEGATING OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY SLEDGE-HAMMERS AND PNEUMATIC WEDGE SEPARATORS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  6. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  7. Impulse-driven Micromechanism Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Ishimori, Shohei; Hayashi, Teru

    We have developed a traveling small capsule, which has a smooth outer surface and is driven by inertia force and friction force. Measuring only 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, it is sufficiently small to be placed in the human gullet or intestines. The capsule contains a small magnet and a coil, and an electric pulse drives the magnet to move the capsule. We performed an experimental investigation on making our capsule travel on a plastic material, which has similar elasticity characteristics to the living body. We also showed that it can travel on the surface of a pig's intestine. Our capsule may be useful for medical treatments such as inspection, drug delivery and operation.

  8. Magneto-responsive alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Patrick; Zwar, Elena; Schulz, Imke; Rehage, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Upon incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) into gels, composite materials called ferrogels are obtained. These magneto-responsive systems have a wide range of potential applications including switches and sensors as well as drug delivery systems. In this article, we focus on the properties of calcium alginate capsules, which are widely used as carrier systems in medicine and technology. We studied the incorporation of different kinds of mNPs in matrix capsules and in the core and the shell of hollow particles. We found out that not all particle-alginate or particle-CaCl2 solution combinations were suitable for a successful capsule preparation on grounds of a destabilization of the nanoparticles or the polymer. For those systems allowing the preparation of switchable beads or capsules, we systematically studied the size and microscopic structure of the capsules, their magnetic behavior and mechanical resistance.

  9. Determination of the loss coefficient of elbows in the flow of low-density spherical capsule train

    SciTech Connect

    Ulusarslan, Deniz

    2007-11-15

    Design parameters of a pipelines capsule flow can be calculated if dependence of pressure drops on flow velocity and capsule concentration of such pipelines are known. For this purpose, loss coefficients of elbows were studied experimentally in pipeline loop of I.D. 0.1 m. Elbows with central angles of 90 and 45 made of PVC were used for low-density spherical capsule train flow. The outer diameter and relative density of the capsules were 0.08 m and 0.87, respectively; the pressure drops were measured at Reynolds number range 2 x 10{sup 4} < Re < 1 x 10{sup 5} and for a transport concentration from 5% to 25%. Increments of the pressure gradient become larger at higher velocities and solid phase concentrations. The pressure gradients that occurred at the 90 elbow were higher than that occurred at the 45 elbow. Loss coefficient of the 90 elbow for the same flow velocity and capsule concentration in the capsules-water mixture flow is from 3 to 2 times higher than the loss coefficient at the 45 elbow. (author)

  10. Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chis, T.

    1996-12-31

    The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

  11. Quantitative measurements in capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Keuchel, M; Kurniawan, N; Baltes, P; Bandorski, D; Koulaouzidis, A

    2015-10-01

    This review summarizes several approaches for quantitative measurement in capsule endoscopy. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) typically provides wireless imaging of small bowel. Currently, a variety of quantitative measurements are implemented in commercially available hardware/software. The majority is proprietary and hence undisclosed algorithms. Measurement of amount of luminal contamination allows calculating scores from whole VCE studies. Other scores express the severity of small bowel lesions in Crohn׳s disease or the degree of villous atrophy in celiac disease. Image processing with numerous algorithms of textural and color feature extraction is further in the research focuses for automated image analysis. These tools aim to select single images with relevant lesions as blood, ulcers, polyps and tumors or to omit images showing only luminal contamination. Analysis of motility pattern, size measurement and determination of capsule localization are additional topics. Non-visual wireless capsules transmitting data acquired with specific sensors from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are available for clinical routine. This includes pH measurement in the esophagus for the diagnosis of acid gastro-esophageal reflux. A wireless motility capsule provides GI motility analysis on the basis of pH, pressure, and temperature measurement. Electromagnetically tracking of another motility capsule allows visualization of motility. However, measurement of substances by GI capsules is of great interest but still at an early stage of development. PMID:26299419

  12. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 0.0107 meter diameter pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained.

  13. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Ekmann, J.M.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability of high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 3/8'' pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained. 4 references, 2 figures.

  14. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

    2009-10-01

    A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

  15. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  16. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  17. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  18. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  19. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  20. Evaluating a pneumatic fractionator for cleaning ginned lint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device. No modifications were made to the standard device, except that air p...

  1. Web-Based Learning and Instruction Support System for Pneumatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chiaming; Li, Wu-Jeng

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a Web-based learning and instructional system for Pneumatics. The system includes course material, remote data acquisition modules, and a pneumatic laboratory set. The course material is in the HTML format accompanied with text, still and animated images, simulation programs, and computer aided design tools. The data…

  2. A study of pneumatic conveying of gas-solid flow for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.; Tasnim, Rumana; Khan, Sheroz; Mohammod, Musse; Arshad, Atika; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Haider, Samnan; Saquib, Nazmus; Rahman, Tawfilur

    2013-12-01

    The complicated nature of gas-solids' physical properties have challenged the researchers over past decades who have led their efforts in developing its' flow sensing and measurement methods. The term 'gas-solid flow' signifies dilute- or dense-phase flow with a very little concentration of solids. For conducting such flow measurement, generally velocity profile and volumetric concentration of the flow particles being conveyed are needed to be measured. An important application of gas-solid flow has taken root in the form of biomass flow in pneumatic conveying systems, and its' online measurement has proven to be an exigent research pursuit. Additionally the other applications have been explored in power plants, food, chemical and automobiles industries as well. This paper aims at exploring the evolution of flow measurement methods along with a brief explanation on existing fundamental sensing techniques. Furthermore, the most recent patents developed for such measurements in pneumatic conveying pipelines are scrutinized along with their concomitant pros and cons.

  3. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  4. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them. PMID:25586554

  5. Scaling of pneumatic digital logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Philip N; Ahrar, Siavash; Hui, Elliot E

    2015-03-01

    The scaling of integrated circuits to smaller dimensions is critical for achieving increased system complexity and speed. Digital logic circuits composed of pneumatic microfluidic components have to this point been limited to a circuit density of 2-4 gates cm(-2), constraining the complexity of the digital systems that can be achieved. We explored the use of precision machining techniques to reduce the size of pneumatic valves and resistors, and to achieve more accurate and efficient placement of ports and vias. In this way, we attained an order of magnitude increase in circuit density, reaching as high as 36 gates cm(-2). A 12-bit binary counter circuit composed of 96 gates was realized in an area of 360 mm(2). The reduction in size also brought an order of magnitude increase in speed. The frequency of a 13-stage ring oscillator increased from 2.6 Hz to 22.1 Hz, and the maximum clock frequency of a binary counter increased from 1/3 Hz to 6 Hz. PMID:25591784

  6. Transforming insect electromyograms into pneumatic muscle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Brandon; Mu, Laiyong; Ritzmann, Roy; Quinn, Roger

    2006-05-01

    Robots can serve as hardware models for testing biological hypotheses. Both for this reason and to improve the state of the art of robotics, we strive to incorporate biological principles of insect locomotion into robotic designs. Previous research has resulted in a line of robots with leg designs based on walking and climbing movements of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. The current version, Robot V, uses muscle-like Braided Pneumatic Actuators (BPAs). In this paper, we use recorded electromyograms (EMGs) to drive robot joint motion. A muscle activation model was developed that transforms EMGs recorded from behaving cockroaches into appropriate commands for the robot. The transform is implemented by multiplying the EMG by an input gain thus generating an input pressure signal, which is used to drive a one-way closed loop pressure controller. The actuator then can be modeled as a capacitance with input rectification. The actuator exhaust valve is given a leak rate, making the transform a leaky integrator for air pressure, which drives the output force of the actuator. We find parameters of this transform by minimizing the difference between the robot motion produced and that observed in the cockroach. Although we have not reproduced full-amplitude cockroach motion using this robot, results from evaluation on reduced-amplitude cockroach angle data strongly suggest that braided pneumatic actuators can be used as part of a physical model of a biological system.

  7. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  8. Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type-U fuel

  9. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  10. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  11. Numerical investigation of influence on heat transfer characteristics to pneumatically conveyed dense phase flow by selecting models and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Solids moving with a gas stream in a pipeline can be found in many industrial processes, such as power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes. A mass flow rate of the solids is important characteristic that is often required to be measured (and controlled) to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials in pneumatic conveying systems. The methods of measuring the mass flow rate of solids in a pneumatic pipeline can be divided into direct and indirect (inferential) measurements. A thermal solids' mass flow-meter, in principle, should ideally provide a direct measurement of solids flow rate, regardless of inhomogeneities in solids' distribution and environmental impacts. One key issue in developing a thermal solids' mass flow-meter is to characterize the heat transfer between the hot pipe wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow. The Eulerian continuum modeling with gas-solid two phases is the most common method for pneumatic transport. To model a gas-solid dense phase flow passing through a heated region, the gas phase is described as a continuous phase and the particles as the second phase. This study aims to describe the heat transfer characteristics between the hot wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow in pneumatic pipelines by modeling a turbulence gas-solid plug passing through the heated region which involves several actual and crucial issues: selections of interphase exchange coefficient, near-wall region functions and different wall surface temperatures. A sensitivity analysis was discussed to identify the influence on the heat transfer characteristics by selecting different interphase exchange coefficient models and different boundary conditions. Simulation results suggest that sensitivity analysis in the choice of models is very significant. The simulation results appear to show that a combination of choosing the Syamlal-O'Brien interphase exchange coefficient model and the standard k-ɛ model along with

  12. Compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique of compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices was developed and verified. This compensation allows conventional pressure sensing technology to obtain improved unsteady pressure measurements. Pressure distortion caused by frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system makes obtaining unsteady pressure measurements by conventional sensors difficult. Most distortion occurs within the pneumatic tubing which transmits pressure impulses from the aircraft's surface to the measurement transducer. To avoid pneumatic distortion, experiment designers mount the pressure sensor at the surface of the aircraft, (called in-situ mounting). In-situ transducers cannot always fit in the available space and sometimes pneumatic tubing must be run from the aircraft's surface to the pressure transducer. A technique to measure unsteady pressure data using conventional pressure sensing technology was developed. A pneumatic distortion model is reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.

  13. Asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex.

    PubMed

    Roland, P S; Meyerhoff, W L; Judge, L O; Mickey, B E

    1990-07-01

    Three patients with high-intensity MR signals from one petrous apex, but nonpathologic fine-cut computed tomography are reported. In two of the three patients, normal bone marrow within the petrous apex on one side is believed to have generated the high-intensity signal. In one of the three patients, the etiology of the MR image remains obscure, but may represent the earliest stages of petrous cholesterol granuloma or mucocele. We have reviewed 500 head CT scans performed for non-otologic reasons, in an attempt to establish the frequency of this finding. The literature on MR and CT imaging of the petrous apex and asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex is reviewed. PMID:2117735

  14. Pneumatic grading applied to sugarcane products

    SciTech Connect

    Roka A., G.A.; Boisan C., M.A.; Frolov, V.F.

    1988-09-10

    There are secondary products from processing sugar cane, consisting of light particles having irregular elongated forms and falling into various size fractions: bagasso up to 5 mm, bagassilo 5-0.3 mm, and meole < 0.3 mm. These contain water, since they are obtained in the early stages of making cane sugar. Much of the bagasso and bagassilo is burned in situ in steam boilers at the sugar plants. Also, the various fractions are used in making paper, wood-straw board, and as ingredients for fodder and fertilizers, in addition to raw material in furfural production. These uses require grading and drying. In pneumatic grading, one uses the outgoing combustion products from the steam boilers at the plants and at the same time provides drying. Experiments were conducted in order to perform design calculations on grading these products.

  15. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  16. Optimizing pneumatic conveying of biomass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCianni, Matthew Edward Michael

    2011-12-01

    Biomass is a readily available but underutilized energy resource. One of the main challenges is the inability of biomass feed stocks like corn stover or wood chips to flow freely without intermittent jamming. This research integrated an automated pneumatic conveying system to efficiently transport biomass into a biomass reactor. Material was held in a storage container until an end effector attached to a 3-axis controller engaged the material to flow through pneumatic vacuum in the carrier fluid of air. The material was disengaged from the carrier fluid through centripetal forces induced by a cyclone separator. As the air was pulled out of the cyclone, the biomass drops out the bottom due to gravitational forces and fell into a secondary storage hopper. The second storage container was for testing purposes only, where the actual apparatus would use a vertically oriented lock hopper to feed material into the biomass reactor. In the experimental test apparatus, sensors measured the storage hopper weight (mass-flow rate), pressure drop from the blower, and input power consumption of the motor. Parameters that were adjusted during testing include pipe diameter, material type, and motor speed. Testing indicated that decreasing the motor speed below its maximum still allows for conveyance of the material without blockage forming in the piping. The data shows that the power consumption of the system can be reduced based on the size and weight of the material introduced to the conveying pipe. Also, conveying certain materials proved to be problematic with particular duct diameters. Ultimately, an optimal duct diameter that can perform efficiently for a broad range of materials was chosen for the given system. Through these improvements, the energy return on investment will be improved for biomass feed stocks, which is taking a step in the right direction to secure the nation's energy independence.

  17. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  18. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  19. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. A PNEUMATIC CONVEYING TEST RIG FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes the material properties and system parameters relevant to the pneumatic conveying of municipal solid waste and its processed fractions. Comparisons are made with the conveying of conventional industrial feedstocks, and a rationale for sizing and specification...

  2. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. 14 CFR 25.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure...

  4. Dynamic behavior of valves with pneumatic chamber for reciprocating compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurohashi, M.; Aoshima, M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behavior of valves with pneumatic chambers for reciprocating compressors. These are known as 'damped valves' and are capable of reducing the impact on the valve seat and valve stopper. The characteristics of the dynamic behavior of the damped valves were clarified by calculating newly derived governing equations of valve dynamics. From the calculated results, it becomes apparent that the volume of the pneumatic chambers and the clearance between the pneumatic chamber and the valve have a large influence on the impact speed of the valves. Furthermore, the valves tend to close later for a higher compressor speed to oscillate at a larger amplitude for a lower density of gas such as hydrogen. These tendencies show that the selection of the specification of damped valves is very important. The stiffness of the valve spring and the lift of the valve also affect valve behavior as with valves without pneumatic chambers.

  5. 118. TUBING AT BACK SIDE OF PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. TUBING AT BACK SIDE OF PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  7. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  8. Dry ice plug for hydraulic and pneumatic pipe flushing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francino, L.; Rauch, S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of technique to clear blockages in hydraulic and pneumatic pipes is discussed. Technique consists of using dry ice plug to separate sensitive components from flushing fluid. Diagram of equipment and principles of operation are presented.

  9. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  10. Safety aspects of pneumatic transport. Information Circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here deals with the safety aspects of pneumatic transport of underground coal, as well as the hazards inherent in more conventional haulage systems. Included are three designs for different applications of pneumatic haulage: off-loading a continuous-mining machine on a room-and-pillar section, vertical hoisting through a 1,200-ft shaft, and off-loading a tunnel-boring machine driving a 2,000-ft tunnel.

  11. High-Torque, Lightweight, Pneumatically Driven Wrench For Small Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Pneumatically driven wrench provides torque up to 3,000 lb. per ft. in small space. Designed to reach into 2.6 x 2.75 x 6 in. pocket. Weighs approximately 25 lbs. Includes reversible pneumatic motor (electric motor could be used instead) and slip clutch. Also includes device indicating total angle through which wrench turned bolt or nut. This feature used for turn-of-the-nut tightening method.

  12. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J.

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  13. Supercooling Water in Cylindrical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. J. Milón; Braga, S. L.

    2005-11-01

    An experimental apparatus was developed to investigate the supercooling phenomenon of water inside cylindrical capsules used for a cold storage process. The coolant is a water-alcohol mixture controlled by a constant temperature bath (CTB). Temperatures varying with time are measured inside and outside the capsule. Cylinders with an internal diameter and thickness of 45 and 1.5 mm, respectively, were made from four different materials: acrylic, PVC, brass, and aluminum. The supercooling period of the water and the nucleation temperature were investigated for different coolant temperatures. The supercooling and nucleation probabilities are shown as a function of the coolant temperature for the four different materials.

