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Sample records for pns neurons derived

  1. Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Gal; Cheishvili, David; Even, Aviel; Birger, Anastasya; Turetsky, Tikva; Gil, Yaniv; Even-Ram, Sharona; Aizenman, Einat; Bashir, Nibal; Maayan, Channa; Razin, Aharon; Reubinoff, Benjamim E.; Weil, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC) while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing) promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD. PMID:26437462

  2. Differential Stability of PNS and CNS Nodal Complexes When Neuronal Neurofascin Is Lost

    PubMed Central

    Desmazieres, Anne; Zonta, Barbara; Zhang, Ao; Wu, Lai-Man N.; Sherman, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node. PMID:24719087

  3. Differential stability of PNS and CNS nodal complexes when neuronal neurofascin is lost.

    PubMed

    Desmazieres, Anne; Zonta, Barbara; Zhang, Ao; Wu, Lai-Man N; Sherman, Diane L; Brophy, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node. PMID:24719087

  4. In Vitro Reconstruction of Neuronal Networks Derived from Human iPS Cells Using Microfabricated Devices.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuzo; Kida, Yasuyuki S

    2016-01-01

    Morphology and function of the nervous system is maintained via well-coordinated processes both in central and peripheral nervous tissues, which govern the homeostasis of organs/tissues. Impairments of the nervous system induce neuronal disorders such as peripheral neuropathy or cardiac arrhythmia. Although further investigation is warranted to reveal the molecular mechanisms of progression in such diseases, appropriate model systems mimicking the patient-specific communication between neurons and organs are not established yet. In this study, we reconstructed the neuronal network in vitro either between neurons of the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derived peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS), or between PNS neurons and cardiac cells in a morphologically and functionally compartmentalized manner. Networks were constructed in photolithographically microfabricated devices with two culture compartments connected by 20 microtunnels. We confirmed that PNS and CNS neurons connected via synapses and formed a network. Additionally, calcium-imaging experiments showed that the bundles originating from the PNS neurons were functionally active and responded reproducibly to external stimuli. Next, we confirmed that CNS neurons showed an increase in calcium activity during electrical stimulation of networked bundles from PNS neurons in order to demonstrate the formation of functional cell-cell interactions. We also confirmed the formation of synapses between PNS neurons and mature cardiac cells. These results indicate that compartmentalized culture devices are promising tools for reconstructing network-wide connections between PNS neurons and various organs, and might help to understand patient-specific molecular and functional mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26848955

  5. In Vitro Reconstruction of Neuronal Networks Derived from Human iPS Cells Using Microfabricated Devices

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yuzo; Kida, Yasuyuki S.

    2016-01-01

    Morphology and function of the nervous system is maintained via well-coordinated processes both in central and peripheral nervous tissues, which govern the homeostasis of organs/tissues. Impairments of the nervous system induce neuronal disorders such as peripheral neuropathy or cardiac arrhythmia. Although further investigation is warranted to reveal the molecular mechanisms of progression in such diseases, appropriate model systems mimicking the patient-specific communication between neurons and organs are not established yet. In this study, we reconstructed the neuronal network in vitro either between neurons of the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derived peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS), or between PNS neurons and cardiac cells in a morphologically and functionally compartmentalized manner. Networks were constructed in photolithographically microfabricated devices with two culture compartments connected by 20 microtunnels. We confirmed that PNS and CNS neurons connected via synapses and formed a network. Additionally, calcium-imaging experiments showed that the bundles originating from the PNS neurons were functionally active and responded reproducibly to external stimuli. Next, we confirmed that CNS neurons showed an increase in calcium activity during electrical stimulation of networked bundles from PNS neurons in order to demonstrate the formation of functional cell-cell interactions. We also confirmed the formation of synapses between PNS neurons and mature cardiac cells. These results indicate that compartmentalized culture devices are promising tools for reconstructing network-wide connections between PNS neurons and various organs, and might help to understand patient-specific molecular and functional mechanisms under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26848955

  6. Potential for Cell-Transplant Therapy with Human Neuronal Precursors to Treat Neuropathic Pain in Models of PNS and CNS Injury: Comparison of hNT2.17 and hNT2.19 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Mary J.; Berrocal, Yerko; Wolfe, Stacey Q.

    2012-01-01

    Effective treatment of sensory neuropathies in peripheral neuropathies and spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most difficult problems in modern clinical practice. Cell therapy to release antinociceptive agents near the injured spinal cord is a logical next step in the development of treatment modalities. But few clinical trials, especially for chronic pain, have tested the potential of transplant of cells to treat chronic pain. Cell lines derived from the human neuronal NT2 cell line parentage, the hNT2.17 and hNT2.19 lines, which synthesize and release the neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin (5HT), respectively, have been used to evaluate the potential of cell-based release of antinociceptive agents near the lumbar dorsal (horn) spinal sensory cell centers to relieve neuropathic pain after PNS (partial nerve and diabetes-related injury) and CNS (spinal cord injury) damage in rat models. Both cell lines transplants potently and permanently reverse behavioral hypersensitivity without inducing tumors or other complications after grafting. Functioning as cellular minipumps for antinociception, human neuronal precursors, like these NT2-derived cell lines, would likely provide a useful adjuvant or replacement for current pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain. PMID:22619713

  7. Roles of channels and receptors in the growth cone during PNS axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sangwoo; Ming, Guo-li

    2010-05-01

    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are known to maintain a regenerative capacity and will normally regenerate their axons within a permissive growth environment. The success of regeneration in the PNS largely depends on maintenance of the supportive basal lamina membrane, efficient removal of axonal and myelin debris by macrophages and Schwann cells, expression of neurotrophic factors by Schwann cells, and up-regulation of the intrinsic growth program in PNS neurons. The PNS regenerative process is well characterized through initial Wallerian degeneration followed by axonal sprouting, formation of neuronal growth cones, active axonal growth to the target, and finally sensory and motor functional recovery. The initiation and maintenance of active growth cones during peripheral nerve regeneration recapitulate many aspects of early neural development and are achieved through the activation of complex signaling cascades, involving various receptors, channels, cytoplasmic signaling cascades, as well as transcriptional and translational programs. This review focuses on roles of cell surface ion channels and receptors in the growth cone during Wallerian degeneration and axon regeneration in the PNS. PMID:19833126

  8. Neurotrauma and Inflammation: CNS and PNS Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mietto, Bruno Siqueira; Mostacada, Klauss; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) or the peripheral nervous system (PNS) triggers a cascade of events which culminate in a robust inflammatory reaction. The role played by inflammation in the course of degeneration and regeneration is not completely elucidated. While, in peripheral nerves, the inflammatory response is assumed to be essential for normal progression of Wallerian degeneration and regeneration, CNS trauma inflammation is often associated with poor recovery. In this review, we discuss key mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory reaction after nervous system trauma, emphasizing how inflammations in both CNS and PNS differ from each other, in terms of magnitude, cell types involved, and effector molecules. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms that elicit and maintain inflammation after CNS and PNS tissue trauma and their effect on axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for the identification of possible pharmacological drugs that can positively affect the tissue regenerative capacity. PMID:25918475

  9. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  10. Physiological characterisation of human iPS-derived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Yamasaki-Mann, Michiko; Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J; Vowles, Jane; James, William S; Cowley, Sally A; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  11. Chemosensory selectivity of output neurons innervating an identified, sexually isomorphic olfactory glomerulus

    PubMed Central

    Reisenman, Carolina E.; Christensen, Thomas A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) of insects, like the olfactory bulb of vertebrates, is characterized by discrete modules of synaptic neuropil called glomeruli. In some insects (e.g. moths and cockroaches) a few glomeruli are sexually dimorphic and function in labeled lines for processing of sensory information about sex pheromones. Controversy still exists, however, about whether projection (output) neurons (PNs) of glomeruli in the main AL are also narrowly tuned. We examined this critical issue in the AL of the moth Manduca sexta. We used intracellular recording and staining techniques to investigate the chemosensory tuning of PNs innervating an identifiable, sexually isomorphic glomerulus, G35, in the main AL. We found that the morphological features and chemosensory tuning of G35-PNs were nearly identical in females and males. G35-PNs responded to low concentrations of the plant-derived volatile compound cis-3-hexenyl acetate (c3HA), but the sensitivity threshold of female PNs was lower than that of male PNs. The propionate and butyrate homologues of c3HA could evoke excitatory responses, but only at moderate-to-high concentrations. Other plant volatiles did not evoke responses from G35-PNs. Moreover, PNs innervating glomeruli near G35 (in females) showed little or no response to c3HA. Female G35-PNs were hyperpolarized by (±)linalool, a compound that excites PNs in an adjacent glomerulus, thus providing evidence for lateral-inhibitory interactions between glomeruli. Our results show that PNs arborizing in an identified glomerulus in the main olfactory pathway are morphologically and physiologically equivalent in both sexes and have characteristic, limited molecular receptive ranges that are highly conserved across individuals. PMID:16135759

  12. Chemosensory selectivity of output neurons innervating an identified, sexually isomorphic olfactory glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Christensen, Thomas A; Hildebrand, John G

    2005-08-31

    The antennal lobe (AL) of insects, like the olfactory bulb of vertebrates, is characterized by discrete modules of synaptic neuropil called glomeruli. In some insects (e.g., moths and cockroaches), a few glomeruli are sexually dimorphic and function in labeled lines for processing of sensory information about sex pheromones. Controversy still exists, however, about whether projection (output) neurons (PNs) of glomeruli in the main AL are also narrowly tuned. We examined this critical issue in the AL of the moth Manduca sexta. We used intracellular recording and staining techniques to investigate the chemosensory tuning of PNs innervating an identifiable, sexually isomorphic glomerulus, G35, in the main AL. We found that the morphological features and chemosensory tuning of G35-PNs were nearly identical in females and males. G35-PNs responded to low concentrations of the plant-derived volatile compound cis-3-hexenyl acetate (c3HA), but the sensitivity threshold of female PNs was lower than that of male PNs. The propionate and butyrate homologs of c3HA could evoke excitatory responses but only at moderate-to-high concentrations. Other plant volatiles did not evoke responses from G35-PNs. Moreover, PNs innervating glomeruli near G35 (in females) showed little or no response to c3HA. Female G35-PNs were hyperpolarized by (+/-)linalool, a compound that excites PNs in an adjacent glomerulus, thus providing evidence for lateral-inhibitory interactions between glomeruli. Our results show that PNs arborizing in an identified glomerulus in the main olfactory pathway are morphologically and physiologically equivalent in both sexes and have characteristic, limited molecular receptive ranges that are highly conserved across individuals. PMID:16135759

  13. Intrinsic Membrane Hyperexcitability of ALS Patient-Derived Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wainger, Brian J.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Mellin, Cassidy; Wiskow, Ole; Han, Steve S.W.; Sandoe, Jackson; Perez, Numa P.; Williams, Luis A.; Lee, Seungkyu; Boulting, Gabriella; Berry, James D.; Brown, Robert H.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Bean, Bruce P.; Eggan, Kevin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of the motor nervous system. We show using multi-electrode array and patch clamp recordings that hyperexcitability detected by clinical neurophysiological studies of ALS patients is recapitulated in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons from ALS patients harboring superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), C9orf72 and fused-in-sarcoma mutations. Motor neurons produced from a genetically corrected, but otherwise isogenic, SOD1+/+ stem cell line do not display the hyperexcitability phenotype. SOD1A4V/+ ALS patient-derived motor neurons have reduced delayed-rectifier potassium current amplitudes relative to control-derived motor neurons, a deficit that may underlie their hyperexcitability. The Kv7 channel activator retigabine both blocks the hyperexcitability and improves motor neuron survival in vitro when tested in SOD1 mutant ALS cases. Therefore, electrophysiological characterization of human stem cell-derived neurons can reveal disease-related mechanisms and identify therapeutic candidates. PMID:24703839

  14. Tracing Synaptic Connectivity onto Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Isabella; Huang, Longwen; Ung, Kevin; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    Transsynaptic circuit tracing using genetically modified Rabies virus (RV) is an emerging technology for identifying synaptic connections between neurons. Complementing this methodology, it has become possible to assay the basic molecular and cellular properties of neuronal lineages derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, and these properties are under intense investigation towards devising cell replacement therapies. Here, we report the generation of a novel mouse ES cell (mESC) line that harbors the genetic elements to allow RV-mediated transsynaptic circuit tracing in ES cell-derived neurons and their synaptic networks. To facilitate transsynaptic tracing, we have engineered a new reporter allele by introducing cDNA encoding tdTomato, the Rabies-G glycoprotein, and the avian TVA receptor into the ROSA26 locus by gene targeting. We demonstrate high-efficiency differentiation of these novel mESCs into functional neurons, show their capacity to functionally connect with primary neuronal cultures as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological recordings, and show their ability to act as source cells for presynaptic tracing of neuronal networks in vitro and in vivo. Together, our data highlight the potential for using genetically engineered stem cells to investigate fundamental mechanisms of synapse and circuit formation with unambiguous identification of presynaptic inputs onto neuronal populations of interest. PMID:22996827

  15. Neuropharmacological properties of neurons derived from human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Leanne; Shan, Mu; Przyborski, Stefan A; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Halliwell, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells have enormous potential value in neuropharmacology and drug discovery yet there is little data on the major classes and properties of receptors and ion channels expressed by neurons derived from these stem cells. Recent studies in this lab have therefore used conventional patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the pharmacological properties of the ligand and voltage-gated ion channels in neurons derived and maintained in vitro from the human stem cell (hSC) line, TERA2.cl.SP12. TERA2.cl.SP12 stem cells were differentiated with retinoic acid and used in electrophysiological experiments 28-50 days after beginning differentiation. HSC-derived neurons generated large whole cell currents with depolarizing voltage steps (-80 to 30 mV) comprised of an inward, rapidly inactivating component and a delayed, slowly deactivating outward component. The fast inward current was blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (0.1 μM) and the outward currents were significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA, 5 mM) consistent with the presence of functional Na and K ion channels. Application of the inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA (0.1-1000 μM) or glycine (0.1-1000 μM) evoked concentration dependent currents. The GABA currents were inhibited by the convulsants, picrotoxin (10 μM) and bicuculline (3 μM), potentiated by the NSAID mefenamic acid (10-100 μM), the general anaesthetic pentobarbital (100 μM), the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and the anxiolytics chlordiazepoxide (10 μM) and diazepam (10 μM) all consistent with the expression of GABA(A) receptors. Responses to glycine were reversibly blocked by strychnine (10 μM) consistent with glycine-gated chloride channels. The excitatory agonists, glutamate (1-1000 μM) and NMDA (1-1000 μM) activated concentration-dependent responses from hSC-derived neurons. Glutamate currents were inhibited by kynurenic acid (1 mM) and NMDA responses were blocked by MgCl(2) (2 mM) in a

  16. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Zhou, Xianju; Moon, Changjong; Wang, Hongbing

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in many aspects of brain functions, including cell survival, differentiation, development, learning and memory. Aberrant BDNF expression has also been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. Thus, significant effort has been made to understand how BDNF transcription as well as translation is regulated. Interestingly, the BDNF gene structure suggests that multiple promoters control its transcription, leading to the existence of distinct mRNA species. Further, the long- and short-tail of the 3’un-translated region may dictate different sub-cellular BDNF mRNA targeting and translational responses following neuronal stimulation. This review aims to summarize the main findings that demonstrate how neuronal activities specifically up-regulate the transcription and translation of unique BDNF transcripts. We also discuss some of the recent reports that emphasize the epigenetic regulation of BDNF transcription. PMID:23320132

  17. Functional coupling with cardiac muscle promotes maturation of hPSC-derived sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yohan; Cho, Gun-Sik; Li, Zhe; Hong, Ingie; Zhu, Renjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Yong Jun; Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Tung, Leslie; Huganir, Richard; Dong, Xinzhong; Kwon, Chulan; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for studying human neural development and diseases. Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but has proven difficult to achieve. Here, we derive sympathetic neurons from hPSCs and show they can form physical and functional connections with cardiac muscle cells. Using multiple hPSC reporter lines, we recapitulated human autonomic neuron development in vitro and successfully isolated PHOX2B:eGFP+ neurons that exhibit sympathetic marker expression and electrophysiological properties, and norepinephrine secretion. Upon pharmacologic and optogenetic manipulation, PHOX:eGFP+ neurons controlled beating rates of cardiomyocytes, and the physical interactions between these cells increased neuronal maturation. This study provides a foundation for human sympathetic neuron specification and for hPSC-based neuronal control of organs in a dish. PMID:27320040

  18. Micropatterning Facilitates the Long-Term Growth and Analysis of iPSC-Derived Individual Human Neurons and Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Burbulla, Lena F; Beaumont, Kristin G; Mrksich, Milan; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their application to patient-specific disease models offers new opportunities for studying the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. However, current methods for culturing iPSC-derived neuronal cells result in clustering of neurons, which precludes the analysis of individual neurons and defined neuronal networks. To address this challenge, cultures of human neurons on micropatterned surfaces are developed that promote neuronal survival over extended periods of time. This approach facilitates studies of neuronal development, cellular trafficking, and related mechanisms that require assessment of individual neurons and specific network connections. Importantly, micropatterns support the long-term stability of cultured neurons, which enables time-dependent analysis of cellular processes in living neurons. The approach described in this paper allows mechanistic studies of human neurons, both in terms of normal neuronal development and function, as well as time-dependent pathological processes, and provides a platform for testing of new therapeutics in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27108930

  19. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide's antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide's direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  20. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide’s antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide’s direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  1. Formation of Neuronal Circuits by Interactions between Neuronal Populations Derived from Different Origins in the Drosophila Visual Center.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takumi; Hasegawa, Eri; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Kaido, Masako; Takayama, Rie; Sato, Makoto

    2016-04-19

    A wide variety of neurons, including populations derived from different origins, are precisely arranged and correctly connected with their partner to establish a functional neural circuit during brain development. The molecular mechanisms that orchestrate the production and arrangement of these neurons have been obscure. Here, we demonstrate that cell-cell interactions play an important role in establishing the arrangement of neurons of different origins in the Drosophila visual center. Specific types of neurons born outside the medulla primordium migrate tangentially into the developing medulla cortex. During their tangential migration, these neurons express the repellent ligand Slit, and the two layers that the neurons intercalate between express the receptors Robo2 and Robo3. Genetic analysis suggests that Slit-Robo signaling may control the positioning of the layer cells or their processes to form a path for migration. Our results suggest that conserved axon guidance signaling is involved in the interactions between neurons of different origins during brain development. PMID:27068458

  2. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  3. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  4. Comparison of three-dimensional nonequilibrium PNS codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buelow, Philip E.; Ievalts, John O.; Tannehill, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison study has been conducted using four recently developed parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) codes which have the capability of predicting finite-rate, chemically reacting flows over three-dimensional bodies. These are the (1) UPS code, (2) the STUFF code, (3) the TONIC code, and (4) the VRA-PNS code. All of the codes use the same seven-species, single-temperature air chemistry model, but otherwise they are unique, with different capabilities and characteristics. The differences include upwinding vs central differencing, strongly-coupled vs weakly-coupled chemistry, shock capturing vs shock fitting, finite volume vs finite difference, and full PNS vs thin-layer PNS equations. Three test cases were utilized to compare the codes. The comparisons presented indicate a good agreement among the codes tested.

  5. Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kent; Sone, Takefumi; Ibata, Keiji; Fujimori, Koki; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    The CNS contains many diverse neuronal subtypes, and most neurological diseases target specific subtypes. However, the mechanism of neuronal subtype specificity of disease phenotypes remains elusive. Although in vitro disease models employing human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have great potential to clarify the association of neuronal subtypes with disease, it is currently difficult to compare various PSC-derived subtypes. This is due to the limited number of subtypes whose induction is established, and different cultivation protocols for each subtype. Here, we report a culture system to control the regional identity of PSC-derived neurons along the anteroposterior (A-P) and dorsoventral (D-V) axes. This system was successfully used to obtain various neuronal subtypes based on the same protocol. Furthermore, we reproduced subtype-specific phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by comparing the obtained subtypes. Therefore, our culture system provides new opportunities for modeling neurological diseases with PSCs. PMID:26549851

  6. Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Have Reduced Expression of Proteins Important in Neuronal Development

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Heidi R.; Mandefro, Berhan; Shirran, Sally L.; Gross, Andrew R.; Kaus, Anjoscha S.; Botting, Catherine H.; Morris, Glenn E.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease primarily characterized by degeneration of spinal motor neurons, and caused by reduced levels of the SMN protein. Previous studies to understand the proteomic consequences of reduced SMN have mostly utilized patient fibroblasts and animal models. We have derived human motor neurons from type I SMA and healthy controls by creating their induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Quantitative mass spectrometry of these cells revealed increased expression of 63 proteins in control motor neurons compared to respective fibroblasts, whereas 30 proteins were increased in SMA motor neurons vs. their fibroblasts. Notably, UBA1 was significantly decreased in SMA motor neurons, supporting evidence for ubiquitin pathway defects. Subcellular distribution of UBA1 was predominantly cytoplasmic in SMA motor neurons in contrast to nuclear in control motor neurons; suggestive of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Many of the proteins that were decreased in SMA motor neurons, including beta III-tubulin and UCHL1, were associated with neurodevelopment and differentiation. These neuron-specific consequences of SMN depletion were not evident in fibroblasts, highlighting the importance of iPSC technology. The proteomic profiles identified here provide a useful resource to explore the molecular consequences of reduced SMN in motor neurons, and for the identification of novel biomarker and therapeutic targets for SMA. PMID:26793058

  7. Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Have Reduced Expression of Proteins Important in Neuronal Development.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Heidi R; Mandefro, Berhan; Shirran, Sally L; Gross, Andrew R; Kaus, Anjoscha S; Botting, Catherine H; Morris, Glenn E; Sareen, Dhruv

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease primarily characterized by degeneration of spinal motor neurons, and caused by reduced levels of the SMN protein. Previous studies to understand the proteomic consequences of reduced SMN have mostly utilized patient fibroblasts and animal models. We have derived human motor neurons from type I SMA and healthy controls by creating their induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Quantitative mass spectrometry of these cells revealed increased expression of 63 proteins in control motor neurons compared to respective fibroblasts, whereas 30 proteins were increased in SMA motor neurons vs. their fibroblasts. Notably, UBA1 was significantly decreased in SMA motor neurons, supporting evidence for ubiquitin pathway defects. Subcellular distribution of UBA1 was predominantly cytoplasmic in SMA motor neurons in contrast to nuclear in control motor neurons; suggestive of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Many of the proteins that were decreased in SMA motor neurons, including beta III-tubulin and UCHL1, were associated with neurodevelopment and differentiation. These neuron-specific consequences of SMN depletion were not evident in fibroblasts, highlighting the importance of iPSC technology. The proteomic profiles identified here provide a useful resource to explore the molecular consequences of reduced SMN in motor neurons, and for the identification of novel biomarker and therapeutic targets for SMA. PMID:26793058

  8. Recording axonal conduction to evaluate the integration of pluripotent cell-derived neurons into a neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Shimba, Kenta; Sakai, Koji; Takayama, Yuzo; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapy to treat neurodegenerative disorders, and a number of in vitro models have been developed for studying interactions between grafted neurons and the host neuronal network to promote drug discovery. However, methods capable of evaluating the process by which stem cells integrate into the host neuronal network are lacking. In this study, we applied an axonal conduction-based analysis to a co-culture study of primary and differentiated neurons. Mouse cortical neurons and neuronal cells differentiated from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, a model for early neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, were co-cultured in a microfabricated device. The somata of these cells were separated by the co-culture device, but their axons were able to elongate through microtunnels and then form synaptic contacts. Propagating action potentials were recorded from these axons by microelectrodes embedded at the bottom of the microtunnels and sorted into clusters representing individual axons. While the number of axons of cortical neurons increased until 14 days in vitro and then decreased, those of P19 neurons increased throughout the culture period. Network burst analysis showed that P19 neurons participated in approximately 80% of the bursting activity after 14 days in vitro. Interestingly, the axonal conduction delay of P19 neurons was significantly greater than that of cortical neurons, suggesting that there are some physiological differences in their axons. These results suggest that our method is feasible to evaluate the process by which stem cell-derived neurons integrate into a host neuronal network. PMID:26303583

  9. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy. PMID:24749075

  10. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Crombie, Duncan; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days' coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients. PMID:26966437

  11. Functional Coupling with Cardiac Muscle Promotes Maturation of hPSC-Derived Sympathetic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yohan; Cho, Gun-Sik; Li, Zhe; Hong, Ingie; Zhu, Renjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Yong Jun; Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Tung, Leslie; Huganir, Richard; Dong, Xinzhong; Kwon, Chulan; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-07-01

    Neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for studying human neural development and diseases. Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but it has proven difficult to achieve. Here, we derive sympathetic neurons from hPSCs and show that they can form physical and functional connections with cardiac muscle cells. Using multiple hPSC reporter lines, we recapitulated human autonomic neuron development in vitro and successfully isolated PHOX2B::eGFP+ neurons that exhibit sympathetic marker expression and electrophysiological properties and norepinephrine secretion. Upon pharmacologic and optogenetic manipulation, PHOX2B::eGFP+ neurons controlled beating rates of cardiomyocytes, and the physical interactions between these cells increased neuronal maturation. This study provides a foundation for human sympathetic neuron specification and for hPSC-based neuronal control of organs in a dish. PMID:27320040

  12. Ensemble Recording of Electrical Activity in Neurons Derived from P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Yuzo; Saito, Atushi; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    Regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most important research themes in neuroscience and neuroengineering. It is essential to replenish the lost neurons and to establish appropriate functional neuronal networks using pluripotent stem cells. Little is known, however, about the properties of stem cell-derived neuronal networks, particularly under the differentiation and development processes. In this work, we cultured P19 embryonal carcinoma cells on micro-electrode arrays (MEAs). P19 cells were differentiated into neurons by retinoic acid application and formed densely connected networks. Spontaneous electrical activity was extracellulary recorded through substrate electrodes and analyzed. Synchronized periodic bursts, which were the characteristic features in primary cultured CNS neurons, were observed. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that the glutamatergic excitatory synapses and the GABAergic inhibitory synapses were active in these P19-derived neuronal networks. The results suggested that MEA-based recording was useful for monitoring differentiation processes of stem cells. P19-derived neuronal networks had quite similar network properties to those of primary cultured neurons, and thus provide a novel model system to investigate stem cell-based neuronal regeneration.

  13. Human GPM6A is associated with differentiation and neuronal migration of neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Michibata, Hideo; Okuno, Tsuyoshi; Konishi, Nae; Kyono, Kiyoshi; Wakimoto, Koji; Aoki, Kan; Kondo, Yasushi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is known as a transmembrane protein and an abundant cell surface protein on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the function of GPM6A in the differentiation of neurons derived from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is unknown. To investigate the function of GPM6A in neural differentiation, we generated human ES cell lines with overexpressed (B2h-oeM6A) or suppressed (B2h-shM6A) human GPM6A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that overexpression of GPM6A markedly increased the expression of neuroectodermal-associated genes (OTX1, Lmx1b, En1, Pax2, Sox2, and Wnt1), and the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from B2h-oeM6A cells compared to control vector transfected human ES cells (B2h-Mock1). Our results show an increase in the number of differentiated neuronal cells (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and GABAergic neurons) from NSCs derived from B2h-oeM6A cells. On the other hand, suppression of human GPM6A expression using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in human ES cells led to a decrease in both the expression of neuroectodermal-associated genes and the number of NSCs derived from B2h-shM6A cells. In addition, our results show a decrease in the number of differentiated neuronal cells from NSCs in B2h-shM6A cells compared to control vector transfected human ES cells (B2h-shNSP1). Moreover, overexpression or suppression of human GPM6A in human ES cells led to an increase or decrease, respectively, of neuronal migration. Hence, our findings suggest that expression level of GPM6A is, directly or indirectly, associated with the differentiation and neuronal migration of neurons derived from undifferentiated human ES cells. PMID:19298174

  14. Neurons derived from transplanted neural stem cells restore disrupted neuronal circuitry in a mouse model of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Abematsu, Masahiko; Tsujimura, Keita; Yamano, Mariko; Saito, Michiko; Kohno, Kenji; Kohyama, Jun; Namihira, Masakazu; Komiya, Setsuro; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2010-01-01

    The body’s capacity to restore damaged neural networks in the injured CNS is severely limited. Although various treatment regimens can partially alleviate spinal cord injury (SCI), the mechanisms responsible for symptomatic improvement remain elusive. Here, using a mouse model of SCI, we have shown that transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) together with administration of valproic acid (VPA), a known antiepileptic and histone deacetylase inhibitor, dramatically enhanced the restoration of hind limb function. VPA treatment promoted the differentiation of transplanted NSCs into neurons rather than glial cells. Transsynaptic anterograde corticospinal tract tracing revealed that transplant-derived neurons reconstructed broken neuronal circuits, and electron microscopic analysis revealed that the transplant-derived neurons both received and sent synaptic connections to endogenous neurons. Ablation of the transplanted cells abolished the recovery of hind limb motor function, confirming that NSC transplantation directly contributed to restored motor function. These findings raise the possibility that epigenetic status in transplanted NSCs can be manipulated to provide effective treatment for SCI. PMID:20714104

  15. Importance of being Nernst: Synaptic activity and functional relevance in stem cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Aaron B; McNutt, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Functional synaptogenesis and network emergence are signature endpoints of neurogenesis. These behaviors provide higher-order confirmation that biochemical and cellular processes necessary for neurotransmitter release, post-synaptic detection and network propagation of neuronal activity have been properly expressed and coordinated among cells. The development of synaptic neurotransmission can therefore be considered a defining property of neurons. Although dissociated primary neuron cultures readily form functioning synapses and network behaviors in vitro, continuously cultured neurogenic cell lines have historically failed to meet these criteria. Therefore, in vitro-derived neuron models that develop synaptic transmission are critically needed for a wide array of studies, including molecular neuroscience, developmental neurogenesis, disease research and neurotoxicology. Over the last decade, neurons derived from various stem cell lines have shown varying ability to develop into functionally mature neurons. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic potential of various stem cells populations, addressing strengths and weaknesses of each, with particular attention to the emergence of functional behaviors. We will propose methods to functionally characterize new stem cell-derived neuron (SCN) platforms to improve their reliability as physiological relevant models. Finally, we will review how synaptically active SCNs can be applied to accelerate research in a variety of areas. Ultimately, emphasizing the critical importance of synaptic activity and network responses as a marker of neuronal maturation is anticipated to result in in vitro findings that better translate to efficacious clinical treatments. PMID:26240679

  16. Reduced synaptic activity in neuronal networks derived from embryonic stem cells of murine Rett syndrome model

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Lydia; Sütterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental diseases such as the Rett syndrome (RTT) have received renewed attention, since the mechanisms involved may underlie a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In vertebrates early stages in the functional development of neurons and neuronal networks are difficult to study. Embryonic stem cell-derived neurons provide an easily accessible tool to investigate neuronal differentiation and early network formation. We used in vitro cultures of neurons derived from murine embryonic stem cells missing the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene (MeCP2-/y) and from wild type cells of the corresponding background. Cultures were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and immunofluorescence. We studied the functional maturation of developing neurons and the activity of the synaptic connections they formed. Neurons exhibited minor differences in the developmental patterns for their intrinsic parameters, such as resting membrane potential and excitability; with the MeCP2-/y cells showing a slightly accelerated development, with shorter action potential half-widths at early stages. There was no difference in the early phase of synapse development, but as the cultures matured, significant deficits became apparent, particularly for inhibitory synaptic activity. MeCP2-/y embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cultures show clear developmental deficits that match phenotypes observed in slice preparations and thus provide a compelling tool to further investigate the mechanisms behind RTT pathophysiology. PMID:24723848

  17. Neurite formation by neurons derived from adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells is susceptible to myelin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mellough, Carla B; Cho, Seongeun; Wood, Andrew; Przyborski, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Myelin-associated inhibitors expressed following injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) induce growth cone collapse and retraction of the axonal cytoskeleton. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a bi-functional molecule that promotes neuritogenesis in some immature neurons during development then becomes inhibitory to neurite outgrowth as neurons mature. Progress is being made towards the elucidation of the downstream events that regulate myelin inhibition of regeneration in neuronal populations. However it is not known how adult-derived neural stem cells or progenitors respond to myelin during neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. Here we examine the effect of MAG on neurons derived from an adult rat hippocampal progenitor cell line (AHPCs). We show that, unlike their developmental counterparts, AHPC-derived neurons are susceptible to MAG inhibition of neuritogenesis during differentiation and display a 57% reduction in neurite outgrowth when compared with controls. We demonstrate that this effect can be overcome (by up to 69%) by activation of the neurotrophin, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A pathways or by Rho-kinase suppression. We also demonstrate that combination of these factors enhanced neurite outgrowth from differentiating neurons in the presence of MAG. This work provides important information for the successful generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cell populations within compromised adult circuitry and is thus directly relevant to endogenous repair and regeneration of the adult CNS. PMID:21256909

  18. Reduced synaptic activity in neuronal networks derived from embryonic stem cells of murine Rett syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Barth, Lydia; Sütterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental diseases such as the Rett syndrome (RTT) have received renewed attention, since the mechanisms involved may underlie a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In vertebrates early stages in the functional development of neurons and neuronal networks are difficult to study. Embryonic stem cell-derived neurons provide an easily accessible tool to investigate neuronal differentiation and early network formation. We used in vitro cultures of neurons derived from murine embryonic stem cells missing the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene (MeCP2-/y) and from wild type cells of the corresponding background. Cultures were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and immunofluorescence. We studied the functional maturation of developing neurons and the activity of the synaptic connections they formed. Neurons exhibited minor differences in the developmental patterns for their intrinsic parameters, such as resting membrane potential and excitability; with the MeCP2-/y cells showing a slightly accelerated development, with shorter action potential half-widths at early stages. There was no difference in the early phase of synapse development, but as the cultures matured, significant deficits became apparent, particularly for inhibitory synaptic activity. MeCP2-/y embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cultures show clear developmental deficits that match phenotypes observed in slice preparations and thus provide a compelling tool to further investigate the mechanisms behind RTT pathophysiology. PMID:24723848

  19. Association of astrocytes with neurons and astrocytes derived from distinct progenitor domains in the subpallium

    PubMed Central

    Torigoe, Makio; Yamauchi, Kenta; Zhu, Yan; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Fujio

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes play pivotal roles in metabolism and homeostasis as well as in neural development and function in a manner thought to depend on their region-specific diversity. In the mouse spinal cord, astrocytes and neurons, which are derived from a common progenitor domain (PD) and controlled by common PD-specific transcription factors, migrate radially and share their final positions. However, whether astrocytes can only interact with neurons from common PDs in the brain remains unknown. Here, we focused on subpallium-derived cells, because the subpallium generates neurons that show a diverse mode of migration. We tracked their fate by in utero electroporation of plasmids that allow for chromosomal integration of transgenes or of a Cre recombinase expression vector to reporter mice. We also used an Nkx2.1Cre mouse line to fate map the cells originating from the medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area. We find that although neurons and astrocytes are labeled in various regions, only neurons are labeled in the neocortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb. Furthermore, we find astrocytes derived from an Nkx 2.1-negative PD are associated with neurons from the Nkx2.1+ PD. Thus, forebrain astrocytes can associate with neurons as well as astrocytes derived from a distinct PD. PMID:26193445

  20. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: Promises and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P.; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Margulies, David M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this manuscript, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker. PMID:24374161

  1. iPSC-derived neurons as a higher-throughput readout for autism: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Prilutsky, Daria; Palmer, Nathan P; Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Margulies, David M; Kohane, Isaac S