  14. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  15. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  16. Fail-safe control system for a mine methane pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, M.C.; Kapsch, F.F.; Jeran, P.W.; Pepperney, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has designed and put into operation a fail-safe control system for use in underground coal mines equipped with methane drainage pipelines. This control system can detect certain unsafe conditions and respond by automatically shutting off the flow of methane from the degasification borehole to the drainage pipeline. Methane flow is shut off when the methane content in the return airways reaches a predetermined level (typically 1.5%), when the methane drainage pipeline is ruptured by roof fall, or when there is an electric power failure. The fail-safe control system was designed using commercially available components and a methane analyzer system previously developed by the Bureau. The fail-safe system consists of a unit that combines a shutoff valve and pneumatic valve actuator, and electronic and mechanical equipment designed to detect hazards and effect shutdown. The fail-safe control system was designed to meet regulatory requirements issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Department of Labor, and State regulatory bodies for the safe operation of underground methane pipelines used for mine degasification. MSHA has inspected and tested this system and permitted its use in two mines. The Bureau installed the fail-safe system in two working coal mines, where successful performance has been demonstrated.

  17. Development of pneumatic actuator with low-wave reflection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Jwo, C. S.; Chiang, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    This study aims at the development of a less reflective electromagnetic pneumatic actuator often used in the anechoic chamber. Because a pneumatic actuator on the market is not appropriate for use in such a chamber and a metallic one has high dielectric constant which generates reflective electromagnetic waves to influence test parameters in the chamber. The newly developed pneumatic actuator is made from low dielectric constant plastics with less reflective of electromagnetic. A turbine-type air motor is used to develop the pneumatic actuator and a employ Prony tester is used to run the brake horsepower test for the performance test of pneumatic actuator. Test results indicate that the pneumatic actuator in the minimal starting flow is 17 l/min, and it generates a brake horsepower of 48 mW; in the maximum flow is 26 l/min, it generates a brake horsepower of 108 mW. Therefore, it works with a torque between 0.24 N-m and 0.55 N-m, and such a torque will be sufficient to drive the target button.

  18. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  19. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  20. Mentoring. Information Capsule. Volume 0603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring is a structured one-on-one relationship between an adult and youth that focuses on the needs of the youth, providing him or her with support, guidance, and assistance. This information capsule summarizes research findings on the impact of mentoring on factors such as academic achievement, social behaviors, attitudes, drug and alcohol…

  1. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-01

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules. PMID:25209240

  2. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  3. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  5. Pipeline joint protector

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes a weight coated pipeline joint protective apparatus for protecting pipeline joints against impact or high stress concentrations. It consists of a high density plastic sheet wrapped around a pipeline joint with the opposite edges of such sheet overlaying the weight of coat material on the abutting pipes forming the joint. The first end of the sheet overlaps the wrapped sheet with means for securing such first end to the sheet surface near or adjacent to the opposite end of such sheet.

  6. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  7. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  8. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  9. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  10. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  11. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  12. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  13. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead.

    PubMed

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  14. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  15. Salivary Stone Pneumatic Lithotripsy in a Live Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, Rohan R; Hoffman, Henry T; Kolenda, Jack; Hernandez, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic fragmentation and removal of artificial calculi in a live porcine model employing intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. In this experimental study, 7 submandibular ducts were accessed and artificial calculi placed. A salivary pneumatic lithotripter probe was inserted through an interventional sialendoscope to fragment the calculi. A salivary duct catheter was then used to flush stone fragments, followed by endoscopy to assess complete fragmentation and ductal trauma. Ultimately, 7 artificial stones (3-10 mm, 4F/5F) were successfully fragmented without causing significant endoluminal trauma. Number of pulses for adequate stone fragmentation averaged 20 (range, 5-31). In all cases, stone fragments were successfully flushed out with the salivary duct catheter. Postprocedure endoscopy confirmed ductal integrity in all 7 ducts. While more studies are needed, this preliminary animal model demonstrates efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for the management of sialolithiasis. PMID:27048662

  16. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  17. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  18. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  19. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  20. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  1. Evaluation of a pneumatic Martian soil sampler concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John L.; Neathery, James K.; Stencel, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The pneumatic soil sampler concept was successfully demonstrated by penetrating a Martian simulant soil to a depth of 2 meters. Working gas pressure, composition, and pulsing were evaluated with the objective of minimizing gas usage. Also, the probe penetration force was investigated with the objective of minimizing probe weight. Gas and probe penetration force, while not yet optimized, are within the range which make the soil sampler concept feasible. While the tests described in this report did not answer all the questions and address all the variables associated with pneumatic soil sampling, valuable data experience and knowledge were gained which can be used to further develop the concept.

  2. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. 1. quarterly report for 1996, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This project consists of the following nine tasks: Machine design for coal log fabrication; Very rapid compaction of coal logs; Rapid compaction of coal logs; Fast-track experiments on coal log compaction; Coal log fabrication using hydrophobic binders; Drag reduction in large diameter hydraulic capsule pipeline; Automatic control of coal log pipeline system; Hydraulics of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline); and Coal heating system research. The purpose of the task, the work accomplished during this report period, and work proposed for the next quarter are described for each task.

  3. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  4. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  5. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  6. Duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Cho, Jin Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopes because commercially available capsule endoscopes sometimes present a false negative diagnosis of the duodenum. One reason for the false negative diagnosis is that the duodenum is the fastest moving part within the gastrointestinal tract and the current frame rate of the capsule is not fast enough. When the capsule can automatically identify that it is in the duodenum, the frame rate of the capsule can be temporarily increased to reduce the possibility of a false negative diagnosis. This study proposes a mechanism to identify the duodenum using capacitive proximity sensors that can distinguish the surrounding tissue and transmit data using RF communication. The implemented capsule (D11 mm × L22 mm) was smaller than the commercially available capsule endoscopes, and power consumption was as low as 0.642 mW. Preexperiments were conducted to select an appropriate electrode width in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify whether the implemented capsule could identify the duodenum within 3 s. The experiment showed that the identification rate of duodenum was 93% when the velocity of the capsule was less than 1 cm/s. PMID:21134813

  7. Regulation of capsule in Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Thomas, Jennifer; Stephens, David S

    2016-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a devastating pathogen exclusive to humans, expresses capsular polysaccharides that are the major meningococcal virulence determinants and the basis for successful meningococcal vaccines. With rare exceptions, the expression of capsule (serogroups A, B, C, W, X, Y) is required for systemic invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in capsule expression or structure (e.g. hypo- or hyper-encapsulation, capsule "switching", acetylation) can influence immunologic diagnostic assays or lead to immune escape. The loss or down-regulation of capsule is also critical in meningococcal biology facilitating meningococcal attachment, microcolony formation and the carriage state at human mucosal surfaces. Encapsulated meningococci contain a cps locus with promoters located in an intergenic region between the biosynthesis and the conserved capsule transport operons. The cps intergenic region is transcriptionally regulated (and thus the amount of capsule expressed) by IS element insertion, by a two-component system, MisR/MisS and through sequence changes that result in post-transcriptional RNA thermoregulation. Reversible on-off phase variation of capsule expression is controlled by slipped strand mispairing of homo-polymeric tracts and by precise insertion and excision of IS elements (e.g. IS1301) in the biosynthesis operon. Capsule structure can be altered by phase-variable expression of capsular polymer modification enzymes or "switched" through transformation and homologous recombination of different polymerases. Understanding the complex regulation of meningococcal capsule has important implications for meningococcal biology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current and future vaccine development and vaccine strategies. PMID:26089023

  8. Polymers replace glass in Nova fuel capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The glass fuel-capsule designs used in previous laser-fusion research are not adaptable to the implosion-physics requirements of Nova and other more powerful laser facilities that may be available in the future. As one tries to learn more about the physics of high-density compression, it becomes increasingly important to replace the glass with lower-Z material. Accordingly, the authors have shut down the high-temperature drop-tower furnaces they used to make glass capsules, and they are focusing all their efforts on developing new techniques for making polymer capsules. These capsules are ten times larger in diameter than the glass capsules used in the early days of laser-fusion research, but they are still only one-tenth as large as a high-gain capsule must be. The polymer capsules will be used in classified indirect-drive targets. This article describes how the decisions were made on which polymers to use in the NOVA fuel capsules, the techniques explored, and the properties of the prototype capsules.

  9. Genesis Sample Return Capsule Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    I. Simple Entry Capsule Concept: a) Spin-Stabilized/No Active Control Systems; b) Ballistic Entry for 11.04 km/sec Velocity; c) No Heatshield Separation During Entry; d) Parachute Deploy via g-Switch + Timer. II. Stardust Design Inheritance a) Forebody Shape; b) Seal Concepts; c) Parachute Deploy Control; d) Utah Landing Site (UTTR). III. TPS Systems a) Heatshield - Carbon-Carbon - First Planetary Entry; b) Backshell - SLA-561V - Flight Heritage from Pathfinder, MER; d) Forebody Structural Penetrations Aerothermal and TPS Design Process has the Same Methodology as Used for Pathfinder, MER Flight Vehicles.

  10. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  11. Assessing a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study assessed a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device for ginned lint. Results from a test that used two line pressures and three fractionation times showed that higher line pressure and longer fractionation time produced fiber that was shorter in staple length, contained more neps, a...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  15. The Pneumatic Common: Learning in, with and from the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Air is an immersive substance that envelopes us and binds us together, yet it has dominantly been taken for granted and left out of educational and other theorizations. This article develops a conceptualization of the "pneumatic common" in order to address this gap. The specific intervention staged is within recent educational literature…

  16. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of the industry’s variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significant...

  17. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  18. Note: Pneumatically modulated liquid delivery with feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. R.; Terray, A. V.; Lubrano, A. L.; Rogers, D. A.; Hart, S. J.; Rose-Pehrsson, S. L.

    2012-07-01

    We present the design and characterization of a pneumatically driven liquid delivery system using an embedded microcontroller with feedback control capable of maintaining a stable, constant flow rate over several hours of operation. Flow rates with relative standard deviations less than 1% were achieved and compared to a typical laboratory syringe pump.

  19. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... paraplegics walk. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food... distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other rigid pneumatic structure orthosis shall have an approved PMA or...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paraplegics walk. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food... distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other rigid pneumatic structure orthosis shall have an approved PMA or...

  1. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. 7 CFR 3201.86 - Pneumatic equipment lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pneumatic equipment lubricants. 3201.86 Section 3201.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.86...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elements must be burst pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (c) An analysis, or...

  4. Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-06-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  6. Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast toward doorway and corridor. Note soundproof walls, pedestal flooring, and cable tray suspended from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  10. [Sealed-capsule irrigation during cataract surgery to prevent posterior capsule opacification].

    PubMed

    Kluś, Adam; Rekas, Marek; Rudowicz, Jacek; Stankiewicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of isolated use of pharmacological agents to selectively destroy anterior capsule epithelial cells and avoid toxic side effects on other tissues has become the aim of numerous research studies. Creation of a precise, tight, safe system which would allow delivery of pharmaceutical agents into the lens capsule following cataract extraction seems to be a solution. Thus, the aim of our study is to present a surgical technique preventing the development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery with the use of sealed-capsule irrigation system (SCI)--Perfect Capsule device. PMID:19517850

  11. The future of wireless capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy. It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett’s and esophageal varices. The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs. Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition. Remote control movement will improve with the use of magnets and/or electrostimulation and perhaps electromechanical methods. External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong. PMID:18636658

  12. Novel Imaging Enhancements in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Van Gossum, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy that was launched 10 years ago has become a first-line procedure for examining the small bowel. The most common indications for capsule endoscopy are obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndromes, and evaluation of patients with complicated celiac disease. The ideal capsule should improve the quality of the image and have a faster frame rate than the currently available one. There should be a therapeutic capsule capable of performing a biopsy, aspirating fluid, delivering drugs, and measuring the motility of the small bowel wall. Another major leap forward would be the capability of remote control of capsule's movement in order to navigate it to reach designated anatomical areas for carrying out a variety of therapeutic options. Technology for improving the capability of the future generation capsules almost within grasp and it would not be surprising to witness the realization of these giant steps within the coming decade. In this review we will focus on the current clinical applications of capsule endoscopy for imaging of the small bowel and colon and will additionally give an outlook on future concepts and developments of capsule endoscopy. PMID:23878532

  13. Flowering, Capsule and Seed Characteristics in Cuphea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled the flowering and capsule set dynamics, quantified the level of variation in seed characteristics, elucidated the inter-relationships among seed and capsule physical dimensions, and quantified their impact on single seed weight as the main determinant of seed yield in the indeterminate, p...

  14. UQ Pipeline Lorenz Portlet

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    This is web client software that can help initiate UQ Pipeline jobs on LLNL's LC compute systems and visually shows the status of such jobs in a browser window. The web client interacts with LC's interactive compute nodes using (LLNL) Lorenz REST API to initiate action and obtain status data in JSON format.

  15. Highlander prompts pipeline innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Akten, H.T.

    1986-05-05

    Texaco North Sea UK Co.'s Highlander field was developed with innovative subsea engineering which helped bring the field onstream in an 18-month period. Among the engineering challenges met were the design and construction of the Highlander Pipeline System and especially the innovations evident in the first-ever subsea slug catcher and in the retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Located in 420 ft of water in Texaco's North Sea Block 14/20, Highlander is 8 miles west of Texaco's existing Tartan A production platform which stands in approximately 465 ft of water. To bring oil on-stream rapidly, thus maximizing early cash flow, the project was undertaken in two phases. The first phase consisted of one water injector and two producer wells connected to Tartan A via three 8-in. pipelines and associated flexible jumpers/risers. The remaining 4-in. and 12-in. pipelines were flooded with inhibited sea water and left on the seabed for approximately 1 year until commissioning for the project's second phase. All steel pipelines were trenched immediately after laying, and umbilicals were laid into certain of these trenches. Highlander's second phase included an innovative subsea production facility with such unique features as subsea slug catchers and retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Much of the technology involved was developed in Britain and will have worldwide application linking smaller marginal fields to existing platforms swiftly and in a cost effective manner.

  16. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Keyes, C.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-12-01

    The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM or time-tag mode. The basic calibration includes pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. Wavelength calibration can be done either by using separate lamp exposures or by taking several short lamp exposures concurrently with a science exposure. For time-tag data, the latter mode ("tagflash") will allow better correction of potential drift of the spectrum on the detector. One-dimensional spectra will be extracted and saved in a FITS binary table. Separate columns will be used for the flux-calibrated spectrum, error estimate, and the associated wavelengths. CALCOS is written in Python, with some functions in C. It is similar in style to other HST pipeline code in that it uses an association table to specify which files to be included, and the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to use are specified by header keywords. Currently, in conjunction with the Instrument Definition Team (led by J. Green), the ground-based reference files are being refined, delivered, and tested with the pipeline.

  17. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with nine case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  18. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  19. Fibrous capsule formation around titanium and copper.

    PubMed

    Suska, Felicia; Emanuelsson, Lena; Johansson, Anna; Tengvall, Pentti; Thomsen, Peter

    2008-06-15

    Previous studies suggest that implant material properties influence the quality and quantity of fibrous capsule around the implant. However, the precise relation between material surface chemistry, early inflammatory response, and fibrous subsequent repair outcome is still unknown. Titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), surfaces with different inflammatory potential, were implanted subcutaneously in rats and retrieved fibrous capsules were analyzed after 28 and 56 days. Histological examinations show pronounced differences in capsule morphology. The fibrous capsule around Ti was thinner than that around Cu, with less number of the inflammatory cells in the layer close to the implant surface, and less and smaller blood vessels. The capsule around Cu was thick, with a large number of the inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages and giant cells, and increased number of blood vessels. Our study suggests that material surface properties, which initiate early, multiple cellular inflammatory events, are also associated with increased fibrosis and angiogenesis during repair phase. PMID:17896778

  20. Automated Visual Inspection Method For Printed Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneki, K.; Edamatsu, K.; Komuro, A.

    1984-12-01

    This method relates to the inspection of pharmaceutical filled capsules. The object of this inspection method is to detect mainly structural defects of the capsule with or without printing. To recognize the characters which are printed on the surface of the capsule is not an object. Capsules consist of a cap and body which are telescopically fitted together, and the bodies are filled with medicinal material. The two spherical ends and near the center region of each capsule should be inspected for defects. Further the area where printing may cover should be inspected for indications of such defects as a foreign material, a body dent or a speck. On the basis of projection technique, the body/cap boundary points can be distinguished from the printing edge points near the body/cap boundary, and the size of the area which the printing may cover can also be computed.

  1. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  2. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  3. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  4. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  5. Electromyographic changes in postmeniscectomy patients. Role of the pneumatic tourniquet.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, S I; Louis, D L; Waylonis, G W

    1979-03-23

    Delayed rehabilitation in postmeniscectomy patients may be due to a slowly resolving axonal compression syndrome secondary to the use of the pneumatic tourniquet. Twenty-five patients who underwent meniscectomy were examined to determine whether the pneumatic tourniquet used during the procedure caused a neurological dificit detectable by electromyography (EMG). Of these, 18 had postsurgical EMG changes that eventually resolved. Analysis of the data suggests a relationship between the occurrence of EMG abnormalities, the duration of the tourniquet inflation during surgery, and patient's recovery time. Quadricep muscle weakness after knee surgery has generally been attributed to disuse atrophy. In an attempt to prevent this problem, patients participate in a quadriceps exercise program, if possible, before surgery, with continuation after surgery. The persistence of weakness has been believed to be secondary to inadequate exercise. PMID:581679

  6. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  7. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s.

  8. Development of pneumatic thrust-deflecting powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Improvements introduced into the Circulation Control Wing/Upper Surface Blowing (CCW/USB) STOL concept (Harris et al., 1982) are described along with results of the full-scale static ground tests and model-scale wind tunnel investigations. Tests performed on the full-scale pneumatic thrust-deflecting system installed on the NASA QSRA aircraft have demonstrated that, relative to the original baseline configuration, a doubling of incremental thrust deflection due to blowing resulted from improvements that increased the blowing span and momentum, as well as from variations in blowing slot height and geometry of the trailing edge. A CCW/Over the Wing model has been built and tested, which was shown to be equivalent to the CCW/USB system in terms of pneumatic thrust deflection and lift generation, while resolving the problem of cruise thrust loss due to exhaust scrubbing on the wing upper surface.

  9. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal.

  10. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  11. Nonlinear Vibrational Behaviour of an Elasto-Pneumatic Training Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Claudia; Hetzler, Hartmut; Seemann, Wolfgang

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibrational response of a stepping-board with nonlinear elasto-pneumatic force elements. Experimental investigations often show too high vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) between the test persons and the training tool during exercises. The goal of this contribution is to identify the main factors of the dynamical behaviour and thus the biomechanical impact on humans of this training tool. Therefore this paper presents a mechanical model in order to investigate the interaction between the nonlinear behaviour of the board and the athlete. The multiphysical modelling consists of the linear-elastic structural stiffness part and the nonlinear part due to the pneumatic components. This leads to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.

  12. Massive Pulmonary Calculi Embolism: A Novel Complication of Pneumatic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pneumatic lithotripsy is a minimally invasive technique mainly for the treatment of urinary staghorn stones. Previous literatures have reported some therapeutic complications during or after this procedure, but calculi embolism has not been mentioned before. We report here a fatal case of calculi-induced pulmonary embolism in an adult woman who underwent pneumatic lithotripsy. An autopsy did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary embolism. However, light microscopy revealed noticeable presence of calculi in pulmonary arterioles and capillaries, as evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The primary determinants of calculi embolism include intrarenal pressure, and volume and viscosity of the calculi fragments formation. Vascular intravasation of smashed calculi might increase pulmonary vascular resistance and hypoxemia and decrease cardiac output. This case report intends to provide information for clinicians to consider the probability of intraoperative calculi embolism during lithotripsies when patients develop typical symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:26222867

  13. Capsule depolymerase overexpression reduces Bacillus anthracis virulence.

    PubMed

    Scorpio, Angelo; Chabot, Donald J; Day, William A; Hoover, Timothy A; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2010-05-01

    Capsule depolymerase (CapD) is a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a product of the Bacillus anthracis capsule biosynthesis operon. In this study, we examined the effect of modulating capD expression on B. anthracis capsule phenotype, interaction with phagocytic cells and virulence in guinea pigs. Transcriptional fusions of capD were made to the genes encoding heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) and elongation factor Tu (EFTu), and to capA, a B. anthracis capsule biosynthesis gene. Translation signals were altered to improve expression of capD, including replacing the putative ribosome-binding site with a consensus sequence and the TTG start codon with ATG. CapD was not detected by immunoblotting in lysates from wild-type B. anthracis Ames but was detected in strains engineered with a consensus ribosome-binding site for capD. Strains overexpressing capD at amounts detected by immunoblotting were found to have less surface-associated capsule and released primarily lower-molecular-mass capsule into culture supernatants. Overexpression of capD increased susceptibility to neutrophil phagocytic killing and adherence to macrophages and resulted in reduced fitness in a guinea pig model of infection. These data suggest that B. anthracis may have evolved weak capD expression resulting in optimized capsule-mediated virulence. PMID:20110296

  14. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P < 0.01 glucose and cholesterol, P = NS triglycerides). In healthy individuals glycemia did not change with nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:1307994

  15. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  16. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  17. Electric versus pneumatic power in hand prostheses for children.

    PubMed

    Plettenburg, D H

    1989-01-01

    Most externally powered hand prostheses for children with a unilateral congenital below-elbow amputation are myoelectrically controlled. All of them are electrically powered. Despite the success of fitting children with this kind of prostheses, there are some disadvantages: prosthetic weight is high, operating speed is low, the system is vulnerable and its size prohibits fitting it to patients with a long fore-arm stump. It will be shown that pneumatic power can overcome most of these disadvantages. PMID:2733004

  18. Comprehensive integration of homogeneous bioassays via centrifugo-pneumatic cascading.

    PubMed

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Linares, Ana V; Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-02-21

    This work for the first time presents the full integration and automation concept for a range of bioassays leveraged by cascading a centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme to sequentially move several liquids through shared channel segments for multi-step sample preparation into the detection zone. This novel centrifugo-pneumatic liquid handling significantly simplifies system manufacture by obviating the need for complex surface functionalization procedures or hybrid material integration, as it is common in conventional valving methods such as capillary burst valves or sacrificial valves. Based on the centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme, this work presents a toolkit of operational elements implementing liquid loading/transfer, metering, mixing and sedimentation in a microstructured polymer disc. As a proof of concept for the broad class of homogeneous bioassays, the full integration and automation of a colorimetric nitrate/nitrite test for the detection of clinically relevant nitric oxide (NO) in whole blood is implemented. First, 40 μL of plasma is extracted from a 100 μL sample of human blood, incubated for one hour with the enzymatic mixture (60 μL), and finally reacted with 100 μL of colorimetric (Greiss) reagents. Following just a single loading phase at the beginning of the process, all of these steps are automated through the centrifugo-pneumatic cascade with a high level of flow control and synchronization. Our system shows good correlation with controls up to 50 μM of nitrate, which adequately covers the healthy human range (4 to 45.3 μM). PMID:23250328

  19. A pneumatic sample changer for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massoni, C.J.; Fones, R.V.; Simon, F.O.

    1973-01-01

    A gravity-feed, pneumatic-ejection sample changer has been developed. The changer is suitable for both flat and well-type detectors and permits the continuous use of gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The electronic circuitry has a fail-safe feature which stops the operation of the changer if a malfunction occurs. ?? 1973 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  1. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  3. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  4. Constructing computational pipelines.

    PubMed

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  5. Pipeline Calibration for STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

    The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

  6. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design. PMID:11794641

  7. Automated pneumatic transfer irradiation system for delayed neutron counting

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, Paul G.; Millard, Hugh T. Jr.; Zermane, Albert J

    1982-07-01

    The Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor has been used for uranium and thorium neutron activation analysis by delayed neutron counting for the past eleven years. As the requirements for analysis increased the original General Atomic pneumatic system was upgraded in several stages. By 1979 we had reached the practical limits of safe through-put for that system and a new pneumatic transfer system was built. A single large Roots type blower is used to drive four individual transfer tubes simultaneously (two termini in the core and two outside the reflector). A microprocessor controls the operation and is paced by a minicomputer, which is also used to collect and reduce the counting data. Two irradiations and counting cycles are performed on each sample, one in the core, a Cd-lined terminus for thorium, and one in the reflector mounted terminus for uranium. Video displays at both the reactor console and the pneumatic system operating station indicate the status of the system and the locations of the samples at all times. This highly automated system is capable of 1,200 irradiations for delayed neutron counting in a 10 hour day, and, in addition, incorporates programmable versatility for other irradiation-counting experiments, and provides a high degree of reactor and radiological safety with only remote operator attention. (author)

  8. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general model-based prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.

  9. Evaluation of unsaturated zone air permeability through pneumatic tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Hult, Marc F.

    1991-01-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of air pressure in the unsaturated zone resulting from a pneumatic test provides a method for determining air-phase permeability. This technique is analogous to the inverse problem of well hydraulics; however, air flow is more complicated than ground water flow because of air compressibility, the Klinkenberg effect, variations in air density and viscosity that result from temperature fluctuations in the unsaturated zone and the possibility of inducing water movement during the pneumatic test. An analysis of these complicating factors reveals that, when induced water movement can be neglected, a linear version of the airflow equation can provide an appropriate approximation for the purpose of determining air-phase permeability. Two analytical solutions for steady state, two-dimensional, axisymmetric airflow to a single well partially screened in the unsaturated zone are developed. One solution applies where there is a stratum of relatively low air permeability, separating the stratum in which the well is completed, from the atmosphere. The other solution applies where there is no separating stratum between the domain and atmosphere. In both situations the water table forms the lower horizontal boundary. Applications of both solutions to determine air permeability from data collected during pneumatic tests are presented.

  10. Characterization of sprays for thermo-stabilized pneumatic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Ochowiak, M; Doligalski, M; Broniarz-Press, L; Matuszak, M; Gościniak, A

    2016-03-31

    The research presents the nebulizer spray chamber temperature controller responsible for controlling temperature of aerosol produced as a result of nebulizing process. The motivation to make an attempt to improve modern pneumatic devices was the shortage of this kind of apparatuses on the market allowing the production of thermos aerosol. A designed temperature controlling system for pneumatic nebulizers aims at increasing and stabilizing temperature of produced aerosols and increasing aerosol therapy safety. The system is intended for producing aerosol in the process of pneumatic nebulization with the temperature similar to that of the human body. Experiments that were carried out confirmed good performance of the device. It was proved that with the increase of temperature the amount of big droplets fall and the entire spectrum of the droplet diameter moves towards smaller droplet diameter values. Reduction of liquid viscosity related to the increase of temperature leads to the reduction of droplet diameter and, as a result, the reduction of the Sauter mean diameter value. PMID:26825254

  11. Design, modeling and fabrication of a constant flow pneumatic micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inman, Walker; Domansky, Karel; Serdy, James; Owens, Bryan; Trumper, David; Griffith, Linda G.

    2007-05-01

    This paper characterizes a bi-directional pneumatic diaphragm micropump and presents a model for performance of an integrated fluidic capacitor. The fluidic capacitor is used to convert pulsatile flow into a nearly continuous flow stream. The pump was fabricated in acrylic using a CNC mill. The stroke volume of the pump is ~1 µL. The pump is self-priming, bubble tolerant and insensitive to changes in head pressure and pneumatic pressure within its operating range. The pump achieves a maximum flow rate of 5 mL min-1 against zero head pressure. With pneumatic pressure set to 40 kPa, the pump can provide flow at 2.6 mL min-1 against a head pressure of 25 kPa. A nonlinear model for the capacitor was developed and compared with experimental results. The ratio of the time constant of the capacitor to the cycle time of the pump is shown to be an accurate indicator of capacitor performance and a useful design tool.

  12. Design and Control of a Pneumatically Actuated Transtibial Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Shen, Xiangrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator. In this paper, the design details of the prosthesis are described, including the determination of performance specifications, the layout of the actuation mechanism, and the calculation of the torque capacity. Through the authors’ design calculation, the prosthesis is able to provide sufficient range of motion and torque capacity to support the locomotion of a 75 kg individual. The controller design is also described, including the underlying biomechanical analysis and the formulation of the finite-state impedance controller. Finally, the human subject testing results are presented, with the data indicating that the prosthesis is able to generate a natural walking gait and sufficient power output for its amputee user. PMID:26146497

  13. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  14. Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

  15. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://docketsinfo.dot.gov . Docket: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  16. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  17. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  18. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  19. Trans ecuadorian pipeline; Mountainous pipeline restoration a logistical masterpiece

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The Trans Ecuadorian Pipeline pumped approximately 300,000 b/d of crude from fields in eastern Ecuador to an export terminal and refinery at Esmeraldas on the Pacific coast. The devastation resulting from an earthquake cut off the main portion of export income as well as domestic fuel supplies and propane gas. Approximately 25 km of the pipeline was destroyed. This article details how the pipeline was reconstructed, including both the construction of a temporary line and of permanent facilities.

  20. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION:...

  1. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  2. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the control group (mobilisation for 30 minutes after capsule ingestion, followed by intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg if the capsule failed to enter the small bowel) or the intervention group (1000 mL of water prior to capsule ingestion, followed by positional change and magnetic steering). Outcome measures were capsule endoscopy completion rate, gastric clarity and distention, relationship of body habitus to capsule endoscopy completion rate (CECR), and patient comfort scores. Results: 122 patients were recruited (61 each to the control and intervention groups: mean age 49 years [range 21 – 85], 61 females). There was no significant difference in CECR between the two groups (P = 0.39). Time to first pyloric image was significantly shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.03) but there was no difference in gastric transit times (P = 0.12), suggesting that magnetic control hastens capsular transit to the gastric antrum but does not influence duodenal passage. Gastric clarity and distention were significantly better in the intervention group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic steering of a small bowel capsule is unable to overcome pyloric contractions to enhance gastric emptying and improve capsule endoscope completion rate. Excellent mucosal visualisation within the gastric cavity suggests this technique could be harnessed for capsule examination of the stomach. PMID:26878053

  3. Clinical Effect of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhou, Huabang; Dong, Jinhua; Cai, Yiting; Hu, Xing; Dai, Qiang; Yang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although pneumatic dilation is an accepted method for the treatment of achalasia, this therapy has high recurrence and complication rates, and prolonged follow-up studies on the parameters associated with various outcomes are rare. In this prospective 10-year follow-up study, a satisfactory therapeutic effect was achieved without serious complications. We report the therapeutic experience with pneumatic dilation, having aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilation. In total, 35 consecutive patients with idiopathic achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by a phone interview over a 10-year period. The mean duration of the follow-up was 43.03 ± 26.34 months (range 6–120 months). Remission was assessed by the dysphagia classification and symptom scores. Patients’ clinical symptom scores were calculated before and at 6 to 36 months, 37 to 60 months, and >60 months after therapy. The influence of the patients’ age, gender, and disease duration on the therapeutic effect was analyzed. The success rate of the operation was 97.2% (35/36), without massive hemorrhaging, perforation or other serious complications. Dysphagia after the therapy was significantly eased (P < 0.01). In total, 35 patients have been followed up for 6 to 36 months after therapy, 21 cases for 37 to 60 months, and 5 cases for >60 months, and the patients’ symptom scores separately decreased significantly compared with the pretherapy scores (P < 0.01). For these patients, the 6 to 36 months remission rate was 85.7% (30/35), the 37 to 60 months rate was 61.9% (13/21), and the >60 months rate was 40% (2/5). The dilation effect had no relationship to the patient's age, gender, and disease duration (P > 0.05). The patients in 30 cases (85.7%) were successfully treated with a single dilation, in 4 cases (11.4%) with 2 dilations, and in 1 case (2.9%) with 3 dilations

  4. [Is pneumatic sample transport system also a carrier for microorganisms?].