    2014-02-01

    The elucidation of disease etiologies and establishment of robust, scalable, high-throughput screening assays for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been impeded by both inaccessibility of disease-relevant neuronal tissue and the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. Neuronal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from autism patients may circumvent these obstacles and serve as relevant cell models. To date, derived cells are characterized and screened by assessing their neuronal phenotypes. These characterizations are often etiology-specific or lack reproducibility and stability. In this review, we present an overview of efforts to study iPSC-derived neurons as a model for autism, and we explore the plausibility of gene expression profiling as a reproducible and stable disease marker. PMID:24374161

  2. Spinal muscular atrophy patient-derived motor neurons exhibit hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huisheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Chen, Hong; Du, Zhongwei; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) presents severe muscle weakness with limited motor neuron (MN) loss at an early stage, suggesting potential functional alterations in MNs that contribute to SMA symptom presentation. Using SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we found that SMA MNs displayed hyperexcitability with increased membrane input resistance, hyperpolarized threshold, and larger action potential amplitude, which was mimicked by knocking down full length survival motor neuron (SMN) in non-SMA MNs. We further discovered that SMA MNs exhibit enhanced sodium channel activities with increased current amplitude and facilitated recovery, which was corrected by restoration of SMN1 in SMA MNs. Together we propose that SMN reduction results in MN hyperexcitability and impaired neurotransmission, the latter of which exacerbate each other via a feedback loop, thus contributing to severe symptoms at an early stage of SMA. PMID:26190808

  3. Is the time right for in vitro neurotoxicity testing using human iPSC-derived neurons?

    PubMed

    Tukker, Anke M; de Groot, Martje W G D M; Wijnolts, Fiona M J; Kasteel, Emma E J; Hondebrink, Laura; Westerink, Remco H S

    2016-01-01

    Current neurotoxicity testing heavily relies on expensive, time consuming and ethically debated in vivo animal experiments that are unsuitable for screening large number of chemicals. Consequently, there is a clear need for (high-throughput) in vitro test strategies, preferably using human cells as this increases relevance and eliminates the need for interspecies translation. However, human stem cell-derived neurons used to date are not well characterised, require prolonged differentiation and are potentially subject to batch-to-batch variation, ethical concerns and country-specific legislations. Recently, a number of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons became commercially available that may circumvent these concerns. We therefore used immunofluorescent stainings to demonstrate that human iPSC-derived neurons from various suppliers form mixed neuronal cultures, consisting of different types of (excitatory and inhibitory) neurons. Using multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) recordings, we demonstrate that these human iPSC-derived cultures develop spontaneous neuronal activity over time, which can be modulated by different physiological, toxicological and pharmacological compounds. Additional single cell calcium imaging illustrates the presence of functional GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine receptors as well as voltage-gated calcium channels. While human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures appear not yet suitable to fully replace the rat primary cortical model, our data indicate that these rapidly differentiating, commercially available human iPSC-derived neuronal cultures are already suitable for in vitro prioritisation and effect screening studies. Further characterisation and toxicological validation is now required to facilitate acceptance and large-scale implementation of these animal-free, physiologically-relevant human iPSC-based modelsfor future neurotoxicity testing. PMID:27010910

  4. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment. PMID:26634434

  5. Use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a model for Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naomi; Ashour, Danah; Dratz, Edward; Halonen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite with approximately one-third of the worlds' population chronically infected. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides primarily in cysts within neurons in the central nervous system. The chronic infection in immunocompetent individuals has been considered to be asymptomatic but increasing evidence indicates the chronic infection can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders such as Schizophrenia, prenatal depression and suicidal thoughts. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) by which the parasite exerts effects on human behavior is limited due to lack of suitable human neuronal models. In this paper, we report the use of human neurons derived from normal cord blood CD34+ cells generated via genetic reprogramming, as an in vitro model for the study T. gondii in neurons. This culture method resulted in a relatively pure monolayer of induced human neuronal-like cells that stained positive for neuronal markers, MAP2, NFL, NFH and NeuN. These induced human neuronal-like cells (iHNs) were efficiently infected by the Prugniad strain of the parasite and supported replication of the tachyzoite stage and development of the cyst stage. Infected iHNs could be maintained through 5 days of infection, allowing for formation of large cysts. This induced human neuronal model represents a novel culture method to study both tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of T. gondii in human neurons. PMID:27083472

  6. In vitro and in vivo analyses of human embryonic stem cell-derived dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Minn, Yang-Ki; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Dong Ho; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Shim, Jae-Won; Ko, Ji-Yun; Koh, Hyun-Chul; Kang, Min Jeong; Kang, Jin Sun; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Lee, Yong-Sung; Son, Hyeon; Moon, Shin Yong; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2005-03-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells, due to their capacity of multipotency and self-renewal, may serve as a valuable experimental tool for human developmental biology and may provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental potential of hES cells to replace the selectively lost midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the development of an in vitro differentiation protocol to derive an enriched population of midbrain DA neurons from hES cells. Neural induction of hES cells co-cultured with stromal cells, followed by expansion of the resulting neural precursor cells, efficiently generated DA neurons with concomitant expression of transcriptional factors related to midbrain DA development, such as Pax2, En1 (Engrailed-1), Nurr1, and Lmx1b. Using our procedure, the majority of differentiated hES cells (> 95%) contained neuronal or neural precursor markers and a high percentage (> 40%) of TuJ1+ neurons was tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+, while none of them expressed the undifferentiated ES cell marker, Oct 3/4. Furthermore, hES cell-derived DA neurons demonstrated functionality in vitro, releasing DA in response to KCl-induced depolarization and reuptake of DA. Finally, transplantation of hES-derived DA neurons into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats failed to result in improvement of their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotation and step-adjustment. Immunohistochemical analyses of grafted brains revealed that abundant hES-derived cells (human nuclei+ cells) survived in the grafts, but none of them were TH+. Therefore, unlike those from mouse ES cells, hES cell-derived DA neurons either do not survive or their DA phenotype is unstable when grafted into rodent brains. PMID:15715675

  7. Intrinsic membrane hyperexcitability of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient-derived motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Wainger, Brian J; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Mellin, Cassidy; Wiskow, Ole; Han, Steve S W; Sandoe, Jackson; Perez, Numa P; Williams, Luis A; Lee, Seungkyu; Boulting, Gabriella; Berry, James D; Brown, Robert H; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Bean, Bruce P; Eggan, Kevin; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-04-10

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of the motor nervous system. We show using multielectrode array and patch-clamp recordings that hyperexcitability detected by clinical neurophysiological studies of ALS patients is recapitulated in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons from ALS patients harboring superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), C9orf72, and fused-in-sarcoma mutations. Motor neurons produced from a genetically corrected but otherwise isogenic SOD1(+/+) stem cell line do not display the hyperexcitability phenotype. SOD1(A4V/+) ALS patient-derived motor neurons have reduced delayed-rectifier potassium current amplitudes relative to control-derived motor neurons, a deficit that may underlie their hyperexcitability. The Kv7 channel activator retigabine both blocks the hyperexcitability and improves motor neuron survival in vitro when tested in SOD1 mutant ALS cases. Therefore, electrophysiological characterization of human stem cell-derived neurons can reveal disease-related mechanisms and identify therapeutic candidates. PMID:24703839

  8. Increased cellular turnover in response to fluoxetine in neuronal precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eun-Ah; Beyhan, Zeki; Yoo, Myung-Sik; Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Ko, Tak; Lookingland, Keith J; Madhukar, Burra V; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that antidepressants increase neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the direct effects of one such antidepressant, fluoxetine , on cell proliferation and on the production of neurotrophic factors in neuronal precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs; H9). Fluoxetine induced the differentiation of neuronal precursors, strongly enhancing neuronal characteristics. The rate of proliferation was higher in fluoxetine -treated cells than in control cells, as determined by MTT [3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The CPDL (cumulative population doubling level) of the fluoxetine-treated cells was significantly increased in comparison to that of control cells (p<.001). Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and staurosporine-induced apoptosis assays were elevated in fluoxetine-treated cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed no significant differences in the expression of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF);glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) between cells treated with fluoxetine for two weeks and their untreated counterparts. These results may help elucidate the mechanism of action of fluoxetine as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of depression. Data presented herein provide more evidence that, in addition to having a direct chemical effect on serotonin levels, fluoxetine can influence hESC-derived neuronal cells by increasing cell proliferation, while allowing them to maintain their neuronal characteristics. PMID:19598107

  9. Functional conservation of atonal and Math1 in the CNS and PNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arie, N.; Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; Malicki, D. M.; Armstrong, D.; Matzuk, M.; Bellen, H. J.; Zoghbi, H. Y.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the extent to which atonal and its mouse homolog Math1 exhibit functional conservation, we inserted (beta)-galactosidase (lacZ) into the Math1 locus and analyzed its expression, evaluated consequences of loss of Math1 function, and expressed Math1 in atonal mutant flies. lacZ under the control of Math1 regulatory elements duplicated the previously known expression pattern of Math1 in the CNS (i.e., the neural tube, dorsal spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellar external granule neurons) but also revealed new sites of expression: PNS mechanoreceptors (inner ear hair cells and Merkel cells) and articular chondrocytes. Expressing Math1 induced ectopic chordotonal organs (CHOs) in wild-type flies and partially rescued CHO loss in atonal mutant embryos. These data demonstrate that both the mouse and fly homologs encode lineage identity information and, more interestingly, that some of the cells dependent on this information serve similar mechanoreceptor functions.

  10. Neuronal targeting, internalization, and biological activity of a recombinant atoxic derivative of botulinum neurotoxin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-toxic derivatives of Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) have potential use as neuron-targeting delivery vehicles, and as reagents to study intracellular trafficking. We have designed and expressed an atoxic derivative of BoNT/A (BoNT/A ad) as a full-length 150kDa molecule consisting of a 50 kDa lig...

  11. Efficient derivation of functional dopaminergic neurons from human embryonic stem cells on a large scale.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myung-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2008-01-01

    Cell-replacement therapy using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) holds great promise in treating Parkinson's disease. We have recently reported a highly efficient method to generate functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons from hESCs. Our method includes a unique step, the formation of spherical neural masses (SNMs), and offers the highest yield of DA neurons ever achieved so far. In this report, we describe our method step by step, covering not only how to differentiate hESCs into DA neurons at a high yield, but also how to amplify, freeze and thaw the SNMs, which are the key structures that make our protocol unique and advantageous. Although the whole process of generation of DA neurons from hESCs takes about 2 months, only 14 d are needed to derive DA neurons from the SNMs. PMID:19008875

  12. Data for the morphometric characterization of NT2-derived postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    González-Burguera, Imanol; Ricobaraza, Ana; Aretxabala, Xabier; Barrondo, Sergio; García Del Caño, Gontzal; López de Jesús, Maider; Sallés, Joan

    2016-06-01

    NTERA2/D1 human teratocarcinoma progenitors induced to differentiate into postmitotic neurons by either long-term treatment with retinoic acid or short-term treatment with the nucleoside analog cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside were subjected to morphometric analysis and compared. Our data provide a methodological and conceptual framework for future investigations aiming at distinguishing neuronal phenotypes on the basis of morphometric analysis. Data presented here are related to research concurrently published in "Highly Efficient Generation of Glutamatergic/Cholinergic NT2-Derived Postmitotic Human Neurons by Short-Term treatment with the Nucleoside Analogue Cytosine β-D-Arabinofuranoside" [1]. PMID:27158648

  13. Data for the morphometric characterization of NT2-derived postmitotic neurons

    PubMed Central

    González-Burguera, Imanol; Ricobaraza, Ana; Aretxabala, Xabier; Barrondo, Sergio; García del Caño, Gontzal; López de Jesús, Maider; Sallés, Joan

    2016-01-01

    NTERA2/D1 human teratocarcinoma progenitors induced to differentiate into postmitotic neurons by either long-term treatment with retinoic acid or short-term treatment with the nucleoside analog cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside were subjected to morphometric analysis and compared. Our data provide a methodological and conceptual framework for future investigations aiming at distinguishing neuronal phenotypes on the basis of morphometric analysis. Data presented here are related to research concurrently published in “Highly Efficient Generation of Glutamatergic/Cholinergic NT2-Derived Postmitotic Human Neurons by Short-Term treatment with the Nucleoside Analogue Cytosine β-D-Arabinofuranoside” [1]. PMID:27158648

  14. Deriving functional structure of neuronal networks from spike train data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldt, Sarah; Hetrick, Vaughn; Berke, Joshua; Zochowski, Michal

    2009-03-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the detection of functional clusters in neural data. In contrast to many clustering techniques which convert functional interactions to topological distances to determine groupings, our algorithm directly utilizes the dynamics of the neurons to obtain functional groupings. No prior knowledge of the number of groups is needed, as the algorithm determines statistically significant clusters through a comparison to surrogate data sets. Additionally, we introduce a new synchronization measure and use this measure in the algorithm to observe known groupings in simulated data. We then apply our algorithm to experimental data obtained from the hippocampus of a freely moving mouse and show that it detects known changes in neural states associated with exploration and slow wave sleep. Finally, we show that the new synchronization measure can detect changes which are consistent with known neurophysiological processes involved in memory consolidation.

  15. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecules on the Neurite Outgrowth of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Peng, Su-Ping; Schachner, Melitta; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2016-04-01

    Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be a potentially very effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). With the detection of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), an unlimited source of autologous dopaminergic (DA) neurons became available. Although the iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons exhibited most of the fundamental dopaminergic characteristics, detailed analysis and comparison with primary DA neurons have shown some aberrations in the expression of genes involved in neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. The limited outgrowth of the iPSC-derived DA neurons may hamper their potential application in cell transplantation therapy for PD. In the present study, we examined whether the forced expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), via gene transduction, can promote the neurite formation and outgrowth of iPSC-derived DA neurons. In cultures on astrocyte layers, both adhesion factors significantly increased neurite formation of the adhesion factor overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons in comparison to control iPSC-derived DA neurons. The same tendency was observed when the DA neurons were plated on postnatal organotypic striatal slices; however, this effect did not reach statistical significance. Next, we examined the neurite outgrowth of the L1CAM- or PSA-NCAM-overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons after implantation in the striatum of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, the animal model for PD. Like the outgrowth on the organotypic striatal slices, no significant L1CAM- and PSA-NCAM-enforced neurite outgrowth of the implanted DA neurons was observed. Apparently, induced expression of L1CAM or PSA-NCAM in the iPSC-derived DA neurons cannot completely restore the neurite outgrowth potential that was reduced in these DA neurons as a consequence of epigenetic aberrations resulting from the i

  16. Rapid Ngn2-induction of excitatory neurons from hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Seok-Man; Hartley, Brigham J; Tcw, Julia; Beaumont, Michael; Stafford, Khalifa; Slesinger, Paul A; Brennand, Kristen J

    2016-05-15

    Since the discovery of somatic reprogramming, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been exploited to model a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Because hiPSCs represent an almost limitless source of patient-derived neurons that retain the genetic variations thought to contribute to disease etiology, they have been heralded as a patient-specific platform for high throughput drug screening. However, the utility of current protocols for generating neurons from hiPSCs remains limited by protracted differentiation timelines and heterogeneity of the neuronal phenotypes produced. Neuronal induction via the forced expression of exogenous transcription factors rapidly induces defined populations of functional neurons from fibroblasts and hiPSCs. Here, we describe an adapted protocol that accelerates maturation of functional excitatory neurons from hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) via lentiviral transduction of Neurogenin 2 (using both mNgn2 and hNGN2). This methodology, relying upon a robust and scalable starting population of hiPSC NPCs, should be readily amenable to scaling for hiPSC-based high-throughput drug screening. PMID:26626326

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially modulates excitability of two classes of hippocampal output neurons.

    PubMed

    Graves, A R; Moore, S J; Spruston, N; Tryba, A K; Kaczorowski, C C

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Canonically, this has been ascribed to an enhancing effect on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region. However, it is the pyramidal neurons in the subiculum that form the primary efferent pathways conveying hippocampal information to other areas of the brain, and yet the effect of BDNF on these neurons has remained unexplored. We present new data that BDNF regulates neuronal excitability and cellular plasticity in a much more complex manner than previously suggested. Subicular pyramidal neurons can be divided into two major classes, which have different electrophysiological and morphological properties, different requirements for the induction of plasticity, and different extrahippocampal projections. We found that BDNF increases excitability in one class of subicular pyramidal neurons yet decreases excitability in the other class. Furthermore, while endogenous BDNF was necessary for the induction of synaptic plasticity in both cell types, BDNF enhanced intrinsic plasticity in one class of pyramidal neurons yet suppressed intrinsic plasticity in the other. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for BDNF signaling, as it appears to dynamically and bidirectionally regulate the output of hippocampal information to different regions of the brain. PMID:27146982

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially modulates excitability of two classes of hippocampal output neurons

    PubMed Central

    Graves, A. R.; Moore, S. J.; Spruston, N.; Tryba, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Canonically, this has been ascribed to an enhancing effect on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region. However, it is the pyramidal neurons in the subiculum that form the primary efferent pathways conveying hippocampal information to other areas of the brain, and yet the effect of BDNF on these neurons has remained unexplored. We present new data that BDNF regulates neuronal excitability and cellular plasticity in a much more complex manner than previously suggested. Subicular pyramidal neurons can be divided into two major classes, which have different electrophysiological and morphological properties, different requirements for the induction of plasticity, and different extrahippocampal projections. We found that BDNF increases excitability in one class of subicular pyramidal neurons yet decreases excitability in the other class. Furthermore, while endogenous BDNF was necessary for the induction of synaptic plasticity in both cell types, BDNF enhanced intrinsic plasticity in one class of pyramidal neurons yet suppressed intrinsic plasticity in the other. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for BDNF signaling, as it appears to dynamically and bidirectionally regulate the output of hippocampal information to different regions of the brain. PMID:27146982

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junichi; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the rat medulla oblongata. When extracellular pH was shifted from 7.4 to 7.0, acid-sensitive neurons showed depolarization, which was measured by voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. Exposure to PCB (Aroclor 1254) decreased the amplitude of depolarization in low pH and increased the resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB potentially influences acid-sensitivity through alteration of the membrane potential of acid-sensitive neurons, which could affect the regulation of respiration. PMID:15833269

  20. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Campos, Christian; Letelier, Joaquín; Ceriani, Ricardo; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. PMID:26209533

  1. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Campos, Christian; Letelier, Joaquín; Ceriani, Ricardo; Whitlock, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. PMID:26209533

  2. Ketamine Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tokujiro; Makita, Koshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ketamine toxicity has been demonstrated in nonhuman mammalian neurons. To study the toxic effect of ketamine on human neurons, an experimental model of cultured neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was examined, and the mechanism of its toxicity was investigated. Methods Human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were treated with 0, 20, 100 or 500 μM ketamine for 6 and 24 h. Ketamine toxicity was evaluated by quantification of caspase 3/7 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP concentration, neurotransmitter reuptake activity and NADH/NAD+ ratio. Mitochondrial morphological change was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results Twenty-four-hour exposure of iPSC-derived neurons to 500 μM ketamine resulted in a 40% increase in caspase 3/7 activity (P < 0.01), 14% increase in ROS production (P < 0.01), and 81% reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.01), compared with untreated cells. Lower concentration of ketamine (100 μM) decreased the ATP level (22%, P < 0.01) and increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio (46%, P < 0.05) without caspase activation. Transmission electron microscopy showed enhanced mitochondrial fission and autophagocytosis at the 100 μM ketamine concentration, which suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction preceded ROS generation and caspase activation. Conclusions We established an in vitro model for assessing the neurotoxicity of ketamine in iPSC-derived neurons. The present data indicate that the initial mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy may be related to its inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial electron transport system, which underlies ketamine-induced neural toxicity. Higher ketamine concentration can induce ROS generation and apoptosis in human neurons. PMID:26020236

  3. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Cardoso, Tiago; Kirkeby, Agnete; Jönsson, Marie; Johansson, Jenny; Björklund, Anders; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2015-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models. PMID:26004633

  4. Decay in survival motor neuron and plastin 3 levels during differentiation of iPSC-derived human motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Boza-Morán, María G; Martínez-Hernández, Rebeca; Bernal, Sara; Wanisch, Klaus; Also-Rallo, Eva; Le Heron, Anita; Alías, Laura; Denis, Cécile; Girard, Mathilde; Yee, Jiing-Kuan; Tizzano, Eduardo F.; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1), leading to degeneration of alpha motor neurons (MNs) but also affecting other cell types. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human MN models from severe SMA patients have shown relevant phenotypes. We have produced and fully characterized iPSCs from members of a discordant consanguineous family with chronic SMA. We differentiated the iPSC clones into ISL-1+/ChAT+ MNs and performed a comparative study during the differentiation process, observing significant differences in neurite length and number between family members. Analyses of samples from wild-type, severe SMA type I and the type IIIa/IV family showed a progressive decay in SMN protein levels during iPSC-MN differentiation, recapitulating previous observations in developmental studies. PLS3 underwent parallel reductions at both the transcriptional and translational levels. The underlying, progressive developmental decay in SMN and PLS3 levels may lead to the increased vulnerability of MNs in SMA disease. Measurements of SMN and PLS3 transcript and protein levels in iPSC-derived MNs show limited value as SMA biomarkers. PMID:26114395

  5. Functional Properties of Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weick, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-derived neurons from various source materials present unique model systems to examine the fundamental properties of central nervous system (CNS) development as well as the molecular underpinnings of disease phenotypes. In order to more accurately assess potential therapies for neurological disorders, multiple strategies have been employed in recent years to produce neuronal populations that accurately represent in vivo regional and transmitter phenotypes. These include new technologies such as direct conversion of somatic cell types into neurons and glia which may accelerate maturation and retain genetic hallmarks of aging. In addition, novel forms of genetic manipulations have brought human stem cells nearly on par with those of rodent with respect to gene targeting. For neurons of the CNS, the ultimate phenotypic characterization lies with their ability to recapitulate functional properties such as passive and active membrane characteristics, synaptic activity, and plasticity. These features critically depend on the coordinated expression and localization of hundreds of ion channels and receptors, as well as scaffolding and signaling molecules. In this review I will highlight the current state of knowledge regarding functional properties of human stem cell-derived neurons, with a primary focus on pluripotent stem cells. While significant advances have been made, critical hurdles must be overcome in order for this technology to support progression toward clinical applications. PMID:27274733

  6. Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Seibler, Philip; Graziotto, John; Jeong, Hyun; Simunovic, Filip; Klein, Christine; Krainc, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Parkinson disease (PD) has been associated with mutations in PINK1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial kinase implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial degradation. While the studies so far examined PINK1 function in non-neuronal systems or through PINK1 knockdown approaches, there is an imperative to examine the role of endogenous PINK1 in appropriate human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts taken from three PD patients with nonsense (c.1366C>T; p.Q456X) or missense mutations (c.509T>G; p.V170G) in the PINK1 gene. These cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons that upon mitochondrial depolarization showed impaired recruitment of lentivirally expressed Parkin to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial copy number and upregulation of PGC-1α, an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, these alterations were corrected by lentiviral expression of wild-type PINK1 in mutant iPS cell-derived PINK1 neurons. In conclusion, our studies suggest that fibroblasts from genetic PD can be reprogrammed and differentiated into neurons. These neurons exhibit distinct phenotypes that should be amenable to further mechanistic studies in this relevant biological context. PMID:21508222

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely inhibits AMPA-mediated currents in developing sensory relay neurons.

    PubMed

    Balkowiec, A; Kunze, D L; Katz, D M

    2000-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by many primary sensory neurons that no longer require neurotrophins for survival, indicating that BDNF may be used as a signaling molecule by the afferents themselves. Because many primary afferents also express glutamate, we investigated the possibility that BDNF modulates glutamatergic AMPA responses of newborn second-order sensory relay neurons. Perforated-patch, voltage-clamp recordings were made from dissociated neurons of the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), a region that receives massive primary afferent input from BDNF-containing neurons in the nodose and petrosal cranial sensory ganglia. Electrophysiological analysis was combined in some experiments with anterograde labeling of primary afferent terminals to specifically analyze responses of identified second-order neurons. Our data demonstrate that BDNF strongly inhibits AMPA-mediated currents in a large subset of nTS cells. Specifically, AMPA responses were either completely abolished or markedly inhibited by BDNF in 73% of postnatal day (P0) cells and in 82% of identified P5 second-order sensory relay neurons. This effect of BDNF is mimicked by NT-4, but not NGF, and blocked by the Trk tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a, consistent with a requirement for TrkB receptor activation. Moreover, analysis of TrkB expression in culture revealed a close correlation between the percentage of nTS neurons in which BDNF inhibits AMPA currents and the percentage of neurons that exhibit TrkB immunoreactivity. These data document a previously undefined mechanism of acute modulation of AMPA responses by BDNF and indicate that BDNF may regulate glutamatergic transmission at primary afferent synapses. PMID:10684891

  8. TFP5, a peptide derived from p35, a Cdk5 neuronal activator, rescues cortical neurons from glucose toxicity.

    PubMed

    Binukumar, B K; Zheng, Ya-Li; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence link the incidence of diabetes to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with diabetes have a 50 to 75% increased risk of developing AD. Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which forms active complexes with p35 or p39, found principally in neurons and in pancreatic β cells. Recent studies suggest that Cdk5 hyperactivity is a possible link between neuropathology seen in AD and diabetes. Previously, we identified P5, a truncated 24-aa peptide derived from the Cdk5 activator p35, later modified as TFP5, so as to penetrate the blood-brain barrier after intraperitoneal injections in AD model mice. This treatment inhibited abnormal Cdk5 hyperactivity and significantly rescued AD pathology in these mice. The present study explores the potential of TFP5 peptide to rescue high glucose (HG)-mediated toxicity in rat embryonic cortical neurons. HG exposure leads to Cdk5-p25 hyperactivity and oxidative stress marked by increased reactive oxygen species production, and decreased glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity. It also induces hyperphosphorylation of tau, neuroinflammation as evident from the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and apoptosis. Pretreatment of cortical neurons with TFP5 before HG exposure inhibited Cdk5-p25 hyperactivity and significantly attenuated oxidative stress by decreasing reactive oxygen species levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione. Tau hyperphosphorylation, inflammation, and apoptosis induced by HG were also considerably reduced by pretreatment with TFP5. These results suggest that TFP5 peptide may be a novel candidate for type 2 diabetes therapy. PMID:24326517

  9. Pathological roles of the VEGF/SphK pathway in Niemann–Pick type C neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Park, Min Hee; Hong, Yu Ri; Marti, Hugo H.; Kim, Hyongbum; Okada, Yohei; Otsu, Makoto; Seo, Eul-Ju; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Okino, Nozomu; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H.; Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine is a major storage compound in Niemann–Pick type C disease (NP–C), although the pathological role(s) of this accumulation have not been fully characterized. Here we found that sphingosine kinase (SphK) activity is reduced in NP–C patient fibroblasts and NP–C mouse Purkinje neurons (PNs) due to defective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Sphingosine accumulation due to inactivation of VEGF/SphK pathway led to PNs loss via inhibition of autophagosome–lysosome fusion in NP–C mice. VEGF activates SphK by binding to VEGFR2, resulting in decreased sphingosine storage as well as improved PNs survival and clinical outcomes in NP–C cells and mice. We also show that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human NP–C neurons are generated and the abnormalities caused by VEGF/SphK inactivity in these cells are corrected by replenishment of VEGF. Overall, these results reveal a pathogenic mechanism in NP–C neurons where defective SphK activity is due to impaired VEGF levels. PMID:25417698

  10. Pathological roles of the VEGF/SphK pathway in Niemann-Pick type C neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Park, Min Hee; Hong, Yu Ri; Marti, Hugo H; Kim, Hyongbum; Okada, Yohei; Otsu, Makoto; Seo, Eul-Ju; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Okino, Nozomu; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Bae, Jae-Sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine is a major storage compound in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C), although the pathological role(s) of this accumulation have not been fully characterized. Here we found that sphingosine kinase (SphK) activity is reduced in NP-C patient fibroblasts and NP-C mouse Purkinje neurons (PNs) due to defective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Sphingosine accumulation due to inactivation of VEGF/SphK pathway led to PNs loss via inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in NP-C mice. VEGF activates SphK by binding to VEGFR2, resulting in decreased sphingosine storage as well as improved PNs survival and clinical outcomes in NP-C cells and mice. We also show that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human NP-C neurons are generated and the abnormalities caused by VEGF/SphK inactivity in these cells are corrected by replenishment of VEGF. Overall, these results reveal a pathogenic mechanism in NP-C neurons where defective SphK activity is due to impaired VEGF levels. PMID:25417698

  11. Analysis of Signaling Endosome Composition and Dynamics Using SILAC in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Debaisieux, Solène; Encheva, Vesela; Chakravarty, Probir; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons require efficient transport mechanisms such as fast axonal transport to ensure neuronal homeostasis and survival. Neurotrophins and their receptors are conveyed via fast axonal retrograde transport of signaling endosomes to the soma, where they elicit transcriptional responses. Despite the essential roles of signaling endosomes in neuronal differentiation and survival, little is known about their molecular identity, dynamics, and regulation. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of these organelles and their kinetics is crucial, given the growing evidence linking vesicular trafficking deficits to neurodegeneration. Here, we exploited an affinity purification strategy using the binding fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (HCT) conjugated to monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs), which in motor neurons, is transported in the same carriers as neurotrophins and their receptors. To quantitatively assess the molecular composition of HCT-containing signaling endosomes, we have developed a protocol for triple Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons. After HCT internalization, retrograde carriers were magnetically isolated at different time points and subjected to mass-spectrometry and Gene Ontology analyses. This purification strategy is highly specific, as confirmed by the presence of essential regulators of fast axonal transport in the make-up of these organelles. Our results indicate that signaling endosomes undergo a rapid maturation with the acquisition of late endosome markers following a specific time-dependent kinetics. Strikingly, signaling endosomes are specifically enriched in proteins known to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinfection. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of novel components, whose precise temporal recruitment on signaling endosomes might be essential for proper sorting and/or transport of these organelles. This study provides the first

  12. Functional and molecular defects of hiPSC-derived neurons from patients with ATM deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carlessi, L; Poli, E Fusar; Bechi, G; Mantegazza, M; Pascucci, B; Narciso, L; Dogliotti, E; Sala, C; Verpelli, C; Lecis, D; Delia, D

    2014-01-01

    Loss of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a key factor of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, causes the cancer predisposing and neurodegenerative syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). To investigate the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, we have reprogrammed fibroblasts from ATM-null A-T patients and normal controls to pluripotency (human-induced pluripotent stem cells), and derived from these neural precursor cells able to terminally differentiate into post-mitotic neurons positive to >90% for β-tubulin III+/microtubule-associated protein 2+. We show that A-T neurons display similar voltage-gated potassium and sodium currents and discharges of action potentials as control neurons, but defective expression of the maturation and synaptic markers SCG10, SYP and PSD95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). A-T neurons exhibited defective repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repressed phosphorylation of ATM substrates (e.g., γH2AX, Smc1-S966, Kap1-S824, Chk2-T68, p53-S15), but normal repair of single-strand breaks, and normal short- and long-patch base excision repair activities. Moreover, A-T neurons were resistant to apoptosis induced by the genotoxic agents camptothecin and trabectedin, but as sensitive as controls to the oxidative agents. Most notably, A-T neurons exhibited abnormal accumulation of topoisomerase 1-DNA covalent complexes (Top1-ccs). These findings reveal that ATM deficiency impairs neuronal maturation, suppresses the response and repair of DNA DSBs, and enhances Top1-cc accumulation. Top1-cc could be a risk factor for neurodegeneration as they may interfere with transcription elongation and promote transcriptional decline. PMID:25032865

  13. Estradiol Facilitates Functional Integration of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons into Striatal Neuronal Circuits via Activation of Integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Murayama, Shigeo; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-04-12

    For cell transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) to be realized, the grafted neurons should be integrated into the host neuronal circuit to restore the lost neuronal function. Here, using wheat-germ agglutinin-based transsynaptic tracing, we show that integrin α5 is selectively expressed in striatal neurons that are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In addition, we found that integrin α5β1 was activated by the administration of estradiol-2-benzoate (E2B) in striatal neurons of adult female rats. Importantly, we observed that the systemic administration of E2B into hemi-parkinsonian rat models facilitates the functional integration of grafted DA neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells into the host striatal neuronal circuit via the activation of integrin α5β1. Finally, methamphetamine-induced abnormal rotation was recovered earlier in E2B-administered rats than in rats that received other regimens. Our results suggest that the simultaneous administration of E2B with stem cell-derived DA progenitors can enhance the efficacy of cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:26997644

  14. Estradiol Facilitates Functional Integration of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons into Striatal Neuronal Circuits via Activation of Integrin α5β1

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Murayama, Shigeo; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Summary For cell transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) to be realized, the grafted neurons should be integrated into the host neuronal circuit to restore the lost neuronal function. Here, using wheat-germ agglutinin-based transsynaptic tracing, we show that integrin α5 is selectively expressed in striatal neurons that are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In addition, we found that integrin α5β1 was activated by the administration of estradiol-2-benzoate (E2B) in striatal neurons of adult female rats. Importantly, we observed that the systemic administration of E2B into hemi-parkinsonian rat models facilitates the functional integration of grafted DA neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells into the host striatal neuronal circuit via the activation of integrin α5β1. Finally, methamphetamine-induced abnormal rotation was recovered earlier in E2B-administered rats than in rats that received other regimens. Our results suggest that the simultaneous administration of E2B with stem cell-derived DA progenitors can enhance the efficacy of cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:26997644

  15. Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 transduces survival signals in neuronal cells in response to hypoxia-induced apoptotic insults.

    PubMed

    Chio, Chung-Ching; Wei, Li; Chen, Tyng Guey; Lin, Chien-Min; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Hypoxia can induce cell death or trigger adaptive mechanisms to guarantee cell survival. Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR-1) works as an early-response protein in response to a variety of environmental stresses. In this study, the authors evaluated the roles of NOR-1 in hypoxia-induced neuronal insults. METHODS Neuro-2a cells were exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell viability, cell morphology, cas-pase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis were assayed to determine the mechanisms of OGD-induced neuronal insults. RNA and protein analyses were carried out to evaluate the effects of OGD on expressions of NOR-1, cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) genes. Translations of these gene expressions were knocked down using RNA interference. Mice subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and NOR-1 was immunodetected. RESULTS Exposure of neuro-2a cells to OGD decreased cell viability in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, OGD led to cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. In parallel, treatment of neuro-2a cells with OGD time dependently increased cellular NOR-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Interestingly, administration of TBI also augmented NOR-1 levels in the impacted regions of mice. As to the mechanism, exposure to OGD increased nuclear levels of the transcription factor CREB protein. Downregulating CREB expression using RNA interference simultaneously inhibited OGD-induced NOR-1 mRNA expression. Also, levels of cIAP2 mRNA and protein in neuro-2a cells were augmented by OGD. After reducing cIAP2 translation, OGD-induced cell death was reduced. Sequentially, application of NOR-1 small interfering RNA to neuro-2a cells significantly inhibited OGD-induced cIAP2 mRNA expression and concurrently alleviated hypoxia-induced alterations in cell viability, caspase-3 activation, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that NOR-1 can transduce survival

  16. Functional differentiation of stem cell-derived neurons from different murine backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Lydia; Sütterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E.

    2014-01-01

    Murine stem cell-derived neurons have been used to study a wide variety of neuropsychiatric diseases with a hereditary component, ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s. While a significant amount of data on their molecular biology has been generated, there is little data on the physiology of these cultures. Different mouse strains show clear differences in behavioral and other neurobiologically relevant readouts. We have studied the physiology of early differentiation and network formation in neuronal cultures derived from three different mouse embryonic stem cell lines. We have found largely overlapping patterns with some significant differences in the timing of the functional milestones. Neurons from R1 showed the fastest development of intrinsic excitability, while E14Tg2a and J1 were slower. This was also reflected in an earlier appearance of synaptic activity in R1 cultures, while E14Tg2a and J1 were delayed by up to 2 days. In conclusion, stem cells from all backgrounds could be successfully differentiated into functioning neural networks with similar developmental patterns. Differences in the timing of specific milestones, suggest that control cell lines and time-points should be carefully chosen when investigating genetic alterations that lead to subtle deficits in neuronal function. PMID:24600351

  17. Knocking down of heat-shock protein 27 directs differentiation of functional glutamatergic neurons from placenta-derived multipotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chien, Raymond; Lee, Fa-Kung; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study presents human placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) as a source from which functional glutamatergic neurons can be derived. We found that the small heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was downregulated during the neuronal differentiation process. The in vivo temporal and spatial profiles of HSP27 expression were determined and showed inverted distributions with neuronal proteins during mouse embryonic development. Overexpression of HSP27 in stem cells led to the arrest of neuronal differentiation; however, the knockdown of HSP27 yielded a substantially enhanced ability of PDMCs to differentiate into neurons. These neurons formed synaptic networks and showed positive staining for multiple neuronal markers. Additionally, cellular phenomena including the absence of apoptosis and rare proliferation in HSP27-silenced PDMCs, combined with molecular events such as cleaved caspase-3 and the loss of stemness with cleaved Nanog, indicated that HSP27 is located upstream of neuronal differentiation and constrains that process. Furthermore, the induced neurons showed increasing intracellular calcium concentrations upon glutamate treatment. These differentiated cells co-expressed the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, vesicular glutamate transporter, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 but did not show expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase or glutamate decarboxylase 67. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27-silenced PDMCs differentiated into neurons possessing the characteristics of functional glutamatergic neurons. PMID:27444754

  18. Knocking down of heat-shock protein 27 directs differentiation of functional glutamatergic neurons from placenta-derived multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chien, Raymond; Lee, Fa-Kung; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study presents human placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) as a source from which functional glutamatergic neurons can be derived. We found that the small heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was downregulated during the neuronal differentiation process. The in vivo temporal and spatial profiles of HSP27 expression were determined and showed inverted distributions with neuronal proteins during mouse embryonic development. Overexpression of HSP27 in stem cells led to the arrest of neuronal differentiation; however, the knockdown of HSP27 yielded a substantially enhanced ability of PDMCs to differentiate into neurons. These neurons formed synaptic networks and showed positive staining for multiple neuronal markers. Additionally, cellular phenomena including the absence of apoptosis and rare proliferation in HSP27-silenced PDMCs, combined with molecular events such as cleaved caspase-3 and the loss of stemness with cleaved Nanog, indicated that HSP27 is located upstream of neuronal differentiation and constrains that process. Furthermore, the induced neurons showed increasing intracellular calcium concentrations upon glutamate treatment. These differentiated cells co-expressed the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, vesicular glutamate transporter, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 but did not show expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase or glutamate decarboxylase 67. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27-silenced PDMCs differentiated into neurons possessing the characteristics of functional glutamatergic neurons. PMID:27444754

  19. Transcriptomics analysis of iPSC-derived neurons and modeling of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingyan; Lachman, Herbert M; Zheng, Deyou

    2016-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons and neural progenitors are great resources for studying neural development and differentiation and their disruptions in disease conditions, and hold the promise of future cell therapy. In general, iPSC lines can be established either specifically from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or from healthy subjects. The iPSCs can then be induced to differentiate into neural lineages and the iPSC-derived neurons are valuable for various types of cell-based assays that seek to understand disease mechanisms and identify and test novel therapies. In addition, it is an ideal system for gene expression profiling (i.e., transcriptomic analysis), an efficient and cost-effective way to explore the genetic programs regulating neurodevelopment. Moreover, transcriptomic comparison, which can be performed between patient-derived samples and controls, or in control lines in which the expression of specific genes has been disrupted, can uncover convergent gene targets and pathways that are downstream of the hundreds of candidate genes that have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. The results, especially after integration with spatiotemporal transcriptomic profiles of normal human brain development, have indeed helped to uncover gene networks, molecular pathways, and cellular signaling that likely play critical roles in disease development and progression. On the other hand, despite the great promise, many challenges remain in the usage of iPSC-derived neurons for modeling neuropsychiatric disorders, for example, how to generate relatively homogenous populations of specific neuronal subtypes that are affected in a particular disorder and how to better address the genetic heterogeneity that exists in the patient population. PMID:26631648

  20. Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Haploinsufficiency on Stress-Induced Remodeling of Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Magariños, A.M.; Li, C.J.; Toth, J. Gal; Bath, K.G.; Jing, D.; Lee, F.S.; McEwen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces the remodeling (i.e., retraction and simplification) of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in rats, suggesting that intrahippocampal connectivity can be affected by a prolonged stressful challenge. Since the structural maintenance of neuronal dendritic arborizations and synaptic connectivity requires neurotrophic support, we investigated the potential role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin enriched in the hippocampus and released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, as a mediator of the stress-induced dendritic remodeling. The analysis of Golgi-impregnated hippocampal sections revealed that wild type (WT) C57BL/6 male mice showed a similar CA3 apical dendritic remodeling in response to three weeks of CRS to that previously described for rats. Haploinsufficient BDNF mice (BDNF±) did not show such remodeling, but, even without CRS, they presented shorter and simplified CA3 apical dendritic arbors, like those observed in stressed WT mice. Furthermore, unstressed BDNF± mice showed a significant decrease in total hippocampal volume. The dendritic arborization of CA1 pyramidal neurons was not affected by CRS or genotype. However, only in WT mice, CRS induced changes in the density of dendritic spine shape subtypes in both CA1 and CA3 apical dendrites. These results suggest a complex role of BDNF in maintaining the dendritic and spine morphology of hippocampal neurons and the associated volume of the hippocampal formation. The inability of CRS to modify the dendritic structure of CA3 pyramidal neurons in BDNF± mice suggests an indirect, perhaps permissive, role of BDNF in mediating hippocampal dendritic remodeling. PMID:20095008

  1. Stem cell-derived motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Grunseich, Christopher; Zukosky, Kristen; Kats, Ilona R; Ghosh, Laboni; Harmison, George G; Bott, Laura C; Rinaldi, Carlo; Chen, Ke-lian; Chen, Guibin; Boehm, Manfred; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor. Although degeneration occurs in the spinal cord and muscle, the exact mechanism is not clear. Induced pluripotent stem cells from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients provide a useful model for understanding the disease mechanism and designing effective therapy. Stem cells were generated from six patients and compared to control lines from three healthy individuals. Motor neurons from four patients were differentiated from stem cells and characterized to understand disease-relevant phenotypes. Stem cells created from patient fibroblasts express less androgen receptor than control cells, but show androgen-dependent stabilization and nuclear translocation. The expanded repeat in several stem cell clones was unstable, with either expansion or contraction. Patient stem cell clones produced a similar number of motor neurons compared to controls, with or without androgen treatment. The stem cell-derived motor neurons had immunoreactivity for HB9, Isl1, ChAT, and SMI-32, and those with the largest repeat expansions were found to have increased acetylated α-tubulin and reduced HDAC6. Reduced HDAC6 was also found in motor neuron cultures from two other patients with shorter repeats. Evaluation of stably transfected mouse cells and SBMA spinal cord showed similar changes in acetylated α-tubulin and HDAC6. Perinuclear lysosomal enrichment, an HDAC6 dependent process, was disrupted in motor neurons from two patients with the longest repeats. SBMA stem cells present new insights into the disease, and the observations of reduced androgen receptor levels, repeat instability, and reduced HDAC6 provide avenues for further investigation of the disease mechanism and development of effective therapy. PMID:24925468

  2. Chemical Control of Grafted Human PSC-Derived Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuejun; Xiong, Man; Dong, Yi; Haberman, Alexander; Cao, Jingyuan; Liu, Huisheng; Zhou, Wenhao; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons is a promising avenue for treating disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Precise control over engrafted cell activity is highly desired, as cells do not always integrate properly into host circuitry and can cause suboptimal graft function or undesired outcomes. Here, we show tunable rescue of motor function in a mouse model of PD, following transplantation of human midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons differentiated from hPSCs engineered to express DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug). Administering clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) enabled precise DREADD-dependent stimulation or inhibition of engrafted neurons, revealing D1 receptor-dependent regulation of host neuronal circuitry by engrafted cells. Transplanted cells rescued motor defects, which could be reversed or enhanced by CNO-based control of graft function, and activating engrafted cells drives behavioral changes in transplanted mice. These results highlight the ability to exogenously and noninvasively control and refine therapeutic outcomes following cell transplantation. PMID:27133795

  3. MiRNAs in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes as Possible Mediators of Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lafourcade, Carlos; Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Luarte, Alejandro; Fernández, Anllely; Wyneken, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes use gliotransmitters to modulate neuronal function and plasticity. However, the role of small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, in astrocyte-to-neuron signaling is mostly unknown. Exosomes originate in multivesicular bodies of parent cells and are secreted by fusion of the multivesicular body limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. Their molecular cargo, consisting of RNA species, proteins, and lipids, is in part cell type and cell state specific. Among the RNA species transported by exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to modify gene expression in recipient cells. Several miRNAs present in astrocytes are regulated under pathological conditions, and this may have far-reaching consequences if they are loaded in exosomes. We propose that astrocyte-derived miRNA-loaded exosomes, such as miR-26a, are dysregulated in several central nervous system diseases; thus potentially controlling neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission through validated and predicted targets. Unraveling the contribution of this new signaling mechanism to the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal networks will impact our understanding on the physiology and pathophysiology of the central nervous system. PMID:27547038

  4. Microsphere-Incorporated Hybrid Thermogel for Neuronal Differentiation of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhumita; Moon, Hyo Jung; Jung, Bo Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-07-15

    Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs. The neuronal growth factors are released over 12-18 d, and the TMSCs in a spherical shape initially undergo multipolar elongation during the 3D culture. Significantly higher expressions of the neuronal biomarkers such as nuclear receptor related protein (Nurr-1), neuron specific enolase, microtubule associated protein-2, neurofilament-M, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are observed in both mRNA level and protein level in the hybrid systems than in the control experiments. This study proves the significance of a controlled drug delivery concept in tissue engineering or regenerative medicine, and a 3D hybrid system with controlled release of growth factors from microspheres in a thermogel can be a very promising tool. PMID:26033880

  5. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-08-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the (/sup 3/H)PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine.

  6. MiRNAs in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes as Possible Mediators of Neuronal Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lafourcade, Carlos; Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Luarte, Alejandro; Fernández, Anllely; Wyneken, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes use gliotransmitters to modulate neuronal function and plasticity. However, the role of small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, in astrocyte-to-neuron signaling is mostly unknown. Exosomes originate in multivesicular bodies of parent cells and are secreted by fusion of the multivesicular body limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. Their molecular cargo, consisting of RNA species, proteins, and lipids, is in part cell type and cell state specific. Among the RNA species transported by exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to modify gene expression in recipient cells. Several miRNAs present in astrocytes are regulated under pathological conditions, and this may have far-reaching consequences if they are loaded in exosomes. We propose that astrocyte-derived miRNA-loaded exosomes, such as miR-26a, are dysregulated in several central nervous system diseases; thus potentially controlling neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission through validated and predicted targets. Unraveling the contribution of this new signaling mechanism to the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal networks will impact our understanding on the physiology and pathophysiology of the central nervous system. PMID:27547038

  7. Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in the PNS: Novel Therapies for Neuropathic Pain?

    PubMed

    Tibbs, Gareth R; Posson, David J; Goldstein, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Neuropathic pain arises from injury to the nervous system. Conditions associated with neuropathic pain are diverse, and lesions and/or pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) can frequently, but not always, be identified. It is difficult to treat, with patients often on multiple, different classes of medications, all with appreciable adverse side effect profiles. Consequently, there is a pressing need for the development of new medications. The development of such therapeutics is predicated on a clear understanding of the relevant molecular and cellular processes that contribute to the development, and maintenance, of the neuropathic pain state. One proposed mechanism thought to contribute to the ontogeny of neuropathic pain is altered expression, trafficking, and functioning of ion channels expressed by primary sensory neurons. Here, we will focus on three voltage-gated ion channel families, CaV, HCN, and NaV, first reviewing the preclinical data and then the human data where it exists. PMID:27233519

  8. BMP4 Is a Peripherally-Derived Factor for Motor Neurons and Attenuates Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hui-Ju; Lai, Dar-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Wen; McLennan, Ian S.; Wang, Horng-Dar; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, have been shown to play important roles in the nervous system, including neuronal survival and synaptogenesis. However, the physiological functions of BMP signaling in the mammalian neuromuscular system are not well understood. In this study, we found that proteins of the type II bone morphogenetic receptors (BMPRII) were detected at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), and one of its ligands, BMP4, was expressed by Schwann cells and skeletal muscle fibers. In double-ligated nerves, BMP4 proteins accumulated at the proximal and distal portions of the axons, suggesting that Schwann cell- and muscle fiber-derived BMP4 proteins were anterogradely and retrogradely transported by motor neurons. Furthermore, BMP4 mRNA was down-regulated in nerves but up-regulated in skeletal muscles following nerve ligation. The motor neuron-muscle interactions were also demonstrated using differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and NG108-15 neurons in vitro. BMP4 mRNA and immunoreactivity were significantly up-regulated in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells when the motor neuron-derived factor, agrin, was present in the culture. Peripherally-derived BMP4, on the other hand, promotes embryonic motor neuron survival and protects NG108-15 neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Together, these data suggest that BMP4 is a peripherally-derived factor that may regulate the survival of motor neurons. PMID:23472198

  9. Three-dimensional scaffolding to investigate neuronal derivatives of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Woo; Winquist, Alicia M.; Singec, Ilyas; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Snyder, Evan Y.; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-01-01

    Access to unlimited numbers of live human neurons derived from stem cells offers unique opportunities for in vitro modeling of neural development, disease-related cellular phenotypes, and drug testing and discovery. However, to develop informative cellular in vitro assays, it is important to consider the relevant in vivo environment of neural tissues. Biomimetic 3D scaffolds are tools to culture human neurons under defined mechanical and physicochemical properties providing an interconnected porous structure that may potentially enable a higher or more complex organization than traditional two-dimensional monolayer conditions. It is known that even minor variations in the internal geometry and mechanical properties of 3D scaffolds can impact cell behavior including survival, growth, and cell fate choice. In this report, we describe the design and engineering of 3D synthetic polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based and biodegradable gelatin-based scaffolds generated by a free form fabrication technique with precise internal geometry and elastic stiffnesses. We show that human neurons, derived from human embryonic stem (hESC) cells, are able to adhere to these scaffolds and form organoid structures that extend in three dimensions as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. Future refinements of scaffold structure, size and surface chemistries may facilitate long term experiments and designing clinically applicable bioassays. PMID:22767243

  10. Extra-hepatic replication and infection of hepatitis E virus in neuronal-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Drave, S A; Debing, Y; Walter, S; Todt, D; Engelmann, M; Friesland, M; Wedemeyer, H; Neyts, J; Behrendt, P; Steinmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and a member of the genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae. Infection usually leads to acute hepatitis that can become fulminant, particularly among pregnant women and in patients with preexisting liver disease, or may evolve to a chronic state, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. HEV has been shown to produce a range of extra-hepatic manifestations including aplastic anaemia, acute thyroiditis, glomerulonephritis as well as neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis. The pathogenesis of these neurological injuries remains largely unknown, and it is also uncertain whether or not HEV can directly infect neuronal cells. In this study, we investigated whether HEV is capable of completing the viral life cycle in human neuronal-derived cell lines such as neuroepithelioma (SK-N-MC), desmoplastic cerebellar medulloblastoma (DAOY), glioblastoma multiforme (DBTRG), glioblastoma astrocytoma (U-373 MG) and oligodendrocytic (M03.13) cells. Following transfection of these cells with HEV Gaussia luciferase reporter virus, all tested cell lines supported HEV RNA replication. Furthermore, extra- and intracellular viral capsid was detected by an HEV antigen ELISA as a marker for virus assembly and release. Permissiveness for HEV cell entry could be demonstrated for the oligodendrocytic cell line M03.13. In conclusion, these results indicate that HEV tropism is not restricted to the liver and HEV can potentially complete the full viral life cycle in neuronal-derived tissues explaining neurologic disorders during HEV infection. PMID:26891712

  11. Precision Modulation of Neurodegenerative Disease-Related Gene Expression in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Heman-Ackah, Sabrina Mahalia; Bassett, Andrew Roger; Wood, Matthew John Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reprogram adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the subsequent development of protocols for their differentiation into disease-relevant cell types have enabled in-depth molecular analyses of multiple disease states as hitherto impossible. Neurons differentiated from patient-specific iPSCs provide a means to recapitulate molecular phenotypes of neurodegenerative diseases in vitro. However, it remains challenging to conduct precise manipulations of gene expression in iPSC-derived neurons towards modeling complex human neurological diseases. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 to mammalian systems is revolutionizing the utilization of genome editing technologies in the study of molecular contributors to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPRa and CRISPRi can be used to exert precise modulations of endogenous gene expression in fate-committed iPSC-derived neurons. This highlights CRISPRa/i as a major technical advancement in accessible tools for evaluating the specific contributions of critical neurodegenerative disease-related genes to neuropathogenesis. PMID:27341390

  12. Precision Modulation of Neurodegenerative Disease-Related Gene Expression in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Heman-Ackah, Sabrina Mahalia; Bassett, Andrew Roger; Wood, Matthew John Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reprogram adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the subsequent development of protocols for their differentiation into disease-relevant cell types have enabled in-depth molecular analyses of multiple disease states as hitherto impossible. Neurons differentiated from patient-specific iPSCs provide a means to recapitulate molecular phenotypes of neurodegenerative diseases in vitro. However, it remains challenging to conduct precise manipulations of gene expression in iPSC-derived neurons towards modeling complex human neurological diseases. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 to mammalian systems is revolutionizing the utilization of genome editing technologies in the study of molecular contributors to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPRa and CRISPRi can be used to exert precise modulations of endogenous gene expression in fate-committed iPSC-derived neurons. This highlights CRISPRa/i as a major technical advancement in accessible tools for evaluating the specific contributions of critical neurodegenerative disease-related genes to neuropathogenesis. PMID:27341390

  13. Using Human iPSC-Derived Neurons to Model TAU Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Verheyen, An; Diels, Annick; Dijkmans, Joyce; Oyelami, Tutu; Meneghello, Giulia; Mertens, Liesbeth; Versweyveld, Sofie; Borgers, Marianne; Buist, Arjan; Peeters, Pieter; Cik, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia are amongst the most common forms of dementia characterized by the formation and deposition of abnormal TAU in the brain. In order to develop a translational human TAU aggregation model suitable for screening, we transduced TAU harboring the pro-aggregating P301L mutation into control hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells followed by differentiation into cortical neurons. TAU aggregation and phosphorylation was quantified using AlphaLISA technology. Although no spontaneous aggregation was observed upon expressing TAU-P301L in neurons, seeding with preformed aggregates consisting of the TAU-microtubule binding repeat domain triggered robust TAU aggregation and hyperphosphorylation already after 2 weeks, without affecting general cell health. To validate our model, activity of two autophagy inducers was tested. Both rapamycin and trehalose significantly reduced TAU aggregation levels suggesting that iPSC-derived neurons allow for the generation of a biologically relevant human Tauopathy model, highly suitable to screen for compounds that modulate TAU aggregation. PMID:26720731

  14. Functional Neurons Generated from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimori, Koki; Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Ando, Takayuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Toyoshima, Manabu; Tada, Hirobumi; Imaizumi, Kent; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Isoda, Miho; Zhou, Zhi; Sato, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ohyama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs). We developed a neurosphere-based robust differentiation protocol, which enabled TiPSCs to differentiate into functional neurons, despite differences in global gene expression between TiPSCs and adult human dermal fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Furthermore, neurons derived from TiPSCs generated from a juvenile patient with Parkinson's disease exhibited several Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that TiPSCs are a useful tool for modeling neurological diseases. PMID:26905201

  15. Functional Neurons Generated from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimori, Koki; Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Ando, Takayuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Toyoshima, Manabu; Tada, Hirobumi; Imaizumi, Kent; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Isoda, Miho; Zhou, Zhi; Sato, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ohyama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs). We developed a neurosphere-based robust differentiation protocol, which enabled TiPSCs to differentiate into functional neurons, despite differences in global gene expression between TiPSCs and adult human dermal fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Furthermore, neurons derived from TiPSCs generated from a juvenile patient with Parkinson's disease exhibited several Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that TiPSCs are a useful tool for modeling neurological diseases. PMID:26905201

  16. Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) enhances the immunity of immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Wang, Chang-Lu; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Zhen-Jing; Chen, Mian-Hua; Li, Feng-Juan; Sun, Yan-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) on the immune functions of immunosuppressed mice were determined. The immunosuppressed mouse model was established by treating the mice with cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg/2d, CY) through intraperitoneal injection. The results showed that PN-S administration significantly reversed the CY-induced weight loss, increased the thymic and splenic indices, and promoted proliferation of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, and macrophages. PN-S also enhanced the activity of natural killer cells and increased the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in the serum. In addition, PN-S treatment significantly increased the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. PN-S also increased the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (INF-γ), and nitric oxide (NOS) in splenocytes. qRT-PCR results also indicated that PN-S increased the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ, and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the splenocytes. These results suggest that PN-S treatment enhances the immune function of immunosuppressed mice. This study may provide a basis for the application of this fungus in adjacent immunopotentiating therapy against cancer and in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression. PMID:26481376

  17. Functional Integration of Grafted Neural Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons Monitored by Optogenetics in an In Vitro Parkinson Model

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L.; Sørensen, Andreas T.; Andersson, Angelica; Lundberg, Cecilia; Deisseroth, Karl; Arenas, Ernest; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Merab

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon of tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP transgenic mice were expanded as neurospheres and transplanted into organotypic cultures of wild type mouse striatum. Differentiated GFP-labeled DA neurons in the grafts exhibited mature neuronal properties, including spontaneous firing of action potentials, presence of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D2 autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation or inhibition of grafted cells and host neurons using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), respectively, revealed complex, bi-directional synaptic interactions between grafted cells and host neurons and extensive synaptic connectivity within the graft. Our data demonstrate for the first time using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery as well as adverse effects following stem cell-based DA cell replacement strategies in PD. PMID:21394212

  18. Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yincheng; Chen, Bin; Tao, Minfang

    2009-12-18

    We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

  19. Estrogen Receptor β-Selective Agonists Stimulate Calcium Oscillations in Human and Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Blackman, Brigitte E.; Schonemann, Marcus D.; Zogovic-Kapsalis, Tatjana; Pan, Xiaoyu; Tagliaferri, Mary; Harris, Heather A.; Cohen, Isaac; Reijo Pera, Renee A.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Weiner, Richard I.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER) in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic. Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells could be a potential continuous, cell-based model to study nongenomic actions of estrogens in neurons if they are responsive to estrogens after differentiation. In this study ER-subtype specific estrogens were used to examine the role of ERα and ERβ on calcium oscillations in neurons derived from human (hES) and mouse embryonic stem cells. Unlike the undifferentiated hES cells the differentiated cells expressed neuronal markers, ERβ, but not ERα. The non-selective ER agonist 17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and synchronizations within a few minutes. No change in calcium oscillations was observed with the selective ERα agonist 4,4′,4″-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT). In contrast, the selective ERβ agonists, 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN), MF101, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-vinyl-1,3 benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041; WAY-202041) stimulated calcium oscillations similar to E2. The ERβ agonists also increased calcium oscillations and phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK1/2 in neurons derived from mouse ES cells, which was inhibited by nifedipine demonstrating that ERβ activates L-type voltage gated calcium channels to regulate neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate that ERβ signaling regulates nongenomic pathways in neurons derived from ES cells, and suggest that these cells might be useful to study the nongenomic mechanisms of estrogenic compounds. PMID:20668547

  20. Transfer of host-derived α synuclein to grafted dopaminergic neurons in rat.

    PubMed

    Kordower, Jeffrey H; Dodiya, Hemraj B; Kordower, Adam M; Terpstra, Brian; Paumier, Katrina; Madhavan, Lalitha; Sortwell, Caryl; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Collier, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    Multiple laboratories have recently demonstrated that long-term dopaminergic transplants form Lewy bodies in patients with Parkinson's disease. Debate has arisen as to whether these Lewy bodies form from the transfer of α synuclein from the host to the graft or whether they form from intrinsic responses of the graft from being placed into what was, or became, an inflammatory focus. To test whether the former hypothesis was possible, we grafted fetal rat ventral mesencephalon into the dopamine depleted striatum of rats that had previously received 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. One month after the transplant, rats received viral over expression of human α synuclein (AAV2/6-α synuclein) or green fluorescent protein (AAV2/6-GFP) into the striatum rostral to the grafts. Care was taken to make sure that the AAV injections were sufficiently distal to the graft so no cells would be directly transfected. All rats were sacrificed five weeks after the virus injections. Double label immunohistochemistry combined with confocal microscopy revealed that a small number of grafted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons (5.7% ± 1.5% (mean ± SEM) of grafted dopamine cells) expressed host derived α synuclein but none of the grafted cells expressed host-derived GFP. The α synuclein in a few of these cells was misfolded and failed to be digested with proteinase K. These data indicate that it is possible for host derived α synuclein to transfer to grafted neurons supporting the concept that this is one possible mechanism by which grafted dopamine neurons form Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:21600984

  1. Skin-derived Precursors Generate Enteric-type Neurons in Aganglionic Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Justin P.; Sullins, Veronica F.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) may regenerate the enteric nervous system in Hirschsprung’s disease. SKPs migrate and differentiate into myenteric ganglia in aganglionic intestine. We sought to characterize the time-course of SKP gangliogenesis and enteric neurotransmitter synthesis in vivo. Methods Adult Lewis rat jejunal segments were isolated and denervated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Denervation was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for markers of mature neuronal and glial cells. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing neonatal rat SKPs were cultured in neuroglial-selective medium. SKPs were transplanted into aganglionic segments 65–85 days after BAC treatment. IHC was performed to identify glia, neurons, and neurotransmitter synthesis in GFP+ cells between post-transplant days 1–28. Results Aganglionosis was confirmed by IHC. On post-transplant days 1 and 2, GFP+ cells were detected near injection sites within the muscularis propria. GFP+ cell clusters were evident only between longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers at post-transplant days 14, 21, and 28. These structures co-expressed markers of mature neurons and gliocytes. Several markers of neurotransmitter synthesis were detected in GFP+ clusters at days 21 and 28. Conclusion SKPs are capable of enteric neuroglial differentiation in vivo. SKPs migrate to the intermuscular layer of aganglionic intestine within days of transplantation. Our observations suggest that SKPs are capable of generating enteric ganglia in aganglionic intestine. PMID:25487489

  2. RPE and neuronal differentiation of allotransplantated porcine ciliary epithelium-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Guduric-Fuchs, Jasenka; Chen, Wing; Price, Henrietta; Archer, Desmond B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cell replacement has the potential to be applied as a therapeutic strategy in retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) for which no adequate pharmacological and surgical treatments are currently available. Although controversial, the use of ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells is supported by evidence showing their differentiation into retinal phenotypes. This study examines the differentiation potential of porcine CE-derived cells in vitro and their survival, migration, morphological characteristics, and immunohistochemical phenotype in vivo, upon transplantation into the subretinal space of normal pigs. Methods Cells were isolated from the CE of postnatal pigs and were grown in a suspension sphere culture. Differentiation was assessed in vitro after exposure to laminin and the addition of serum. For transplantation, CE-derived spheres were dissociated, labeled with CM-DiI vital dye, and the cells were injected subretinally into one eye of eight week-old allorecipients. The eyes were examined at eight days and at two and four weeks after transplantation. Results Cells positive for neuronal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) markers were detected by immunohistochemistry in differentiation cultures. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT–PCR) revealed upregulation of neuronal markers after in vitro differentiation. CM-DiI dye-labeled CE-derived cells dissociated from primary spheres survived for up to four weeks after transplantation in vivo. Some of the surviving cells migrated distantly from the injection site. Large clusters of transplanted cells integrated into the RPE layer and multilayered RPE-like structures positive for RPE65 were often observed. Grafted cells were also identified in the neuroretina where 5%–10% were positive for recoverin, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), and calbindin. Conclusions The efficient conversion to an RPE-like phenotype suggests that CE-derived

  3. Transplanted dopamine neurons derived from primate ES cells preferentially innervate DARPP-32 striatal progenitors within the graft.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daniela; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Lee, Hyojin; Studer, Lorenz; Isacson, Ole

    2006-10-01

    The correct identity and functional capacity of transplanted dopamine (DA) neurons derived in vitro from embryonic stem (ES) cells is a critical factor for the development of an ES cell-based replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. We transplanted primate Cyno-1 ES cells differentiated in vitro for 4 (progenitor ES cells) or 6 (differentiated ES cells) weeks, or control fetal primate cells into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats. Partial behavioral recovery in amphetamine-induced rotation was correlated with the number of ES-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the grafts (r=0.5, P<0.05). Post mortem analysis of ES-derived grafts revealed TH+neurons with mature morphology, similar to fetal DA neurons, and expression of midbrain transcription factors, such as Engrailed (En) and Nurr-1. While the total number of TH+neurons was not different between the two groups, TH/En co-expression was significantly higher (>90%) in grafts from differentiated ES cells than in grafts derived from progenitor cells (<50%), reflecting a more heterogeneous cellular composition. Within the grafts there was an overlap between ES-derived TH+axonal arbors and clusters of primate ES-derived striatal neurons expressing brain factor 1 (Bf-1, Foxg1) and DA and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32). Such overlap was never observed for other regional transcription factors that define neighboring forebrain domains in the developing brain, such as Nkx2.1 (medial ganglionic eminence), Nkx2.2 (pallidal and diencephalic progenitors) or Pax6 (dorsal telencephalic progenitors). Despite the heterogeneity of ES-derived graft cell composition, these results demonstrate normal phenotypic specification, conserved natural axonal target selectivity and functionality of DA neurons derived from primate ES cells. PMID:17067292

  4. Tooth pulp inflammation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rodent trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Tarsa, L; Bałkowiec-Iskra, E; Kratochvil, F J; Jenkins, V K; McLean, A; Brown, A L; Smith, J A; Baumgartner, J C; Balkowiec, A

    2010-06-01

    Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible for a number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular disorders and trigeminal neuralgias. Many of those conditions are associated with inflammation. Yet, the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory pain remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by adult rat TG neurons, and released from cultured newborn rat TG neurons by electrical stimulation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a well-established mediator of trigeminal inflammatory pain. These data suggest that BDNF plays a role in activity-dependent plasticity at first-order trigeminal synapses, including functional changes that take place in trigeminal nociceptive pathways during chronic inflammation. The present study was designed to determine the effects of peripheral inflammation, using tooth pulp inflammation as a model, on regulation of BDNF expression in TG neurons of juvenile rats and mice. Cavities were prepared in right-side maxillary first and second molars of 4-week-old animals, and left open to oral microflora. BDNF expression in right TG was compared with contralateral TG of the same animal, and with right TG of sham-operated controls, 7 and 28 days after cavity preparation. Our ELISA data indicate that exposing the tooth pulp for 28 days, with confirmed inflammation, leads to a significant upregulation of BDNF in the TG ipsilateral to the affected teeth. Double-immunohistochemistry with antibodies against BDNF combined with one of nociceptor markers, CGRP or transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), revealed that BDNF is significantly upregulated in TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in both rats and mice, and CGRP-IR neurons in mice, but not rats. Overall, the inflammation-induced upregulation of BDNF is stronger in mice

  5. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Cardoso, Tiago; Kirkeby, Agnete; Jönsson, Marie; Johansson, Jenny; Björklund, Anders; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models. PMID:26004633

  6. Transgenic Enrichment of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Progenitor Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McCreedy, Dylan A.; Rieger, Cara R.; Gottlieb, David I.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great potential for replacing neurons following injury or disease. The therapeutic and diagnostic potential of ESCs may be hindered by heterogeneity in ESC-derived populations. Drug selection has been used to purify ESC-derived cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells but has not been applied to specific neural lineages. In this study we investigated positive selection of progenitor motor neurons (pMNs) through transgenic expression of the puromycin resistance enzyme, puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC), under the Olig2 promoter. The protein-coding region in one allele of Olig2 was replaced with PAC to generate the P-Olig2 cell line. This cell line provided specific puromycin resistance in cells that express Olig2, while Olig2− cells were killed by puromycin. Positive selection significantly enriched populations of Olig2+ pMNs. Committed motoneurons (MNs) expressing Hb9, a common progeny of pMNs, were also enriched by the end of the selection period. Selected cells remained viable and differentiated into mature cholinergic MNs and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Drug resistance may provide a scalable and inexpensive method for enriching desired neural cell types for use in research applications. PMID:22297157

  7. Comparative neurotoxicity screening in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ying; Peng, Jun; Behl, Mamta; Sipes, Nisha S; Shockley, Keith R; Rao, Mahendra S; Tice, Raymond R; Zeng, Xianmin

    2016-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and their differentiated derivatives offer a unique source of human primary cells for toxicity screens. Here, we report on the comparative cytotoxicity of 80 compounds (neurotoxicants, developmental neurotoxicants, and environmental compounds) in iPSC as well as isogenic iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSC), neurons, and astrocytes. All compounds were tested over a 24-h period at 10 and 100μM, in duplicate, with cytotoxicity measured using the MTT assay. Of the 80 compounds tested, 50 induced significant cytotoxicity in at least one cell type; per cell type, 32, 38, 46, and 41 induced significant cytotoxicity in iPSC, NSC, neurons, and astrocytes, respectively. Four compounds (valinomycin, 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol, deltamethrin, and triphenyl phosphate) were cytotoxic in all four cell types. Retesting these compounds at 1, 10, and 100μM using the same exposure protocol yielded consistent results as compared with the primary screen. Using rotenone, we extended the testing to seven additional iPSC lines of both genders; no substantial difference in the extent of cytotoxicity was detected among the cell lines. Finally, the cytotoxicity assay was simplified by measuring luciferase activity using lineage-specific luciferase reporter iPSC lines which were generated from the parental iPSC line. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain. PMID:26254731

  8. Tissue plasminogen activator regulates Purkinje neuron development and survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianxue; Yu, Lili; Gu, Xuesong; Ma, Yinghua; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Snyder, Evan Y.; Sidman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar cortex is centrally involved in motor coordination and learning, and its sole output is provided by Purkinje neurons (PNs). Growth of PN dendrites and their major synaptic input from granule cell parallel fiber axons takes place almost entirely in the first several postnatal weeks. PNs are more vulnerable to cell death than most other neurons, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We find that the homozygous nervous (nr) mutant mouse’s 10-fold–increased cerebellar tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a part of the tPA/plasmin proteolytic system, influences several different molecular mechanisms, each regulating a key aspect of postnatal PN development, followed by selective PN necrosis, as follows. (i) Excess endogenous or exogenous tPA inhibits dendritic growth in vivo and in vitro by activating protein kinase Cγ and phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 2. (ii) tPA/plasmin proteolysis impairs parallel fiber-PN synaptogenesis by blocking brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling. (iii) Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (a mitochondrial and plasma membrane protein) bound with kringle 5 (a peptide derived from the excess plasminogen) promotes pathological enlargement and rounding of PN mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, and damages plasma membranes. These abnormalities culminate in young nr PN necrosis that can be mimicked in wild-type PNs by exogenous tPA injection into cerebellum or prevented by endogenous tPA deletion in nr:tPA-knockout double mutants. In sum, excess tPA/plasmin, through separate downstream molecular mechanisms, regulates postnatal PN dendritogenesis, synaptogenesis, mitochondrial structure and function, and selective PN viability. PMID:23674688

  9. Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor counteracts the neuronal damage induced by oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J V; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Pacini, Alessandra; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-02-01

    Oxaliplatin-based regimens are effective in metastasized advanced cancers. However, a major limitation to their widespread use is represented by neurotoxicity that leads to peripheral neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the roles of a proven immunotherapeutic agent [Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)] in preventing or decreasing oxaliplatin-induced neuronal damage and in modulating microglia activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage. The effects of oxaliplatin and of a commercially available formula of GcMAF [oleic acid-GcMAF (OA-GcMAF)] were studied in human neurons (SH-SY5Y cells) and in human microglial cells (C13NJ). Cell density, morphology and viability, as well as production of cAMP and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), markers of neuron regeneration [neuromodulin or growth associated protein-43 (Gap-43)] and markers of microglia activation [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) and B7-2], were determined. OA-GcMAF reverted the damage inflicted by oxaliplatin on human neurons and preserved their viability. The neuroprotective effect was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP production, as well as by increased expression of VEGF and neuromodulin. OA-GcMAF did not revert the effects of oxaliplatin on microglial cell viability. However, it increased microglial activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage, resulting in an increased expression of the markers Iba1 and B7-2 without any concomitant increase in cell number. When neurons and microglial cells were co-cultured, the presence of OA-GcMAF significantly counteracted the toxic effects of oxaliplatin. Our results demonstrate that OA-GcMAF, already used in the immunotherapy of advanced cancers, may significantly contribute to neutralizing the neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin, at the same time possibly concurring to an integrated anticancer effect. The association between these two powerful anticancer molecules would probably produce

  10. A deleterious Nav1.1 mutation selectively impairs telencephalic inhibitory neurons derived from Dravet Syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yishan; Paşca, Sergiu P; Portmann, Thomas; Goold, Carleton; Worringer, Kathleen A; Guan, Wendy; Chan, Karen C; Gai, Hui; Vogt, Daniel; Chen, Ying-Jiun J; Mao, Rong; Chan, Karrie; Rubenstein, John Lr; Madison, Daniel V; Hallmayer, Joachim; Froehlich-Santino, Wendy M; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2016-01-01

    Dravet Syndrome is an intractable form of childhood epilepsy associated with deleterious mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding neuronal sodium channel Nav1.1. Earlier studies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have produced mixed results regarding the importance of Nav1.1 in human inhibitory versus excitatory neurons. We studied a Nav1.1 mutation (p.S1328P) identified in a pair of twins with Dravet Syndrome and generated iPSC-derived neurons from these patients. Characterization of the mutant channel revealed a decrease in current amplitude and hypersensitivity to steady-state inactivation. We then differentiated Dravet-Syndrome and control iPSCs into telencephalic excitatory neurons or medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like inhibitory neurons. Dravet inhibitory neurons showed deficits in sodium currents and action potential firing, which were rescued by a Nav1.1 transgene, whereas Dravet excitatory neurons were normal. Our study identifies biophysical impairments underlying a deleterious Nav1.1 mutation and supports the hypothesis that Dravet Syndrome arises from defective inhibitory neurons. PMID:27458797

  11. A deleterious Nav1.1 mutation selectively impairs telencephalic inhibitory neurons derived from Dravet Syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yishan; Paşca, Sergiu P; Portmann, Thomas; Goold, Carleton; Worringer, Kathleen A; Guan, Wendy; Chan, Karen C; Gai, Hui; Vogt, Daniel; Chen, Ying-Jiun J; Mao, Rong; Chan, Karrie; Rubenstein, John LR; Madison, Daniel V; Hallmayer, Joachim; Froehlich-Santino, Wendy M; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2016-01-01

    Dravet Syndrome is an intractable form of childhood epilepsy associated with deleterious mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding neuronal sodium channel Nav1.1. Earlier studies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have produced mixed results regarding the importance of Nav1.1 in human inhibitory versus excitatory neurons. We studied a Nav1.1 mutation (p.S1328P) identified in a pair of twins with Dravet Syndrome and generated iPSC-derived neurons from these patients. Characterization of the mutant channel revealed a decrease in current amplitude and hypersensitivity to steady-state inactivation. We then differentiated Dravet-Syndrome and control iPSCs into telencephalic excitatory neurons or medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like inhibitory neurons. Dravet inhibitory neurons showed deficits in sodium currents and action potential firing, which were rescued by a Nav1.1 transgene, whereas Dravet excitatory neurons were normal. Our study identifies biophysical impairments underlying a deleterious Nav1.1 mutation and supports the hypothesis that Dravet Syndrome arises from defective inhibitory neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13073.001 PMID:27458797

  12. Direct laser writing of microstructures for the growth guidance of human pluripotent stem cell derived neuronal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, S.; Käpylä, E.; Lähteenmäki, M.; Ylä-Outinen, L.; Narkilahti, S.; Kellomäki, M.