    PubMed

    Alpat, Saygin Nayman; Ozgüneş, Ilhan; Aybey, Aşkin Derya; Ertem, Osman Turgut; Akşit, Filiz

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible infection and contamination risk of the pneumatic system used in our hospital and to establish essential infection control measures. The study was conducted in a quaternary health care center with 1.000 bed capacity. A total of 614 specimens were taken 2 times weekly from the pneumatic transport system and its carriers at 22 wards, 5 intensive care units, 3 laboratories, 2 blood taking units, and pharmacy. Samples were also obtained from the fingertips of 33 subjects using the system, before and after contact with the carriers. A questionnaire that consisted of 8 questions was applied to 224 subjects who worked in those units, evaluating the degree of compliance to the obligations for the cleaning of the pneumatic system and carriers and their approach in case of visible pollution at the system. Bacterial growth was observed in 15.2% (45/296) of samples in the 1st week and 7.6% (18/238) of the samples in the 2nd week, making a total of 11.8% (63/534) bacterial growth. No growth was detected from the areas where the carriers were placed. Of these 69.8% were coagulase negative staphylococci, 11.1% diphteroids, 7.9% Acinetobacter Iwoffii, 4.8% Staphylococcus aureus, 4.8% Bacillus spp. and 1.6% Enterococcus durans. Acinetobacter baumannii and Aspergillus were detected at two fingertip samples taken before the contact with carriers, while again A. baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae were detected at the samples following contact. Moreover, 31.3% of the subjects noted that they cleaned the carriers only if any visible contamination was present. In addition, 14.3% reported that they have encountered broken or spilled up material in the system for more than 5 times, 10.3% reported that they followed the instructions in case of presence of infected material inside the carriers, 23.7% reported that they always washed their hands after any contact with the carriers, 9.8% noted that they always used gloves during contact

  5. K(+)-recognition capsules with squirting release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuang; Liu, Li; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Zhang, Bao; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2011-12-01

    K(+)-recognition capsules are developed to translate K(+)-recognition into a squirting release function. Upon recognition of K(+), the capsules shrink rapidly and squirt out encapsulated oil cores due to the cooperative interaction of host-guest complexation and phase transition in capsule membranes. The capsules provide a promising model for K(+)-recognition smart functional systems. PMID:22001936

  6. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  7. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid,...

  8. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid,...

  9. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  10. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  11. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  12. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  13. Formulation of a minimum variance deconvolution technique for compensation of pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, aircraft system designs require that aerodynamic parameters derived from pneumatic measurements be employed as control-system feedbacks. Such high frequency pressure measurements' accuracy is compromised by pressure distortion due to frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system. A pneumatic distortion model is here formulated and reduced to a low-order state-variable model which retains most of the full model's dynamic characteristics. This reduced-order model is coupled with standard results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for pneumatic-distortion effects.

  14. The SPIRE Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D.; Lim, T.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the data reduction pipeline of the SPIRE instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline is being written in Java and Jython as part of the multi-platform Herschel Common Science System. We concentrate on the algorithmic design of the pipeline based on the analysis of test data. We also discuss some of the alternative designs under consideration and give the reasons for the design adopted.

  15. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  16. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  17. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  19. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  20. The bacterial proteogenomic pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteogenomics combines the cutting-edge methods from genomics and proteomics. While it has become cheap to sequence whole genomes, the correct annotation of protein coding regions in the genome is still tedious and error prone. Mass spectrometry on the other hand relies on good characterizations of proteins derived from the genome, but can also be used to help improving the annotation of genomes or find species specific peptides. Additionally, proteomics is widely used to find evidence for differential expression of proteins under different conditions, e.g. growth conditions for bacteria. The concept of proteogenomics is not altogether new, in-house scripts are used by different labs and some special tools for eukaryotic and human analyses are available. Results The Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline, which is completely written in Java, alleviates the conducting of proteogenomic analyses of bacteria. From a given genome sequence, a naïve six frame translation is performed and, if desired, a decoy database generated. This database is used to identify MS/MS spectra by common peptide identification algorithms. After combination of the search results and optional flagging for different experimental conditions, the results can be browsed and further inspected. In particular, for each peptide the number of identifications for each condition and the positions in the corresponding protein sequences are shown. Intermediate and final results can be exported into GFF3 format for visualization in common genome browsers. Conclusions To facilitate proteogenomics analyses the Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline is a set of comprehensive tools running on common desktop computers, written in Java and thus platform independent. The pipeline allows integrating peptide identifications from various algorithms and emphasizes the visualization of spectral counts from different experimental conditions. PMID:25521444

  1. Biotech pipeline: Bottleneck ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1991-10-18

    A vast array of new genetically engineered drugs are heading for market - but an FDA backlog is holding them up. Patients may have to wait far longer than the biotech enthusiasts suggest before they reap the benefits of those new drugs. There is little hope the FDA will get the money it needs to do the job. The agency's pipeline is clogged with at least 58 monoclonal antibody-based drugs at all stages of testing to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases, including a half-dozen cancers, diabetes, and sepsis.

  2. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  3. Design Improvements and Analysis of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 12171

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, Tomas; Awwad, Amer; Crespo, Jairo; McDaniel, Dwayne; Varona, Jose; Gokaltun, Seckin; Roelant, David

    2012-07-01

    Transferring high-level waste (HLW) between storage tanks or to treatment facilities is a common practice performed at the Department of Energy (DoE) sites. Changes in the chemical and/or physical properties of the HLW slurry during the transfer process may lead to the formation of blockages inside the pipelines resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. To improve DoE's capabilities in the event of a pipeline plugging incident, FIU has continued to develop two novel unplugging technologies: an asynchronous pulsing system and a peristaltic crawler. The asynchronous pulsing system uses a hydraulic pulse generator to create pressure disturbances at two opposite inlet locations of the pipeline to dislodge blockages by attacking the plug from both sides remotely. The peristaltic crawler is a pneumatic/hydraulic operated crawler that propels itself by a sequence of pressurization/depressurization of cavities (inner tubes). The crawler includes a frontal attachment that has a hydraulically powered unplugging tool. In this paper, details of the asynchronous pulsing system's ability to unplug a pipeline on a small-scale test-bed and results from the experimental testing of the second generation peristaltic crawler are provided. The paper concludes with future improvements for the third generation crawler and a recommended path forward for the asynchronous pulsing testing. (authors)

  4. Capsule endoscopy: Current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed investigation of the small bowel providing a non-invasive, well tolerated means of accurately visualising the distal duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Since the introduction of small bowel CE thirteen years ago a high volume of literature on indications, diagnostic yields and safety profile has been presented. Inclusion in national and international guidelines has placed small bowel capsule endoscopy at the forefront of investigation into suspected diseases of the small bowel. Most commonly, small bowel CE is used in patients with suspected bleeding or to identify evidence of active Crohn’s disease (CD) (in patients with or without a prior history of CD). Typically, CE is undertaken after upper and lower gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy has failed to identify a diagnosis. Small bowel radiology or a patency capsule test should be considered prior to CE in those at high risk of strictures (such as patients known to have CD or presenting with obstructive symptoms) to reduce the risk of capsule retention. CE also has a role in patients with coeliac disease, suspected small bowel tumours and other small bowel disorders. Since the advent of small bowel CE, dedicated oesophageal and colon capsule endoscopes have expanded the fields of application to include the investigation of upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. Oesophageal CE may be used to diagnose oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and varices but reliability in identifying gastroduodenal pathology is unknown and it does not have biopsy capability. Colon CE provides an alternative to conventional colonoscopy for symptomatic patients, while a possible role in colorectal cancer screening is a fascinating prospect. Current research is already addressing the possibility of controlling capsule movement and developing capsules which allow tissue sampling and the administration of therapy. PMID:24976712

  5. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  6. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  7. Clamp for arctic pipeline support

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, A.W.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a ring clamp for supporting and anchoring a large diameter metallic arctic pipeline comprising substantially rigid, curved clamp portions adapted to completely encircle the pipeline and fastening means connecting the clamp portions, the clamp portions having inner and outer layers of fiber reinforced rigid polymer material and an intermediate core layer of honeycomb-form aramid paper.

  8. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  9. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  10. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  11. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  12. Forces associated with pneumatic power screwdriver operation: statics and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G; Fronczak, Frank J; Richard, Terry G

    2003-10-10

    The statics and dynamics of pneumatic power screwdriver operation were investigated in the context of predicting forces acting against the human operator. A static force model is described in the paper, based on tool geometry, mass, orientation in space, feed force, torque build up, and stall torque. Three common power hand tool shapes are considered, including pistol grip, right angle, and in-line. The static model estimates handle force needed to support a power nutrunner when it acts against the tightened fastener with a constant torque. A system of equations for static force and moment equilibrium conditions are established, and the resultant handle force (resolved in orthogonal directions) is calculated in matrix form. A dynamic model is formulated to describe pneumatic motor torque build-up characteristics dependent on threaded fastener joint hardness. Six pneumatic tools were tested to validate the deterministic model. The average torque prediction error was 6.6% (SD = 5.4%) and the average handle force prediction error was 6.7% (SD = 6.4%) for a medium-soft threaded fastener joint. The average torque prediction error was 5.2% (SD = 5.3%) and the average handle force prediction error was 3.6% (SD = 3.2%) for a hard threaded fastener joint. Use of these equations for estimating handle forces based on passive mechanical elements representing the human operator is also described. These models together should be useful for considering tool handle force in the selection and design of power screwdrivers, particularly for minimizing handle forces in the prevention of injuries and work related musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:12933078

  13. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  14. Note: A fast pneumatic sample-shuttle with attenuated shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Valerio; Dancheva, Yordanka; Stiaccini, Leonardo

    2014-03-15

    We describe a home-built pneumatic shuttle suitable for the fast displacement of samples in the vicinity of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer. The samples are magnetized at 1 T using a Halbach assembly of magnets. The device enables the remote detection of free-induction-decay in ultra-low-field and zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, in relaxometric measurements and in other applications involving the displacement of magnetized samples within time intervals as short as a few tens of milliseconds. Other possible applications of fast sample shuttling exist in radiological studies, where samples have to be irradiated and then analyzed in a cold environment.

  15. Model free control for differential pneumatic pistons: experimental comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weist, Jens; Arteaga, Marco A.; de la Cruz, Leonardo R.; Hebisch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    PID controllers are widely used in industry. While this may be appropriate for many systems, eventually a more complex or reliable algorithm has to be designed to improve performance. Common praxis is to take advantage either of physical properties (e.g. passivity) or of a mathematical model. For this last case it may prove to be hard to get an accurate description of the system dynamics. In this article we experimentally analyse the behaviour of pneumatic actuators by employing control algorithms available in the literature with little or no model information at all, including an adaptation of a robot control law which is shown to work very well for the test bed.

  16. Compact, Non-Pneumatic Rock-Powder Samplers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Tool bits that automatically collect powdered rock, permafrost, or other hard material generated in repeated hammering action have been invented. The present invention pertains to the special case in which it is desired to collect samples in powder form for analysis by x-ray diffraction and possibly other techniques. The present invention eliminates the need for both the mechanical collection equipment and the crushing chamber and the pneumatic collection equipment of prior approaches, so that it becomes possible to make the overall sample-acquisition apparatus more compact.

  17. Mudslide effects on offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.C.; Jones, W.T.

    1982-11-01

    In regions of unstable soils such as portions of the Mississippi Delta, occasional pipeline failures during periods of severe weather have been attributed to mudslides. The effects of such downslope soil movements on the deflection and resulting stress in a pipeline have been studied in an attempt to reveal methods of routing or design which would reduce the risk of failure. Results show that the chances of surviving a slide are increased if the pipeline outer diameter is reduced to as small a value as possible, if the pipe wall thickness is increased, and if some slack is available in the line. The chance of survival is greatest if the slide occurs in a direction perpendicular to the pipeline route since the failure mode is primarily one of tension. When the slide crosses the pipeline at other angles of incidence, the chance of survival is significantly lessened.

  18. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  19. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  20. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  1. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  7. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  8. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... design temperature (see UG-21 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1)). In no case shall the pneumatic test pressure exceed one and one... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be...

  10. A quantitative method for the evaluation of three-dimensional structure of temporal bone pneumatization.

    PubMed

    Hill, Cheryl A; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2008-10-01

    Temporal bone pneumatization has been included in lists of characters used in phylogenetic analyses of human evolution. While studies suggest that the extent of pneumatization has decreased over the course of human evolution, little is known about the processes underlying these changes or their significance. In short, reasons for the observed reduction and the potential reorganization within pneumatized spaces are unknown. Technological limitations have limited previous analyses of pneumatization in extant and fossil species to qualitative observations of the extent of temporal bone pneumatization. In this paper, we introduce a novel application of quantitative methods developed for the study of trabecular bone to the analysis of pneumatized spaces of the temporal bone. This method utilizes high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) images and quantitative software to estimate three-dimensional parameters (bone volume fractions, anisotropy, and trabecular thickness) of bone structure within defined units of pneumatized spaces. We apply this approach in an analysis of temporal bones of diverse but related primate species, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens, and Papio hamadryas anubis, to illustrate the potential of these methods. In demonstrating the utility of these methods, we show that there are interspecific differences in the bone structure of pneumatized spaces, perhaps reflecting changes in the localized growth dynamics, location of muscle attachments, encephalization, or basicranial flexion. PMID:18715622

  11. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intended function under any normal system operating temperature or pressure, and (c) Means to indicate to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection...

  12. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... car tires to meet safety criteria similar to those for new pneumatic passenger car tires....

  13. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be accomplished... allowable working pressure of the vessel to permit examination. (e) Pressure vessels pneumatically tested... testing of welded pressure vessels shall be permitted only for those units which are so designed...

  14. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (d) The pneumatic test of pressure vessels shall be accomplished... allowable working pressure of the vessel to permit examination. (e) Pressure vessels pneumatically tested... testing of welded pressure vessels shall be permitted only for those units which are so designed...

  15. Capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination plan

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Kania, M.J.; Shrader, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-21 is a test capsule designed to provide Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) coated particle fuel performance data under test reactor conditions representative of normal MHTGR operation. The irradiated fuel will also be used for postirradiation heating in a controlled atmosphere allowing acquisition of fission product release data at sustained high temperatures. The in-reactor performance data, the postirradiation examination data, and the postirradiation heating data will be used for the validation of fuel performance models under normal and off-normal operating conditions. The accelerated irradiation is to take place in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. This report identifies the procedures to be followed in carrying out the postirradiation disassembly and examination of HRB-21. Included is a description of the capsule, a detailed sequence of steps for disassembly of the capsule, a description of the postirradiation examination techniques to be employed, and specifications for the storage of capsule components and the reporting of results. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  17. IDC Infrasound Pipeline development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, P.; Bittner, P.; Brown, D.; Given, J.

    2012-04-01

    The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 44 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount of infrasound data and detections produced by the automatic system challenged the station and network processing at the IDC, which require the Organization to improve the infrasound data processing. For nearly 2 years, the IDC resumed automatic processing of infrasound data reviewed by interactive analysis; the detected and located events are being systematically included in the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) and REB. Approximately 16% of SEL3 (Selected Event List 3, produced 6 hours after real-time) events with an infrasound component make it to the IDC bulletins and 41% of SEL3 events rejected after review are built including only 2 associated infrasound phases (and potentially seismic and hydroacoustic detections). Therefore, the process whereby infrasound and seismic detections are associated into an event needed to be investigated further. The IDC works on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold. Thus the IDC investigates ways to refine the signal characterization methodology and the association criteria. The objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the SEL3 pipeline when generating the LEB and REB bulletins. The study is performed in the virtual Data Exploitation Center (vDEC) from the CTBTO in order to separate the automatic processing into two streams: seismic and hydroacoustic (SH) pipeline on one side, and infrasound (I) pipeline on the other side. The "fusion" of the two parallel event-forming streams will have to be

  18. The pneumatization patterns of the roof of the parapharyngeal space in CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Felicia; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Loreto, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The rhinopharynx and the parapharyngeal space (PPS) are complex anatomical territories located beneath the skull base. Thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of the PPS is essential in treatment of pathologies such as parapharyngeal abscesses. The roof of the PPS is overlooked in anatomy. It was hypothesized that the pneumatization pattern of the PPS roof is individually variable, as determined by the variable pneumatization patterns of the sphenoid and temporal bones. The study was aimed at assessing the anatomy of the PPS roof in CBCT. Methods The present study was performed retrospectively on a group of 35 subjects (37.1% males) evaluated by CBCT for various dental procedures. Results The mean age of the group was 37.9 (SD: 14.2, range: 18 to 61). The major bony landmarks of the PPS roof were: the petrous apex with the carotid canal, the jugular foramen, the foramen lacerum, the sphenopetrosal fissure or suture, and the root of the pterygoid process. Variable patterns of pneumatization were determined by the petrous apex air cells and the pterygoalar recess of the sphenoidal sinus. As related to the individually pattern of pneumatization, the following types of the PPS roof were defined: (i) type 1 – not pneumatized PPS roof; (ii) type 2 – sphenoidal but not petrosal pneumatization of the PPS roof; (iii) type 3 – petrosal but not sphenoidal pneumatization of the PPS roof; (iv) type 4 – sphenoidal and petrosal pneumatizations of the PPS roof. Discussion Although on the left side the degree of pneumatization was higher than on the right side, no statistical differences were recorded (p > 0.05). The pattern of pneumatizations in the PPS roof should be assessed when PPS involvement in otitis or sinusitis is considered. PMID:24432276

  19. Performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Tan, Jiubin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Tong

    2015-02-01

    A performance analysis and experiment validation of a pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) that applied in the wafer stage of lithography is proposed in this work. The wafer stage of lithography is a dual-stage actuator system, including a long-stroke stage (LS) and a short-stroke stage (SS). In order to achieve the nanometer level positioning the isolator is designed to reduce the transmission of LS excitations to SS. In addition, considering the SS with six degrees of freedom and required to keep a strict constant temperature environment, the isolator need to have two functions, including the decoupling for vertical to horizontal and gravity compensation. In this isolator, a biaxial hinge was designed to decouple vertical rotation freedom, and a gas bearing was designed to decouple horizontal motion. The stiffness and damping of the pneumatic vibration isolator were analyzed. Besides, an analysis of the natural frequency and vibration transmissibility of the isolator is presented. In the end, the results show that vibration transmission is reduced significantly by the isolator and natural frequency can be lower than 0.6 Hz. This means that experimental results accord with the prediction model.