    2014-04-01

    Studying neural networks in vivo is very laborious due to the location and immense complexity of the central nervous system. Therefore, neuronal cell culture models have become important tools to study the development of neuronal networks in vitro. We introduce a technique called direct laser writing (DLW) by two-photon polymerization (2PP) as a feasible method for the fabrication of microstructures for studying neuronal cell growth guidance. As human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) can be differentiated into several cell types, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, they are a promising cell source for cell culture models. In this study, three novel designs of neurocage microstructures were fabricated for the first time by 2PP. As a proof of concept, two of the neurocage designs were seeded with hPSC derived neuronal cells to study cell attachment, migration and directed neurite growth. Although the fabricated neurocage structures could not confine the neurons, the preliminary cell culture tests showed that neurons had a tendency to migrate towards the microstructures. In addition, the neurite guidance properties of the structures appeared promising as the neurons inside the cages readily extended their processes along the channels.

  13. Long-term survival of dopamine neurons derived from parthenogenetic primate embryonic stem cells (cyno-1) after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Studer, Lorenz; Ferrari, Daniela; Perrier, Anselme; Lee, Hyojin; Viñuela, Angel; Isacson, Ole

    2005-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons can be derived from human and primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. An ES cell-based replacement therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease requires that in vitro-generated neurons maintain their phenotype in vivo. Other critical issues relate to their proliferative capacity and risk of tumor formation, and the capability of migration and integration in the adult mammalian brain. Neural induction was achieved by coculture of primate parthenogenetic ES cells (Cyno-1) with stromal cells, followed by sequential exposure to midbrain patterning and differentiation factors to favor DA phenotypic specification. Differentiated ES cells were treated with mitomycin C and transplanted into adult immunosuppressed rodents and into a primate (allograft) with out immunosuppression. A small percentage of DA neurons survived in both rodent and primate hosts for the entire term of the study (4 and 7 months, respectively). Other neuronal and glial populations derived from Cyno-1 ES cells showed, in vivo, phenotypic characteristics and growth and migration patterns similar to fetal primate transplants, and a majority of cells (>80%) expressed the forebrain transcription factor brain factor 1. No teratoma formation was observed. In this study, we demonstrate long-term survival of DA neurons obtained in vitro from primate ES cells. Optimization of differentiation, cell selection, and cell transfer is required for functional studies of ES-derived DA neurons for future therapeutic applications. PMID:15941857

  14. Inhibition of mouse GPM6A expression leads to decreased differentiation of neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Michibata, Hideo; Okuno, Tsuyoshi; Konishi, Nae; Wakimoto, Koji; Kyono, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Kan; Kondo, Yasushi; Takata, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is known as a transmembrane protein and an abundant cell surface protein on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the function of GPM6A is still unknown in the differentiation of neurons derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. To investigate the function of GPM6A, we generated knockdown mouse ES cell lines (D3m-shM6A) using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector driven by the U6 small nuclear RNA promoter, which can significantly suppress the expression of mouse GPM6A mRNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and immunocytochemical analysis showed that expression of shRNA against GPM6A markedly reduced the expression of neuroectodermal-associated genes (OTX1, Lmx1b, En1, Pax2, Pax5, Sox1, Sox2, and Wnt1), and also the number of neural stem cells (NSC) derived from D3mshM6A cells compared to control vector-transfected mouse ES cells (D3m-Mock). Moreover, our results show a decrease in both the number of neuronal markers and the number of differentiating neuronal cells (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and GABAergic neurons) from NSC in D3m-shM6A cells. Hence, our findings suggest that expression level of GPM6A is directly or indirectly associated with the differentiation of neurons derived from undifferentiated ES cells. PMID:18522499

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Neuron-Derived Conditioned Medium (NCM)-Mediated Protection of Ischemic Brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hsin; Wang, Chen-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-An; Hsueh, Chi-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The protective value of neuron-derived conditioned medium (NCM) in cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia were investigated in the study. NCM was first collected from the neuronal culture growing under the in vitro ischemic condition (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-deprivation or GOSD) for 2, 4 or 6 h. Through the focal cerebral ischemia (bilateral CCAO/unilateral MCAO) animal model, we discovered that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain infarction was significantly reduced by NCM, given directly into the cistern magna at the end of 90 min of CCAO/MCAO. Immunoblocking and chemical blocking strategies were applied in the in vitro ischemic studies to show that NCM supplement could protect microglia, astrocytes and neurons from GOSD-induced cell death, in a growth factor (TGFβ1, NT-3 and GDNF) and p-ERK dependent manner. Brain injection with TGFβ1, NT3, GDNF and ERK agonist (DADS) alone or in combination, therefore also significantly decreased the infarct volume of ischemic brain. Moreover, NCM could inhibit ROS but stimulate IL-1β release from GOSD-treated microglia and limit the infiltration of IL-β-positive microglia into the core area of ischemic brain, revealing the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of NCM. In overall, NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated for the first time in S.D. rats, due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and potentially anti-glutamate activities (NCM-induced IL-1β can inhibit the glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity) and restriction upon the infiltration of inflammatory microglia into the core area of ischemic brain. The therapeutic potentials of NCM, TGFβ1, GDNF, NT-3 and DADS in the control of cerebral ischemia in human therefore have been suggested and require further investigation. PMID:26745377

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Neuron-Derived Conditioned Medium (NCM)-Mediated Protection of Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Hsin; Wang, Chen-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-An; Hsueh, Chi-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The protective value of neuron-derived conditioned medium (NCM) in cerebral ischemia and the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia were investigated in the study. NCM was first collected from the neuronal culture growing under the in vitro ischemic condition (glucose-, oxygen- and serum-deprivation or GOSD) for 2, 4 or 6 h. Through the focal cerebral ischemia (bilateral CCAO/unilateral MCAO) animal model, we discovered that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain infarction was significantly reduced by NCM, given directly into the cistern magna at the end of 90 min of CCAO/MCAO. Immunoblocking and chemical blocking strategies were applied in the in vitro ischemic studies to show that NCM supplement could protect microglia, astrocytes and neurons from GOSD-induced cell death, in a growth factor (TGFβ1, NT-3 and GDNF) and p-ERK dependent manner. Brain injection with TGFβ1, NT3, GDNF and ERK agonist (DADS) alone or in combination, therefore also significantly decreased the infarct volume of ischemic brain. Moreover, NCM could inhibit ROS but stimulate IL-1β release from GOSD-treated microglia and limit the infiltration of IL-β-positive microglia into the core area of ischemic brain, revealing the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of NCM. In overall, NCM-mediated brain protection against cerebral ischemia has been demonstrated for the first time in S.D. rats, due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and potentially anti-glutamate activities (NCM-induced IL-1β can inhibit the glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity) and restriction upon the infiltration of inflammatory microglia into the core area of ischemic brain. The therapeutic potentials of NCM, TGFβ1, GDNF, NT-3 and DADS in the control of cerebral ischemia in human therefore have been suggested and require further investigation. PMID:26745377

  17. Human iPSC-Derived Neuronal Model of Tau-A152T Frontotemporal Dementia Reveals Tau-Mediated Mechanisms of Neuronal Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Catarina; Cheng, Chialin; Mair, Waltraud; Almeida, Sandra; Fong, Helen; Biswas, M Helal U; Zhang, Zhijun; Huang, Yadong; Temple, Sally; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Kosik, Kenneth S; Gao, Fen-Biao; Steen, Judith A; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2016-09-13

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and other tauopathies characterized by focal brain neurodegeneration and pathological accumulation of proteins are commonly associated with tau mutations. However, the mechanism of neuronal loss is not fully understood. To identify molecular events associated with tauopathy, we studied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons from individuals carrying the tau-A152T variant. We highlight the potential of in-depth phenotyping of human neuronal cell models for pre-clinical studies and identification of modulators of endogenous tau toxicity. Through a panel of biochemical and cellular assays, A152T neurons showed accumulation, redistribution, and decreased solubility of tau. Upregulation of tau was coupled to enhanced stress-inducible markers and cell vulnerability to proteotoxic, excitotoxic, and mitochondrial stressors, which was rescued upon CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of tau or by pharmacological activation of autophagy. Our findings unmask tau-mediated perturbations of specific pathways associated with neuronal vulnerability, revealing potential early disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets for FTD and other tauopathies. PMID:27594585

  18. Modeling synaptogenesis in schizophrenia and autism using human iPSC derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Habela, Christa W; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are genetically and phenotypically complex disorders of neural development. Human genetic studies, as well as studies examining structural changes at the cellular level, have converged on glutamatergic synapse formation, function, and maintenance as common pathophysiologic substrates involved in both disorders. Synapses as basic functional units of the brain are continuously modified by experience throughout life, therefore they are particularly attractive candidates for targeted therapy. Until recently we lacked a system to evaluate dynamic changes that lead to synaptic abnormalities. With the development of techniques to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients, we are now able to study neuronal and synaptic development in cells from individual patients in the context of genetic changes conferring disease susceptibility. In this review, we discuss recent studies focusing on neural cells differentiated from SCZ and ASD patient iPSCs. These studies support a central role for glutamatergic synapse formation and function in both disorders and demonstrate that iPSC derived neurons offer a potential system for further evaluation of processes leading to synaptic dysregulation and for the design and screening of future therapies. PMID:26655799

  19. Neuronal-derived Ccl7 drives neuropathic pain by promoting astrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Bin Chang; Huang, Xia Xiao; Li, Yang; Li, Li Ya; Xu, Qin Xue; Gao, Yan; Liu, Yingju; Luo, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that peripheral nerve injury converts resting spinal cord astroglial cells into an activated state, which is required for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms of how resting astrocytes are activated after nerve injury remain largely unknown. Astroglial cell proliferation and activation could be affected by endogenous factors including chemokines, growth factors, and neurotropic factor. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (Ccl7) is essential in facilitating the development of neuropathic pain; however, the mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we found that Ccl7 promoted astrocyte proliferation and thus contributed toward neuropathic pain. Spinal nerve ligation increased the expression in the spinal cord of neuronal Ccl7. Behavioral analyses showed that knockdown of Ccl7 alleviated spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain. Further in-vitro study showed that neuronal-derived Ccl7 was sufficient for the proliferation and activation of astroglial cells. We found a novel mechanism of Ccl7 stimulating the proliferation and activation of spinal cord astrocytes that contributes toward neuropathic pain. PMID:27295026

  20. Process Extension from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neurons through Synthetic Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Daniel Devaud

    This thesis focuses on studying the extension of motor axons through synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) PEG hydrogels that have been modified with biochemical functionalities to render them more biologically relevant. Specifically, the research strategy is to encapsulate embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ESMNs) in synthetic PEG hydrogels crosslinked through three different chemistries providing three mechanisms for dynamically tuning material properties. First, a covalently crosslinked, enzymatically degradable hydrogel is developed and exploited to study the biophysical dynamics of axon extension and matrix remodeling. It is demonstrated that dispersed motor neurons require a battery of adhesive peptides and growth factors to maintain viability and extend axons while those in contact with supportive neuroglial cells do not. Additionally, cell-degradable crosslinker peptides and a soft modulus mimicking that of the spinal cord are requirements for axon extension. However, because local degradation of the hydrogel results in a cellular environment significantly different than that of the bulk, enzymatically degradable peptide crosslinkers were replaced with reversible covalent hydrazone bonds to study the effect of hydrogel modulus on axon extension. This material is characterized in detail and used to measure forces involved in axon extension. Finally, a hydrogel with photocleavable linkers incorporated into the network structure is exploited to explore motor axon response to physical channels. This system is used to direct the growth of motor axons towards co-cultured myotubes, resulting in the formation of an in vitro neural circuit.

  1. Improved neuronal tract tracing with stable biocytin-derived neuroimaging agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anurag; Dhingra, Kirti; Schüz, Almut; Logothetis, Nikos K; Canals, Santiago

    2010-02-17

    One of the main characteristics of brains is their profuse connectivity at different spatial scales. Understanding brain function evidently first requires a comprehensive description of neuronal anatomical connections. Not surprisingly a large number of histological markers were developed over the years that can be used for tracing mono- or polysynaptic connections. Biocytin is a classical neuroanatomical tracer commonly used to map brain connectivity. However, the endogenous degradation of the molecule by the action of biotinidase enzymes precludes its applicability in long-term experiments and limits the quality and completeness of the rendered connections. With the aim to improve the stability of this classical tracer, two novel biocytin-derived compounds were designed and synthesized. Here we present their greatly improved stability in biological tissue along with retained capacity to function as neuronal tracers. The experiments, 24 and 96 h postinjection, demonstrated that the newly synthesized molecules yielded more detailed and complete information about brain networks than that obtained with conventional biocytin. Preliminary results suggest that the reported molecular designs can be further diversified for use as multimodal tracers in combined MRI and optical or electron microscopy experiments. PMID:22778821

  2. Fezf2 expression in layer 5 projection neurons of mature mouse motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Tantirigama, Malinda L S; Oswald, Manfred J; Clare, Alison J; Wicky, Hollie E; Day, Robert C; Hughes, Stephanie M; Empson, Ruth M

    2016-03-01

    The mature cerebral cortex contains a wide diversity of neuron phenotypes. This diversity is specified during development by neuron-specific expression of key transcription factors, some of which are retained for the life of the animal. One of these key developmental transcription factors that is also retained in the adult is Fezf2, but the neuron types expressing it in the mature cortex are unknown. With a validated Fezf2-Gfp reporter mouse, whole-cell electrophysiology with morphology reconstruction, cluster analysis, in vivo retrograde labeling, and immunohistochemistry, we identify a heterogeneous population of Fezf2(+) neurons in both layer 5A and layer 5B of the mature motor cortex. Functional electrophysiology identified two distinct subtypes of Fezf2(+) neurons that resembled pyramidal tract projection neurons (PT-PNs) and intratelencephalic projection neurons (IT-PNs). Retrograde labeling confirmed the former type to include corticospinal projection neurons (CSpPNs) and corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPNs), whereas the latter type included crossed corticostriatal projection neurons (cCStrPNs) and crossed-corticocortical projection neurons (cCCPNs). The two Fezf2(+) subtypes expressed either CTIP2 or SATB2 to distinguish their physiological identity and confirmed that specific expression combinations of key transcription factors persist in the mature motor cortex. Our findings indicate a wider role for Fezf2 within gene expression networks that underpin the diversity of layer 5 cortical projection neurons. PMID:26234885

  3. Atoxic Derivative of Botulinum Neurotoxin A as a Prototype Molecular Vehicle for Targeted Delivery to the Neuronal Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Cintron, Edwin J.; Vakulenko, Maksim; Band, Philip A.; Stanker, Larry H.; Johnson, Eric A.; Ichtchenko, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described genetic constructs and expression systems that enable facile production of recombinant derivatives of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that retain the structural and trafficking properties of wt BoNTs. In this report we describe the properties of one such derivative, BoNT/A ad, which was rendered atoxic by introducing two amino acid mutations to the light chain (LC) of wt BoNT/A, and which is being developed as a molecular vehicle for delivering drugs to the neuronal cytoplasm. The neuronal binding, internalization, and intracellular trafficking of BoNT/A ad in primary hippocampal cultures was evaluated using three complimentary techniques: flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Neuronal binding of BoNT ad was significantly increased when neurons were incubated in depolarizing medium. Flow cytometry demonstrated that BoNT/A ad internalized into neurons but not glia. After 24 hours, the majority of the neuron-bound BoNT/A ad became internalized, as determined by its resistance to pronase E-induced proteolytic degradation of proteins associated with the plasma membrane of intact cells. Significant amounts of the atoxic LC accumulated in a Triton X-100-extractable fraction of the neurons, and persisted as such for at least 11 days with no evidence of degradation. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the LC of BoNT/A ad was translocated to the neuronal cytoplasm after uptake and was specifically targeted to SNARE proteins. The atoxic LC consistently co-localized with synaptic markers SNAP-25 and VAMP-2, but was rarely co-localized with markers for early or late endosomes. These data demonstrate that BoNT/A ad mimics the trafficking properties of wt BoNT/A, confirming that our platform for designing and expressing BoNT derivatives provides an accessible system for elucidating the molecular details of BoNT trafficking, and can potentially be used to address multiple medical and biodefense needs. PMID:24465585

  4. Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Eunji E.; Zalay, Osbert C.; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2012-10-01

    Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg2 + and K+ of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz).

  5. Markers of pathological excitability derived from principal dynamic modes of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunji E; Zalay, Osbert C; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2012-10-01

    Transformation of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) under epileptogenic conditions was investigated by computing the Volterra kernels in a rodent epilepsy model derived from a mouse whole hippocampal preparation, where epileptogenesis was induced by altering the concentrations of Mg(2 +) and K(+) of the perfusate for different levels of excitability. Both integrating and differentiating PDMs were present in the neuronal dynamics, and both of them increased in absolute magnitude for increased excitability levels. However, the integrating PDMs dominated at all levels of excitability in terms of their relative contributions to the overall response, whereas the dominant frequency responses of the differentiating PDMs were shifted to higher ranges under epileptogenic conditions, from ripple activities (75-200 Hz) to fast ripple activities (200-500 Hz). PMID:22871606

  6. Regulation of transcription factors by nitric oxide in neurons and in neural-derived tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Contestabile, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a diffusible molecule acting as an intercellular and intracellular messenger in many tissues, plays multiple roles in the nervous system. In addition to regulating proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons, NO is also involved in synaptic activity, neural plasticity and memory formation. Long-lasting effects of NO, a simple and unstable molecule, occur through regulation of transcription factors and modulation of gene expression. cAMP-response-element-binding (CREB) protein is an important transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in survival and neuroprotection as well as in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Nitric oxide promotes survival and differentiation of neural cells, both activating through cGMP signaling CREB phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activity and promoting S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins that favor CREB binding to its promoters on target genes. Among oncogenic transcription factors, N-Myc is important in neurogenesis and in regulating proliferation of neural-derived tumor cells, such as neuroblastomas and medulloblastomas. Nitric oxide negatively regulates the proliferation of neuronal precursors, as well as the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells, by downregulating N-Myc expression through cGMP signaling. Other oncogenic transcription factors, such as c-fos and c-jun, zinc-finger transcription factors, such as egr-1, and NF-kappaB are regulated by NO signaling in cGMP-dependent way or through nitrosative conformational changes. The present survey of how NO signaling influences neural cells through regulation of transcription factors allows us to predict that better knowledge of these interactions will provide a better understanding of the physiological role of NO in the nervous system in order to conceive novel therapies for neural-derived tumors. PMID:18308460

  7. Platelet-derived nerve growth factor supports the survival of cholinergic neurons in organotypic rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Kniewallner, Kathrin M; Grimm, Natalia; Humpel, Christian

    2014-06-27

    Platelets play a role in repair of vessels and contain different growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). Since NGF is the most potent growth factor to support survival of cholinergic neurons, we aimed to study the effects of platelet-derived NGF on cholinergic neurons in organotypic brain slices. Brain slices of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nBM) were cultured with or without NGF (10ng/ml) or platelet extracts (100μg/ml) or fresh platelets (10(8) platelets/ml). In order to enhance NGF in platelets recombinant NGF (100ng) was loaded into platelets using ultrasound (3h). Our data show that recombinant NGF markedly supports survival of cholinergic neurons. The addition of fresh platelets showed a tendency for enhancing cholinergic neuron numbers, while platelet extracts had no effects. Ultrasound was highly effective to load recombinant NGF into platelets. The addition of NGF-loaded platelets markedly enhanced cholinergic neuron numbers. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that NGF-derived platelets may counteract cell death of cholinergic neurons. PMID:24861506

  8. An In Vitro Model of Latency and Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus in Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Amos; Lebenthal-Loinger, Ilana; Yang, In Hong; Kinchington, Paul R.; Goldstein, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) latency in sensory and autonomic neurons has remained enigmatic and difficult to study, and experimental reactivation has not yet been achieved. We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons are permissive to a productive and spreading VZV infection. We now demonstrate that hESC-derived neurons can also host a persistent non-productive infection lasting for weeks which can subsequently be reactivated by multiple experimental stimuli. Quiescent infections were established by exposing neurons to low titer cell-free VZV either by using acyclovir or by infection of axons in compartmented microfluidic chambers without acyclovir. VZV DNA and low levels of viral transcription were detectable by qPCR for up to seven weeks. Quiescently-infected human neuronal cultures were induced to undergo renewed viral gene and protein expression by growth factor removal or by inhibition of PI3-Kinase activity. Strikingly, incubation of cultures induced to reactivate at a lower temperature (34°C) resulted in enhanced VZV reactivation, resulting in spreading, productive infections. Comparison of VZV genome transcription in quiescently-infected to productively-infected neurons using RNASeq revealed preferential transcription from specific genome regions, especially the duplicated regions. These experiments establish a powerful new system for modeling the VZV latent state, and reveal a potential role for temperature in VZV reactivation and disease. PMID:26042814

  9. Three-dimensional nanofibrillar surfaces covalently modified with tenascin-C-derived peptides enhance neuronal growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ijaz; Liu, Hsing-Yin; Mamiya, Ping C; Ponery, Abdul S; Babu, Ashwin N; Weik, Thom; Schindler, Melvin; Meiners, Sally

    2006-03-15

    Current methods to promote growth of cultured neurons use two-dimensional (2D) glass or polystyrene surfaces coated with a charged molecule (e.g. poly-L-lysine (PLL)) or an isolated extracellular matrix (ECM) protein (e.g. laminin-1). However, these 2D surfaces represent a poor topological approximation of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the assembled ECM that regulates neuronal growth in vivo. Here we report on the development of a new 3D synthetic nanofibrillar surface for the culture of neurons. This nanofibrillar surface is composed of polyamide nanofibers whose organization mimics the porosity and geometry of the ECM. Neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule, cerebral cortical, hippocampal, motor, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were similar on nanofibers and PLL-coated glass coverslips; however, neurite generation was increased. Moreover, covalent modification of the nanofibers with neuroactive peptides derived from human tenascin-C significantly enhanced the ability of the nanofibers to facilitate neuronal attachment, neurite generation, and neurite extension in vitro. Hence the 3D nanofibrillar surface provides a physically and chemically stabile cell culture surface for neurons and, potentially, an exciting new opportunity for the development of peptide-modified matrices for use in strategies designed to encourage axonal regrowth following central nervous system injury. PMID:16345089

  10. Subthreshold membrane currents confer distinct tuning properties that enable neurons to encode the integral or derivative of their input

    PubMed Central

    Ratté, Stéphanie; Lankarany, Milad; Rho, Young-Ah; Patterson, Adam; Prescott, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons rely on action potentials, or spikes, to encode information. But spikes can encode different stimulus features in different neurons. We show here through simulations and experiments how neurons encode the integral or derivative of their input based on the distinct tuning properties conferred upon them by subthreshold currents. Slow-activating subthreshold inward (depolarizing) current mediates positive feedback control of subthreshold voltage, sustaining depolarization and allowing the neuron to spike on the basis of its integrated stimulus waveform. Slow-activating subthreshold outward (hyperpolarizing) current mediates negative feedback control of subthreshold voltage, truncating depolarization and forcing the neuron to spike on the basis of its differentiated stimulus waveform. Depending on its direction, slow-activating subthreshold current cooperates or competes with fast-activating inward current during spike initiation. This explanation predicts that sensitivity to the rate of change of stimulus intensity differs qualitatively between integrators and differentiators. This was confirmed experimentally in spinal sensory neurons that naturally behave as specialized integrators or differentiators. Predicted sensitivity to different stimulus features was confirmed by covariance analysis. Integration and differentiation, which are themselves inverse operations, are thus shown to be implemented by the slow feedback mediated by oppositely directed subthreshold currents expressed in different neurons. PMID:25620913

  11. Immortalization and Characterization of Lineage-restricted Neuronal Progenitor Cells Derived From the Procine Olfactory Bulb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crucial aspects in the development of in vitro neuropathogenic disease model systems are the identification, characterization, and continuous mitotic expansion of cultured neuronal cells. To facilitate long-term cultivation, we immortalized cultured porcine olfactory neuronally restricted progenitor...

  12. Improvement of neuronal cell survival by astrocyte-derived exosomes under hypoxic and ischemic conditions depends on prion protein.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Kathrin; Loers, Gabriele; Buck, Friedrich; Bork, Ute; Schachner, Melitta; Kleene, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Prion protein (PrP) protects neural cells against oxidative stress, hypoxia, ischemia, and hypoglycemia. In the present study we confirm that cultured PrP-deficient neurons are more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type neurons and present the novel findings that wild-type, but not PrP-deficient astrocytes protect wild-type cerebellar neurons against oxidative stress and that exosomes released from stressed wild-type, but not from stressed PrP-deficient astrocytes reduce neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. We show that neuroprotection by exosomes of stressed astrocytes depends on exosomal PrP but not on neuronal PrP and that astrocyte-derived exosomal PrP enters into neurons, suggesting neuronal uptake of astrocyte-derived exosomes. Upon exposure of wild-type astrocytes to hypoxic or ischemic conditions PrP levels in exosomes were increased. By mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, we detected increased levels of 37/67 kDa laminin receptor, apolipoprotein E and the ribosomal proteins S3 and P0, and decreased levels of clusterin/apolipoprotein J in exosomes from wild-type astrocytes exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation relative to exosomes from astrocytes maintained under normoxic conditions. The levels of these proteins were not altered in exosomes from stressed PrP-deficient astrocytes relative to unstressed PrP-deficient astrocytes. These results indicate that PrP in astrocytes is a sensor for oxidative stress and mediates beneficial cellular responses, e.g. release of exosomes carrying PrP and other molecules, resulting in improved survival of neurons under hypoxic and ischemic conditions. GLIA 2016;64:896-910. PMID:26992135

  13. Targeting RNA foci in iPSC-derived motor neurons from ALS patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansion

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, D.; O’Rourke, J. G.; Meera, P.; Muhammad, A.K.M.G.; Grant, S.; Simpkinson, M.; Bell, S.; Carmona, S.; Ornelas, L.; Sahabian, A.; Gendron, T.; Petrucelli, L.; Baughn, M.; Ravits, J.; Harms, M. B.; Rigo, F.; Bennett, C. F.; Otis, T. S.; Svendsen, C. N.; Baloh, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative condition characterized by loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene are the most common cause of the familial form of ALS (C9-ALS), as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration and other neurological diseases. How the repeat expansion causes disease remains unclear, with both loss of function (haploinsufficiency) and gain of function (either toxic RNA or protein products) proposed. Here, we report a cellular model of C9-ALS with motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from ALS patients carrying the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. No significant loss of C9ORF72 expression was observed, and knockdown of the transcript was not toxic to cultured human motor neurons. Transcription of the repeat was increased leading to accumulation of GGGGCC repeat-containing RNA foci selectively in C9-ALS motor neurons. Repeat-containing RNA foci co-localized with hnRNPA1 and Pur-α, suggesting that they may be able to alter RNA metabolism. C9-ALS motor neurons showed altered expression of genes involved in membrane excitability including DPP6, and demonstrated a diminished capacity to fire continuous spikes upon depolarization compared to control motor neurons. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting the C9ORF72 transcript suppressed RNA foci formation and reversed gene expression alterations in C9-ALS motor neurons. These data show that patient-derived motor neurons can be used to delineate pathogenic events in ALS. PMID:24154603

  14. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent MHD Flows Using an Iterative PNS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Hiromasa; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2003-01-01

    A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm has been developed to efficiently compute magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime. In this regime, the electrical conductivity is low and the induced magnetic field is negligible compared to the applied magnetic field. The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equation which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. To account for upstream (elliptic) effects, the flowfields are computed using multiple streamwise sweeps with an iterated PNS algorithm. Turbulence has been included by modifying the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model to account for MHD effects. The new algorithm has been used to compute both laminar and turbulent, supersonic, MHD flows over flat plates and supersonic viscous flows in a rectangular MHD accelerator. The present results are in excellent agreement with previous complete Navier-Stokes calculations.

  15. The microtubular cytoskeleton of olfactory neurons derived from patients with schizophrenia or with bipolar disorder: Implications for biomarker characterization, neuronal physiology and pharmacological screening.

    PubMed

    Benítez-King, G; Valdés-Tovar, M; Trueta, C; Galván-Arrieta, T; Argueta, J; Alarcón, S; Lora-Castellanos, A; Solís-Chagoyán, H

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are highly inheritable chronic mental disorders with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Despite that many efforts had been made to characterize biomarkers in order to allow for biological testing for their diagnoses, these disorders are currently detected and classified only by clinical appraisal based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Olfactory neuroepithelium-derived neuronal precursors have been recently proposed as a model for biomarker characterization. Because of their peripheral localization, they are amenable to collection and suitable for being cultured and propagated in vitro. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells can be obtained by a non-invasive brush-exfoliation technique from neuropsychiatric patients and healthy subjects. Neuronal precursors isolated from these samples undergo in vitro the cytoskeletal reorganization inherent to the neurodevelopment process which has been described as one important feature in the etiology of both diseases. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge on microtubular organization in olfactory neurons of patients with SZ and with BD that may constitute specific cytoskeletal endophenotypes and their relation with alterations in L-type voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents. Finally, the potential usefulness of neuronal precursors for pharmacological screening will be discussed. PMID:26837043

  16. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Emily K.; Avesar, Daniel; Gulledge, Allan T.

    2014-01-01

    Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse prefrontal cortex respond to serotonin (5-HT) according to their long-distance axonal projections; 5-HT1A (1A) receptors mediate inhibitory responses in corticopontine (CPn) L5PNs, while 5-HT2A (2A) receptors can enhance action potential (AP) output in callosal/commissural (COM) L5PNs, either directly (in “COM-excited” neurons), or following brief 1A-mediated inhibition (in “COM-biphasic” neurons). Here we compare the impact of 5-HT on the excitability of CPn and COM L5PNs experiencing variable excitatory drive produced by current injection (DC current or simulated synaptic current) or with exogenous glutamate. 5-HT delivered at resting membrane potentials, or paired with subthreshold depolarizing input, hyperpolarized CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs and failed to promote AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs. Conversely, when paired with suprathreshold excitatory drive generating multiple APs, 5-HT suppressed AP output in CPn L5PNs, enhanced AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs, and generated variable responses in COM-biphasic L5PNs. While COM-excited neurons failed to respond to 5-HT in the presence of a 2A receptor antagonist, 32% of CPn neurons exhibited 2A-dependent excitation following blockade of 1A receptors. The presence of pharmacologically revealed 2A receptors in CPn L5PNs was correlated with the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition, yet biphasic excitatory responses to 5-HT were never observed, even when 5-HT was paired with strong excitatory drive. Our results suggest that 2A receptors selectively amplify the output of COM L5PNs experiencing suprathreshold excitatory drive, while shaping the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition in a subset of CPn L5PNs. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of COM L5PNs, combined with 1A-mediated inhibition of CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs, may facilitate executive function by focusing network activity within cortical circuits subserving the most appropriate behavioral output

  17. hVGAT-mCherry: a novel molecular tool for analysis of GABAergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Brooke A.; Belle, Kinsley C.; Thomas, Blake J.; Cukier, Holly N.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Background GABAergic synaptic transmission is known to play a critical role in the assembly of neuronal circuits during development and is responsible for maintaining the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signaling in the brain during maturation into adulthood. Importantly, defects in GABAergic neuronal function and signaling have been linked to a number of neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. With patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based models of neurological disease, it is now possible to investigate the disease mechanisms that underlie deficits in GABAergic function in affected human neurons. To that end, tools that enable the labeling and purification of viable GABAergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells would be of great value. Results To address the need for tools that facilitate the identification and isolation of viable GABAergic neurons from the in vitro differentiation of iPSC lines, a cell type-specific promoter-driven fluorescent reporter construct was developed that utilizes the human vesicular GABA transporter (hVGAT) promoter to drive the expression of mCherry specifically in VGAT-expressing neurons. The transduction of iPSC-derived forebrain neuronal cultures with the hVGAT promoter-mCherry lentiviral reporter construct specifically labeled GABAergic neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis of hVGAT-mCherry expression cells showed significant co-labelling with the GABAergic neuronal markers for endogenous VGAT, GABA, and GAD67. Expression of mCherry from the VGAT promoter showed expression in several cortical interneuron subtypes to similar levels. In addition, an effective and reproducible protocol was developed to facilitate the fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS)-mediated purification of high yields of viable VGAT-positive cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the utility of the hVGAT-mCherry reporter construct as an effective tool for studying

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  19. Patient-derived olfactory mucosa for study of the non-neuronal contribution to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    García-Escudero, Vega; Rosales, María; Muñoz, José Luis; Scola, Esteban; Medina, Javier; Khalique, Hena; Garaulet, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Antonio; Lim, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease which currently has no cure. Research using rodent ALS models transgenic for mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has implicated that glial–neuronal interactions play a major role in the destruction of motor neurons, but the generality of this mechanism is not clear as SOD1 mutations only account for less than 2% of all ALS cases. Recently, this hypothesis was backed up by observation of similar effects using astrocytes derived from post-mortem spinal cord tissue of ALS patients which did not carry SOD1 mutations. However, such necropsy samples may not be easy to obtain and may not always yield viable cell cultures. Here, we have analysed olfactory mucosa (OM) cells, which can be easily isolated from living ALS patients. Disease-specific changes observed when ALS OM cells were co-cultured with human spinal cord neurons included decreased neuronal viability, aberrant neuronal morphology and altered glial inflammatory responses. Our results show the potential of OM cells as new cell models for ALS. PMID:25807871

  20. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O'Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  1. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations

    PubMed Central

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O’Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra

    2015-01-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer’s disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  2. Improving the neuronal differentiation efficiency of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultivated under appropriate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rafieemehr, Hassan; Kheirandish, Maryam; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UCB-MSCs) are ideally suited for use in various cell-based therapies. We investigated a novel induction protocol (NIP) to improve the neuronal differentiation of human UCB-MSCs under appropriate conditions. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO), Tehran, Iran. UCB-MSCs were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% FBS in a humidified incubator in equilibration with 5% CO2 at 37°C. For neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs, DMEM was removed and replaced with pre-induction medium containing RA, bFGF, EGF, and basal medium for two days. Then, NGF, IBMX, AsA, and Neurobasal medium were used for six days for this purpose. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs for the first time in Iran. Results: We found that the maximum and minimum levels of gene expression were related to GFAP and nestin, respectively. In addition, our study showed that compared to other neuronal inducers, RA might play the main role in neuronal differentiation and fate of MSCs compared to other neuronal inducers. Conclusion: Our data showed that the combination of chemical (RA, IBMX, AsA) and growth factors (NGF, EGF, bFGF) in NIP may improve the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs and may provide a new method for easy and quick application of UCB-MSCs in regenerative medicine in the future. However, the functionality of neuron-like cells must be carefully assessed in animal experiments prior to use in clinical applications. PMID:26949497

  3. ChIP-Seq Data Mining: Remarkable Differences in NRSF/REST Target Genes between Human ESC and ESC-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kawana, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    The neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a zinc finger transcription factor that represses neuronal gene transcription in non-neuronal cells by binding to the consensus repressor element-1 (RE1) located in regulatory regions of target genes. NRSF silences the expression of a wide range of target genes involved in neuron-specific functions. Previous studies showed that aberrant regulation of NRSF plays a key role in the pathological process of human neurodegenerative diseases. However, a comprehensive set of NRSF target genes relevant to human neuronal functions has not yet been characterized. We performed genome-wide data mining from chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) datasets of NRSF binding sites in human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the corresponding ESC-derived neurons, retrieved from the database of the ENCODE/HAIB project. Using bioinformatics tools such as Avadis NGS and MACS, we identified 2,172 NRSF target genes in ESC and 308 genes in ESC-derived neurons based on stringent criteria. Only 40 NRSF target genes overlapped between both data sets. According to motif analysis, binding regions showed an enrichment of the consensus RE1 sites in ESC, whereas they were mainly located in poorly defined non-RE1 sites in ESC-derived neurons. Molecular pathways of NRSF target genes were linked with various neuronal functions in ESC, such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, CREB signaling, and axonal guidance signaling, while they were not directed to neuron-specific functions in ESC-derived neurons. Remarkable differences in ChIP-Seq-based NRSF target genes and pathways between ESC and ESC-derived neurons suggested that NRSF-mediated silencing of target genes is highly effective in human ESC but not in ESC-derived neurons. PMID:24324330

  4. Analysis of Gene Expression in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Neurons Exposed to Botulinum Neurotoxin A Subtype 1 and a Type A Atoxic Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, Jacob M.; Hu, Xiaoyang Serene; Tepp, William H.; Ichtchenko, Konstantin; Johnson, Eric A.; Pellett, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A1 (BoNT/A1) is a potent protein toxin responsible for the potentially fatal human illness botulism. Notwithstanding, the long-lasting flaccid muscle paralysis caused by BoNT/A has led to its utility as a powerful and versatile bio-pharmaceutical. The flaccid paralysis is due to specific cleavage of neuronal SNAREs by BoNTs. However, actions of BoNTs on intoxicated neurons besides the cleavage of SNAREs have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated by microarray analysis the effects of BoNT/A and a catalytically inactive derivative (BoNT/A ad) on the transcriptome of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons at 2 days and 2 weeks after exposure. While there were only minor changes in expression levels at 2 days post exposure, at 2 weeks post exposure 492 genes were differentially expressed more than 2-fold in BoNT/A1-exposed cells when compared to non-exposed populations, and 682 genes were differentially expressed in BoNT/A ad-exposed cells. The vast majority of genes were similarly regulated in BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A ad-exposed neurons, and the few genes differentially regulated between BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A ad-exposed neurons were differentially expressed less than 3.5 fold. These data indicate a similar response of neurons to BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A ad exposure. The most highly regulated genes in cells exposed to either BoNT/A1 or BoNT/A ad are involved in neurite outgrowth and calcium channel sensitization. PMID:25337697

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for axonal growth of selective groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guey-Ying; Bouyer, Karine; Kamitakahara, Anna; Sahibzada, Niaz; Wang, Chien-Hua; Rutlin, Michael; Simerly, Richard B.; Xu, Baoji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent regulator of neuronal development, and the Bdnf gene produces two populations of transcripts with either a short or long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). Deficiencies in BDNF signaling have been shown to cause severe obesity in humans; however, it remains unknown how BDNF signaling impacts the organization of neuronal circuits that control energy balance. Methods We examined the role of BDNF on survival, axonal projections, and synaptic inputs of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), a structure critical for the control of energy balance, using Bdnfklox/klox mice, which lack long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA and develop severe hyperphagic obesity. Results We found that a small fraction of neurons that express the receptor for BDNF, TrkB, also expressed proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the ARH. Bdnfklox/klox mice had normal numbers of POMC, NPY, and TrkB neurons in the ARH; however, retrograde labeling revealed a drastic reduction in the number of ARH axons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in these mice. In addition, fewer POMC and AgRP axons were found in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and the lateral part of PVH, respectively, in Bdnfklox/klox mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the impact of BDNF deficiency on inputs to ARH neurons. We found that excitatory inputs onto POMC and NPY neurons were increased and decreased, respectively, in Bdnfklox/klox mice, likely due to a compensatory response to marked hyperphagia displayed by the mutant mice. Conclusion This study shows that the majority of TrkB neurons in the ARH are distinct from known neuronal populations and that BDNF plays a critical role in directing projections from these neurons to the DMH and PVH. We propose that hyperphagic obesity due to BDNF deficiency is in part attributable to impaired axonal growth of TrkB-expressing ARH neurons. PMID:26042201

  6. Efficient Generation of Corticofugal Projection Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ai, Zongyong; Hu, Xintian; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to study development and function of corticofugal projection neurons (CfuPNs) in the human cerebral cortex for health and disease have been limited by the unavailability of highly enriched CfuPNs. Here, we develop a robust, two-step process for generating CfuPNs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs): directed induction of neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) from hESCs and efficient differentiation of NESCs to about 80% of CfuPNs. NESCs or a NESC faithfully maintain unlimitedly self-renewal and self-organized abilities to develop into miniature neural tube-like structures. NESCs retain a stable propensity toward neuronal differentiation over culture as fate-restricted progenitors of CfuPNs and interneurons. When grafted into mouse brains, NESCs successfully integrate into the host brains, differentiate into CfuPNs and effectively reestablish specific patterns of subcortical projections and synapse structures. Efficient generation of CfuPNs in vitro and in vivo will facilitate human cortex development and offer sufficient CfuPNs for cell therapy. PMID:27346302

  7. Coordinated Development of Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Currents Regulates Functional Maturation of Forebrain Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingke; Mohamad, Osama; Chen, Dongdong

    2013-01-01

    Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells can differentiate into neuronal cells. However, it is unclear how their exquisite neuronal function is electrophysiologically coordinated during differentiation and whether they are functionally identical to human ES cell-derived neurons. In this study, we differentiated hiPS and ES cells into pyramidal-like neurons and conducted electrophysiological characterization over the 4-week terminal differentiation period. The human neuron-like cells express forebrain pyramidal cell markers NeuN, neurofilament, the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), the paired box protein Pax-6 (PAX6), Tuj1, and the forkhead box protein G1 (FoxG1). The size of developing neurons increased continuously during the 4-week culture, and cell-resting membrane potentials (RMPs) underwent a negative shift from −40 to −70 mV. Expression of the muscarinic receptor-modulated K+ currents (IM) participated in the development of cell RMPs and controlled excitability. Immature neurons at week 1 could only fire abortive action potentials (APs) and the frequency of AP firing progressively increased with neuronal maturation. Interestingly, the developmental change of voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) did not correlate with the change in the AP firing frequency. On the other hand, the transient outward K+ current (IA), but not the delayed rectifier current (IK) contributed to the high frequency firing of APs. Synaptic activities were observed throughout the 4-week development. These morphological and electrophysiological features were almost identical between iPS and ES cell-derived neurons. This is the first systematic investigation showing functional evidence that hiPS cell-derived neurons possess similar neuronal activities as ES cell-derived neurons. These data support that iPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells have the potential for replacing lost neurons in cell-based therapy. PMID:23259973

  8. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors Develop Into Neurons and Integrate Into the Host Brain

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Daniel J.; Johnson, M. Austin; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Whether and how in-vitro-produced human neural precursors mature and integrate into the brain are crucial to the utility of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in treating neurological disorders. After transplantation into the ventricles of neonatal immune-deficient mice, hES-cell-derived neural precursors stopped expressing the cell division marker Ki67, except in neurogenic areas, and differentiated into neurons and then glia in a temporal course intrinsic to that of human cells regardless of location. The human cells located in the gray matter became neurons in the olfactory bulb and striatum, whereas those in the white matter produced exclusively glia. Importantly, the grafted human cells formed synapses. Thus, the in-vitro-produced human neural precursors follow their intrinsic temporal program to produce neurons and glia and, in response to environmental signals, generate cells appropriate to their target regions and integrate into the brain. PMID:16941479

  9. Neuronal uptake and propagation of a rare phosphorylated high-molecular-weight tau derived from Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuko; Wegmann, Susanne; Cho, Hansang; DeVos, Sarah L.; Commins, Caitlin; Roe, Allyson D.; Nicholls, Samantha B.; Carlson, George A.; Pitstick, Rose; Nobuhara, Chloe K.; Costantino, Isabel; Frosch, Matthew P.; Müller, Daniel J.; Irimia, Daniel; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Tau pathology is known to spread in a hierarchical pattern in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain during disease progression, likely by trans-synaptic tau transfer between neurons. However, the tau species involved in inter-neuron propagation remains unclear. To identify tau species responsible for propagation, we examined uptake and propagation properties of different tau species derived from postmortem cortical extracts and brain interstitial fluid of tau-transgenic mice, as well as human AD cortices. Here we show that PBS-soluble phosphorylated high-molecular-weight (HMW) tau, though very low in abundance, is taken up, axonally transported, and passed on to synaptically connected neurons. Our findings suggest that a rare species of soluble phosphorylated HMW tau is the endogenous form of tau involved in propagation and could be a target for therapeutic intervention and biomarker development. PMID:26458742

  10. Effects of an apovincaminic acid derivative VA-045 on neuronal activity in rat brain stem reticular formation.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, S; Kawashima, N; Araki, H; Otomo, S; Shima, K

    1994-01-01

    Extracellular single unit and spontaneous cortical electroencephalographic (ECoG) recordings were made in the brain stem reticular formation (RF) and the frontal cortex, respectively, of urethane-anesthetized rats. VA-045, an apovincaminic acid derivative had no significant effects on the spontaneous firing rate of the RF neurons and ECoG. Closed head injury (CHI) was induced by dropping a 400 g weight through a tube from 70 cm on a steel helmet placed on the vertex. CHI led to a reduction in the firing rate of RF neurons and ECoG synchronization. VA-045 dose-dependently reversed the CHI-induced decrease in the firing rate of RF and led to ECoG desyncronization. Clonidine, an alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, and scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, also reduced the firing rate of RF neurons and led to ECoG synchronization. VA-045 dose-dependently antagonized the effects of clonidine, but not the effects of scopolamine on RF neuronal activity and ECoG. Thus, VA-045 has an ameliorating effect on the CHI-induced depression of neuronal activity in the RF. A central alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonistic action may be involved. PMID:7968229

  11. Efficient derivation of cortical glutamatergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells: a model system to study neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vazin, Tandis; Ball, K Aurelia; Lu, Hui; Park, Hyungju; Ataeijannati, Yasaman; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Poo, Mu-ming; Schaffer, David V

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most prevalent forms of dementia affecting the aging population, and pharmacological therapies to date have not been successful in preventing disease progression. Future therapeutic efforts may benefit from the development of models that enable basic investigation of early disease pathology. In particular, disease-relevant models based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may be promising approaches to assess the impact of neurotoxic agents in AD on specific neuronal populations and thereby facilitate the development of novel interventions to avert early disease mechanisms. We implemented an efficient paradigm to convert hPSCs into enriched populations of cortical glutamatergic neurons emerging from dorsal forebrain neural progenitors, aided by modulating Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Since AD is generally known to be toxic to glutamatergic circuits, we exposed glutamatergic neurons derived from hESCs to an oligomeric pre-fibrillar forms of Aβ known as "globulomers", which have shown strong correlation with the level of cognitive deficits in AD. Administration of such Aβ oligomers yielded signs of the disease, including cell culture age-dependent binding of Aβ and cell death in the glutamatergic populations. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in postmortem human AD brain, Aβ-induced toxicity was selective for glutamatergic rather than GABAeric neurons present in our cultures. This in vitro model of cortical glutamatergic neurons thus offers a system for future mechanistic investigation and therapeutic development for AD pathology using human cell types specifically affected by this disease. PMID:24055772

  12. Efficient and Rapid Derivation of Primitive Neural Stem Cells and Generation of Brain Subtype Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yiping; Shin, Soojung; Jha, Balendu Shekhar; Liu, Qiuyue; Sheng, Jianting; Li, Fuhai; Zhan, Ming; Davis, Janine; Bharti, Kapil; Zeng, Xianmin; Rao, Mahendra; Malik, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are unique cell sources for disease modeling, drug discovery screens, and cell therapy applications. The first step in producing neural lineages from hPSCs is the generation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Current methods of NSC derivation involve the time-consuming, labor-intensive steps of an embryoid body generation or coculture with stromal cell lines that result in low-efficiency derivation of NSCs. In this study, we report a highly efficient serum-free pluripotent stem cell neural induction medium that can induce hPSCs into primitive NSCs (pNSCs) in 7 days, obviating the need for time-consuming, laborious embryoid body generation or rosette picking. The pNSCs expressed the neural stem cell markers Pax6, Sox1, Sox2, and Nestin; were negative for Oct4; could be expanded for multiple passages; and could be differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, in addition to the brain region-specific neuronal subtypes GABAergic, dopaminergic, and motor neurons. Global gene expression of the transcripts of pNSCs was comparable to that of rosette-derived and human fetal-derived NSCs. This work demonstrates an efficient method to generate expandable pNSCs, which can be further differentiated into central nervous system neurons and glia with temporal, spatial, and positional cues of brain regional heterogeneity. This method of pNSC derivation sets the stage for the scalable production of clinically relevant neural cells for cell therapy applications in good manufacturing practice conditions. PMID:24113065

  13. Nanofiber Matrices Promote the Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shawn H.; Christopherson, Gregory T.; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  14. Nanofiber matrices promote the neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Lim, Shawn H; Christopherson, Gregory T; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2011-03-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  15. Zebrafish Müller glia-derived progenitors are multipotent, exhibit proliferative biases and regenerate excess neurons

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Curtis; Cornblath, Eli; Elsaeidi, Fairouz; Wan, Jin; Goldman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate a damaged retina. Key to this regenerative response are Müller glia (MG) that respond to injury by reprogramming and adopting retinal stem cell properties. These reprogrammed MG divide to produce a proliferating population of retinal progenitors that migrate to areas of retinal damage and regenerate lost neurons. Previous studies have suggested that MG-derived progenitors may be biased to produce that are lost with injury. Here we investigated MG multipotency using injury paradigms that target different retinal nuclear layers for cell ablation. Our data indicate that regardless of which nuclear layer was damaged, MG respond by generating multipotent progenitors that migrate to all nuclear layers and differentiate into layer-specific cell types, suggesting that MG-derived progenitors in the injured retina are intrinsically multipotent. However, our analysis of progenitor proliferation reveals a proliferative advantage in nuclear layers where neurons were ablated. This suggests that feedback inhibition from surviving neurons may skew neuronal regeneration towards ablated cell types. PMID:27094545

  16. Zebrafish Müller glia-derived progenitors are multipotent, exhibit proliferative biases and regenerate excess neurons.

    PubMed

    Powell, Curtis; Cornblath, Eli; Elsaeidi, Fairouz; Wan, Jin; Goldman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate a damaged retina. Key to this regenerative response are Müller glia (MG) that respond to injury by reprogramming and adopting retinal stem cell properties. These reprogrammed MG divide to produce a proliferating population of retinal progenitors that migrate to areas of retinal damage and regenerate lost neurons. Previous studies have suggested that MG-derived progenitors may be biased to produce that are lost with injury. Here we investigated MG multipotency using injury paradigms that target different retinal nuclear layers for cell ablation. Our data indicate that regardless of which nuclear layer was damaged, MG respond by generating multipotent progenitors that migrate to all nuclear layers and differentiate into layer-specific cell types, suggesting that MG-derived progenitors in the injured retina are intrinsically multipotent. However, our analysis of progenitor proliferation reveals a proliferative advantage in nuclear layers where neurons were ablated. This suggests that feedback inhibition from surviving neurons may skew neuronal regeneration towards ablated cell types. PMID:27094545

  17. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Tangsaengvit, Napat; Kitphati, Worawan; Tadtong, Sarin; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Nukoolkarn, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae) or Cha rueat (Thai name) is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.). The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23840266

  18. N-butylidenephthalide attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like cytopathy in Down syndrome induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted Aβ40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging Aβ aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  19. N-butylidenephthalide Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Cytopathy in Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted Aβ40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging Aβ aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  20. Assessing similarity to primary tissue and cortical layer identity in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons through single-cell transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Adam E.; Chintawar, Satyan; Lalic, Tatjana; Whiteley, Emma; Vowles, Jane; Giustacchini, Alice; Argoud, Karene; Sopp, Paul; Nakanishi, Mahito; Bowden, Rory; Cowley, Sally; Newey, Sarah; Akerman, Colin; Ponting, Chris P.; Cader, M. Zameel

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cortical neurons potentially present a powerful new model to understand corticogenesis and neurological disease. Previous work has established that differentiation protocols can produce cortical neurons, but little has been done to characterize these at cellular resolution. In particular, it is unclear to what extent in vitro two-dimensional, relatively disordered culture conditions recapitulate the development of in vivo cortical layer identity. Single-cell multiplex reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to interrogate the expression of genes previously implicated in cortical layer or phenotypic identity in individual cells. Totally, 93.6% of single cells derived from iPSCs expressed genes indicative of neuronal identity. High proportions of single neurons derived from iPSCs expressed glutamatergic receptors and synaptic genes. And, 68.4% of iPSC-derived neurons expressing at least one layer marker could be assigned to a laminar identity using canonical cortical layer marker genes. We compared single-cell RNA-seq of our iPSC-derived neurons to available single-cell RNA-seq data from human fetal and adult brain and found that iPSC-derived cortical neurons closely resembled primary fetal brain cells. Unexpectedly, a subpopulation of iPSC-derived neurons co-expressed canonical fetal deep and upper cortical layer markers. However, this appeared to be concordant with data from primary cells. Our results therefore provide reassurance that iPSC-derived cortical neurons are highly similar to primary cortical neurons at the level of single cells but suggest that current layer markers, although effective, may not be able to disambiguate cortical layer identity in all cells. PMID:26740550

  1. Immature Responses to GABA in Fragile X Neurons Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Telias, Michael; Segal, Menahem; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited cognitive disability. However, functional deficiencies in FX neurons have been described so far almost exclusively in animal models. In a recent study we found several functional deficits in FX neurons differentiated in-vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), including their inability to fire repetitive action potentials, and their lack of synaptic activity. Here, we investigated the responses of such neurons to pulse application of the neurotransmitter GABA. We found two distinct types of responses to GABA and sensitivity to the GABA-A receptor antagonist bicuculline; type 1 (mature) characterized by non-desensitized responses to GABA as well as a high sensitivity to bicuculline, and type 2 (immature) which are desensitized to GABA and insensitive to bicuculline. Type 1 responses were age-dependent and dominant in mature WT neurons. In contrast, FX neurons expressed primarily type 2 phenotype. Expression analysis of GABA-A receptor subunits demonstrated that this bias in human FX neurons was associated with a significant alteration in the expression pattern of the GABA-A receptor subunits α2 and β2. Our results indicate that FMRP may play a role in the development of the GABAergic synapse during neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration of the lack of a mature response to GABA in human FX neurons and may explain the inappropriate synaptic functions in FXS. PMID:27242433

  2. Chagas’ disease parasite-derived neurotrophic factor activates cholinergic gene expression in neuronal PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Nsikan; Caradonna, Kacey; Chuenkova, Marina V.; PereiraPerrin, Mercio

    2008-01-01

    A parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) produced by the Chagas’ disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi binds nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA, increasing receptor autophosphorylation, activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/Erk) pathways, and transcription factor CREB. The end-result is enhanced survival and neuritogenesis of various types of neurons. PDNF also enhances the expression and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters. It remains unknown, however, if PDNF alters expression and metabolism of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter thought to play a role in Chagas’ disease progression. Here we demonstrate that PDNF stimulates mRNA and protein expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are critical for synthesis and storage of ACh. Stimulation requires functional TrkA because it did not occur in cell mutants that lack the receptor and in TrkA-expressing wild-type cells treated with K252a, an inhibitor of TrkA kinase activity. It also requires TrkA-dependent PI3K and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways because PDNF stimulation of cholinergic transcripts is abolished by specific pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, the cholinergic actions of PDNF were reproduced by PDNF-expressing extracellular T. cruzi trypomastigotes at the start of host cell invasion. In contrast, host cells bearing intracellular T. cruzi showed decreased, rather than increased, cholinergic gene expression. These results suggest that T. cruzi invasion of the nervous system alters cholinergic gene expression and that could play a role in neuropathology, and/or lack thereof, in Chagas’ disease patients. PMID:18502403

  3. Chagas' disease parasite-derived neurotrophic factor activates cholinergic gene expression in neuronal PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Nsikan; Caradonna, Kacey; Chuenkova, Marina V; PereiraPerrin, Mercio

    2008-06-27

    A parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) produced by the Chagas' disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi binds nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA, increasing receptor autophosphorylation, and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/Erk) pathways, and transcription factor CREB. The end-result is enhanced survival and neuritogenesis of various types of neurons. PDNF also enhances the expression and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters. It remains unknown, however, if PDNF alters expression and metabolism of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter thought to play a role in Chagas' disease progression. Here we demonstrate that PDNF stimulates mRNA and protein expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are critical for synthesis and storage of ACh. Stimulation requires functional TrkA because it did not occur in cell mutants that lack the receptor and in TrkA-expressing wild-type cells treated with K252a, an inhibitor of TrkA kinase activity. It also requires TrkA-dependent PI3K and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways because PDNF stimulation of cholinergic transcripts is abolished by specific pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, the cholinergic actions of PDNF were reproduced by PDNF-expressing extracellular T. cruzi trypomastigotes at the start of host cell invasion. In contrast, host cells bearing intracellular T. cruzi showed decreased, rather than increased, cholinergic gene expression. These results suggest that T. cruzi invasion of the nervous system alters cholinergic gene expression and that could play a role in neuropathology, and/or lack thereof, in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:18502403

  4. Effects of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin‑3 on the neuronal differentiation of rat adipose‑derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenchen; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Le; Wang, Kunzheng; Qiu, Yusheng

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising method that may be used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). The underlying repair mechanism of tissue engineering involves the stable secretion of neurotrophins from seed cells, which eventually differentiate into neurons; therefore, the selection of appropriate seed cells, which stably secrete neurotrophins that easily differentiate into neurons requires investigation. Adipose‑derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are adult SCs, are advantageous due to convenience sampling and easy expansion; therefore, ADSCs are currently the most popular type of seed cell. Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin‑3 (NT‑3) possess superior properties, when compared with other neurotrophic factors, in the maintenance of neuronal survival and promotion of SC differentiation into neurons. The present study used two lentiviruses, which specifically express BDNF and NT‑3 [Lenti‑BDNF‑green fluorescent protein (GFP), Lenti‑NT‑3‑red fluorescent protein (RFP)], to transfect third‑generation ADSCs. Three types of seed cell were obtained: i) Seed cells overexpressing BDNF (ADSC/Lenti‑BDNF‑GFP); ii) seed cells overexpressing NT‑3 (ADSC/Lenti‑NT‑3‑RFP); and iii) seed cells overexpressing BDNF and NT‑3 (ADSC/Lenti‑BDNF‑GFP and NT‑3‑RFP). The transfected cells were then induced to differentiate into neurons and were divided into a further four groups: i) The BDNF and NT‑3 co‑overexpression group; ii) the BDNF overexpression group; iii) the NT‑3 overexpression group; and iv) the control group, which consisted of untransfected ADSCs. The results of the present study demonstrate that BDNF and NT‑3 expression was higher 10 days after induction, as detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting. Neuron‑specific enolase is a neuronal marker, the expression of which was highest in the BDNF and NT‑3 co‑overexpression group, followed by the

  5. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Freitas, Beatriz C.; Qian, Hao; Lux, Jacques; Acab, Allan; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Herai, Roberto H.; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Wen, Jessica H.; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Engler, Adam J.; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Muotri, Alysson R.; Almutairi, Adah

    2016-01-01

    Probing a wide range of cellular phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders using patient-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be facilitated by 3D assays, as 2D systems cannot entirely recapitulate the arrangement of cells in the brain. Here, we developed a previously unidentified 3D migration and differentiation assay in layered hydrogels to examine how these processes are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome. Our soft 3D system mimics the brain environment and accelerates maturation of neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NPCs, yielding electrophysiologically active neurons within just 3 wk. Using this platform, we revealed a genotype-specific effect of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) dysfunction on iPSC-derived neuronal migration and maturation (reduced neurite outgrowth and fewer synapses) in 3D layered hydrogels. Thus, this 3D system expands the range of neural phenotypes that can be studied in vitro to include those influenced by physical and mechanical stimuli or requiring specific arrangements of multiple cell types. PMID:26944080

  6. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Freitas, Beatriz C; Qian, Hao; Lux, Jacques; Acab, Allan; Trujillo, Cleber A; Herai, Roberto H; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Wen, Jessica H; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V; Engler, Adam J; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Muotri, Alysson R; Almutairi, Adah

    2016-03-22

    Probing a wide range of cellular phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders using patient-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be facilitated by 3D assays, as 2D systems cannot entirely recapitulate the arrangement of cells in the brain. Here, we developed a previously unidentified 3D migration and differentiation assay in layered hydrogels to examine how these processes are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome. Our soft 3D system mimics the brain environment and accelerates maturation of neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NPCs, yielding electrophysiologically active neurons within just 3 wk. Using this platform, we revealed a genotype-specific effect of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) dysfunction on iPSC-derived neuronal migration and maturation (reduced neurite outgrowth and fewer synapses) in 3D layered hydrogels. Thus, this 3D system expands the range of neural phenotypes that can be studied in vitro to include those influenced by physical and mechanical stimuli or requiring specific arrangements of multiple cell types. PMID:26944080

  7. Growth and turning properties of adult glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 nonpeptidergic sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, GuiFang; Singh, Vandana; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-09-01

    An overlapping population of adult primary sensory neurons that innervate the skin express the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 (GFRα1), the lectin IB4, and the "regenerative brake" phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10. Using an adapted turning and growth assay, we analyzed the growth cone behavior of adult immunoselected GFRα1 sensory neurons. These neurons had less robust baseline growth and reluctant responsiveness to individual growth factors but responded to synergistic types of input from glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, a phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor, or a downstream Rho kinase inhibitor. Hepatocyte growth factor and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor were associated with growth cone turning. A gradient of protein extracted from skin samples, a primary target of GFRα1 axons, replicated the impact of synergistic support. Within the skin, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed within epidermal axons, indicating an autocrine role accompanying local hepatocyte growth factor synthesis. Taken together, our findings identify unique growth properties and plasticity of a distinct population of epidermal axons that are relevant to neurologic repair and skin reinnervation. PMID:25101700

  8. Layered hydrogels accelerate iPSC-derived neuronal maturation and reveal migration defects caused by MeCP2 dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Freitas, Beatriz C.; Qian, Hao; Lux, Jacques; Acab, Allan; Trujillo, Cleber A.; Herai, Roberto H.; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Wen, Jessica H.; Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V.; Engler, Adam J.; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Muotri, Alysson R.; Almutairi, Adah

    2016-03-01

    Probing a wide range of cellular phenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders using patient-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be facilitated by 3D assays, as 2D systems cannot entirely recapitulate the arrangement of cells in the brain. Here, we developed a previously unidentified 3D migration and differentiation assay in layered hydrogels to examine how these processes are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome. Our soft 3D system mimics the brain environment and accelerates maturation of neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NPCs, yielding electrophysiologically active neurons within just 3 wk. Using this platform, we revealed a genotype-specific effect of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) dysfunction on iPSC-derived neuronal migration and maturation (reduced neurite outgrowth and fewer synapses) in 3D layered hydrogels. Thus, this 3D system expands the range of neural phenotypes that can be studied in vitro to include those influenced by physical and mechanical stimuli or requiring specific arrangements of multiple cell types.