  20. Empirical modeling of dynamic behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators.

    PubMed

    Wickramatunge, Kanchana Crishan; Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2013-11-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators yield muscle-like mechanical actuation with high force to weight ratio, soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled as well as humanoid robots or machines. The present study is to develop empirical models of the PAM actuators, that is, a PAM coupled with pneumatic control valves, in order to describe their dynamic behaviors for practical control design and usage. Empirical modeling is an efficient approach to computer-based modeling with observations of real behaviors. Different characteristics of dynamic behaviors of each PAM actuator are due not only to the structures of the PAM actuators themselves, but also to the variations of their material properties in manufacturing processes. To overcome the difficulties, the proposed empirical models are experimentally derived from real physical behaviors of the PAM actuators, which are being implemented. In case studies, the simulated results with good agreement to experimental results, show that the proposed methodology can be applied to describe the dynamic behaviors of the real PAM actuators. PMID:23871151

  1. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Oshkour, Azim Ataollahi; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Wan Abas, Wan A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded. PMID:25207872

  2. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-01

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24145429

  3. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Philip N.; Nguyen, Transon V.; Hui, Elliot E.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24145429

  4. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub-system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL) predictions. Such information enables system operators to make informed maintenance decisions and streamline operational and mission-level activities. We develop a model-based prognostics methodology for pneumatic valves used in ground support equipment for cryogenic propellant loading operations. These valves are used to control the flow of propellant, so failures may have a significant impact on launch availability. Therefore, correctly predicting when valves will fail enables timely maintenance that avoids launch delays and aborts. The approach utilizes mathematical models describing the underlying physics of valve degradation, and, employing the particle filtering algorithm for joint state-parameter estimation, determines the health state of the valve and the rate of damage progression, from which EOL and RUL predictions are made. We develop a prototype user interface for valve prognostics, and demonstrate the prognostics approach using historical pneumatic valve data from the Space Shuttle refueling system.

  5. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  6. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbett, W. J.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S. G.; Leatherland, A. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Coltman, J. E.; Meadowcroft, A. E.; Rice, S. J.; Simons, A. J.; Woolhead, V. E.

    2016-05-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 109 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling.

  7. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  8. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  9. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  10. WFPC2 Pipeline Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Chris

    2004-03-01

    This document contains a listing of all WFPC2 reference files, grouped by type, that are presently available in the Calibration Data Base (CDB) System, and a summary of how they are used in the calibration of WFPC2 data. A summary memo is kept on STEIS and kept up to date as the reference files change. That memo is intended to inform observers as to the quality of the calibration applied to their data by the PODPS pipeline processing and to provide an aid in selecting appropriate reference files for the re-calibration of WFPC2 observations. The datafiles may be requested by name from the STScI in the same fashion as any other nonproprietary data products.

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  14. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  15. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  16. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis: a review

    PubMed Central

    D’Orsi, Giovanni Maria; Via, Alessio Giai; Frizziero, Antonio; Oliva, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesive capsulitis is a condition “difficult to define, difficult to treat and difficult to explain from the point of view of pathology”. This Codman’s assertion is still actual because of a variable nomenclature, an inconsistent reporting of disease staging and many types of treatment. There is no consensus on how the best way best to manage patients with this condition, so we want to provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat adhesive capsulitis. PMID:23738277

  17. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    PubMed

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell. PMID:25233260

  18. Toughness requirements for pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental results of large scale (curved wide plate) tests on thin wall pipelines (thickness < 12.7 mm) have been compared with small scale (Charpy V notch impact and CTOD) test results. The result of the comparisons show that (a) the Charpy V notch impact test can be used to predict plastic collapse by pipe metal yielding of pipelines containing surface breaking root cracks and (b) the CTOD test should not be used as a basis for designing thin wall pipelines against brittle fracture. The assessment has further demonstrated that the effect of weld metal yield strength on the required minimum CVN or CTOD is an important factor.

  19. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  20. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction §...

  1. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  2. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  3. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  4. 1997 annual pipeline directory and equipment guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This annual guide is divided into the following sections: Equivalent valve tables; Complete 1997 line pipe tables; Engineering and construction services; Crude oil pipeline companies; Slurry companies; Natural gas companies; Gas distribution pipeline companies; Municipal gas systems; Canadian pipeline companies; International pipeline companies; and Company index. The tables list component materials, manufacturers, and service companies.

  5. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  6. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  7. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  8. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved. PMID:26726680

  9. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  10. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  11. Lessons from Korean Capsule Endoscopy Multicenter Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Ok

    2012-01-01

    Since its development, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) introduced a new area in the study of small bowel disease. We reviewed and discussed current issues from Korean capsule endoscopy multicenter studies. Main results are as follows: First, there was no significant difference in diagnostic yield according to the method of bowel preparation. Second, VCE represents a reliable and influential screening measure in patients with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and this technique could successfully alter the clinical course especially for patients with small bowel tumor. Third, the inter-observer variation in the expert group was lower than that in trainee group. Fourth, studies about the spontaneous capsule passage after retention showed 2.5% of retention rate and the size of lumen was an important factor of spontaneous passage. We need larger scale studies on the effect of bowel preparation methods on the diagnostic yield and further studies about the learning curve or unique capsule endoscopic findings for small intestinal diseases in Korean patients. PMID:22977821

  12. Wireless capsule endoscopy: perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-11-14

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  13. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  14. Reciprocal Teaching. Information Capsule. Volume 0609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Reciprocal teaching is an instructional approach designed to increase students' reading comprehension at all grade levels and in all subject areas. Students are taught cognitive strategies that help them construct meaning from text and simultaneously monitor their reading comprehension. This Information Capsule summarizes reciprocal teaching's…

  15. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  16. Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2014-06-21

    Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

  17. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  8. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin capsules. 520.90a Section 520.90a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.90a Ampicillin capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains...

  9. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  10. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  11. [The bionic artificial joint capsule study (1)--mechanics simulation].

    PubMed

    Su, Shihu; Zhang, Jianhua; Tao, Dehua

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model was created for bionic artificial joint with joint capsule. Finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate and simulate mechanics distribution of the joint capsule under different thickness of the joint capsule, different loading, and different angular displacements. The results of the simulation show that the maximum stress is created in the joint area between artificial joint capsule. And the effect of the thickness of the artificial joint capsule on the stress magnitude and distribution is depend on motion model. On standing situation, the maximum stress decreases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. However, on walking situation, the maximum stress increases with the increase of the thickness of joint capsule. Whatever conditions simulated, the maximum stress of the artificial joint capsule is not over the limit of the material strength (9.97 megapascals). All the large stress, which gained from the simulation under different situations, locates at the interface between the capsule and the artificial joint. This is because the artificial joint and the capsule transfer loading each other at the interface. At the same time, supporting area of the capsule at the location of the interface is minimum for the whole vesicle. The stress concentration is inevitable at the interface due to the model structure. This result will offer guidance for the optimum joint structure of the capsule and the artificial joint. PMID:17333904

  12. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  16. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule. Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030955. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  17. Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.F.

    1997-05-01

    This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

  18. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  19. The qualitative assessment of pneumatic actuators operation in terms of vibration criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmanczyk, M. P.; Michalski, P.

    2015-11-01

    The work quality of pneumatic actuators can be assessed in terms of multiple criteria. In the case of complex systems with pneumatic actuators retained at end positions (with occurrence of piston impact in cylinder covers) the vibration criteria constitute the most reliable indicators. The paper presents an impact assessment on the operating condition of the rodless pneumatic cylinder regarding to selected vibrational symptoms. On the basis of performed analysis the authors had shown meaningful premises allowing an evaluation of the performance and tuning of end position damping piston movement with usage the most common diagnostic tools (portable vibration analyzers). The presented method is useful in tuning of parameters in industrial conditions.

  20. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  1. Programmable pipelined image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, Donald B. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A pipelined image processor selectively interconnects modules in a column of a two-dimensional array to modules of the next column of the array of modules 1,1 through M,N, where M is the number of modules in one dimension and N is the number of modules in the other direction. Each module includes two input selectors for A and B inputs, two convolvers, a binary function operator, a neighborhood comparison operator which produces an A output and an output selector which may select as a B output the output of any one of the components in the module, including the A output of the neighborhood comparison operator. Each module may be connected to as many as eight modules in the next column, preferably with the majority always in a different row that is up (or down) in the array for a generally spiral data path around the torus thus formed. The binary function operator is implemented as a look-up table addressed by the most significant 8 bits of each 12-bit argument. The table output includes a function value and the slopes for interpolation of the two arguments by multiplying the 4 least significant bits in multipliers and adding the products to the function value through adders.

  2. The role of particle collisions in pneumatic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastorakos, E.; Louge, M.; Jenkins, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    A model of dilute gas-solid flow in vertical risers is developed in which the particle phase is treated as a granular material, the balance equations for rapid granular flow are modified to incorporate the drag force from the gas, and boundary conditions, based on collisional exchanges of momentum and energy at the wall, are employed. In this model, it is assumed that the particle fluctuations are determined by inter-particle collisions only and that the turbulence of the gas is unaffected by the presence of the particles. The model is developed in the context of, but not limited to, steady, fully developed flow. A numerical solution of the resulting governing equations provides concentration profiles generally observed in dilute pneumatic flow, velocity profiles in good agreement with the measurements of Tsuji, et al. (1984), and an explanation for the enhancement of turbulence that they observed.

  3. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  4. Pneumatically driven peristaltic micropumps utilizing serpentine-shape channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2006-02-01

    This study presents a novel pneumatic micropump featuring a serpentine-shape (S-shape) microchannel. Fluid is driven through the device by the hydrodynamic pressure generated by the peristaltic action of membranes located at the intersections of the fluidic microchannel and the S-shape microchannel. The pneumatic micropump is fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) using MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems)-based techniques. The micropump provides an improved pumping rate and is controlled using a single electromagnetic valve (EMV) switch. The experimental results reveal that the pumping rate can be increased by increasing the operational frequency of the EMV, the pressure of the externally supplied compressed air or the number of membranes. As the compressed air travels along the S-shape microchannel, it causes the membranes to deflect. The time-phased deflection of successive membranes along the microchannel length generates a peristaltic effect which drives the fluid along the microfluidic channel. The maximum attainable pumping rate is influenced by the time interval between the deflections of adjacent membranes, and is therefore affected by the geometric characteristics of the serpentine microchannel. The back pressure of the serpentine-shape micropump is measured at a fixed peak frequency to prove its ability to overcome the fluidic resistance. The optimum operating conditions and geometric parameters of the micropump are verified experimentally. It is found that the maximum pumping rate is 7.43 µl min-1 and is provided by a micropump with seven membranes actuated by 20 psi air pressure and 9 Hz operational frequency. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (IEEE ROBIO 2005), Hong Kong SAR, 29 June-03 July 2005.

  5. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  6. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  7. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. PMID:26848279

  8. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. PMID:26848279

  9. Application of Model-based Prognostics to a Pneumatic Valves Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Gorospe, George

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic-actuated valves play an important role in many applications, including cryogenic propellant loading for space operations. Model-based prognostics emphasizes the importance of a model that describes the nominal and faulty behavior of a system, and how faulty behavior progresses in time, causing the end of useful life of the system. We describe the construction of a testbed consisting of a pneumatic valve that allows the injection of faulty behavior and controllable fault progression. The valve opens discretely, and is controlled through a solenoid valve. Controllable leaks of pneumatic gas in the testbed are introduced through proportional valves, allowing the testing and validation of prognostics algorithms for pneumatic valves. A new valve prognostics approach is developed that estimates fault progression and predicts remaining life based only on valve timing measurements. Simulation experiments demonstrate and validate the approach.

  10. Basic laws of the processes and the principle of minimum energy consumption during pneumatic transport and distribution of pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leykin, V. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents analysis of the basic laws and a calculation-based investigation of processes related to the low-concentration pneumatic transport and the distribution of finely dispersed pulverized fuel in direct pulverized fuel preparation systems of boiler units. Based on the principle of the minimum energy consumption, it is shown that, at high (standard) velocities of the turbulent gas flow—of 25-30 m/s, which is by 1.5-2 times higher than the critical speeds—the finely dispersed pulverized fuel can be transported simultaneously in the form of a low-concentration flow in pipelines and a concentrated, to 30% of the flow rate, thin layer on the pipeline walls with the height of the layer equal to 0.02-0.04 of the pipe radius. Consideration of this phenomenon is of great significance in terms of securing the efficient operation of pulverized fuel distribution units. The basic characteristics of the process have been determined and validated by test bench investigations using both model systems and pulverized fuel distribution systems of a number of power-generating units. The obtained results underlie a methodological approach to developing high-efficiency adjustable pulverized fuel distribution units. Also, results of industrial testing are presented that confirm the results of the analysis and of experimental studies.

  11. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Benjamin; Spertus, Juliette; Kamga, Camille

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Pneumatic and truck collection were compared in three New York City locations. • Relative costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions varied significantly. • Variations were due to location-specific factors (e.g., route density, truck type). • Under appropriate conditions, pneumatic collection reduces TMT, BTU, and GHG. • Pneumatic capex may be offset by operating savings and externality benefits. - Abstract: Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to $400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of

  12. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin; Spertus, Juliette; Kamga, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to $400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of conventional collection. In the location where a greenfield pneumatic system is already in operation, truck collection would be both less expensive and more energy-efficient than pneumatic collection. The results demonstrate that local geographic, demographic, and operational conditions play a decisive role in determining whether pneumatic collection will reduce energy requirements, produce more or fewer greenhouse gas emissions, and cost more

  13. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  14. Electroformation of Janus and patchy capsules

    PubMed Central

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Dommersnes, Paul; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2014-01-01

    Janus and patchy particles have designed heterogeneous surfaces that consist of two or several patches with different materials properties. These particles are emerging as building blocks for a new class of soft matter and functional materials. Here we introduce a route for forming heterogeneous capsules by producing highly ordered jammed colloidal shells of various shapes with domains of controlled size and composition. These structures combine the functionalities offered by Janus or patchy particles, and those given by permeable shells such as colloidosomes. The simple assembly route involves the synergetic action of electro-hydrodynamic flow and electro-coalescence. We demonstrate that the method is robust and straightforwardly extendable to production of multi-patchy capsules. This forms a starting point for producing patchy colloidosomes with domains of anisotropic chemical surface properties, permeability or mixed liquid–solid phase domains, which could be exploited to produce functional emulsions, light and hollow supra-colloidosome structures, or scaffolds. PMID:24853057

  15. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: a review.