  9. Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-β induces synaptotoxicity in human iPS cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Nieweg, K; Andreyeva, A; van Stegen, B; Tanriöver, G; Gottmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons have been proposed to be a highly valuable cellular model for studying the pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies employing patient-specific human iPSCs as models of familial and sporadic forms of AD described elevated levels of AD-related amyloid-β (Aβ). However, none of the present AD iPSC studies could recapitulate the synaptotoxic actions of Aβ, which are crucial early events in a cascade that eventually leads to vast brain degeneration. Here we established highly reproducible, human iPSC-derived cortical cultures as a cellular model to study the synaptotoxic effects of Aβ. We developed a highly efficient immunopurification procedure yielding immature neurons that express markers of deep layer cortical pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Upon long-term cultivation, purified cells differentiated into mature neurons exhibiting the generation of action potentials and excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Most interestingly, these iPSC-derived human neurons were strongly susceptible to the synaptotoxic actions of Aβ. Application of Aβ for 8 days led to a reduction in the overall FM4-64 and vGlut1 staining of vesicles in neurites, indicating a loss of vesicle clusters. A selective analysis of presynaptic vesicle clusters on dendrites did not reveal a significant change, thus suggesting that Aβ impaired axonal vesicle clusters. In addition, electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs revealed an Aβ-induced reduction in amplitudes, indicating an impairment of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. A loss of postsynaptic AMPA receptor clusters was confirmed by immunocytochemical stainings for GluA1. Incubation with Aβ for 8 days did not result in a significant loss of neurites or cell death. In summary, we describe a highly reproducible cellular AD model based on human iPSC-derived cortical neurons that enables the

  10. Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-β induces synaptotoxicity in human iPS cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nieweg, K; Andreyeva, A; van Stegen, B; Tanriöver, G; Gottmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons have been proposed to be a highly valuable cellular model for studying the pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies employing patient-specific human iPSCs as models of familial and sporadic forms of AD described elevated levels of AD-related amyloid-β (Aβ). However, none of the present AD iPSC studies could recapitulate the synaptotoxic actions of Aβ, which are crucial early events in a cascade that eventually leads to vast brain degeneration. Here we established highly reproducible, human iPSC-derived cortical cultures as a cellular model to study the synaptotoxic effects of Aβ. We developed a highly efficient immunopurification procedure yielding immature neurons that express markers of deep layer cortical pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Upon long-term cultivation, purified cells differentiated into mature neurons exhibiting the generation of action potentials and excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Most interestingly, these iPSC-derived human neurons were strongly susceptible to the synaptotoxic actions of Aβ. Application of Aβ for 8 days led to a reduction in the overall FM4–64 and vGlut1 staining of vesicles in neurites, indicating a loss of vesicle clusters. A selective analysis of presynaptic vesicle clusters on dendrites did not reveal a significant change, thus suggesting that Aβ impaired axonal vesicle clusters. In addition, electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature EPSCs revealed an Aβ-induced reduction in amplitudes, indicating an impairment of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. A loss of postsynaptic AMPA receptor clusters was confirmed by immunocytochemical stainings for GluA1. Incubation with Aβ for 8 days did not result in a significant loss of neurites or cell death. In summary, we describe a highly reproducible cellular AD model based on human iPSC-derived cortical neurons that enables the

  11. Parkin Controls Dopamine Utilization in Human Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Houbo; Ren, Yong; Yuen, Eunice Y; Zhong, Ping; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Hu, Zhixing; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Through the generation and analyses of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from normal subjects and PD patients with parkin mutations, we show here that loss of parkin in human midbrain DA neurons greatly increased the transcription of monoamine oxidases and oxidative stress, significantly reduced DA uptake and increased spontaneous DA release. Lentiviral expression of parkin, but not its PD-linked mutant, rescued all the phenotypes. The results suggest that parkin controls dopamine utilization in human midbrain DA neurons by enhancing the precision of dopaminergic neurotransmission and suppressing dopamine oxidation. Thus, the study provides novel targets and a physiologically relevant screening platform for disease-modifying therapies of PD. PMID:22314364

  12. Parkin controls dopamine utilization in human midbrain dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Houbo; Ren, Yong; Yuen, Eunice Y; Zhong, Ping; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Hu, Zhixing; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from normal subjects and PD patients with parkin mutations. We demonstrate that loss of parkin in human midbrain DA neurons greatly increases the transcription of monoamine oxidases and oxidative stress, significantly reduces DA uptake and increases spontaneous DA release. Lentiviral expression of parkin, but not its PD-linked mutant, rescues these phenotypes. The results suggest that parkin controls dopamine utilization in human midbrain DA neurons by enhancing the precision of DA neurotransmission and suppressing dopamine oxidation. Thus, the study provides novel targets and a physiologically relevant screening platform for disease-modifying therapies of PD. PMID:22314364

  13. A simple method to generate adipose stem cell-derived neurons for screening purposes.

    PubMed

    Bossio, Caterina; Mastrangelo, Rosa; Morini, Raffaella; Tonna, Noemi; Coco, Silvia; Verderio, Claudia; Matteoli, Michela; Bianco, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Strategies involved in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward neuronal cells for screening purposes are characterized by quality and quantity issues. Differentiated cells are often scarce with respect to starting undifferentiated population, and the differentiation process is usually quite long, with high risk of contamination and low yield efficiency. Here, we describe a novel simple method to induce direct differentiation of MSCs into neuronal cells, without neurosphere formation. Differentiated cells are characterized by clear morphological changes, expression of neuronal specific markers, showing functional response to depolarizing stimuli and electrophysiological properties similar to those of developing neurons. The method described here represents a valuable tool for future strategies aimed at personalized screening of therapeutic agents in vitro. PMID:23468184

  14. Transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons in deaf guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sujeong; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Bum; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive noise, ototoxic drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, and aging can cause loss of spiral ganglion neurons, leading to permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Stem cells have been confirmed to be able to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. Little has been reported on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of neural induced-human ADSCs (NI-hADSCs) can repair the injured spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pigs with neomycin-induced sensorineural hearing loss. NI-hADSCs were induced with culture medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin and then injected to the injured cochleae. Guinea pigs that received injection of Hanks’ balanced salt solution into the cochleae were used as controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the number of surviving spiral ganglion neurons in the cell transplantation group was significantly increased than that in the control group. Also at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that a greater number of NI-hADSCs in the spiral ganglions were detected in the cell transplantation group than in the control group, and these NI-hADSCs expressed neuronal markers neurofilament protein and microtubule-associated protein 2. Within 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the guinea pigs in the cell transplantation group had a gradually decreased auditory brainstem response threshold, while those in the control group had almost no response to 80 dB of clicks or pure tone burst. These findings suggest that a large amount of NI-hADSCs migrated to the spiral ganglions, survived for a period of time, repaired the injured spiral ganglion cells, and thereby contributed to the recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in guinea pigs. PMID:27482231

  15. Transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons in deaf guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujeong; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Bum; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Excessive noise, ototoxic drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, and aging can cause loss of spiral ganglion neurons, leading to permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Stem cells have been confirmed to be able to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. Little has been reported on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of neural induced-human ADSCs (NI-hADSCs) can repair the injured spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pigs with neomycin-induced sensorineural hearing loss. NI-hADSCs were induced with culture medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin and then injected to the injured cochleae. Guinea pigs that received injection of Hanks' balanced salt solution into the cochleae were used as controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the number of surviving spiral ganglion neurons in the cell transplantation group was significantly increased than that in the control group. Also at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that a greater number of NI-hADSCs in the spiral ganglions were detected in the cell transplantation group than in the control group, and these NI-hADSCs expressed neuronal markers neurofilament protein and microtubule-associated protein 2. Within 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the guinea pigs in the cell transplantation group had a gradually decreased auditory brainstem response threshold, while those in the control group had almost no response to 80 dB of clicks or pure tone burst. These findings suggest that a large amount of NI-hADSCs migrated to the spiral ganglions, survived for a period of time, repaired the injured spiral ganglion cells, and thereby contributed to the recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in guinea pigs. PMID:27482231

  16. Functional Evaluation of Biological Neurotoxins in Networked Cultures of Stem Cell-derived Central Nervous System Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Kyle; Beske, Phillip; Lyman, Megan; McNutt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic and mechanistic studies of the presynaptically targeted clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) have been limited by the need for a scalable, cell-based model that produces functioning synapses and undergoes physiological responses to intoxication. Here we describe a simple and robust method to efficiently differentiate murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into defined lineages of synaptically active, networked neurons. Following an 8 day differentiation protocol, mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) rapidly express and compartmentalize neurotypic proteins, form neuronal morphologies and develop intrinsic electrical responses. By 18 days after differentiation (DIV 18), ESNs exhibit active glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses and emergent network behaviors characterized by an excitatory:inhibitory balance. To determine whether intoxication with CNTs functionally antagonizes synaptic neurotransmission, thereby replicating the in vivo pathophysiology that is responsible for clinical manifestations of botulism or tetanus, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology was used to quantify spontaneous miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in ESNs exposed to tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) or botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes /A-/G. In all cases, ESNs exhibited near-complete loss of synaptic activity within 20 hr. Intoxicated neurons remained viable, as demonstrated by unchanged resting membrane potentials and intrinsic electrical responses. To further characterize the sensitivity of this approach, dose-dependent effects of intoxication on synaptic activity were measured 20 hr after addition of BoNT/A. Intoxication with 0.005 pM BoNT/A resulted in a significant decrement in mEPSCs, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.013 pM. Comparisons of median doses indicate that functional measurements of synaptic inhibition are faster, more specific and more sensitive than SNARE cleavage assays or the mouse lethality assay

  17. Comparison of the radiosensitivities of neurons and glial cells derived from the same rat brain

    PubMed Central

    KUDO, SHIGEHIRO; SUZUKI, YOSHIYUKI; NODA, SHIN-EI; MIZUI, TOSHIYUKI; SHIRAI, KATSUYUKI; OKAMOTO, MASAHIKO; KAMINUMA, TAKUYA; YOSHIDA, YUKARI; SHIRAO, TOMOAKI; NAKANO, TAKASHI

    2014-01-01

    Non-proliferating cells, such as mature neurons, are generally believed to be more resistant to X-rays than proliferating cells, such as glial and vascular endothelial cells. Therefore, the late adverse effects of radiotherapy on the brain have been attributed to the radiation-induced damage of glial and vascular endothelial cells. However, little is known about the radiosensitivities of neurons and glial cells due to difficulties in culturing these cells, particularly neurons, independently. In the present study, primary dissociated neurons and glial cultures were prepared separately from the hippocampi and cerebrum, respectively, which had been obtained from the same fetal rat on embryonic day 18. X-irradiations of 50 Gy were performed on the cultured neurons and glial cells at 7 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). The cells were fixed at 24 h after irradiation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was then performed to measure the apoptotic indices (AIs). The AIs of non-irradiated and irradiated neurons at 7 DIV were 23.7±6.7 and 64.9±4.8%, and those at 21 DIV were 52.1±17.4 and 44.6±12.5%, respectively. The AIs of non-irradiated and irradiated glial cells at 7 DIV were 5.8±1.5 and 78.4±3.3% and those at 21 DIV were 9.6±2.6 and 86.3±4.9%, respectively. Glial cells and neurons were radiosensitive at 7 DIV. However, while glial cells were radiosensitive at 21 DIV, neurons were not. PMID:25120594

  18. SVZ-derived newly generated neurons populate several olfactory and limbic forebrain regions

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lee A.; Ng, Kwan; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Ribak, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in several regions of the adult mammalian brain. Although the hippocampus and olfactory bulb are most commonly studied in the context of adult neurogenesis, there is an increasing body of evidence in support of neurogenesis occurring outside of these two regions. The current study expands upon previous data by showing newborn neurons with a mature phenotype are located in several olfactory and limbic structures outside of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, where we previously described DCX/BrdU immature neurons. Notably, newborn neurons with a mature neuronal phenotype are found in the olfactory tubercles, anterior olfactory nuclei, tenia tecta, islands of Calleja, amygdala and lateral entorhinal cortex. The appearance of newborn neurons with a mature phenotype in these regions suggests that these structures are destinations, and that newborn neurons are not simply passing through these structures. In light of the increasing body of evidence for neurogenesis in these, and other olfactory, limbic and striatal structures, we hypothesize that brain regions displaying adult neurogenesis are functionally linked. PMID:18849007

  19. Altered iPSC-derived neurons' sodium channel properties in subjects with Monge's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Gu, X Q; Chailangkarn, T; Perkins, G; Callacondo, D; Appenzeller, O; Poulsen, O; Zhou, D; Muotri, A R; Haddad, G G

    2015-03-12

    Monge's disease, also known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS), is a disease that potentially threatens more than 140 million highlanders during extended time living at high altitudes (over 2500m). The prevalence of CMS in Andeans is about 15-20%, suggesting that the majority of highlanders (non-CMS) are rather healthy at high altitudes; however, CMS subjects experience severe hypoxemia, erythrocytosis and many neurologic manifestations including migraine, headache, mental fatigue, confusion, and memory loss. The underlying mechanisms of CMS neuropathology are not well understood and no ideal treatment is available to prevent or cure CMS, except for phlebotomy. In the current study, we reprogrammed fibroblast cells from both CMS and non-CMS subjects' skin biopsies into the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), then differentiated into neurons and compared their neuronal properties. We discovered that CMS neurons were much less excitable (higher rheobase) than non-CMS neurons. This decreased excitability was not caused by differences in passive neuronal properties, but instead by a significantly lowered Na(+) channel current density and by a shift of the voltage-conductance curve in the depolarization direction. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence of a neuronal abnormality in CMS subjects as compared to non-CMS subjects, hoping that such studies can pave the way to a better understanding of the neuropathology in CMS. PMID:25559931

  20. ESC-Derived Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Ameliorate the Cognitive Symptoms Associated with Alzheimer's Disease in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Man; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Min; Sheng, Nengyin; Feng, Su; Tang, Ke; Yu, Xiang; Shu, Yousheng; Yue, Chunmei; Jing, Naihe

    2015-11-10

    Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD), implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD. PMID:26489896

  1. Investigation of Low-Reynolds-Number Rocket Nozzle Design Using PNS-Based Optimization Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Moin; Korte, John J.

    1996-01-01

    An optimization approach to rocket nozzle design, based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology, is investigated for low-Reynolds-number cases. This study is undertaken to determine the benefits of this approach over those of classical design processes such as Rao's method. A CFD-based optimization procedure, using the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations, is used to design conical and contoured axisymmetric nozzles. The advantage of this procedure is that it accounts for viscosity during the design process; other processes make an approximated boundary-layer correction after an inviscid design is created. Results showed significant improvement in the nozzle thrust coefficient over that of the baseline case; however, the unusual nozzle design necessitates further investigation of the accuracy of the PNS equations for modeling expanding flows with thick laminar boundary layers.

  2. Binding of neurotrophin-3 to its neuronal receptors and interactions with nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tébar, A; Dechant, G; Götz, R; Barde, Y A

    1992-01-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has low-affinity (Kd = 8 x 10(-10) M), as well as high-affinity receptors (Kd = 1.8 x 10(-11) M) on embryonic chick sensory neurons, the latter in surprisingly high numbers. Like the structurally related proteins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), NT-3 also binds to the low-affinity NGF receptor, a molecule that we suggest to designate low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (LANR). NT-3 dissociates from the LANR much more rapidly than BDNF, and more slowly than NGF. The binding of labelled NT-3 to the LANR can be reduced by half using a concentration of BDNF corresponding to the Kd of BDNF to the LANR. In contrast, the binding of NT-3 to its high-affinity neuronal receptors can only be prevented by BDNF or NGF when used at concentrations several thousand-fold higher than those corresponding to their Kd to their high-affinity neuronal receptors. Thus, specific high-affinity NT-3 receptors exist on sensory neurons that can readily discriminate between three structurally related ligands. These findings, including the remarkable property of the LANR to bind three related ligands with similar affinity, but different rate constants, are discussed. PMID:1547788

  3. Hyaluronan and Fibrin Biomaterial as Scaffolds for Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Chiara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Bressan, Eriberto; Ferroni, Letizia; Nalesso, Elisa; Puppa, Alessandro Della; D’Avella, Domenico; Lops, Diego; Pinton, Paolo; Zavan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we have described a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. Due to their possible application in neuronal tissue regeneration, here we tested two kinds of scaffold well known in tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membranes and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres from skin and adipose tissue were seeded onto two scaffold types: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres were then induced to acquire a glial and neuronal-like phenotype. Gene expression, morphological feature and chromosomal imbalance (kariotype) were analyzed and compared. Adipose and skin derived neurospheres are able to grow well and to differentiate into glial/neuron cells without any chromosomal imbalance in both scaffolds. Adult cells are able to express typical cell surface markers such as S100; GFAP; nestin; βIII tubulin; CNPase. In summary, we have demonstrated that neurospheres isolated from skin and adipose tissues are able to differentiate in glial/neuron-like cells, without any chromosomal imbalance in two scaffold types, useful for tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. PMID:22072917

  4. Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor relieves pain symptoms of diabetic rats by reducing excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yu, Ting; Yu, Liling; Li, Haijun; Liu, Yongjuan; Wang, Dongqin

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes lacking of effective treatments. Enhanced excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic neuropathic hyperalgesia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known as a neuromodulator of nociception, but whether and how BDNF modulates the excitability of DRG neurons in the development of DPN remain to be clarified. This study investigated the role of exogenous BDNF and its high-affinity tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain. The results showed that continued intrathecal administration of BDNF to diabetic rats dramatically alleviated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, as well as inhibited hyperexcitability of DRG neurons. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with TrkB Fc (a synthetic fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the TrkB receptor). The expression of BDNF and TrkB was upregulated in the DRG of diabetic rats. Intrathecal administration of BDNF did not affect this upregulation. These data provide novel information that exogenous BDNF relieved pain symptoms of diabetic rats by reducing hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and might be the potential treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26441011

  5. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates radial axonal sorting and myelination in the PNS.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Benayahu; Traka, Maria; Kunjamma, Rejani B; Dukala, Danuta; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Anton, E S; Barres, Ben A; Soliven, Betty; Popko, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The tumor suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is multifunctional - it participates in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway as well as modulating cytoskeleton function. Although APC is expressed by Schwann cells, the role that it plays in these cells and in the myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is unknown. Therefore, we used the Cre-lox approach to generate a mouse model in which APC expression is specifically eliminated from Schwann cells. These mice display hindlimb weakness and impaired axonal conduction in sciatic nerves. Detailed morphological analyses revealed that APC loss delays radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination. Furthermore, APC loss delays Schwann cell differentiation in vivo, which correlates with persistent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and results in perturbed extension of Schwann cell processes and disrupted lamellipodia formation. In addition, APC-deficient Schwann cells display a transient diminution of proliferative capacity. Our data indicate that APC is required by Schwann cells for their timely differentiation to mature, myelinating cells and plays a crucial role in radial axonal sorting and PNS myelination. PMID:27226321

  6. A comparison of computational methods for detecting bursts in neuronal spike trains and their application to human stem cell-derived neuronal networks

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Paul; Thomas, Christopher W.; Paulsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of bursting activity is an essential element in the characterization of neuronal network activity. Despite this, no one technique for identifying bursts in spike trains has been widely adopted. Instead, many methods have been developed for the analysis of bursting activity, often on an ad hoc basis. Here we provide an unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of eight of these methods at detecting bursts in a range of spike trains. We suggest a list of features that an ideal burst detection technique should possess and use synthetic data to assess each method in regard to these properties. We further employ each of the methods to reanalyze microelectrode array (MEA) recordings from mouse retinal ganglion cells and examine their coherence with bursts detected by a human observer. We show that several common burst detection techniques perform poorly at analyzing spike trains with a variety of properties. We identify four promising burst detection techniques, which are then applied to MEA recordings of networks of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and used to describe the ontogeny of bursting activity in these networks over several months of development. We conclude that no current method can provide “perfect” burst detection results across a range of spike trains; however, two burst detection techniques, the MaxInterval and logISI methods, outperform compared with others. We provide recommendations for the robust analysis of bursting activity in experimental recordings using current techniques. PMID:27098024

  7. A comparison of computational methods for detecting bursts in neuronal spike trains and their application to human stem cell-derived neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Ellese; Charlesworth, Paul; Thomas, Christopher W; Paulsen, Ole; Eglen, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Accurate identification of bursting activity is an essential element in the characterization of neuronal network activity. Despite this, no one technique for identifying bursts in spike trains has been widely adopted. Instead, many methods have been developed for the analysis of bursting activity, often on an ad hoc basis. Here we provide an unbiased assessment of the effectiveness of eight of these methods at detecting bursts in a range of spike trains. We suggest a list of features that an ideal burst detection technique should possess and use synthetic data to assess each method in regard to these properties. We further employ each of the methods to reanalyze microelectrode array (MEA) recordings from mouse retinal ganglion cells and examine their coherence with bursts detected by a human observer. We show that several common burst detection techniques perform poorly at analyzing spike trains with a variety of properties. We identify four promising burst detection techniques, which are then applied to MEA recordings of networks of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and used to describe the ontogeny of bursting activity in these networks over several months of development. We conclude that no current method can provide "perfect" burst detection results across a range of spike trains; however, two burst detection techniques, the MaxInterval and logISI methods, outperform compared with others. We provide recommendations for the robust analysis of bursting activity in experimental recordings using current techniques. PMID:27098024

  8. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R; Marchetto, Maria C N; Gage, Fred H; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-19

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome. PMID:26733678

  9. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R.; Marchetto, Maria C. N.; Gage, Fred H.; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K+-Cl− cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome. PMID:26733678

  10. Gremlin is a novel VTA derived neuroprotective factor for dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Phani, Sudarshan; Jablonski, Michael; Pelta-Heller, Josh; Cai, Jingli; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2013-03-15

    Parkinson's disease and its characteristic symptoms are thought to arise from the progressive degeneration of specific midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In humans, DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and their projections to the striatum show selective vulnerability, while neighboring DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are relatively spared from degeneration. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the VTA exhibits a unique transcriptional response when exposed to MPTP (Phani et al., 2010), a neurotoxin able to mimic the selective cell loss observed in PD (Schneider et al., 1987). In this study, we focus on gremlin, a peptide that is transcriptionally increased in the VTA in response to MPTP. We describe a novel role for gremlin as a neuroprotective agent both in vitro and in vivo and show that gremlin is capable of protecting SN DA neurons and several DA cell lines against MPP+/MPTP. We propose that this protection is mediated by VEGFR2, and by the MAP kinase signaling pathway downstream of the receptor. Our data indicate that gremlin may be a key factor in protecting the VTA against MPTP-induced cell death, and that exogenous application of gremlin is capable of protecting SN DA neurons, and therefore may provide an opportunity for the development of novel PD therapeutic compounds. PMID:23348379

  11. Pharmacological reversal of a pain phenotype in iPSC-derived sensory neurons and patients with inherited erythromelalgia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lishuang; McDonnell, Aoibhinn; Nitzsche, Anja; Alexandrou, Aristos; Saintot, Pierre-Philippe; Loucif, Alexandre J C; Brown, Adam R; Young, Gareth; Mis, Malgorzata; Randall, Andrew; Waxman, Stephen G; Stanley, Philip; Kirby, Simon; Tarabar, Sanela; Gutteridge, Alex; Butt, Richard; McKernan, Ruth M; Whiting, Paul; Ali, Zahid; Bilsland, James; Stevens, Edward B

    2016-04-20

    In common with other chronic pain conditions, there is an unmet clinical need in the treatment of inherited erythromelalgia (IEM). TheSCN9Agene encoding the sodium channel Nav1.7 expressed in the peripheral nervous system plays a critical role in IEM. A gain-of-function mutation in this sodium channel leads to aberrant sensory neuronal activity and extreme pain, particularly in response to heat. Five patients with IEM were treated with a new potent and selective compound that blocked the Nav1.7 sodium channel resulting in a decrease in heat-induced pain in most of the patients. We derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from four of five subjects and produced sensory neurons that emulated the clinical phenotype of hyperexcitability and aberrant responses to heat stimuli. When we compared the severity of the clinical phenotype with the hyperexcitability of the iPSC-derived sensory neurons, we saw a trend toward a correlation for individual mutations. The in vitro IEM phenotype was sensitive to Nav1.7 blockers, including the clinical test agent. Given the importance of peripherally expressed sodium channels in many pain conditions, our approach may have broader utility for a wide range of pain and sensory conditions. PMID:27099175

  12. 4-Aminopyridine Induced Activity Rescues Hypoexcitable Motor Neurons from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Naujock, Maximilian; Stanslowsky, Nancy; Bufler, Sebastian; Naumann, Marcel; Reinhardt, Peter; Sterneckert, Jared; Kefalakes, Ekaterini; Kassebaum, Carola; Bursch, Franziska; Lojewski, Xenia; Storch, Alexander; Frickenhaus, Marie; Boeckers, Tobias M; Putz, Stefan; Demestre, Maria; Liebau, Stefan; Klingenstein, Moritz; Ludolph, Albert C; Dengler, Reinhard; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Hermann, Andreas; Wegner, Florian; Petri, Susanne

    2016-06-01

    Despite decades of research on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is only one approved drug, which minimally extends patient survival. Here, we investigated pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ALS using motor neurons (MNs) differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from ALS patients carrying mutations in FUS or SOD1. Patient-derived MNs were less active and excitable compared to healthy controls, due to reduced Na(+) /K(+) ratios in both ALS groups accompanied by elevated potassium channel (FUS) and attenuated sodium channel expression levels (FUS, SOD1). ALS iPSC-derived MNs showed elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) levels and increased caspase activation. Treatment with the FDA approved drug 4-Aminopyridine (4AP) restored ion-channel imbalances, increased neuronal activity levels and decreased ER stress and caspase activation. This study provides novel pathophysiological data, including a mechanistic explanation for the observed hypoexcitability in patient-derived MNs and a new therapeutic strategy to provide neuroprotection in MNs affected by ALS. Stem Cells 2016;34:1563-1575. PMID:26946488

  13. The Epithelial Cell-derived Atopic Dermatitis Cytokine TSLP Activates Neurons to Induce Itch

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah R.; Thé, Lydia; Batia, Lyn M.; Beattie, Katherine; Katibah, George E.; McClain, Shannan P.; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Estandian, Daniel M.; Bautista, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic itch and inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects one in ten people. Patients suffering from severe AD eventually progress to develop asthma and allergic rhinitis, in a process known as the “atopic march.” Signaling between epithelial cells and innate immune cells via the cytokine Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is thought to drive AD and the atopic march. Here we report that epithelial cells directly communicate to cutaneous sensory neurons via TSLP to promote itch. We identify the ORAI1/NFAT calcium signaling pathway as an essential regulator of TSLP release from keratinocytes, the primary epithelial cells of the skin. TSLP then acts directly on a subset of TRPA1-positive sensory neurons to trigger robust itch behaviors. Our results support a new model whereby calcium-dependent TSLP release by keratinocytes activates both primary afferent neurons and immune cells to promote inflammatory responses in the skin and airways. PMID:24094650

  14. Identification and Rescue of α-Synuclein Toxicity in Parkinson Patient-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Khurana, Vikram; Auluck, Pavan K.; Tardiff, Daniel F.; Mazzulli, Joseph R.; Soldner, Frank; Baru, Valeriya; Lou, Yali; Freyzon, Yelena; Cho, Sukhee; Mungenast, Alison E.; Muffat, Julien; Mitalipova, Maisam; Pluth, Michael D; Jui, Nathan T.; Schüle, Birgitt; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Krainc, Dimitri; Buchwald, Stephen L.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell field promises a new era for in vitro disease modeling. However, identifying innate cellular pathologies, particularly for age-related neurodegenerative diseases, has been challenging. Here, we exploited mutation correction of iPS cells and conserved proteotoxic mechanisms from yeast to human to discover and reverse phenotypic responses to α-Synuclein (αSyn), a key protein involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We generated cortical neurons from iPS cells of patients harboring αSyn mutations, who are at high risk of developing PD dementia. Genetic modifiers from unbiased screens in a yeast model of αSyn toxicity led to identification of early pathogenic phenotypes in patient neurons. These included nitrosative stress, accumulation of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates and ER stress. A small molecule identified in a yeast screen, and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 it activates, reversed pathologic phenotypes in these neurons. PMID:24158904

  15. Embryonic stem cells derived neuron transplantation recovery in models of parkinsonism in relation to severity of the disorder in rats.

    PubMed

    Haobam, Reena; Tripathy, Debasmita; Kaidery, Navneet A; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2015-04-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced hemi-parkinsonism was investigated in relation to the severity of the disorder in terms of behavioral disability and nigral neuronal loss and recovery regarding the number of stem cell-derived neurons transplanted in the striatum. Intra-median forebrain bundle infusion of the parkinsonian neurotoxins and intra-striatal transplantation of differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were carried out by rat brain stereotaxic surgery. The severity of the disease was determined using the number of amphetamine- or apomorphine-induced rotations, striatal dopamine levels as estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemistry, and the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Rats that received unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA or MPP(+) responded with dose-dependent, unilateral bias in turning behavior when amphetamine or apomorphine was administered. Rotational asymmetry in both models correlated significantly well with the loss in the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine depletion. Transplantation of 2×10(5) differentiated murine ESCs revealed remarkably similar kinds of recovery in both animal models. The survival of the grafted dopaminergic cells in the striatum was better in animals with low-severity parkinsonism, but poor in the animals with severe parkinsonism. Amphetamine-induced rotational recovery correlated positively with an increasing number of cells transplanted in animals with uniform nigral neuronal lesion. These results suggest that disease severity is an important factor for determining the number of cells to be transplanted in parkinsonian rats for desirable recovery, which may be true in clinical conditions too. PMID:25546608

  16. Graphene Oxide Hierarchical Patterns for the Derivation of Electrophysiologically Functional Neuron-like Cells from Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kisuk; Lee, Jaehong; Lee, Jong Seung; Kim, Dayeong; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Seo, Jungmok; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Taeyoon; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-07-20

    Graphene has shown great potential for biomedical engineering applications due to its electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. Topographical cues of culture substrates or tissue-engineering scaffolds regulate the behaviors and fate of stem cells. In this study, we developed a graphene oxide (GO)-based patterned substrate (GPS) with hierarchical structures capable of generating synergistic topographical stimulation to enhance integrin clustering, focal adhesion, and neuronal differentiation in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). The hierarchical structures of the GPS were composed of microgrooves (groove size: 5, 10, and 20 μm), ridges (height: 100-200 nm), and nanoroughness surfaces (height: ∼10 nm). hNSCs grown on the GPS exhibited highly elongated, aligned neurite extension along the ridge of the GPS and focal adhesion development that was enhanced compared to that of cells grown on GO-free flat substrates and GO substrates without the hierarchical structures. In particular, GPS with a groove width of 5 μm was found to be the most effective in activating focal adhesion signaling, such as the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, thereby improving neuronal lineage commitment. More importantly, electrophysiologically functional neuron-like cells exhibiting sodium channel currents and action potentials could be derived from hNSCs differentiated on the GPS even in the absence of any of the chemical agents typically required for neurogenesis. Our study demonstrates that GPS could be an effective culture platform for the generation of functional neuron-like cells from hNSCs, providing potent therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal disorders. PMID:27320202

  17. Embryonic Stem Cells Derived Neuron Transplantation Recovery in Models of Parkinsonism in Relation to Severity of the Disorder in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haobam, Reena; Tripathy, Debasmita; Kaidery, Navneet A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced hemi-parkinsonism was investigated in relation to the severity of the disorder in terms of behavioral disability and nigral neuronal loss and recovery regarding the number of stem cell–derived neurons transplanted in the striatum. Intra-median forebrain bundle infusion of the parkinsonian neurotoxins and intra-striatal transplantation of differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were carried out by rat brain stereotaxic surgery. The severity of the disease was determined using the number of amphetamine- or apomorphine-induced rotations, striatal dopamine levels as estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemistry, and the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Rats that received unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA or MPP+ responded with dose-dependent, unilateral bias in turning behavior when amphetamine or apomorphine was administered. Rotational asymmetry in both models correlated significantly well with the loss in the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine depletion. Transplantation of 2×105 differentiated murine ESCs revealed remarkably similar kinds of recovery in both animal models. The survival of the grafted dopaminergic cells in the striatum was better in animals with low-severity parkinsonism, but poor in the animals with severe parkinsonism. Amphetamine-induced rotational recovery correlated positively with an increasing number of cells transplanted in animals with uniform nigral neuronal lesion. These results suggest that disease severity is an important factor for determining the number of cells to be transplanted in parkinsonian rats for desirable recovery, which may be true in clinical conditions too. PMID:25546608

  18. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in parkinsonian macaques.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuya; Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Ose, Takayuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Mitsunaga, Kanae; Matsuse, Dai; Shigemoto, Taeko; Ito, Akihito; Ikeda, Hironobu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    A cell-based therapy for the replacement of dopaminergic neurons has been a long-term goal in Parkinson's disease research. Here, we show that autologous engraftment of A9 dopaminergic neuron-like cells induced from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to long-term survival of the cells and restoration of motor function in hemiparkinsonian macaques. Differentiated MSCs expressed markers of A9 dopaminergic neurons and released dopamine after depolarization in vitro. The differentiated autologous cells were engrafted in the affected portion of the striatum. Animals that received transplants showed modest and gradual improvements in motor behaviors. Positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]-CFT, a ligand for the dopamine transporter (DAT), revealed a dramatic increase in DAT expression, with a subsequent exponential decline over a period of 7 months. Kinetic analysis of the PET findings revealed that DAT expression remained above baseline levels for over 7 months. Immunohistochemical evaluations at 9 months consistently demonstrated the existence of cells positive for DAT and other A9 dopaminergic neuron markers in the engrafted striatum. These data suggest that transplantation of differentiated autologous MSCs may represent a safe and effective cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:23202734

  19. Neuronal targeting, internalization, and biological activity of a recombinant atoxic derivative of botulinum neurotoxin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) have the unique capacity to cross epithelial barriers, target neuromuscular junctions, and translocate active metalloprotease component to the cytosol of motor neurons. We have taken advantage of the molecular carriers responsible for this trafficking to create a family ...

  20. The effect of inflammatory cell-derived MCP-1 loss on neuronal survival during chronic neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Tian, Weiming; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Rizk, Paul J.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Bellamkonda, Ravi; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial implants elicit neurodegeneration via the foreign body response (FBR) that includes BBB leakage, macrophage/microglia accumulation, and reactive astrogliosis, in addition to neuronal degradation that limit their useful lifespan. Previously, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, also CCL2), which plays an important role in monocyte recruitment and propagation of inflammation, was shown to be critical for various aspects of the FBR in a tissue-specific manner. However, participation of MCP-1 in the brain FBR has not been evaluated. Here we examined the FBR to intracortical silicon implants in MCP-1 KO mice at 1, 2, and 8 weeks after implantation. MCP-1 KO mice had a diminished FBR compared to WT mice, characterized by reductions in BBB leakage, macrophage/microglia accumulation, and astrogliosis, and an increased neuronal density. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of MCP-1 in implant-bearing WT mice maintained the increased neuronal density. To elucidate the relative contribution of microglia and macrophages, bone marrow chimeras were generated between MCP-1 KO and WT mice. Increased neuronal density was observed only in MCP-1 knockout mice transplanted with MCP-1 knockout marrow, which indicates that resident cells in the brain are major contributors. We hypothesized that these improvements are the result of a phenotypic switch of the macrophages/microglia polarization state, which we confirmed using PCR for common activation markers. Our observations suggest that MCP-1 influences neuronal loss, which is integral to the progression of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson disease, via BBB leakage and macrophage polarization. PMID:24881026

  1. Dopaminergic Neuronal Differentiation from the Forebrain-Derived Human Neural Stem Cells Induced in Cultures by Using a Combination of BMP-7 and Pramipexole with Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongNa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Liu, XiaoDun; Chen, Heng; Duan, WeiMing; Qu, TingYu

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is considered to be the most promising therapeutic strategy for replacing degenerated dopamine cells in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby restoring normal neural circuit function and slow clinical progression of the disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from fetal forebrain are thought to be the important cell sources for producing DA neurons because of their multipotency for differentiation and long-term expansion property in cultures. However, low DA differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs limited their therapeutic potential in PD. In the current study, we explored a combined application of Pramipexole (PRX), bone morphogenetic proteins 7 (BMP-7), and growth factors, including acidic fibroblast factor (aFGF), forskolin, and phorbol-12-myristae-13-acetate (TPA), to induce differentiation of forebrain-derived hNSCs toward DA neurons in cultures. We found that DA neuron-associated genes, including Nurr1, Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were significantly increased after 24 h of differentiation by RT-PCR analysis (p < 0.01). Fluorescent examination showed that about 25% of cells became TH-positive neurons at 24 h, about 5% of cells became VMAT2 (vascular monoamine transporter 2)-positive neurons, and less than 5% of cells became DAT (dopamine transporter)-positive neurons at 72 h following differentiation in cultures. Importantly, these TH-, VMAT2-, and DAT-expressing neurons were able to release dopamine into cultures under both of the basal and evoked conditions. Dopamine levels released by DA neurons produced using our protocol were significantly higher compared to the control groups (P < 0.01), as examined by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PRX, BMP-7, and growth factors was able to greatly promote differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs into DA-releasing neurons. PMID:27147976

  2. Dopaminergic Neuronal Differentiation from the Forebrain-Derived Human Neural Stem Cells Induced in Cultures by Using a Combination of BMP-7 and Pramipexole with Growth Factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, HongNa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Liu, XiaoDun; Chen, Heng; Duan, WeiMing; Qu, TingYu

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is considered to be the most promising therapeutic strategy for replacing degenerated dopamine cells in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby restoring normal neural circuit function and slow clinical progression of the disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from fetal forebrain are thought to be the important cell sources for producing DA neurons because of their multipotency for differentiation and long-term expansion property in cultures. However, low DA differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs limited their therapeutic potential in PD. In the current study, we explored a combined application of Pramipexole (PRX), bone morphogenetic proteins 7 (BMP-7), and growth factors, including acidic fibroblast factor (aFGF), forskolin, and phorbol-12-myristae-13-acetate (TPA), to induce differentiation of forebrain-derived hNSCs toward DA neurons in cultures. We found that DA neuron-associated genes, including Nurr1, Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were significantly increased after 24 h of differentiation by RT-PCR analysis (p < 0.01). Fluorescent examination showed that about 25% of cells became TH-positive neurons at 24 h, about 5% of cells became VMAT2 (vascular monoamine transporter 2)-positive neurons, and less than 5% of cells became DAT (dopamine transporter)-positive neurons at 72 h following differentiation in cultures. Importantly, these TH-, VMAT2-, and DAT-expressing neurons were able to release dopamine into cultures under both of the basal and evoked conditions. Dopamine levels released by DA neurons produced using our protocol were significantly higher compared to the control groups (P < 0.01), as examined by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PRX, BMP-7, and growth factors was able to greatly promote differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs into DA-releasing neurons. PMID:27147976

  3. Autologous iPSC-derived dopamine neuron transplantation in a nonhuman primate Parkinson’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuyan; Zou, Chunlin; Fu, Linlin; Wang, Bin; An, Jing; Song, Gongru; Wu, Jianyu; Tang, Xihe; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian; Yue, Feng; Zheng, Chengyun; Chan, Piu; Zhang, Y Alex; Chen, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Autologous dopamine (DA) neurons are a new cell source for replacement therapy of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we tested the safety and efficacy of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived DA cells for treatment of a cynomolgus monkey PD model. Monkey bone marrow mesenchymal cells were isolated and induced to iPSCs, followed by differentiation into DA cells using a method with high efficiency. Autologous DA cells were introduced into the brain of a cynomolgus monkey PD model without immunosuppression; three PD monkeys that had received no grafts served as controls. The PD monkey that had received autologous grafts experienced behavioral improvement compared with that of controls. Histological analysis revealed no overgrowth of grafts and a significant number of surviving A9 region-specific graft-derived DA neurons. The study provided a proof-of-principle to employ iPSC-derived autologous DA cells for PD treatment using a nonhuman primate PD model.

  4. Data on acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) during murine embryogenesis and in embryo-derived cultured primary neurons and glia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Marvyn, Phillip M; Vasefi, Maryam S; Beazely, Michael A; Mielke, John G; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-03-01

    Whole mouse embryos at three developmental timepoints, embryonic (E) day E10.5, E14.5, and E18.5, were analyzed for Agpat4 mRNA expression. Primary cortical mouse cultures prepared from E18.5 mouse brains were used for immunohistochemistry. Our data show that Agpat4 is differentially expressed at three timepoints in murine embryogenesis and is immunodetectable in both neurons and glial cells derived from the developing mouse brain. This paper contains data related to research concurrently published in Bradley et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26759825

  5. Data on acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) during murine embryogenesis and in embryo-derived cultured primary neurons and glia

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan M.; Mardian, Emily B.; Marvyn, Phillip M.; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Beazely, Michael A.; Mielke, John G.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2015-01-01

    Whole mouse embryos at three developmental timepoints, embryonic (E) day E10.5, E14.5, and E18.5, were analyzed for Agpat4 mRNA expression. Primary cortical mouse cultures prepared from E18.5 mouse brains were used for immunohistochemistry. Our data show that Agpat4 is differentially expressed at three timepoints in murine embryogenesis and is immunodetectable in both neurons and glial cells derived from the developing mouse brain. This paper contains data related to research concurrently published in Bradley et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26759825

  6. SNCA triplication Parkinson's patient's iPSC-derived DA neurons accumulate α-synuclein and are susceptible to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Byers, Blake; Cord, Branden; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Schüle, Birgitt; Fenno, Lief; Lee, Patrick C; Deisseroth, Karl; Langston, J William; Pera, Renee Reijo; Palmer, Theo D

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although common, the etiology of PD remains poorly understood. Genetic studies infer that the disease results from a complex interaction between genetics and environment and there is growing evidence that PD may represent a constellation of diseases with overlapping yet distinct underlying mechanisms. Novel clinical approaches will require a better understanding of the mechanisms at work within an individual as well as methods to identify the specific array of mechanisms that have contributed to the disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) strategies provide an opportunity to directly study the affected neuronal subtypes in a given patient. Here we report the generation of iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons from a patient with a triplication in the α-synuclein gene (SNCA). We observed that the iPSCs readily differentiated into functional neurons. Importantly, the PD-affected line exhibited disease-related phenotypes in culture: accumulation of α-synuclein, inherent overexpression of markers of oxidative stress, and sensitivity to peroxide induced oxidative stress. These findings show that the dominantly-acting PD mutation is intrinsically capable of perturbing normal cell function in culture and confirm that these features reflect, at least in part, a cell autonomous disease process that is independent of exposure to the entire complexity of the diseased brain. PMID:22110584

  7. SNCA Triplication Parkinson's Patient's iPSC-derived DA Neurons Accumulate α-Synuclein and Are Susceptible to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Birgitt; Fenno, Lief; Lee, Patrick C.; Deisseroth, Karl; Langston, J. William; Pera, Renee Reijo; Palmer, Theo D.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although common, the etiology of PD remains poorly understood. Genetic studies infer that the disease results from a complex interaction between genetics and environment and there is growing evidence that PD may represent a constellation of diseases with overlapping yet distinct underlying mechanisms. Novel clinical approaches will require a better understanding of the mechanisms at work within an individual as well as methods to identify the specific array of mechanisms that have contributed to the disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) strategies provide an opportunity to directly study the affected neuronal subtypes in a given patient. Here we report the generation of iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons from a patient with a triplication in the α-synuclein gene (SNCA). We observed that the iPSCs readily differentiated into functional neurons. Importantly, the PD-affected line exhibited disease-related phenotypes in culture: accumulation of α-synuclein, inherent overexpression of markers of oxidative stress, and sensitivity to peroxide induced oxidative stress. These findings show that the dominantly-acting PD mutation is intrinsically capable of perturbing normal cell function in culture and confirm that these features reflect, at least in part, a cell autonomous disease process that is independent of exposure to the entire complexity of the diseased brain. PMID:22110584

  8. iPS Cell-Derived Dopamine Neurons Reveal Differences between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Chris M.; Campos, Brian A.; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Nirenberg, Melissa J.; Nestor, Michael W.; Zimmer, Matthew; Mosharov, Eugene; Sulzer, David; Zhou, Hongyan; Paull, Daniel; Clark, Lorraine; Schadt, Eric E.; Sardi, Sergio Pablo; Rubin, Lee; Eggan, Kevin; Brock, Mathew; Lipnick, Scott; Rao, Mahendra; Chang, Stephen; Li, Aiqun; Noggle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been attributed to a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. We studied a set of monozygotic twins harboring the heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation (GBA N370S) but clinically discordant for PD. We applied induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology for PD disease modeling using the twins’ fibroblasts to evaluate and dissect the genetic and non-genetic contributions. Utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we obtained a homogenous population of ‘footprint-free’ iPS cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. The mDA neurons from both twins had ~ 50% GBA enzymatic activity, ~ 3-fold elevated α-synuclein protein levels, and a reduced capacity to synthesize and release dopamine. Interestingly, the affected twin’s neurons showed an even lower dopamine level, increased monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) expression, and impaired intrinsic network activity. Overexpression of wild-type GBA and treatment of MAO-B inhibitors normalized α-synuclein and dopamine levels, suggesting a combination therapy for the affected twin. PMID:25456120

  9. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid increases progranulin production in iPSC-derived cortical neurons of frontotemporal dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the granulin (GRN) gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to progranulin haploinsufficiency. Compounds that can increase progranulin production and secretion may be considered as potential therapeutic drugs; however, very few of them have been directly tested on human cortical neurons. To this end, we differentiated 9 induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a control subject, a sporadic FTD case and an FTD patient with progranulin S116X mutation. Treatment with 1 μM suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased the production of progranulin in cortical neurons of all subjects at both the mRNA and protein levels without affecting their viability. Microarray analysis revealed that SAHA treatment not only reversed some gene expression changes caused by progranulin haploinsufficiency but also caused massive alterations in the overall transcriptome. Thus, histone deacetylase inhibitors may be considered as therapeutic drugs for GRN mutation carriers. However, this class of drugs also causes drastic changes in overall gene expression in human cortical neurons and their side effects and potential impacts on other pathways should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27143419

  10. 5-HT(1A) receptors transactivate the platelet-derived growth factor receptor type beta in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Liu, Hui; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of ligand, certain growth factor receptors can be activated via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation in a process termed transactivation. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can transactivate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors in smooth muscle cells, but it is not known if similar pathways occur in neuronal cells. Here we show that 5-HT can transiently increase the phosphorylation of PDGFβ receptors through 5-HT(1A) receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. 5-HT also transactivates PDGFβ receptors in primary cortical neurons. This transactivation pathway is pertussis-toxin sensitive and Src tyrosine kinase-dependent. This pathway is also dependent on phospholipase C activity and intracellular calcium signaling. Several studies involving PDGFβ receptor transactivation by GPCRs have also demonstrated a PDGFβ receptor-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Yet in SH-SY5Y cells, 5-HT treatment causes a PDGFβ receptor-independent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This crosstalk between 5-HT and PDGFβ receptors identifies a potentially important signaling link between the serotonergic system and growth factor signaling in neurons. PMID:23006663

  11. Intermediate filament protein accumulation in motor neurons derived from giant axonal neuropathy iPSCs rescued by restoration of gigaxonin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Kerner, Bethany L.; Ahmad, Faizzan S.; Diaz, Alejandro Garcia; Greene, John Palmer; Gray, Steven J.; Samulski, Richard Jude; Chung, Wendy K.; Van Coster, Rudy; Maertens, Paul; Noggle, Scott A.; Henderson, Christopher E.; Wichterle, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the GAN gene resulting in a loss of a ubiquitously expressed protein, gigaxonin. Gene replacement therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of the disease; however, the effectiveness and safety of gigaxonin reintroduction have not been tested in human GAN nerve cells. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three GAN patients with different GAN mutations. Motor neurons differentiated from GAN iPSCs exhibit accumulation of neurofilament (NF-L) and peripherin (PRPH) protein and formation of PRPH aggregates, the key pathological phenotypes observed in patients. Introduction of gigaxonin either using a lentiviral vector or as a stable transgene resulted in normalization of NEFL and PRPH levels in GAN neurons and disappearance of PRPH aggregates. Importantly, overexpression of gigaxonin had no adverse effect on survival of GAN neurons, supporting the feasibility of gene replacement therapy. Our findings demonstrate that GAN iPSCs provide a novel model for studying human GAN neuropathologies and for the development and testing of new therapies in relevant cell types. PMID:25398950

  12. Sensitive and quantitative detection of botulinum neurotoxin in neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Sabine; Du, Zhong-wei; Pier, Christina L; Tepp, William H; Zhang, Su-chun; Johnson, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous protein toxins known, represent a serious bioterrorism threat but are also used as a unique and important bio-pharmaceutical to treat an increasing myriad of neurological disorders. The only currently accepted detection method by the United States Food and Drug Administration for biological activity of BoNTs and for potency determination of pharmaceutical preparations is the mouse bioassay (MBA). Recent advances have indicated that cell-based assays using primary neuronal cells can provide an equally sensitive and robust detection platform as the MBA to reliably and quantitatively detect biologically active BoNTs. This study reports for the first time a BoNT detection assay using mouse embryonic stem cells to produce a neuronal cell culture. The data presented indicate that this assay can reliably detect BoNT/A with a similar sensitivity as the MBA. PMID:21130748

  13. Glia-derived neurons are required for sex-specific learning in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sammut, Michele; Cook, Steven J.; Nguyen, Ken C.Q.; Felton, Terry; Hall, David H.; Emmons, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behaviour extend to cognitive-like processes such as learning but the underlying dimorphisms in neural circuit development and organization that generate these behavioural differences are largely unknown. Here we define at the single-cell level, from development, through neural circuit connectivity, to function, the neural basis of a sex-specific learning in the nematode C. elegans. We show that sexual conditioning, a form of associative learning, requires a pair of male-specific interneurons whose progenitors are fully differentiated glia. These neurons are born during sexual maturation and incorporated into pre-exisiting sex-shared circuits to couple chemotactic responses to reproductive priorities. Our findings reveal a general role for glia as neural progenitors across metazoan taxa and demonstrate that the addition of sex-specific neuron types to brain circuits during sexual maturation is an important mechanism for the generation of sexually dimorphic plasticity in learning. PMID:26469050

  14. Glia-derived neurons are required for sex-specific learning in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sammut, Michele; Cook, Steven J; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Felton, Terry; Hall, David H; Emmons, Scott W; Poole, Richard J; Barrios, Arantza

    2015-10-15

    Sex differences in behaviour extend to cognitive-like processes such as learning, but the underlying dimorphisms in neural circuit development and organization that generate these behavioural differences are largely unknown. Here we define at the single-cell level-from development, through neural circuit connectivity, to function-the neural basis of a sex-specific learning in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that sexual conditioning, a form of associative learning, requires a pair of male-specific interneurons whose progenitors are fully differentiated glia. These neurons are generated during sexual maturation and incorporated into pre-exisiting sex-shared circuits to couple chemotactic responses to reproductive priorities. Our findings reveal a general role for glia as neural progenitors across metazoan taxa and demonstrate that the addition of sex-specific neuron types to brain circuits during sexual maturation is an important mechanism for the generation of sexually dimorphic plasticity in learning. PMID:26469050

  15. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Hu, Xiaoming; Wei, Sung-Jen; Liu, Jie; Gao, Huiming; Qian, Li; Wilson, Belinda; Liu, Gengtao; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2008-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) through over-activation of microglia, which consequently causes the excessive production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors, and impacts surrounding neurons and eventually induces neurodegeneration. Hence, prevention of microglial over-activation has been shown to be a prime target for the development of therapeutic agents for inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. Methods For in vitro studies, mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate the molecular mechanism by which FLZ, a squamosamide derivative, mediates anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in both lipopolysaccharide-(LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-(MPP+)-mediated models of PD. For in vivo studies, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP-) induced PD mouse model was used. Results FLZ showed potent efficacy in protecting dopaminergic (DA) neurons against LPS-induced neurotoxicity, as shown in rat and mouse primary mesencephalic neuronal-glial cultures by DA uptake and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical results. The neuroprotective effect of FLZ was attributed to a reduction in LPS-induced microglial production of proinflammatory factors such as superoxide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory properties of FLZ were mediated through inhibition of NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the key microglial superoxide-producing enzyme. A critical role for PHOX in FLZ-elicited neuroprotection was further supported by the findings that 1) FLZ's protective effect was reduced in cultures from PHOX-/- mice, and 2) FLZ inhibited LPS-induced translocation of the cytosolic subunit of p47PHOX to the membrane and thus inhibited the activation of PHOX. The neuroprotective effect of FLZ demonstrated in primary neuronal-glial cultures was further

  16. Angelman syndrome-derived neurons display late onset of paternal UBE3A silencing

    PubMed Central

    Stanurova, Jana; Neureiter, Anika; Hiber, Michaela; de Oliveira Kessler, Hannah; Stolp, Kristin; Goetzke, Roman; Klein, Diana; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Klump, Hannes; Steenpass, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin-specific gene expression that is regulated by a differentially methylated region. Gene mutations or failures in the imprinting process lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Angelman syndrome. The symptoms of Angelman syndrome are caused by the absence of functional UBE3A protein in neurons of the brain. To create a human neuronal model for Angelman syndrome, we reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts of a patient carrying a defined three-base pair deletion in UBE3A into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In these iPSCs, both parental alleles are present, distinguishable by the mutation, and express UBE3A. Detailed characterization of these iPSCs demonstrated their pluripotency and exceptional stability of the differentially methylated region regulating imprinted UBE3A expression. We observed strong induction of SNHG14 and silencing of paternal UBE3A expression only late during neuronal differentiation, in vitro. This new Angelman syndrome iPSC line allows to study imprinted gene regulation on both parental alleles and to dissect molecular pathways affected by the absence of UBE3A protein. PMID:27484051

  17. Angelman syndrome-derived neurons display late onset of paternal UBE3A silencing.

    PubMed

    Stanurova, Jana; Neureiter, Anika; Hiber, Michaela; de Oliveira Kessler, Hannah; Stolp, Kristin; Goetzke, Roman; Klein, Diana; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Klump, Hannes; Steenpass, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin-specific gene expression that is regulated by a differentially methylated region. Gene mutations or failures in the imprinting process lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Angelman syndrome. The symptoms of Angelman syndrome are caused by the absence of functional UBE3A protein in neurons of the brain. To create a human neuronal model for Angelman syndrome, we reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts of a patient carrying a defined three-base pair deletion in UBE3A into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In these iPSCs, both parental alleles are present, distinguishable by the mutation, and express UBE3A. Detailed characterization of these iPSCs demonstrated their pluripotency and exceptional stability of the differentially methylated region regulating imprinted UBE3A expression. We observed strong induction of SNHG14 and silencing of paternal UBE3A expression only late during neuronal differentiation, in vitro. This new Angelman syndrome iPSC line allows to study imprinted gene regulation on both parental alleles and to dissect molecular pathways affected by the absence of UBE3A protein. PMID:27484051

  18. Injured sensory neuron-derived CSF1 induces microglia proliferation and DAP12-dependent pain

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhonghui; Kuhn, Julia A.; Wang, Xidao; Colquitt, Bradley; Solorzano, Carlos; Vaman, Smitha; Guan, Andrew K.; Evans-Reinsch, Zoe; Braz, Joao; Devor, Marshall; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Lomvardas, Stavros; Basbaum, Allan I.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Although microglia are implicated in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, how injured sensory neurons engage microglia is unclear. Here we demonstrate that peripheral nerve injury induces de novo expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) in injured sensory neurons. The CSF1 is transported to the spinal cord where it targets the microglial CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). Cre-mediated sensory neuron deletion of Csf1 completely prevented nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and reduced microglia activation and proliferation. In contrast, intrathecal injection of CSF1 induces mechanical hypersensitivity and microglial proliferation. Nerve injury also upregulated CSF1 in motoneurons, where it is required for ventral horn microglial activation and proliferation. Downstream of CSF1R, we found that the microglial membrane adapter protein DAP12 is required for both nerve injury- and intrathecal CSF1-induced upregulation of pain-related microglial genes and the ensuing pain, but not for microglia proliferation. Thus, both CSF1 and DAP12 are potential targets for the pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain. PMID:26642091

  19. Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits stem cell-derived neuron networks prior to network silencing

    PubMed Central

    Beske, Phillip H.; Scheeler, Stephen M.; Adler, Michael; McNutt, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that specifically cleave SNARE proteins in peripheral synapses, preventing neurotransmitter release. Neuronal responses to BoNT intoxication are traditionally studied by quantifying SNARE protein cleavage in vitro or monitoring physiological paralysis in vivo. Consequently, the dynamic effects of intoxication on synaptic behaviors are not well-understood. We have reported that mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) are highly sensitive to BoNT based on molecular readouts of intoxication. Here we study the time-dependent changes in synapse- and network-level behaviors following addition of BoNT/A to spontaneously active networks of glutamatergic and GABAergic ESNs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicated that BoNT/A rapidly blocked synaptic neurotransmission, confirming that ESNs replicate the functional pathophysiology responsible for clinical botulism. Quantitation of spontaneous neurotransmission in pharmacologically isolated synapses revealed accelerated silencing of GABAergic synapses compared to glutamatergic synapses, which was consistent with the selective accumulation of cleaved SNAP-25 at GAD1+ pre-synaptic terminals at early timepoints. Different latencies of intoxication resulted in complex network responses to BoNT/A addition, involving rapid disinhibition of stochastic firing followed by network silencing. Synaptic activity was found to be highly sensitive to SNAP-25 cleavage, reflecting the functional consequences of the localized cleavage of the small subpopulation of SNAP-25 that is engaged in neurotransmitter release in the nerve terminal. Collectively these findings illustrate that use of synaptic function assays in networked neurons cultures offers a novel and highly sensitive approach for mechanistic studies of toxin:neuron interactions and synaptic responses to BoNT. PMID:25954159

  20. Transplantation of NSC-derived cholinergic neuron-like cells improves cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, G; Zhang, W; Li, M; Ni, J; Wang, P

    2015-04-16

    The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Then, these CNLs were transplanted into bilateral hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Behavioral parameters showed by Morris water maze (MWM) tests and the percentages of GFP-labeled cholinergic neurons of CNL transplanted mice were compared with those of controls. Brain levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and proteins were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, ChAT activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration were also evaluated by ChAT activity and ACh concentration assay kits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that 80.3±1.5% NSCs differentiated into CNLs after RA pre-induction followed by NGF induction in vitro. Three months after transplantation, 82.4±6.3% CNLs differentiated into cholinergic neurons in vivo. APP/PS1 mice transplanted with CNLs showed a significant improvement in learning and memory ability compared with control groups at different time points. Furthermore, CNLs transplantation dramatically increased in the expressions of ChAT mRNA and protein, as well ChAT activity and ACh concentration in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings support the prospect of using NSC-derived CNLs in developing therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:25681520

  1. Differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells into neuron-like cells by valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takumi; Hayashi, Daiki; Yaguchi, Takayuki; Fujita, Yudai; Sakaue, Motoharu; Suzuki, Takehito; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Murayama, Ohoshi; Lynch, Jonathan; Miyazaki, Yoko; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, which has recently been reported to modulate the neuronal differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) in humans and dogs. However, controversy exists as to whether VPA really acts as an inducer of neuronal differentiation of ASCs. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of VPA in neuronal differentiation of rat ASCs. One or three days of pretreatment with VPA (2 mM) followed by neuronal induction enhanced the ratio of immature neuron marker βIII-tubulin-positive cells in a time-dependent manner, where the majority of cells also had a positive signal for neurofilament medium polypeptide (NEFM), a mature neuron marker. RT-PCR analysis revealed increases in the mRNA expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and NEFM mature neuron markers, even without neuronal induction. Three-days pretreatment of VPA increased acetylation of histone H3 of ASCs as revealed by immunofluorescence staining. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also showed that the status of histone acetylation at H3K9 correlated with the gene expression of TUBB3 in ASCs by VPA. These results indicate that VPA significantly promotes the differentiation of rat ASCs into neuron-like cells through acetylation of histone H3, which suggests that VPA may serve as a useful tool for producing transplantable cells for future applications in clinical treatments. PMID:26411320

  2. New 6-Aminoquinoxaline Derivatives with Neuroprotective Effect on Dopaminergic Neurons in Cellular and Animal Parkinson Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Le Douaron, Gael; Ferrié, Laurent; Sepulveda-Diaz, Julia E; Amar, Majid; Harfouche, Abha; Séon-Méniel, Blandine; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Michel, Patrick P; Figadère, Bruno

    2016-07-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of aging characterized by motor symptoms that result from the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons and the disruption of dopamine-mediated neurotransmission. There is currently no curative treatment for this disorder. To discover druggable neuroprotective compounds for dopamine neurons, we have designed and synthesized a second-generation of quinoxaline-derived molecules based on structure-activity relationship studies, which led previously to the discovery of our first neuroprotective brain penetrant hit compound MPAQ (5c). Neuroprotection assessment in PD cellular models of our newly synthesized quinoxaline-derived compounds has led to the selection of a better hit compound, PAQ (4c). Extensive in vitro characterization of 4c showed that its neuroprotective action is partially attributable to the activation of reticulum endoplasmic ryanodine receptor channels. Most interestingly, 4c was able to attenuate neurodegeneration in a mouse model of PD, making this compound an interesting drug candidate for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:27341519

  3. Imaging auditory representations of song and syllables in populations of sensorimotor neurons essential to vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Peh, Wendy Y X; Roberts, Todd F; Mooney, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Vocal communication depends on the coordinated activity of sensorimotor neurons important to vocal perception and production. How vocalizations are represented by spatiotemporal activity patterns in these neuronal populations remains poorly understood. Here we combined intracellular recordings and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine how learned birdsong and its component syllables are represented in identified projection neurons (PNs) within HVC, a sensorimotor region important for song perception and production. These experiments show that neighboring HVC PNs can respond at markedly different times to song playback and that different syllables activate spatially intermingled PNs within a local (~100 μm) region of HVC. Moreover, noise correlations were stronger between PNs that responded most strongly to the same syllable and were spatially graded within and between classes of PNs. These findings support a model in which syllabic and temporal features of song are represented by spatially intermingled PNs functionally organized into cell- and syllable-type networks within local spatial scales in HVC. PMID:25855175

  4. Human Neuron Cultures: Micropatterning Facilitates the Long-Term Growth and Analysis of iPSC-Derived Individual Human Neurons and Neuronal Networks (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Burbulla, Lena F; Beaumont, Kristin G; Mrksich, Milan; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Dimitri Krainc, Milan Mrksich, and co-workers demonstrate the utility of microcontact printing technology for culturing of human neurons in defined patterns over extended periods of time on page 1894. This approach facilitates studies of neuronal development, cellular trafficking, and related mechanisms that require assessment of individual neurons and neuronal networks. PMID:27511952

  5. Atoxic derivative of botulinum neurotoxin A as a prototype vehicle for targeted delivery to neuronal cytoplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously described genetic constructs and expression systems that enable facile production of recombinant derivatives of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that retain the structural and trafficking properties of wt BoNTs. In this report we describe the properties of one such derivative, BoNT/A...

  6. Protective effects of onion-derived quercetin on glutamate-mediated hippocampal neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuron degeneration in specific functional systems of the central or peripheral nervous system. This study investigated the protective effects of quercetin isolated from onion on neuronal cells and its protective mechanisms against glutamate-induced apoptosis in HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: HT22 cells were cultured to study the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin against glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. The protein expression of calpain, spectrin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, cytochrome c, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: Quercetin had a protective effect by reducing both intracellular ROS overproduction and glutamate-mediated Ca2+ influx. These effects were due to the downregulation of several apoptosis-related biochemical markers. Calpain expression was reduced and spectrin cleavage was inhibited by quercetin in glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bax, and cytochrome c release in response to glutamate-induced oxidative stress were reduced. Quercetin also suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs. Conclusion: This is the first report on the detailed mechanisms of the protective effect of quercetin on HT22 cells. Onion extract and quercetin may be useful for preventing or treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24124281

  7. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  8. Kif13b Regulates PNS and CNS Myelination through the Dlg1 Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Roberta; Guerrero-Valero, Marta; Alberizzi, Valeria; Previtali, Stefano C.; Sherman, Diane L.; Palmisano, Marilena; Huganir, Richard L.; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Cuenda, Ana; Feltri, Maria Laura; Brophy, Peter J.; Bolino, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-based kinesin motors have many cellular functions, including the transport of a variety of cargos. However, unconventional roles have recently emerged, and kinesins have also been reported to act as scaffolding proteins and signaling molecules. In this work, we further extend the notion of unconventional functions for kinesin motor proteins, and we propose that Kif13b kinesin acts as a signaling molecule regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) myelination. In this process, positive and negative signals must be tightly coordinated in time and space to orchestrate myelin biogenesis. Here, we report that in Schwann cells Kif13b positively regulates myelination by promoting p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Discs large 1 (Dlg1), a known brake on myelination, which downregulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) pathway. Interestingly, Kif13b also negatively regulates Dlg1 stability in oligodendrocytes, in which Dlg1, in contrast to Schwann cells, enhances AKT activation and promotes myelination. Thus, our data indicate that Kif13b is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. In summary, we propose a novel function for the Kif13b kinesin in glial cells as a key component of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which controls myelination in both PNS and CNS. PMID:27070899

  9. Kif13b Regulates PNS and CNS Myelination through the Dlg1 Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Roberta; Guerrero-Valero, Marta; Alberizzi, Valeria; Previtali, Stefano C; Sherman, Diane L; Palmisano, Marilena; Huganir, Richard L; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Cuenda, Ana; Feltri, Maria Laura; Brophy, Peter J; Bolino, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Microtubule-based kinesin motors have many cellular functions, including the transport of a variety of cargos. However, unconventional roles have recently emerged, and kinesins have also been reported to act as scaffolding proteins and signaling molecules. In this work, we further extend the notion of unconventional functions for kinesin motor proteins, and we propose that Kif13b kinesin acts as a signaling molecule regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) myelination. In this process, positive and negative signals must be tightly coordinated in time and space to orchestrate myelin biogenesis. Here, we report that in Schwann cells Kif13b positively regulates myelination by promoting p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Discs large 1 (Dlg1), a known brake on myelination, which downregulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) pathway. Interestingly, Kif13b also negatively regulates Dlg1 stability in oligodendrocytes, in which Dlg1, in contrast to Schwann cells, enhances AKT activation and promotes myelination. Thus, our data indicate that Kif13b is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. In summary, we propose a novel function for the Kif13b kinesin in glial cells as a key component of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which controls myelination in both PNS and CNS. PMID:27070899

  10. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Cui, Quanjun; Deal, D. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair. PMID:26798350

  11. Heat shock protein 60 affects behavioral improvement in a rat model of Parkinson's disease grafted with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived dopaminergic-like neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Can; Li, Hui; Zhao, Xian-Jing; Liu, Zheng-Xia; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Ying; Feng, Mei-Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in mesencephalic substantia nigra (SN). Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages, including DAergic neurons. Thus, hUC-MSCs could be a promising alternative to compensate for the loss of DAergic neurons in PD. In the current study, hUC-MSCs and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons were transplanted into the striatum and SN of a rat model of PD that is induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We evaluated their therapeutic effects on improving rotation behavior in the rat and on modulating the level of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) expression in the brain. After transplantation, an amelioration of rotation behavior was observed in rats that underwent cell grafting, and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons were superior to hUC-MSCs at inducing behavioral improvement. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis indicated significantly elevated levels of Hsp60 in cell-grafted rats compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned (PD) rats. These results demonstrate that hUC-MSCs-based cell transplantation is potential therapeutic treatment for PD, and hUC-MSCs-derived DAergic-like neurons appear to be favorable candidates for cell replacement therapy in PD. Finally, Hsp60 could be involved in a mechanism of behavioral recovery. PMID:26758268

  12. Fyn Kinase regulates GluN2B subunit-dominant NMDA receptors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Ross, P. Joel; Tu, YuShan; Wang, Yongqian; Beggs, Simon; Sengar, Ameet S.; Ellis, James; Salter, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated fast excitatory neurotransmission is implicated in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian central nervous system. The function and regulation of NMDARs have been extensively studied in neurons from rodents and other non-human species, and in recombinant expression systems. Here, we investigated human NMDARs in situ by using neurons produced by directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The resultant cells showed electrophysiological characteristics demonstrating that they are bona fide neurons. In particular, human iPSC-derived neurons expressed functional ligand-gated ion channels, including NMDARs, AMPA receptors, GABAA receptors, as well as glycine receptors. Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of NMDAR-mediated currents indicated that these were dominated by receptors containing GluN2B subunits. The NMDAR currents were suppressed by genistein, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The NMDAR currents were also inhibited by a Fyn-interfering peptide, Fyn(39–57), but not a Src-interfering peptide, Src(40–58). Together, these findings are the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the function of NMDARs in human iPSC-derived neurons. Our findings provide a basis for utilizing human iPSC-derived neurons in screening for drugs targeting NMDARs in neurological disorders. PMID:27040756

  13. Cellular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent release of native brain-derived neurotrophic factor from hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Balkowiec, Agnieszka; Katz, David M

    2002-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in activity-dependent modifications of neuronal connectivity and synaptic strength, including establishment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). To shed light on mechanisms underlying BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity, the present study was undertaken to characterize release of native BDNF from newborn rat hippocampal neurons in response to physiologically relevant patterns of electrical field stimulation in culture, including tonic stimulation at 5 Hz, bursting stimulation at 25 and 100 Hz, and theta-burst stimulation (TBS). Release was measured using the ELISA in situ technique, developed in our laboratory to quantify secretion of native BDNF without the need to first overexpress the protein to nonphysiological levels. Each stimulation protocol resulted in a significant increase in BDNF release that was tetrodotoxin sensitive and occurred in the absence of glutamate receptor activation. However, 100 Hz tetanus and TBS, stimulus patterns that are most effective in inducing hippocampal LTP, were significantly more effective in releasing native BDNF than lower-frequency stimulation. For all stimulation protocols tested, removal of extracellular calcium, or blockade of N-type calcium channels, prevented BDNF release. Similarly, depletion of intracellular calcium stores with thapsigargin and treatment with dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from caffeine-ryanodine-sensitive stores, markedly inhibited activity-dependent BDNF release. Our results indicate that BDNF release can encode temporal features of hippocampal neuronal activity. The dual requirement for calcium influx through N-type calcium channels and calcium mobilization from intracellular stores strongly implicates a role for calcium-induced calcium release in activity-dependent BDNF secretion. PMID:12451139

  14. The mood stabilizers lithium and valproate selectively activate the promoter IV of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurons.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, S; Liang, M-H; Marinova, Z; Yahyavi, A; Chuang, D-M

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been strongly implicated in the synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and pathophysiology of depression. Lithium and valproic acid (VPA) are two primary mood-stabilizing drugs used to treat bipolar disorder. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with therapeutic concentrations of LiCl or VPA selectively increased the levels of exon IV (formerly rat exon III)-containing BDNF mRNA, and the activity of BDNF promoter IV. Surprisingly, lithium- or VPA-responsive element(s) in promoter IV resides in a region upstream from the calcium-responsive elements (CaREs) responsible for depolarization-induced BDNF induction. Moreover, activation of BDNF promoter IV by lithium or VPA occurred in cortical neurons depolarized with KCl, and deletion of these three CaREs did not abolish lithium- or VPA-induced activation. Lithium and VPA are direct inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), respectively. We showed that lithium-induced activation of promoter IV was mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing of GSK-3alpha or GSK-3beta isoforms. Furthermore, treatment with other HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, or transfection with an HDAC1-specific siRNA also activated BDNF promoter IV. Our study demonstrates for the first time that GSK-3 and HDAC are respective initial targets for lithium and VPA to activate BDNF promoter IV, and that this BDNF induction involves a novel responsive region in promoter IV of the BDNF gene. Our results have strong implications for the therapeutic actions of these two mood stabilizers. PMID:17925795

  15. Understanding the molecular basis of autism in a dish using hiPSCs-derived neurons from ASD patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Seok; Yang, Jung-Eun; Lee, You-Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Lee, Jin-A; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social cognition, language development, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of ASD and lack of a proper human cellular model system, the pathophysiological mechanism of ASD during the developmental process is largely unknown. However, recent progress in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology as well as in vitro neural differentiation techniques have allowed us to functionally characterize neurons and analyze cortical development during neural differentiation. These technical advances will increase our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of heterogeneous ASD and help identify molecular biomarkers for patient stratification as well as personalized medicine. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of iPSC generation, differentiation of specific neuronal subtypes from iPSCs, and phenotypic characterizations of human ASD patient-derived iPSC models. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of iPSC technology and future directions of ASD pathophysiology studies using iPSCs. PMID:26419846

  16. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-pretreated neuron stem cell transplantation on Alzheimer’s disease model mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Yu, Ying; Cai, Hongliu

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common case of dementia and its possible therapies, such as neuron stem cell (NSC) transplantation therapy, have been studied for years. In order to improve NSC transplantation effects, we were inspired to pretreat NSC using brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) before transplantation. The AD mouse model was constructed and effects of BDNF+NSC transplant group and traditional NSC transplant group were compared using the four indicators: conditions of learning and memory ability recovery tested by Morris Water Maze (MWM), number of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, expression of synaptophysin, and number of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE)-positive fibers detected by chemical staining. Results showed all the four indicators were significantly lower in the AD model group than the control group (P < 0.05). Traditional NSC transplantation could improve these indicators to some extent but still possessed significant differences from the control group (P < 0.05). Especially, the BDNF+NSC transplant group showed significant improvements in the four indicators when compared with the AD model group (P < 0.05). Taken these data together, BDNF pretreatment improved the NSC transplantation effects, showing advantages over the traditional NSC transplantation. Our study could facilitate the application of stem cell transplantation therapy to AD treatment. PMID:26885166

  17. Epidermis-Derived Semaphorin Promotes Dendrite Self-Avoidance by Regulating Dendrite-Substrate Adhesion in Drosophila Sensory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Shan; Yadav, Smita; Lee, Jiae; Soba, Peter; Younger, Susan H; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Parrish, Jay; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2016-02-17

    Precise patterning of dendritic arbors is critical for the wiring and function of neural circuits. Dendrite-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion ensures that the dendrites of Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) sensory neurons are properly restricted in a 2D space, and thereby facilitates contact-mediated dendritic self-avoidance and tiling. However, the mechanisms regulating dendrite-ECM adhesion in vivo are poorly understood. Here, we show that mutations in the semaphorin ligand sema-2b lead to a dramatic increase in self-crossing of dendrites due to defects in dendrite-ECM adhesion, resulting in a failure to confine dendrites to a 2D plane. Furthermore, we find that Sema-2b is secreted from the epidermis and signals through the Plexin B receptor in neighboring neurons. Importantly, we find that Sema-2b/PlexB genetically and physically interacts with TORC2 complex, Tricornered (Trc) kinase, and integrins. These results reveal a novel role for semaphorins in dendrite patterning and illustrate how epidermal-derived cues regulate neural circuit assembly. PMID:26853303

  18. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Enhances Release of Native Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor from Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Buldyrev, Ilya; Tanner, Nathan M.; Hsieh, Hui-ya; Dodd, Emily G.; Nguyen, Loi T.; Balkowiec, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Activity-dependent plasticity in nociceptive pathways has been implicated in pathomechanisms of chronic pain syndromes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, has recently been identified as a key player in the mechanism of migraine headaches. Here we show that CGRP is co-expressed with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a large subset of adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons in vivo. Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1–1000 nM) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect of CGRP is dose–dependent and abolished by pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8–37). Intriguingly, CGRP-mediated BDNF release, unlike BDNF release evoked by physiological patterns of electrical stimulation, is independent of extracellular calcium. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores with thapsigargin blocks the CGRP-mediated BDNF release. Using transmission electron microscopy, our study also shows that BDNF-immunoreactivity is present in dense core vesicles of unmyelinated axons and axon terminals in the subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the primary central target of trigeminal nociceptors. Together, these results reveal a previously unknown role for CGRP in regulating BDNF availability, and point to BDNF as a candidate mediator of trigeminal nociceptive plasticity. PMID:17064360