    PubMed

    Looney, Colin G; Raynor, Brett; Lowe, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH) is a rare clinical entity. Similar to adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, ACH is characterized by a painful decrease in active and passive range of motion as synovial inflammation in the acute stages of the disease progresses to capsular fibrosis in the chronic stages. Once other diagnoses have been ruled out, management of ACH is tailored to reduce inflammation in the acute stages with NSAIDs, intra-articular steroid injections, and targeted physical therapy while biomechanical dysfunction in the spine, hip, sacroiliac joint, or lower limb joints is addressed. In chronic stages of the disease, intervention should focus on decreasing the progression of fibrotic changes and regaining range of motion through aggressive physical therapy. Interventions described for chronic ACH include manipulation under anesthesia; pressure dilatation; and open or arthroscopic synovectomy, lysis of adhesions, and capsular release. Surgical intervention should be considered only after failure of a minimum 3-month course of nonsurgical treatment. PMID:24292931

  16. A method of transmissibility design for dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Joon

    2009-06-01

    Dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolators have a wide range of applications for vibration isolation of vibration-sensitive equipment. Recent advances in precision machine tools and instruments such as medical devices and those related to nano-technology require better isolation performance, which can be efficiently achieved by precise modeling- and design- of the isolation system. This paper discusses an efficient transmissibility design method of a pneumatic vibration isolator wherein a complex stiffness model of a dual-chamber pneumatic spring developed in our previous study is employed. Three design parameters, the volume ratio between the two pneumatic chambers, the geometry of the capillary tube connecting the two pneumatic chambers, and, finally, the stiffness of the diaphragm employed for prevention of air leakage, were found to be important factors in transmissibility design. Based on a design technique that maximizes damping of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring, trade-offs among the resonance frequency of transmissibility, peak transmissibility, and transmissibility in high frequency range were found, which were not ever stated in previous researches. Furthermore, this paper discusses the negative role of the diaphragm in transmissibility design. The design method proposed in this paper is illustrated through experimental measurements.

  17. Pneumatic motor powered Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for liquid propelled launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Mark C.; Evans, P. S.

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies performed for the Titan 4 launch vehicle indicate significant potential advantages in replacing the current stage 1 and 2 recirculating hydraulic TVC (thrust vector control) system with a PMA (pneumatic mechanical actuation) system. Some of the advantages of a PMA system over the recirculating hydraulic system include reduced part count and weight, reduced maintenance and life-cycle cost, and improved mission reliability. PMA technology, used in aircraft applications since the 1960s, is well suited in launch vehicle TVC applications where an existing pneumatic pressure source is available. A typical pneumatic motor TVC consists of a pneumatic power source, a dual rotor pneumatic motor, a gear box, a ball screw actuator, and the associated closed-loop servo-control elements. One key issue with implementing this mechanical approach is designing a TVC system to withstand large load transient disturbances during liquid engine starting. Hydraulic actuator transient loads have exceeded 60,000 lb(sub f) for a 30,000 lb(sub f) stall design actuator during ground starts of the Titan 3B, Stage 1 engine. A PMA TVC system must also withstand these start transients without imparting excessive reaction loads to the engine nozzle and thrust structure. Work completed to date with Martin Marietta to examine pneumatic motor powered TVC options and technology benefits is presented. The load transient issue is discussed along with potential solutions and the associated trades. General background on PMA technology and experience base is also presented.

  18. Field and numerical determinations of pneumatic flow parameters of unsaturated fractured porous rocks on various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, S.; Vu, M. T.; Pili, E.; Adler, P. M.

    2013-05-01

    Air permeability is measured in the fractured crystalline rocks of the Roselend Natural Laboratory (France). Single-hole pneumatic injection tests as well as differential barometric pressure monitoring are conducted on scales ranging from 1 to 50 m, in both shallow and deep boreholes, as well as in an isolated 60 m3 chamber at 55 m depth. The field experiments are interpreted using numerical simulations in equivalent homogeneous porous media with their real 3-D geometry in order to estimate pneumatic parameters. For pneumatic injection tests, steady-state data first allow to estimate air permeability. Then, pressure recovery after a pneumatic injection test allows to estimate the air-filled porosity. Comparison between the various studied cases clarifies the influence of the boundary conditions on the accuracy of the often used 1-D estimate of air permeability. It also shows that permeabilities correlate slightly with fracture density. In the chamber, a 1 order-of-magnitude difference is found between the air permeabilities obtained from pneumatic injection tests and from differential barometric pressure monitoring. This discrepancy is interpreted as a scale effect resulting from the approximation of the heterogeneous fractured rock by a homogeneous numerical model. The difference between the rock volumes investigated by pneumatic injection tests and by differential barometric pressure monitoring may also play a role. No clear dependence of air permeability on saturation has been found so far.

  19. Development of Pneumatic Robot Hand and Construction of Master-Slave System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Nishino, Shinya; Komatsubara, Hiroyuki; Kudawara, Tatsuwo; Hirano, Masanori

    Recently, research and development has focused on robots that work in place of people. It is necessary for robots to perform the same flexible motions as people. Additionally, such robots need to incorporate high-level safety features in order not to injure people. For creation of such robots, we need to develop a robot hand that functions like a human hand. At the same time, this type of robot hand can be used as an artificial hand. Here, we present artificial muscle-type pneumatic actuators as the driving source of a robot hand that is both safe and flexible. Some development of robot hands using pneumatic actuators has already taken place. But, until now, when a pneumatic actuator is used, a big compressor is needed. So, the driving system also needs to be big; enlargement of the driving system is a major problem. Consequently, in this research, we develop a low-pressure, low-volume pneumatic actuator for driving a robot hand that works flexibly and safely on the assumption that it will be in contact with people. We develop a five-fingered robot hand with pneumatic actuators. And, we construct a master-slave system to enable the robot hand to perform the same operations as a human hand. We make a 1-link arm that has one degree of freedom using a pneumatic actuator, and construct a control system for the 1-link arm and verify its control performance.

  20. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    PubMed

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetiuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials. PMID:26036066

  1. Development of myopia as a hazard for workers in pneumatic caissons

    PubMed Central

    Onoo, A; Kiyosawa, M; Takase, H; Mano, Y

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Pneumatic caisson engineering has been developed for large civil engineering constructions. Because of complaints of blurred vision by personnel working in pneumatic caissons, the development of myopia was suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the blurred vision and the mechanism underlying the changes. Methods: 12 caisson workers underwent a complete ophthalmological examination after completing up to 11 weeks of work (4 days/week) in a pneumatic caisson. Six months later, nine of the workers were examined again. Results: Nine subjects were myopic at the initial examination, and seven of these were considered to have developed the myopia after starting to work in the pneumatic caisson. Six months after completion of the work, the mean refractive change was significantly towards hyperopia. Conclusions: The blurred vision in pneumatic caisson workers was in all likelihood due to the development of myopia. The refractive shift towards hyperopia after completion of work in the pneumatic caisson supports this and demonstrates that the changes were temporary. The myopia is similar to the myopia seen in patients treated by hyperbaric oxygen. Careful monitoring of the refraction of caisson workers should be performed for industrial health control. PMID:12386088

  2. The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis of Pneumatic System of Rotary Drilling Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimdel, Mohammad Javad; Hosienie, Seyed Hadi; Ataei, Mohammad; Khalokakaei, Reza

    2013-10-01

    In any blasthole drilling the bottom of the blasthole must be kept clean by evacuating drill cuttings or it flushing as soon as they appear to ensure efficient drilling. If it is not done well, a large quantity of energy will be consumed in regrinding with the consequent wear on drill bit and decrease penetration, apart from the risk of jamming. Therefore, research on reliability and probability of safe operation of pneumatic system of drilling machines is of prime importance to ensure safe drilling operations. In this paper, reliability of this system was modeled and analyzed. To doing this research, drilling machines in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine in Iran have been selected for data collection and analysis. After reliability modeling of pneumatic system, maintenance scheduling has been presented based on different reliability levels. There were four rotary drilling machines in this mine (named A, B, C and D). Results showed that after about 7 h drilling of machines A and B, and after 103 and 44 h drilling of machines C and D respectively, noticeably the reliability of pneumatic system reached to 80 %. As a result, machines C and D have more reliable pneumatic systems in comparison to machines A and B and checking and servicing of pneumatic system before these time was essential. Also, maintainability analysis showed that more failures of pneumatic system of machines A, B, C and D will be noticeably repaired at about 28, 34, 6 and 9 h.

  3. Hemispherical Capsule Implosions for Fast Ignition*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Adams, R. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Johnston, R. R.; Wenger, D. F.; Schroen, D. G.

    2003-10-01

    The fast ignitor approach to ICF ignition separates the fuel assembly and fast heating processes. After compressing the fuel with the main driver, the fuel is ignited using a focused electron or ion beam generated by a fast, ultra-high power laser pulse. This significantly relaxes the drive symmetry, energy, and shock timing requirements compared to hot spot ignition. A hemispherical capsule target is a fast ignitor geometry well-adapted to symmetric fuel compression by a single-ended z-pinch radiation drive. The hemispherical capsule implodes radially, constrained at its equator by a flat high-density surface (a special case of the spherical capsule "cone-focus" geometry). This glide plane is mounted on a hollow pedestal that provides a plasma-free, short-pulse laser path to the compressed fuel core region. In experiments on the Z accelerator at Sandia, we are studying implosions of 2.0-mm-diameter, 60-micron-thick hemispherical capsules in cylindrical secondary hohlraums heated to 90-100 eV from one end by a 120 TW wire-array z-pinch. Analysis of ZBL 6.7 keV point-projection backlighter images of pole-hot implosions in a tall secondary and 6.18 keV monochromatic crystal backlighter images of more symmetric implosions in a short secondary will be presented. We will also discuss progress on the development of a cryogenic liquid fuel target for this fast ignitor compression geometry. * Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn’s disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

  5. Reducing redundancy in wireless capsule endoscopy videos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2013-07-01

    We eliminate similar frames from a wireless capsule endoscopy video of the human intestines to maximize spatial coverage and minimize the redundancy in images. We combine an intensity correction method with a method based an optical flow and features to detect and reduce near-duplicate images acquired during the repetitive backward and forward egomotions due to peristalsis. In experiments, this technique reduced duplicate image of 52.3% from images of the small intestine. PMID:23668342

  6. Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

    2014-08-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

  7. Nanostructured Capsules for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Correia, Clara R; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric multilayered capsules (PMCs) have found great applicability in bioencapsulation, an evolving branch of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we describe the production of hierarchical PMCs composed by an external multilayered membrane by layer-by-layer assembly of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan. The core of the PMCs is liquified and encapsulates human adipose stem cells and surface-functionalized collagen II-TGF-β3 poly(L-lactic acid) microparticles for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:26445839

  8. Adhesive capsulitis of the ankle (frozen ankle).

    PubMed

    van Moppes, F I; van den Hoogenband, C R; Greep, J M

    1979-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or "frozen ankle" is a syndrome resulting from repeated ankle sprains, or perhaps following immobilization after trauma. Ankle arthrography is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure in this syndrome. Typical arthrographic features are described together with case histories of two patients with frozen ankle. We suggest that early mobilization of the patient following trauma is particularly important in preventing the development of a forzen ankle syndrome. PMID:508071

  9. [HPLC fingerprint of liuwei dihuang soft capsule].

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Li, Jia-Chun; Yang, Su-De; Li, Yun; Jin, Rui-Ting; Sun, Xian-Ling; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Xiao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish HPLC fingerprint of Liuwei Dihuang soft capsule, and to provide certain reference for an quality control of it, the HPLC method was performed on an Agilent C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile-0.02% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phase, gradient elution volume flow of 1.0 mL x min(-1), column temperature was 30 degrees C, detection wavelength: 0-60 min, 238 nm, 60-70 min, 210 nm. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analysis different batches of Liuwei Dihuang soft capsule samples. Sixteen mutual peaks were selected as the fingerprint peaks in 12 samples with loganin as the reference peak, and all of the detected peaks were separated effectively. Cluster analysis (HCA) and similarity analysis (SA) were done based on data of 12 samples clustering analysis of 12 batches of samples were divided into 2 categories. Including 7 for the first class, the rest was second, similarities calculated by SA were all above 0.92, indicating a good similarity between the reference and twelve batches of samples, also, the analysis results of HCA and SA basically the same. This method is simple with good precision, repeatability and stability, and provides the basis for Liuwei Dihuang soft capsule quality control. PMID:25911813

  10. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  11. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  12. Stresses of pipelines during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomiya, O.

    1983-05-01

    Construction of submarine pipelines plays an important role in offshore development. Japan is famous for earthquake country. It is very important to estimate the earthquake proof of the submarine pipelines. An oil leakage causes the contamination of ocean if the submarine pipelines are damaged by earthquakes. Pipe stresses during earthquakes are closely related to the relative displacement of the ground. Field observation has been carried out to know the ground deformation. Steel pipe is assumed to be buried along the observation line and pipe stresses are calculated from the ground deformation obtained by the field observation. The stresses calculated by seismic deformation method that has been used for earthquake resistant design in Japan and by dynamic response analysis are compared with those from the observation.

  13. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov... published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals... Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  14. Method and system for pipeline communication

    DOEpatents

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  15. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements.

  16. Reversible thermo-pneumatic valves on centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Madou, Marc

    2015-08-21

    Centrifugal microfluidic systems utilize a conventional spindle motor to automate parallel biochemical assays on a single microfluidic disk. The integration of complex, sequential microfluidic procedures on these platforms relies on robust valving techniques that allow for the precise control and manipulation of fluid flow. The ability of valves to consistently return to their former conditions after each actuation plays a significant role in the real-time manipulation of fluidic operations. In this paper, we introduce an active valving technique that operates based on the deflection of a latex film with the potential for real-time flow manipulation in a wide range of operational spinning speeds. The reversible thermo-pneumatic valve (RTPV) seals or reopens an inlet when a trapped air volume is heated or cooled, respectively. The RTPV is a gas-impermeable valve composed of an air chamber enclosed by a latex membrane and a specially designed liquid transition chamber that enables the efficient usage of the applied thermal energy. Inputting thermo-pneumatic (TP) energy into the air chamber deflects the membrane into the liquid transition chamber against an inlet, sealing it and thus preventing fluid flow. From this point, a centrifugal pressure higher than the induced TP pressure in the air chamber reopens the fluid pathway. The behaviour of this newly introduced reversible valving system on a microfluidic disk is studied experimentally and theoretically over a range of rotational frequencies from 700 RPM to 2500 RPM. Furthermore, adding a physical component (e.g., a hemispherical rubber element) to induce initial flow resistance shifts the operational range of rotational frequencies of the RTPV to more than 6000 RPM. An analytical solution for the cooling of a heated RTPV on a spinning disk is also presented, which highlights the need for the future development of time-programmable RTPVs. Moreover, the reversibility and gas impermeability of the RTPV in the

  17. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  18. Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

    1998-06-01

    Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the

  19. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., 2000, (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov before submitting any such... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee (LPAC) also known as the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline...

  20. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... example, the records indicated that pipe in the area was 30-inch diameter seamless pipe, whereas pipe... diameter, wall thickness, grade, and seam type; pipe coating; girth weld coating; maximum operating.... On October 18, 2010 (75 FR 63774) PHMSA published an ANPRM titled ``Pipeline Safety: Safety of...

  1. Clean coal slurry pipelines in China

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.

    1994-12-31

    China Pipeline Holdings Limited, managed by Custom Coals Corporation, has formed a joint venture with the Chinese government, called China Coal Pipeline Company, to build and operate coal slurry pipelines in China. Carrying cleaned coal and financed on the strength of coal contracts, pipelines offer an environmentally sound and cost effective alternative to alleviate transportation bottlenecks and help meet the energy demands of China`s phenomenal growth.

  2. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  3. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline... indication of pipeline leakage. The results of these inspections shall be retained for at least 2 years...

  4. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  5. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  6. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  7. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  8. The ALMA Pipeline Procedure Execution Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L.; Williams, S.; Nakazato, T.; Lightfoot, J.; Muders, D.; Kent, B.

    2015-09-01

    The ALMA pipeline processes data taken in standard observing modes. The ALMA pipeline execution framework is responsible for executing the standard reduction procedure for each standard mode. The execution framework is written in Python. The pipeline reduction procedures are layered on and run inside the CASA package. The framework is flexible enough to support observatory operations, reprocessing, commissioning and testing, and user desktop reprocessing.

  9. 27 CFR 19.587 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.587 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.587 Pipelines. Pursuant to the provisions of this part, pipelines which conform to the requirements of § 19.274 may...

  10. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  11. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  12. 27 CFR 19.274 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.274 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.274 Pipelines. (a) General. (1) Pipelines for the conveyance of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines...

  13. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, S.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e. small, moderate and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to, and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross-section in the upstream portion of large capsules is non-axisymmetric (i.e. square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a−2 for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux−u~h~a−2

  14. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    PubMed

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination. PMID:26261398

  15. Contraception with subdermal ST-1435 capsules: side-effects, endocrine profiles and liver function related to different lengths of capsules.

    PubMed

    Kurunmäki, H; Toivonen, J; Lähteenmäki, P; Luukkainen, T

    1985-03-01

    One Silastic capsule of 15 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm length was inserted subcutaneously into the ventral aspect of the left forearm or upper arm of 28 healthy women during menstrual bleeding or not later than on the seventh day of the menstrual cycle. A new capsule of the same length was inserted after six months and both capsules were removed twelve months after the first insertion. Side-effects, including changes in body weight, blood pressure, menstrual bleeding and liver function test results, were registered. Blood samples were taken from selected subjects twice a week during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th and 12th month of use. Plasma concentrations of ST-1435 were measured by radioimmunoassay and the effects of treatment on pituitary and ovarian function were determined by assaying plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone. There were no differences in hormonal side-effects between subjects who had a 30 mm capsule or subjects who had 20 mm or 15 mm capsules, but subjects who had 20 or 15 mm capsules had significantly longer bleeding or spotting periods in comparison with subjects who had a 30 mm capsule. There were no changes in blood pressure, body weight or liver function test results in comparison with pre-insertion values. The plasma level of ST-1435 was not significantly higher during the use of 30 mm capsules than during the use of 20 or 15 mm capsules. During the use of the shorter ST-1435 capsules, plasma estradiol elevation and slightly suppressed FSH were seen, while the use of longer capsules resulted in a slight suppression of LH. Progesterone concentrations during monitored cycles indicated anovulation. No pregnancies occurred during the study period of one year. The continuation rate at one year was 71% in the 30 mm capsule group and 57% in the 20 and 15 mm capsule groups taken together. PMID:3922676

  16. Observations of ''granular jump'' in the pneumatic conveying system

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworski, Artur J.; Dyakowski, Tomasz

    2007-08-15

    This paper presents a preliminary study of a previously unreported phenomenon of the ''gas driven granular jump'', observed in the gas-solids flow within the pneumatic conveying system. From the phenomenological point of view, it resembles the already known processes such as hydraulic jumps in shallow water or granular jumps in granular flows in chutes or avalanches (although it seems most appropriate to explain it by analogy to a propagating granular bore). Clearly, unlike in classical phenomena of this type, the flow itself is driven by the aerodynamic forces related to the gas flow and the behaviour of the front of the ''jump'' is modified significantly by their presence. A series of high-speed camera visualisations are presented, which focus on this unusual behaviour of the flow on the border-line between cluster and stratified flow regimes in a horizontal pipe. Some similarities are drawn between the observed phenomenon and the broader class of problems exhibiting transition between super- and sub-critical flows. The fluid dynamical aspects and possible mechanisms behind the new phenomenon are discussed and the results obtained are compared quantitatively with simple theoretical models. (author)

  17. Controllable surface haptics via particle jamming and pneumatics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Andrew A; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of particle jamming and pneumatics allows the simultaneous control of shape and mechanical properties in a tactile display. A hollow silicone membrane is molded into an array of thin cells, each filled with coffee grounds such that adjusting the vacuum level in any individual cell rapidly switches it between flexible and rigid states. The array clamps over a pressure-regulated air chamber with internal mechanisms designed to pin the nodes between cells at any given height. Various sequences of cell vacuuming, node pinning, and chamber pressurization allow the surface to balloon into a variety of shapes. Experiments were performed to expand existing physical models of jamming at the inter-particle level to define the rheological characteristics of jammed systems from a macroscopic perspective, relevant to force-displacement interactions that would be experienced by human users. Force-displacement data show that a jammed cell in compression fits a Maxwell model and a cell deflected in the center while supported only at the edges fits a Zener model, each with stiffness and damping parameters that increase at higher levels of applied vacuum. This provides framework to tune and control the mechanical properties of a jamming haptic interface. PMID:25594980

  18. Precision pneumatic pressure measurement with diaphragm-based mechatronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppanan, Balasubramanian; Akin, Cellatoglu

    2010-01-01

    A clamped circular metallic diaphragm, with shallow spherical shell deformation, elongates spherically proportional to the pressure acting on it. By making use of the inflation characteristics and mechanical properties of the diaphragm, three types of pneumatic pressure sensor are proposed in this article. In the first type, an optical mirror is engraved on its outer surface in an optimal position falling midway between its vertex and circumference. A laser beam is made to incident on the mirror and it gets deflected to fall over a matrix of photocells; the excitation of a particular cell in the coordinates of the matrix determines the pressure acting on the diaphragm. In the second proposal, a weightless secondary coil of a transformer is fixed around the vertex of the diaphragm which would move around a stationary magnetic core. The excitation of the primary coil wound over the magnetic core causes a voltage to be picked up in the secondary coil which would depend upon the displacement of the vertex because of pressure. The third type of the transducer is a capacitance pickup arrangement wherein the pressure is converted into capacitance and it is sensed and displayed as pressure. Furthermore, as an extension of the work, the motion of the diaphragm is mechanically coupled to a stylus for producing hard copy of the pressure over a strip chart.

  19. Pneumatically-actuated artificial cilia array for biomimetic fluid propulsion.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Benjamin; de Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2015-11-21

    Arrays of beating cilia emerged in nature as one of the most efficient propulsion mechanisms at a small scale, and are omnipresent in microorganisms. Previous attempts at mimicking these systems have foundered against the complexity of fabricating small-scale cilia exhibiting complex beating motions. In this paper, we propose for the first time arrays of pneumatically-actuated artificial cilia that are able to address some of these issues. These artificial cilia arrays consist of six highly flexible silicone rubber actuators with a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 8 mm that can be actuated independently from each other. In an experimental setup, the effects of the driving frequency, phase difference and duty cycle on the net flow in a closed-loop channel have been studied. Net fluid speeds of up to 19 mm s(-1) have been measured. Further, it is possible to invert the flow direction by simply changing the driving frequency or by changing the duty cycle of the driving block pulse pressure wave without changing the bending direction of the cilia. Using PIV measurements, we corroborate for the first time existing mathematical models of cilia arrays to measurements on prototypes. PMID:26439855

  20. An electromagnetic microvalve for pneumatic control of microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuling; Li, Songjing

    2014-10-01

    An electromagnetic microvalve for pneumatic control of microfluidic devices has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The microvalve is composed of two parts: a miniature electromagnetic actuator and a valve body. The electromagnetic actuator consists mainly of a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomer, which acts as the valve diaphragm. The diaphragm, used as a solid hydraulic medium, converts the large contact area of a valve core into a small contact area of valve head while maintaining a large stroking force. This microvalve remains closed because of a compressed mechanical spring force generated by the actuator. On the other hand, when a voltage is applied, the valve core moves up, relaxing the thin PDMS membrane, opening the microvalve. The fast open response (~17 ms) of the valve was achieved with a leak rate as low as 0.026 sccm at 200 KPa (N2) pressure. We tested the pertinent dynamic parameters such as flow rate in on/off mode, flow rate of duty cycles, and actuated frequencies in pulse width modulation (PWM) mode. Our method provides a simple, cheap, and small microvalve that avoids the bulky and expensive external pressure control solenoid manifold. This allows it to be easily integrated into portable and disposable devices. PMID:24742860

  1. Effectiveness of pneumatic reduction of ileocolic intussusception in children.

    PubMed

    Menor, F; Cortina, H; Marco, A; Olague, R

    1992-01-01

    A total of 158 consecutive therapeutic air enemas were performed upon 133 patients during a 2-year period. Perforation and/or an impairment of the general condition of the children were the only main contraindications for the reduction attempt (five patients). Successful reductions were achieved in 89% of cases with no complications. Operation was performed in all 17 cases of unsuccessful reduction: resection in four cases, easy manual reduction in nine, difficult manual reduction in two, and spontaneous reduction in two. There were 16 (12%) patients with one or more recurrent episodes. In 23 (16%) cases, following pneumatic reduction, a swollen ileocecal valve showing a multiple appearance was observed. This fact sometimes results in a differential diagnosis with incomplete reduction; in all these cases, small bowel aeration was always a sign of complete reduction. No significant difference was noted between a swollen ileocecal valve and patient age, duration of symptoms, presence of small bowel obstruction, and further recurrences. Air enema has improved our previous success obtained with hydrostatic reduction (79%), as well as being a simpler, cleaner, and faster technique for intussusception reduction in children. PMID:1426851

  2. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  3. Design and validation of a MR-compatible pneumatic manipulandum.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Aaron J; Zimbelman, Janice L; Scheidt, Robert A

    2007-07-30

    The combination of functional MR imaging and novel robotic tools may provide unique opportunities to probe the neural systems underlying motor control and learning. Here, we describe the design and validation of a MR-compatible, 1 degree-of-freedom pneumatic manipulandum along with experiments demonstrating its safety and efficacy. We first validated the robot's ability to apply computer-controlled loads about the wrist, demonstrating that it possesses sufficient bandwidth to simulate torsional spring-like loads during point-to-point flexion movements. Next, we verified the MR-compatibility of the device by imaging a head phantom during robot operation. We observed no systematic differences in two measures of MRI signal quality (signal/noise and field homogeneity) when the robot was introduced into the scanner environment. Likewise, measurements of joint angle and actuator pressure were not adversely affected by scanning. Finally, we verified device efficacy by scanning 20 healthy human subjects performing rapid wrist flexions against a wide range of spring-like loads. We observed a linear relationship between joint torque at peak movement extent and perturbation magnitude, thus demonstrating the robot's ability to simulate spring-like loads in situ. fMRI revealed task-related activation in regions known to contribute to the control of movement including the left primary sensorimotor cortex and right cerebellum. PMID:17498811

  4. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  5. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  6. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216

  7. Characteristic analysis and experimental evaluation of artificial pneumatic cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Soo; Bae, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2005-12-01

    The fluidic muscle cylinder consists of an air bellows tube, flanges and lock nuts. Its features are softness of material and motion, simplicity of structure, low production cost and high power efficiency. Recently, unlikely the pneumatic cylinder, the fluidic muscle cylinder without air leakage, stick slip, friction, and seal was developed as a new concept actuator. It has the characteristics such as light weight, low price, high response, durable design, long life, high power, high contraction, which is innovative product fulfilling RT(Robot Technology) which is one of the nation-leading next generation strategy technologies 6T as well as cleanness technology. The application fields of the fluidic muscle cylinder are so various like fatigue tester, brake, accelerator, high technology testing device such as driving simulator, precise position, velocity, intelligent servo actuator under special environment such as load controlling system, and intelligent robot. In this study, we carried out the finite element modeling and analysis about the main design variables such as contraction ration and force, diameter increment of fluidic muscle cylinder. On the basis of finite element analysis, the prototype of fluidic muscle cylinder was fabricated and tested. Finally, we compared the results between the test and the finite element analysis.

  8. Research on reliability test circuit of pneumatic pressure regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jungong; Wang, Haitao; Oneyama, Naotake; Senoo, Mitsuru; Zhang, Huping

    2006-11-01

    In order to evaluate ISO/CD19973-4, some items had been tested, such as step response, valve opening, feasible opening frequency, air consumption, piping influence, cycle response and so on. The results show that Valve opening varies sensitively to the size of piping, solenoid valve and test chamber. The valve of regulator opens to some extent, closes immediately, and never reaches the full opening. If these circuit specifications are defined concretely and observed strictly, it is not impossible to obtain a certain required opening ratio and air consumption is very large. On the side, the compared tests based on the Japanese JIS test circuit having been carried out, the results show that, regardless of test circuit specifications, the valve of regulator always repeats full closing and full opening. The relief valve of the regulator operates too. At the same operating frequency, air consumption is one digit less than the one in ISO/CD 19973-4 circuit. In the end, improved JIS circuit was put forward as a reliability circuit of pneumatic pressure regulator.

  9. A Review of Locomotion Systems for Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lejie; Towfighian, Shahrzad; Hila, Amine

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy for gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a modern technology that has the potential to replace conventional endoscopy techniques. Capsule endoscopy is a pill-shaped device embedded with a camera, a coin battery, and a data transfer. Without a locomotion system, this capsule endoscopy can only passively travel inside the GI tract via natural peristalsis, thus causing several disadvantages such as inability to control and stop, and risk of capsule retention. Therefore, a locomotion system needs to be added to optimize the current capsule endoscopy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art locomotion methods along with the desired locomotion features such as size, speed, power, and temperature and compares the properties of different methods. In addition, properties and motility mechanisms of the GI tract are described. The main purpose of this review is to understand the features of GI tract and diverse locomotion methods in order to create a future capsule endoscopy compatible with GI tract properties. PMID:26292162

  10. Capsule-odometer: A concept to improve accurate lesion localisation

    PubMed Central

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve lesion localisation in small-bowel capsule endoscopy, a modified capsule design has been proposed incorporating localisation and - in theory - stabilization capabilities. The proposed design consists of a capsule fitted with protruding wheels attached to a spring-mechanism. This would act as a miniature odometer, leading to more accurate lesion localization information in relation to the onset of the investigation (spring expansion e.g., pyloric opening). Furthermore, this capsule could allow stabilization of the recorded video as any erratic, non-forward movement through the gut is minimised. Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology was used to build a capsule prototype. Thereafter, miniature wheels were also 3-D printed and mounted on a spring which was attached to conventional capsule endoscopes for the purpose of this proof-of-concept experiment. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with porcine small-bowel are presented herein. Further experiments have been scheduled. PMID:24124345

  11. Stopping mechanism for capsule endoscope using electrical stimulus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Jin Ho

    2010-01-01

    An ingestible capsule, which has the ability to stop at certain locations in the small intestine, was designed and implemented to monitor intestinal diseases. The proposed capsule can contract the small intestine by using electrical stimuli; this contraction causes the capsule to stop when the maximum static frictional force (MSFF) is larger than the force of natural peristalsis. In vitro experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the capsule, and the results showed that the capsule was successfully stopped in the small intestine. Various electrodes and electrical stimulus parameters were determined on the basis of the MSFF. A moderate increment of the MSFF (12.7 +/- 4.6 gf at 5 V, 10 Hz, and 5 ms) and the maximum increment of the MSFF (56.5 +/- 9.77 gf at 20 V, 10 Hz, and 5 ms) were obtained, and it is sufficient force to stop the capsule. PMID:19911212

  12. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  13. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Glebov, V.

    2012-09-15

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The 'perfect' capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-{mu}m thick) and thick shell (15-{mu}m thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  14. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  15. The Classroom to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline doesn't just begin with cops in the hallways and zero tolerance discipline policies. It begins when teachers fail to create a curriculum and a pedagogy that connects with students, that takes them seriously as intellectuals, that lets students know teachers care about them, that gives them the chance to channel their…

  16. Corrosion beneath disbonded pipeline coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between coatings, cathodic protection (CP), and external corrosion of underground pipelines is described. Historically, this problem has been addressed by focusing on the corrosion and CP processes associated with holidays, e.g., coating disbondment and CP current flow within the disbonded region. These issues and those associated with disbonded areas distant from holidays are also discussed.

  17. Rod-based Fabrication of Customizable Soft Robotic Pneumatic Gripper Devices for Delicate Tissue Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Low, Jin-Huat; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber. This protocol eliminates the risk of channels occluding during the sealing process and the need for external air source or related control circuit. The soft gripper consists of a chamber filled with air, and one or more gripper arms with a pneumatic channel in each arm connected to the chamber. The pneumatic channel is positioned close to the outer wall to create different stiffness in the gripper arm. Upon compression of the chamber which generates pressure on the pneumatic channel, the gripper arm will bend inward to form a close grip posture because the outer wall area is more compliant. The soft gripper can be inserted into a 3D-printed handling tool with two different control modes for chamber compression: manual gripper mode with a movable piston, and robotic gripper mode with a linear actuator. The double-arm gripper with two actuatable arms was able to pick up objects of sizes up to 2 mm and yet generate lower compressive forces as compared to elastomer-coated and non-coated rigid grippers. The feasibility of having other designs, such as single-arm or hook gripper, was also demonstrated, which further highlighted the customizability of the soft gripper device, and it's potential to be used in delicate surgical manipulation to reduce the risk of tissue grip damage. PMID:27584722

  18. Ultrasonic technique for inspection of GPHS capsule girth weld integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Placr, Arnost

    1993-05-01

    An innovative nondestructive examination (NDE) technique for the inspection of integrity of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsule girth welds (Figure 1) was developed employing a Lamb (plate) wave as the mode of the sound propagation. Reliability of the Lamb wave technique was tested on GPHS capsules using plutonium pallet simulators. All ten capsules, which were previously rejected, passed ultrasonic (UT) inspection using the Lamb wave technique.

  19. Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-06-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

  20. ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS: USE THE EVIDENCE TO INTEGRATE YOUR INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Labbe, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Frozen shoulder syndrome, clinically known as adhesive capsulitis, is a painful and debilitating condition affecting up to 5% of the population. Adhesive capsulitis is considered fibrosis of the glenohumeral joint capsule with a chronic inflammatory response. Patients experience pain, limited range of motion, and disability generally lasting anywhere from 1 to 24 months. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to review the pathophysiolgy of adhesive capsulitis and discuss physical therapy interventions which are supported by evidence, thereby enhancing evidence-based practice. PMID:21655385

  1. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Kim, Tae Wan; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Park, Il Young; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

  2. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  3. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  4. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-11-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence [1]. Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR.

  5. Procedures For Making Precision CH Bumps On Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; Klingmann, J; Cook, B

    2004-11-10

    Recently we were asked to produce target capsules with bumps on the surface. The bumps were to test the effects of fill tubes in future targets. The bumps desired were to be Gaussian in shape and from 60 to 40 {micro}m in diameter and from 1 to 6 {micro}m high. The capsules had a nominal diameter of 500 {micro}m. The approach we used was to align a precision aperture to the capsule and coat through the aperture onto the capsule surface using plasma polymer coating. The bumps were characterized using optical microscopy, Wyko interferometry, and AFM sphere mapping.

  6. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  7. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF /sup 137/Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found.

  8. Dopant Distribution in NIF Beryllium Ablator Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Youngblood, K. P.; Wall, D. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Moreno, K. A.; Nikroo, A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Haan, S. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Hamza, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Good implosion performance requires capsule ablator material with spherically uniform x-ray opacity, which is controlled by one of several dopants (Cu, Si, Al, etc.) in the Be shell. During production, the dopant concentration is radially stepped. However, the various Be-dopant interactions result in vastly different dopant distribution patterns, some quite inhomogeneous. We have characterized these structures and established the phenomenological basis and the magnitudes of the inhomogeneity both in spatial length scales and in atomic percent. We will discuss the case of inhomogeneous Cu diffusion in detail, followed by discussions of other dopants and the estimate of the impact of these structures on target implosion.

  9. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  10. Pipeline rehabilitation using field applied tape systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    Bare steel pipelines were first installed years before the turn of the century. Pipeline operators soon realized the lie of bare steel could be greatly enhanced by applying coatings. Thus began ``pipeline rehabilitation.`` Many of the older pipelines were exposed, evaluated, coated and returned to service. This procedure has reached new heights in recent years as coated pipelines of the twentieth century, having lived past their original design life, are now subject to coating failure. Many operator companies with pipelines thirty years or older are faced with ``replace or recondition.`` Considering the emphasis on cost restraints and environmental issues, replacing an existing pipeline is often not the best decision. Rehabilitation is a preferred solution for many operators.

  11. Embedding of fluorescent dyes into polyelectrolyte capsules for remote destruction of the capsule shell by laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, I. V.; Parakhonsky, G. V.; Bukreeva, T. V.; Plotnikov, G. S.; Baranov, A. N.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2010-02-01

    Polyelectrolyte capsules were modified by different types of fluorescent dyes and their optical properties were investigated. Three methods of encapsulation were used: dye adsorption onto the porous core, change of the solvent and embedding into the polyelectrolyte shell. Suspension of capsules with Rhodamine 6G molecules in the shell was irradiated by laser beam with wavelength corresponded with the absorption band for the dye molecule. Measurements of the capsules size distribution before and after laser irradiation showed that the capsules were destroyed by laser radiation.

  12. Embedding of fluorescent dyes into polyelectrolyte capsules for remote destruction of the capsule shell by laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, I. V.; Parakhonsky, G. V.; Bukreeva, T. V.; Plotnikov, G. S.; Baranov, A. N.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte capsules were modified by different types of fluorescent dyes and their optical properties were investigated. Three methods of encapsulation were used: dye adsorption onto the porous core, change of the solvent and embedding into the polyelectrolyte shell. Suspension of capsules with Rhodamine 6G molecules in the shell was irradiated by laser beam with wavelength corresponded with the absorption band for the dye molecule. Measurements of the capsules size distribution before and after laser irradiation showed that the capsules were destroyed by laser radiation.

  13. Cluster ion beam polishing for inertial confinement fusion target capsules

    SciTech Connect

    McEachern, R., LLNL

    1998-06-09

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) typically consist of a hollow, spherical capsule filled with a mixture of hydrogen isotopes. Typically, these capsules are irradiated by short, intense pulses of either laser light (``direct drive``) or laser-generated. x-rays (``indirect drive``), causing them to implode This compresses and heats the fuel, leading to thermonuclear fusion. This process is highly sensitive to hydrodynamic (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor) instabilities, which can be initiated by imperfections in the target. Thus, target capsules must be spherical and smooth One of the lead capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility, a 1.8 MJ laser being built at Livermore, calls for a 2-mm- diam capsule with a 150-{micro}m-thick copper-doped beryllium wall. These capsules can be fabricated by sputter depositing the metal onto a spherical plastic mandrel. This results in surfaces with measured Rq`s of 50 to 150 nm, as measured with an atomic force microscope For optimal performance the roughness should be below 10 nm rms We have begun studying the use of ion cluster beam polishing as a means of improving the surface finish of as-deposited capsules In this approach, a batch of capsules would be agitated in a bounce pan inside a vacuum chamber during exposure to the cluster beam. This would ensure a uniform beam dose around the capsule. We have performed preliminary experiments on both Be flats and on a stationary Be capsule On the capsule, the measured Rq went from 64 nm before polishing to 15 nm after This result was obtained without any effort at process optimization. Similar smoothing was observed on the planar samples

  14. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  15. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations. PMID:26465552

  16. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  17. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  18. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  19. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  20. Analysis of pneumatic hammer in rectangular aerostatic thrust bearing with groove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Tan, Jiubin; Cui, Jiwen; Liu, Yongmeng

    2015-02-01

    The pneumatic hammer in rectangular aerostatic thrust bearings with groove is analyzed using perturbation theory. Routh stability criterion was used to evaluate the critical condition of pneumatic hammer in rectangular aerostatic thrust bearings with groove, and the influence of supply pressure, throttle area, groove area, and thickness of film on aerostatic thrust bearings. It was found through analysis that the change rate of stiffness and the volume ratio of aerostatic bearing could be used to analyze the pneumatic hammer in rectangular aerostatic thrust bearings with groove. At a certain film thickness, the stability of aerostatic bearings could be improved by reducing supply pressure, increasing throttle area and decreasing groove area to facilitate the design of a general aerostatic thrust bearing.

  1. Powered glove with electro-pneumatic actuation unit for the disabled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Kosuke; Kumano, Shinichi; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    Authors have been developing a powered glove for people suffering from paralysis on their fingers to support their daily activity. Small air cylinders are used as actuators for this glove. Pneumatically-driven system has high advantages in case soft actuation is preferable. However, there are some problems to be solved in the pneumatically-driven system if the system is supposed to be used in our daily life. Huge air compressor is needed and solenoid valves emit loud sound for example. These problems are hurdles to commercialize the powered glove. To solve these problems authors have developed a new actuation unit by integrating an electric cylinder and an air cylinder. This actuation unit has advantages of both the electric actuation and the pneumatic actuation. Its advanced grip control ability has demonstrated through several experiments. The experimental results are reported in this paper.

  2. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

  3. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumatic prosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Kan, Hiroto; Hirano, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, various prosthetic arms have been developed, but few are both attractive and functional. Considering human coexistence, prosthetic arms must be both safe and flexible. In this research, we developed a novel prosthetic arm with a five-fingered prosthetic hand using our original pneumatic actuators and a slender tendon-driven wrist using a wire drive and two small motors. Because the prosthetic hand's driving source is comprised of small pneumatic actuators, the prosthetic hand is safe when it makes contact with people; it can also operate flexibly. In addition, the arm has a tendon-driven wrist to expand its motion space and to perform many operations. First, we explain the pneumatic hand's drive mechanism and its tendon-driven wrist. Next, we identify the characteristics of the hand and the wrist and construct a control system for this arm and verify its control performance. PMID:19964378

  4. Minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for calculus in bladder diverticula

    PubMed Central

    GU, SI-PING; YOU, ZHI-YUAN; HUANG, YUNTENG; LU, YI-JIN; HE, CAOHUI; CAI, XIAO-DONG; ZHOU, XIAO-MING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for treating calculus in bladder diverticula. Percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy was performed on six elderly male patients with calculi in bladder diverticula, who could not be treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy. The stones were successfully removed from all patients, with no complications such as bladder perforation, rupture, urethritis or cystitis. The surgery time was 15–60 min, with an average time of 32 min. Postoperative ultrasound or X-ray examination showed no stone residues and the bladder stoma healed well. No recurrent stones were detected in the follow-up of 3–24 months (average, 16 months). Minimally invasive percutaneous cystostomy with ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy is a safe, efficient and easy treatment for calculus in bladder diverticula. This method provides a new clinical approach for lithotripsy and we suggest that it is worthy of wider use. PMID:23837044

  5. A magnetorheological fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator allowing independently adjustable stiffness and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaocong; Jing, Xingjian; Cheng, Li

    2011-08-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator (MrEPI) with hybrid and compact connection of pneumatic spring and MR damping elements is proposed in this study. The proposed MrEPI system allows independent nonlinear stiffness and damping control with considerable maneuverable ranges. Meanwhile, it allows convenient switching between different passive and active vibration control modes, thus providing more flexibility and versatility in applications. To demonstrate the advantageous dynamic performance of the MrEPI, a nonlinear non-dimensional dynamic model is developed with full consideration of the nonlinear elements involved. A systematic analysis is therefore conducted which can clearly reveal the influence on system output performance caused by each physically important parameter and provide a useful insight into the analysis and design of nonlinear vibration isolators with pneumatic and MR elements.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of aqueous sulfide on a pneumatically enhanced centrifugal microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Kong, Matthew C R; Salin, Eric D

    2012-11-20

    A pneumatically enhanced centrifugal microfluidic platform was developed for rapid spectrophotometric determination of aqueous sulfide. This platform performs an automated analysis based on the reaction between hydrogen sulfide and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of iron(III) chloride to form Methylene Blue. The platform design minimizes the number of integrated valves required, compared to other centrifugal systems, significantly improving the ease of fabrication. The sequential analytical procedure and spectrophotometric analyses were performed directly on-disk, demonstrating significant advantages in portability and cost over conventional analytical methods. This method allows for rapid and precise determination of aqueous sulfide in the concentration range of 0.4-2.0 mg L(-1), which can be extended by a pneumatically induced, on-disk serial dilution to 6.0 mg L(-1). A detection limit of 0.4 mg L(-1) was calculated for this pneumatically enhanced method. PMID:23075273

  7. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  8. Automated system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash from electric precipitator hoppers

    SciTech Connect

    V.K. Konovalov; O.V. Yashkin; V.V. Ermakov

    2008-03-15

    A system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash is examined, in which air pulses act on batches (pistons) of ash formed in a duct. Studies are made of the effect of several physical parameters on the force required to displace a piston of ash and these serve as a basis for choosing a system for removal and pneumatic transport of ash simultaneously from several hoppers of an electric precipitator. This makes it possible to separate the ash particles according to size without introducing additional components. Formulas are given for calculating the structural and dynamic parameters of this system and measurements of indirect dynamic parameters are used to calculate the input-output characteristics of the system. In order to optimize the system, configurations for summing several ducts into a single transport duct for pneumatic ash transport are proposed. Some variants of dry ash utilization and the advantages of producing of size-separated particles are considered.

  9. Operation of a dilute-phase pneumatic transport system at the new waste calcining facility

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.P.; Bodner, S.S.

    1990-03-15

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) converts radioactive liquid solutions to granular solids in fluidized-bed calcination process. these very erosive solids are dilute-phase pneumatically transported to stainless steel bins for interim storage. The entire NWCF pneumatic transport system is located in highly radioactive cells so the system must be very reliable and free from erosion failures. The NWCF pneumatic transport system uses blinded tees, blinded laterals, wear pads and a specially designed fines metering valve to control the erosion in the system. The NWCF has processed and transported to interim storage approximately 1,350 cubic meters of calcine since initial start-up in 1982. This paper presents the operating history including data on erosion rates measured at various locations at NWCF.

  10. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  11. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  12. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  13. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  14. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  15. 76 FR 31584 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 66349 (October 28, 2010). The... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review covers...

  16. 75 FR 32158 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 54956 (October 26, 2009). The preliminary results of this review are currently due... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR Tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This...

  17. 75 FR 32159 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 54956 (October 26, 2009). This review covers one producer... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic of China for the period December 17,...

  18. 75 FR 62504 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ..., 73 FR 40485 (July 15, 2008) (``Final Determination''), as amended by Certain New Pneumatic Off-the... Sales at Less than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order, 73 FR 51624 (September 4, 2008). Respondent... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of...

  19. Vibration control of a pneumatic driven piezoelectric flexible manipulator using self-organizing map based multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-li; Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2016-03-01

    A kind of hybrid pneumatic-piezoelectric flexible manipulator system has been presented in the paper. A hybrid driving scheme is achieved by combining of a pneumatic proportional valve based pneumatic drive and a piezoelectric actuator bonded to the flexible beam. The system dynamics models are obtained based on system identification approaches, using the established experimental system. For system identification of the flexible piezoelectric manipulator subsystem, parametric estimation methods are utilized. For the pneumatic driven system, a single global linear model is not accurate enough to describe its dynamics, due to the high nonlinearity of the pneumatic driven system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM) based multi-model system identification approach is used to get multiple local linear models. Then, a SOM based multi-model inverse controller and a variable damping pole-placement controller are applied to the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator, respectively. Experiments on pneumatic driven vibration control, piezoelectric vibration control and hybrid vibration control are conducted, utilized proportional and derivative (PD) control, SOM based multi-model inverse controller, and the variable damping pole-placement controller. Experimental results demonstrate that the investigated control algorithms can improve the vibration control performance of the pneumatic driven flexible piezoelectric manipulator system.

  20. Highly active antibody-modified magnetic polyelectrolyte capsules.

    PubMed

    Valdepérez, Daniel; Del Pino, Pablo; Sánchez, Lourdes; Parak, Wolfgang J; Pelaz, Beatriz

    2016-07-15

    Polyelectrolyte hollow capsules are versatile platforms typically used for encapsulation of a wide variety of macromolecules in their cavity. The polymer shell of these capsules as composed by alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes also allows for adding additional functionalities. The properties of the shell can be for example engineered by trapping different nanoparticles in-between the shell layers and/or by attaching bioactive molecules such as antibodies to the outermost layer. Herein, iron oxide NPs were inmobilized into the shell of polyelectrolyte capsules and the outermost layer of the shell was covalently modified with anti peroxidase antibodies. These capsules act as prototype model system, aiming to obtain a microstructure with the potential capability to specifically recognize and separate macromolecules. Due to the magnetic nanoparticles in the capsule shell, the capsules together with the attached target might be extracted by magnetic field gradients. Here we verified this approach by extracting horseradish peroxidase from a solution through magnetic separation with capsules bearing antibodies against horseradish peroxidase. The bioactivity of the capsules and the high degree of specific antibody functionalization were confirmed and quantified through an enzymatic reaction mediated by the extracted horseradish peroxidase. PMID:27089014