  19. Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances release of native brain-derived neurotrophic factor from trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Ilya; Tanner, Nathan M; Hsieh, Hui-ya; Dodd, Emily G; Nguyen, Loi T; Balkowiec, Agnieszka

    2006-12-01

    Activity-dependent plasticity in nociceptive pathways has been implicated in pathomechanisms of chronic pain syndromes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, has recently been identified as a key player in the mechanism of migraine headaches. Here we show that CGRP is coexpressed with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a large subset of adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons in vivo. Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1-1000 nM) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect of CGRP is dose-dependent and abolished by pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8-37). Intriguingly, CGRP-mediated BDNF release, unlike BDNF release evoked by physiological patterns of electrical stimulation, is independent of extracellular calcium. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores with thapsigargin blocks the CGRP-mediated BDNF release. Using transmission electron microscopy, our study also shows that BDNF-immunoreactivity is present in dense core vesicles of unmyelinated axons and axon terminals in the subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the primary central target of trigeminal nociceptors. Together, these results reveal a previously unknown role for CGRP in regulating BDNF availability, and point to BDNF as a candidate mediator of trigeminal nociceptive plasticity. PMID:17064360

  20. Amyloid β 1-42 induces hypometabolism in human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte networks

    PubMed Central

    Tarczyluk, Marta A; Nagel, David A; Rhein Parri, H; Tse, Erin HY; Brown, James E; Coleman, Michael D; Hill, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. Brain hypometabolism is a major feature of AD, appearing decades before cognitive decline and pathologic lesions. To date, the majority of studies on hypometabolism in AD have used transgenic animal models or imaging studies of the human brain. As it is almost impossible to validate these findings using human tissue, alternative models are required. In this study, we show that human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte cultures treated with oligomers of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) also display a clear hypometabolism, particularly with regard to utilization of substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glutamate. In addition, a significant increase in the glycogen content of cells was also observed. These changes were accompanied by changes in NAD+/NADH, ATP, and glutathione levels, suggesting a disruption in the energy-redox axis within these cultures. The high energy demands associated with neuronal functions such as memory formation and protection from oxidative stress put these cells at particular risk from Aβ-induced hypometabolism. Further research using this model may elucidate the mechanisms associated with Aβ-induced hypometabolism. PMID:25853906

  1. Downregulation of VAPB expression in motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of ALS8 patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitne-Neto, Miguel; Machado-Costa, Marcela; Marchetto, Maria C.N.; Bengtson, Mario H.; Joazeiro, Claudio A.; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Bellen, Hugo J.; Silva, Helga C.A.; Oliveira, Acary S.B.; Lazar, Monize; Muotri, Alysson R.; Zatz, Mayana

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neuromuscular disease that leads to a profound loss of life quality and premature death. Around 10% of the cases are inherited and ALS8 is an autosomal dominant form of familial ALS caused by mutations in the vamp-associated protein B/C (VAPB) gene. The VAPB protein is involved in many cellular processes and it likely contributes to the pathogenesis of other forms of ALS besides ALS8. A number of successful drug tests in ALS animal models could not be translated to humans underscoring the need for novel approaches. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) technology brings new hope, since it can be used to model and investigate diseases in vitro. Here we present an additional tool to study ALS based on ALS8-iPSC. Fibroblasts from ALS8 patients and their non-carrier siblings were successfully reprogrammed to a pluripotent state and differentiated into motor neurons. We show for the first time that VAPB protein levels are reduced in ALS8-derived motor neurons but, in contrast to over-expression systems, cytoplasmic aggregates could not be identified. Our results suggest that optimal levels of VAPB may play a central role in the pathogenesis of ALS8, in agreement with the observed reduction of VAPB in sporadic ALS. PMID:21685205

  2. Amyloid β 1-42 induces hypometabolism in human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte networks.

    PubMed

    Tarczyluk, Marta A; Nagel, David A; Rhein Parri, H; Tse, Erin H Y; Brown, James E; Coleman, Michael D; Hill, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. Brain hypometabolism is a major feature of AD, appearing decades before cognitive decline and pathologic lesions. To date, the majority of studies on hypometabolism in AD have used transgenic animal models or imaging studies of the human brain. As it is almost impossible to validate these findings using human tissue, alternative models are required. In this study, we show that human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte cultures treated with oligomers of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) also display a clear hypometabolism, particularly with regard to utilization of substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glutamate. In addition, a significant increase in the glycogen content of cells was also observed. These changes were accompanied by changes in NAD(+)/NADH, ATP, and glutathione levels, suggesting a disruption in the energy-redox axis within these cultures. The high energy demands associated with neuronal functions such as memory formation and protection from oxidative stress put these cells at particular risk from Aβ-induced hypometabolism. Further research using this model may elucidate the mechanisms associated with Aβ-induced hypometabolism. PMID:25853906

  3. Tetramethylpyrazine induces differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    NAN, CHENGRUI; GUO, LI; ZHAO, ZONGMAO; MA, SHUCHENG; LIU, JIXIANG; YAN, DONGDONG; SONG, GUOQIANG; LIU, HANJIE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the ability and optimal concentration of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) to induce human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) to differentiate into neuron-like cells in vitro. Human umbilical cords from full-term caesarean section patients were used to obtain hUMSCs by collagenase digestion after removal of the umbilical artery and vein. The surface antigen expression profile of cultured hUMSCs was monitored by flow cytometry. After amplification, cells of the 5th passage were divided into experimental groups A–C treated with TMP at 4.67, 2.34 and 1.17 mg/ml, respectively, in low glucose-Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (L-DMEM) (induction medium), while group D (control) was exposed to L-DMEM culture medium only. Differentiation of hUMSCs into neuron-like cells and morphological changes were observed every 0.5 h with an inverted phase contrast microscope for 6 h. After the 6-h induction period, proportions of cells expressing neuronal markers neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neurofilament protein (NF-H) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The optimal concentration of TMP was selected on the basis of neuron-like cell positive rate. Western blotting and RT-polymerase chain reaction were applied to detect the expression of NSE, NF-H, and GFAP of the group of optimal concentration in each point-in-time. Results showed that most primary cells were adherent 12 h after seeding and first appeared as diamond or polygon shapes. Thereafter, they gradually grew into long spindle-shaped cells and finally in a radiating or swirling pattern. The cells maintained a strong proliferative capacity after continuous passage. Flow cytometry analysis of cultured hUMSCs at the 3rd, 5th and 10th passages expressed CD73, CD90 and CD105, but not CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45 or human leukocyte antigen-DR. After 6 h of TMP treatment, typical neuron-like cells with many protrusions connected into a net

  4. Successful function of autologous iPSC-derived dopamine neurons following transplantation in a non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Penelope J; Deleidi, Michela; Astradsson, Arnar; Smith, Gaynor A; Cooper, Oliver; Osborn, Teresia M; Sundberg, Maria; Moore, Michele A; Perez-Torres, Eduardo; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Schumacher, James M; Spealman, Roger D; Isacson, Ole

    2015-03-01

    Autologous transplantation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons is a potential clinical approach for treatment of neurological disease. Preclinical demonstration of long-term efficacy, feasibility, and safety of iPSC-derived dopamine neurons in non-human primate models will be an important step in clinical development of cell therapy. Here, we analyzed cynomolgus monkey (CM) iPSC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons for up to 2 years following autologous transplantation in a Parkinson's disease (PD) model. In one animal, with the most successful protocol, we found that unilateral engraftment of CM-iPSCs could provide a gradual onset of functional motor improvement contralateral to the side of dopamine neuron transplantation, and increased motor activity, without a need for immunosuppression. Postmortem analyses demonstrated robust survival of midbrain-like dopaminergic neurons and extensive outgrowth into the transplanted putamen. Our proof of concept findings support further development of autologous iPSC-derived cell transplantation for treatment of PD. PMID:25732245

  5. Genetic and morphological features of human iPSC-derived neurons with chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletions

    PubMed Central

    Das, DK; Tapias, V; D’Aiuto, L; Chowdari, KV; Francis, L; Zhi, Y; Ghosh, Bhattacharjee A; Surti, U; Tischfield, J; Sheldon, M; Moore, JC; Fish, K; Nimgaonkar, V

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number variation on chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) causes deletion of CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5; it also affects brain structure and elevates risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendritic spine abnormalities. In rodents, altered cyfip1 expression changes dendritic spine morphology, motivating analyses of human neuronal cells derived from iPSCs (iPSC-neurons). Methods iPSCs were generated from a mother and her offspring, both carrying the 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion, and a non-deletion control. Gene expression in the deletion region was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and iPSC-neurons were characterized using immunocytochemistry. Results CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5 gene expression was lower in iPSCs, NPCs and iPSC-neurons from the mother and her offspring in relation to control cells. CYFIP1 and PSD95 protein levels were lower in iPSC-neurons derived from the CNV bearing individuals using Western blot analysis. At 10 weeks post-differentiation, iPSC-neurons appeared to show dendritic spines and qualitative analysis suggested that dendritic morphology was altered in 15q11.2 deletion subjects compared with control cells. Conclusions The 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion is associated with reduced expression of four genes in iPSC-derived neuronal cells; it may also be associated altered iPSC-neuron dendritic morphology. PMID:26528485

  6. Targeting RNA foci in iPSC-derived motor neurons from ALS patients with a C9ORF72 repeat expansion.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Dhruv; O'Rourke, Jacqueline G; Meera, Pratap; Muhammad, A K M G; Grant, Sharday; Simpkinson, Megan; Bell, Shaughn; Carmona, Sharon; Ornelas, Loren; Sahabian, Anais; Gendron, Tania; Petrucelli, Leonard; Baughn, Michael; Ravits, John; Harms, Matthew B; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Otis, Thomas S; Svendsen, Clive N; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-10-23

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative condition characterized by loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene are the most common cause of the familial form of ALS (C9-ALS), as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration and other neurological diseases. How the repeat expansion causes disease remains unclear, with both loss of function (haploinsufficiency) and gain of function (either toxic RNA or protein products) proposed. We report a cellular model of C9-ALS with motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from ALS patients carrying the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. No significant loss of C9ORF72 expression was observed, and knockdown of the transcript was not toxic to cultured human motor neurons. Transcription of the repeat was increased, leading to accumulation of GGGGCC repeat-containing RNA foci selectively in C9-ALS iPSC-derived motor neurons. Repeat-containing RNA foci colocalized with hnRNPA1 and Pur-α, suggesting that they may be able to alter RNA metabolism. C9-ALS motor neurons showed altered expression of genes involved in membrane excitability including DPP6, and demonstrated a diminished capacity to fire continuous spikes upon depolarization compared to control motor neurons. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting the C9ORF72 transcript suppressed RNA foci formation and reversed gene expression alterations in C9-ALS motor neurons. These data show that patient-derived motor neurons can be used to delineate pathogenic events in ALS. PMID:24154603

  7. Evaluation of PNS-computed heating and hypersonic shock tunnel data on sharp and inclined blunt cones

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the ongoing development and verification of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) technique, computed heat transfer rates have been compared with recently acquired experimental data. The flow fields were computer for laminar and turbulent flow over sharp, blunt tripped sphere-cones at 0/degree/ to 20/degree/ angle of attack in a hypersonic shock tunnel flow at Mach numbers of 11, 13, and 16. Grid refinement studies were performed and minimum smoothing parameters were sought. The average percent difference between the measured mean heat transfer rate and the PNS-computed value was 12% for the sharp and blunt cones at 0/degree/ angle of attack. For the blunt cones at angle of attack, the average percent difference was 11% on the windward ray and 36% on the leeward ray. PNS-predicted flow physics such as boundary layer thickness, shock standoff distance, and crossflow separation were examined. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Complex N-Glycans Influence the Spatial Arrangement of Voltage Gated Potassium Channels in Membranes of Neuronal-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kristen; Weidner, Douglas A; Edwards, Michael A J; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic electrical properties of a neuron depend on expression of voltage gated potassium (Kv) channel isoforms, as well as their distribution and density in the plasma membrane. Recently, we showed that N-glycosylation site occupancy of Kv3.1b modulated its placement in the cell body and neurites of a neuronal-derived cell line, B35 neuroblastoma cells. To extrapolate this mechanism to other N-glycosylated Kv channels, we evaluated the impact of N-glycosylation occupancy of Kv3.1a and Kv1.1 channels. Western blots revealed that wild type Kv3.1a and Kv1.1 α-subunits had complex and oligomannose N-glycans, respectively, and that abolishment of the N-glycosylation site(s) generated Kv proteins without N-glycans. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images revealed that N-glycans of Kv3.1a contributed to its placement in the cell membrane while N-glycans had no effect on the distribution of Kv1.1. Based on particle analysis of EGFP-Kv proteins in the adhered membrane, glycosylated forms of Kv3.1a, Kv1.1, and Kv3.1b had differences in the number, size or density of Kv protein clusters in the cell membrane of neurites and cell body of B35 cells. Differences were also observed between the unglycosylated forms of the Kv proteins. Cell dissociation assays revealed that cell-cell adhesion was increased by the presence of complex N-glycans of Kv3.1a, like Kv3.1b, whereas cell adhesion was similar in the oligomannose and unglycosylated Kv1.1 subunit containing B35 cells. Our findings provide direct evidence that N-glycans of Kv3.1 splice variants contribute to the placement of these glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of neuronal-derived cells while those of Kv1.1 were absent. Further when the cell membrane distribution of the Kv channel was modified by N-glycans then the cell-cell adhesion properties were altered. Our study demonstrates that N-glycosylation of Kv3.1a, like Kv3.1b, provides a mechanism for the distribution of these proteins to the cell

  9. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca2+ signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  10. Patch-Clamp Recordings and Calcium Imaging Followed by Single-Cell PCR Reveal the Developmental Profile of 13 Genes in iPSC-Derived Human Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Belinsky, Glenn S.; Rich, Matthew T.; Sirois, Carissa L.; Short, Shaina M.; Pedrosa, Erika; Lachman, Herbert M.; Antic, Srdjan D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies are typically performed on homogenized biological samples, resulting in contamination from non-neuronal cells. To improve expression profiling of neurons we combined patch recordings with single-cell PCR. Two iPSC lines (healthy subject and 22q11.2 deletion), were differentiated into neurons. Patch electrode recordings were performed on 229 human cells from Day-13 to Day-88, followed by capture and single-cell PCR for 13 genes: ACTB, HPRT, vGLUT1, βTUBIII, COMT, DISC1, GAD1, PAX6, DTNBP1, ERBB4, FOXP1, FOXP2, and GIRK2. Neurons derived from both iPSC lines expressed βTUBIII, fired action potentials, and experienced spontaneous depolarizations (UP states) ~2 weeks before vGLUT1, GAD1 and GIRK2 appeared. Multisite calcium imaging revealed that these UP states were not synchronized among hESC-H9-derived neurons. The expression of FOXP1, FOXP2 and vGLUT1 was lost after 50 days in culture, in contrast to other continuously expressed genes. When gene expression was combined with electrophysiology, two subsets of genes were apparent; those irrelevant to spontaneous depolarizations (including vGLUT1, GIRK2, FOXP2 and DISC1) and those associated with spontaneous depolarizations (GAD1 and ERBB4). The results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of neuron development, it is useful to combine genetic analysis with physiological characterizations, on a cell-to-cell basis. PMID:24157591

  11. SRC family kinase inhibitors antagonize the toxicity of multiple serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin in human embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Burnett, James C; Nuss, Jonathan E; Wanner, Laura M; Peyser, Brian D; Du, Hao T; Gomba, Glenn Y; Kota, Krishna P; Panchal, Rekha G; Gussio, Rick; Kane, Christopher D; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2015-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are potent inhibitors of neurotransmitter release from motor neurons. There are currently no drugs to treat BoNT intoxication after the onset of the disease symptoms. In this study, we explored how modulation of key host pathways affects the process of BoNT intoxication in human motor neurons, focusing on Src family kinase (SFK) signaling. Motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells were treated with a panel of SFK inhibitors and intoxicated with BoNT serotypes A, B, or E (which are responsible for >95 % of human botulism cases). Subsequently, it was found that bosutinib, dasatinib, KX2-391, PP1, PP2, Src inhibitor-1, and SU6656 significantly antagonized all three of the serotypes. Furthermore, the data indicated that the treatment of hES-derived motor neurons with multiple SFK inhibitors increased the antagonistic effect synergistically. Mechanistically, the small molecules appear to inhibit BoNTs by targeting host pathways necessary for intoxication and not by directly inhibiting the toxins' proteolytic activity. Importantly, the identified inhibitors are all well-studied with some in clinical trials while others are FDA-approved drugs. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of targeting host neuronal pathways, rather than the toxin's enzymatic components, to antagonize multiple BoNT serotypes in motor neurons. PMID:25782580

  12. A 3D-PNS computer code for the calculation of supersonic combusting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitsomboon, Tawit; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    A computer code has been developed based on the three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations which govern the supersonic combusting flow of the hydrogen-air system. The finite difference algorithm employed was a hybrid of the Schiff-Steger algorithm and the Vigneron, et al., algorithm which is fully implicit and fully coupled. The combustion of hydrogen and air was modeled by the finite-rate two-step combustion model of Rogers-Chinitz. A new dependent variable vector was introduced to simplify the numerical algorithm. Robustness of the algorithm was considerably enhanced by introducing an adjustable parameter. The computer code was used to solve a premixed shock-induced combustion problem and the results were compared with those of a full Navier-Stokes code. Reasonably good agreement was obtained at a fraction of the cost of the full Navier-Stokes procedure.

  13. Chorea and related movement disorders of paraneoplastic origin: the PNS EuroNetwork experience.

    PubMed

    Vigliani, Maria Claudia; Honnorat, Jerome; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Vitaliani, Roberta; Giometto, Bruno; Psimaras, Dimitri; Franchino, Federica; Rossi, Carlotta; Graus, Francesc

    2011-11-01

    Chorea and other movement disorders are rarely described as paraneoplastic. The aim of this study was to describe 13 patients with paraneoplastic chorea and dystonia collected by the members of the paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) EuroNetwork and to review 29 cases from the literature. We analyzed neurological symptoms, severity of the neurological syndrome, delay in neurological diagnosis, associated cancer, oncological and neurological treatments received, and outcome. Eleven (1.2%) out of 913 patients with PNS were identified in the EuroNetwork register. Two more patients not included in the register were added. The overall population consisted of 13 patients with a median age of 75 years (range 49-82 years). In most patients, the movement disorder was classical choreoathetosis with symmetric involvement of the trunk, neck, and limbs. A minority of patients presented unilateral chorea, dystonia, and orobuccal dyskinesia. Associated symptoms, as polyneuropathy, encephalitis, psychiatric disturbances, or visual defects, were often present. The movement disorder usually had a subacute course. The most frequently associated cancer was small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lymphoma, bowel, or kidney cancers were also reported. CV2/CRMP5 was the most frequently associated antibody, followed by Hu. Hyperintense lesions of the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images were seldom observed. Response to cancer therapy was observed in a minority of patients, but survival was short (17 months). As in other neurological diseases, movement disorders should also be suspected as paraneoplastic when they develop subacutely in older patients (usually over 50) and often in the presence of other ancillary neurological symptoms. PMID:21559939

  14. Development of a 3-D upwind PNS code for chemically reacting hypersonic flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannehill, J. C.; Wadawadigi, G.

    1992-01-01

    Two new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) codes were developed to compute the three-dimensional, viscous, chemically reacting flow of air around hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The first code (TONIC) solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a fully coupled manner using an implicit, approximately-factored, central-difference algorithm. This code was upgraded to include shock fitting and the capability of computing the flow around complex body shapes. The revised TONIC code was validated by computing the chemically-reacting (M(sub infinity) = 25.3) flow around a 10 deg half-angle cone at various angles of attack and the Ames All-Body model at 0 deg angle of attack. The results of these calculations were in good agreement with the results from the UPS code. One of the major drawbacks of the TONIC code is that the central-differencing of fluxes across interior flowfield discontinuities tends to introduce errors into the solution in the form of local flow property oscillations. The second code (UPS), originally developed for a perfect gas, has been extended to permit either perfect gas, equilibrium air, or nonequilibrium air computations. The code solves the PNS equations using a finite-volume, upwind TVD method based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver that was modified to account for real gas effects. The dissipation term associated with this algorithm is sufficiently adaptive to flow conditions that, even when attempting to capture very strong shock waves, no additional smoothing is required. For nonequilibrium calculations, the code solves the fluid dynamic and species continuity equations in a loosely-coupled manner. This code was used to calculate the hypersonic, laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at various angles of attack. In addition, the flow around the McDonnel Douglas generic option blended-wing-body was computed and comparisons were made between the perfect gas, equilibrium air, and the

  15. The COUP-TFII/Neuropilin-2 is a molecular switch steering diencephalon-derived GABAergic neurons in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Shigeaki; Honda, Takao; Aramaki, Michihiko; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Ishida, Mami; Tanaka, Daisuke H; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Sekine, Katsutoshi; Kusuzawa, Sayaka; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Hirata, Tatsumi; Tabata, Hidenori; Uhlén, Per; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    The preoptic area (POa) of the rostral diencephalon supplies the neocortex and the amygdala with GABAergic neurons in the developing mouse brain. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the pathway and destinations of POa-derived neurons have not yet been identified. Here we show that Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII)-induced expression of Neuropilin-2 (Nrp2) and its down-regulation control the destination of POa-derived GABAergic neurons. Initially, a majority of the POa-derived migrating neurons express COUP-TFII and form a caudal migratory stream toward the caudal subpallium. When a subpopulation of cells steers toward the neocortex, they exhibit decreased expression of COUP-TFII and Nrp2. The present findings show that suppression of COUP-TFII/Nrp2 changed the destination of the cells into the neocortex, whereas overexpression of COUP-TFII/Nrp2 caused cells to end up in the medial part of the amygdala. Taken together, these results reveal that COUP-TFII/Nrp2 is a molecular switch determining the pathway and destination of migrating GABAergic neurons born in the POa. PMID:26305926

  16. The COUP-TFII/Neuropilin-2 is a molecular switch steering diencephalon-derived GABAergic neurons in the developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, Shigeaki; Honda, Takao; Aramaki, Michihiko; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Ishida, Mami; Tanaka, Daisuke H.; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Sekine, Katsutoshi; Kusuzawa, Sayaka; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Hirata, Tatsumi; Tabata, Hidenori; Uhlén, Per; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The preoptic area (POa) of the rostral diencephalon supplies the neocortex and the amygdala with GABAergic neurons in the developing mouse brain. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the pathway and destinations of POa-derived neurons have not yet been identified. Here we show that Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII)–induced expression of Neuropilin-2 (Nrp2) and its down-regulation control the destination of POa-derived GABAergic neurons. Initially, a majority of the POa-derived migrating neurons express COUP-TFII and form a caudal migratory stream toward the caudal subpallium. When a subpopulation of cells steers toward the neocortex, they exhibit decreased expression of COUP-TFII and Nrp2. The present findings show that suppression of COUP-TFII/Nrp2 changed the destination of the cells into the neocortex, whereas overexpression of COUP-TFII/Nrp2 caused cells to end up in the medial part of the amygdala. Taken together, these results reveal that COUP-TFII/Nrp2 is a molecular switch determining the pathway and destination of migrating GABAergic neurons born in the POa. PMID:26305926

  17. Healthy human CSF promotes glial differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells while retaining spontaneous activity in existing neuronal networks

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Heikki; Äänismaa, Riikka; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Hagman, Sanna; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Aho, Antti; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Bendel, Stepani; Skottman, Heli; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Summary The possibilities of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells from the basic research tool to a treatment option in regenerative medicine have been well recognized. These cells also offer an interesting tool for in vitro models of neuronal networks to be used for drug screening and neurotoxicological studies and for patient/disease specific in vitro models. Here, as aiming to develop a reductionistic in vitro human neuronal network model, we tested whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural cells could be cultured in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in order to better mimic the in vivo conditions. Our results showed that CSF altered the differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells towards glial cells at the expense of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation rate was reduced in CSF cultures. However, even though the use of CSF as the culture medium altered the glial vs. neuronal differentiation rate, the pre-existing spontaneous activity of the neuronal networks persisted throughout the study. These results suggest that it is possible to develop fully human cell and culture-based environments that can further be modified for various in vitro modeling purposes. PMID:23789111

  18. NEURONAL ACTION ON THE DEVELOPING BLOOD VESSEL PATTERN

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer M.; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2011-01-01

    The nervous system relies on a highly specialized network of blood vessels for development and neuronal survival. Recent evidence suggests that both the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS) employ multiple mechanisms to shape the vascular tree to meet its specific metabolic demands, such as promoting nerve-artery alignment in the PNS or the development the blood brain barrier in the CNS. In this article we discuss how the nervous system directly influences blood vessel patterning resulting in neuro-vascular congruence that is maintained throughout development and in the adult. PMID:21978864

  19. Nkx2.1-derived astrocytes and neurons together with Slit2 are indispensable for anterior commissure formation

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Shilpi; Valloton, Delphine; Ypsilanti, Athena R.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Allen, Elizabeth A.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Marin, Oscar; Chédotal, Alain; Hornung, Jean-Pierre; Lebrand, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Guidepost cells present at and surrounding the midline provide guidance cues that orient the growing axons through commissures. Here we show that the transcription factor Nkx2.1 known to control the specification of GABAergic interneurons also regulates the differentiation of astroglia and polydendrocytes within the mouse anterior commissure (AC). Nkx2.1-positive glia were found to originate from three germinal regions of the ventral telencephalon. Nkx2.1-derived glia were observed in and around the AC region by E14.5. Thereafter, a selective cell ablation strategy showed a synergistic role of Nkx2.1-derived cells, both GABAergic interneurons and astroglia, towards the proper formation of the AC. Finally, our results reveal that the Nkx2.1-regulated cells mediate AC axon guidance through the expression of the repellent cue, Slit2. These results bring forth interesting insights about the spatial and temporal origin of midline telencephalic glia, and highlight the importance of neurons and astroglia towards the formation of midline commissures. PMID:25904499

  20. The potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid for neuronal regenerative therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are derived from the mesoderm, are considered as a readily available source for tissue engineering. They have multipotent differentiation capacity and can be differentiated into various cell types. Many studies have demonstrated that the MSCs identified from amniotic membrane (AM-MSCs) and amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) are shows advantages for many reasons, including the possibility of noninvasive isolation, multipotency, self-renewal, low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and nontumorigenicity properties, and minimal ethical problem. The AF-MSCs and AM-MSCs may be appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine, as an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Recently, regenerative treatments such as tissue engineering and cell transplantation have shown potential in clinical applications for degenerative diseases. Therefore, amnion and MSCs derived from amnion can be applied to cell therapy in neuro-degeneration diseases. In this review, we will describe the potential of AM-MSCs and AF-MSCs, with particular focus on cures for neuronal degenerative diseases. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(3): 135-140] PMID:24499672

  1. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  2. Elucidating the role of the A2A adenosine receptor in neurodegeneration using neurons derived from Huntington's disease iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Feng-Lan; Lin, Jun-Tasi; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Chien, Ting; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Yun; Lin, Yow-Sien; Chern, Yijuang; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant degenerative disease caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (htt) gene. The most vulnerable brain areas to mutant HTT-evoked toxicity are the striatum and cortex. In spite of the extensive efforts that have been devoted to the characterization of HD pathogenesis, no disease-modifying therapy for HD is currently available. The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) is widely distributed in the brain, with the highest level observed in the striatum. We previously reported that stimulation of the A2AR triggers an anti-apoptotic effect in a rat neuron-like cell line (PC12). Using a transgenic mouse model (R6/2) of HD, we demonstrated that A2AR-selective agonists effectively ameliorate several major symptoms of HD. In the present study, we show that human iPSCs can be successfully induced to differentiate into DARPP32-positive, GABAergic neurons which express the A2AR in a similar manner to striatal medium spiny neurons. When compared with those derived from control subjects (CON-iPSCs), these HD-iPSC-derived neurons exhibited a higher DNA damage response, based on the observed expression of γH2AX and elevated oxidative stress. This is a critical observation, because oxidative damage and abnormal DNA damage/repair have been reported in HD patients. Most importantly, stimulation of the A2AR using selective agonists reduced DNA damage and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HD-iPSC-derived neurons through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. These findings support our hypothesis that human neurons derived from diseased iPSCs might serve as an important platform to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of A2AR drugs. PMID:26264576

  3. Activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor from primary sensory neurons detected by ELISA in situ.

    PubMed

    Balkowiec, A; Katz, D M

    2000-10-01

    To define activity-dependent release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we developed an in vitro model using primary sensory neurons and a modified ELISA, termed ELISA in situ. Dissociate cultures of nodose-petrosal ganglion cells from newborn rats were grown in wells precoated with anti-BDNF antibody to capture released BDNF, which was subsequently detected using conventional ELISA. Conventional ELISA alone was unable to detect any increase in BDNF concentration above control values following chronic depolarization with 40 mM KCl for 72 hr. However, ELISA in situ demonstrated a highly significant increase in BDNF release, from 65 pg/ml in control to 228 pg/ml in KCl-treated cultures. The efficacy of the in situ assay appears to be related primarily to rapid capture of released BDNF that prevents BDNF binding to the cultured cells. We therefore used this approach to compare BDNF release from cultures exposed for 30 min to either continuous depolarization with elevated KCl or patterned electrical field stimulation (50 biphasic rectangular pulses of 25 msec, at 20 Hz, every 5 sec). Short-term KCl depolarization was completely ineffective at evoking any detectable release of BDNF, whereas patterned electrical stimulation increased extracellular BDNF levels by 20-fold. In addition, the magnitude of BDNF release was dependent on stimulus pattern, with high-frequency bursts being most effective. These data indicate that the optimal stimulus profile for BDNF release resembles that of other neuroactive peptides. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that BDNF release can encode temporal features of presynaptic neuronal activity. PMID:11007900

  4. N-Substituted acetamidines and 2-methylimidazole derivatives as selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Maccallini, Cristina; Patruno, Antonia; Lannutti, Fabio; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Franceschelli, Sara; Giampietro, Letizia; Masella, Simona; Felaco, Mario; Re, Nazzareno; Amoroso, Rosa

    2010-11-15

    A series of N-substituted acetamidines and 2-methylimidazole derivatives structurally related to W1400 were synthesized and evaluated as Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Analogs with sterically hindering isopropyl and phenyl substituents on the benzylic carbon connecting the aromatic core of W1400 to the acetamidine nitrogen, showed good inhibitory potency for nNOS (IC(50)=0.2 and 0.3 μM) and selectivity over eNOS (500 and 1166) and to a lesser extent over iNOS (50 and 100). A molecular modeling study allowed to shed light on the effects of the structural modifications on the selectivity of the designed inhibitors toward the different NOS isoforms. PMID:20933416

  5. Palindromic-nucleotide substitutions (PNS) of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 5a from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Prabdial-Sing, N; Giangaspero, M; Puren, A J; Mahlangu, J; Barrow, P; Bowyer, S M

    2011-08-01

    The HCV stem-loop subdomains III-a, -b and -c have been shown to reflect the characteristics of the virus and identify isolates by genus, genotype and subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype-specific PNS within the 5'UTR of prevalent HCV genotypes (1 and 5a) found in South Africa. The genotype 5a (N = 35) and genotype 1 sequences (N=20) were from patients presenting with liver disease or haemophilia, respectively. PNS HCV typing characteristics, defined previously, were observed. The PNS method differentiated subtypes 1a and 1c from subtype 1b by the base change at nucleotide position 243. A lack of structural data from the variable loci V1 of the 5'UTR did not allow us to further differentiate the subtypes of 1. A nucleotide change from a thymine (T) to a cytosine (C) at position 183 was found among genotype 5a sequences. This mutation changed the stable U-AA bond to a Y AA bulge at base-pair position 32. There was an insertion of a single adenine (A) at position 207. At present PNS analysis is labour intensive but, with development of further software to aid the computer analysis, it has the potential to provide a rapid, reliable alternative to phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21600241

  6. Potential Role of KCNQ/M-Channels in Regulating Neuronal Differentiation in Mouse Hippocampal and Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Song, MingKe; Chen, Dongdong; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability, playing major roles in setting resting membrane potential, repolarizing the cell membrane after action potentials and affecting transmitter release. The M-type channel or M-channel is a unique voltage- and ligand-regulated K+ channel. It is composed of the molecular counterparts KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 (also named Kv7.2 and Kv7.3) channels and expressed in the soma and dendrites of neurons. The present investigation examined the hypothesis that KCNQ2/3 channels played a regulatory role in neuronal differentiation and maturation. In cultured mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells undergoing neuronal differentiation and primary embryonic (E15-17) hippocampal cultures, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels and underlying M-currents were identified. Blocking of KCNQ channels in these cells for 5 days using the specific channel blocker XE991 (10 μM) or linopirdine (30 μM) significantly decreased synaptophysin and syntaxin expression without affecting cell viability. Chronic KCNQ2/3 channel block reduced the expression of vesicular GABA transporter (v-GAT), but not vesicular glutamate transporter (v-GluT). Enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed in XE991- and linopirdine-treated neural progenitor cells. In electrophysiological recordings, cells undergoing chronic block of KCNQ2/3 channels showed normal amplitude of mPSCs while the frequency of mPSCs was reduced. On the other hand, KCNQ channel opener N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM, 2 μM) increased mPSC frequency. Fluorescent imaging using fluorescent styryl-dye FM4-64 revealed that chronic blockade of KCNQ2/3 channels decreased endocytosis but facilitated exocytosis. These data indicate that KCNQ2/3 channels participate in regulation of neuronal differentiation and show a tonic regulation on pre-synaptic transmitter release and recycling in developing neuronal cells. PMID:21466805

  7. Intracellular iron concentration of neurons with and without perineuronal nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Anja; Reinert, Tilo; Morawski, Markus; Brückner, Gert; Arendt, Thomas; Butz, Tilman

    2007-07-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease are characterized by abnormally high concentrations of iron in the affected brain areas. Iron is believed to contribute to oxidative stress by catalysing radical generation and subsequently causing neuronal death. Interestingly, subpopulations of neurons are less vulnerable against degeneration. One of these subpopulations possesses a specialized extracellular matrix arranged as a perineuronal net (PN), a structure with poorly understood functions. In order to differentiate between neurons with and without PN according to their iron concentrations we have performed a μPIXE study at the Leipzig LIPSION laboratory. PN-ensheathed neurons in selected brain areas were detected by lectin-histochemical staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). The staining was intensified by DAB- nickel by an established method enabling the visualisation of the PNs by nuclear microscopy. The cellular concentration of iron in the rat brain was about 1 mmol/l (ca. 30 μg/g dw). First results of subcellular analysis showed that the intracellular iron concentration of PN-ensheathed neurons tends to be slightly increased in comparison to neurons without PNs. The difference in intracellular iron concentrations could be an effect of the PNs.

  8. Cell-Surface Marker Signatures for the Isolation of Neural Stem Cells, Glia and Neurons Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shauna H.; Martin, Jody; Elia, Jeanne; Flippin, Jessica; Paramban, Rosanto I.; Hefferan, Mike P.; Vidal, Jason G.; Mu, Yangling; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Israel, Mason A.; Emre, Nil; Marsala, Silvia; Marsala, Martin; Gage, Fred H.; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Carson, Christian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neural induction of human pluripotent stem cells often yields heterogeneous cell populations that can hamper quantitative and comparative analyses. There is a need for improved differentiation and enrichment procedures that generate highly pure populations of neural stem cells (NSC), glia and neurons. One way to address this problem is to identify cell-surface signatures that enable the isolation of these cell types from heterogeneous cell populations by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an unbiased FACS- and image-based immunophenotyping analysis using 190 antibodies to cell surface markers on naïve human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell derivatives from neural differentiation cultures. From this analysis we identified prospective cell surface signatures for the isolation of NSC, glia and neurons. We isolated a population of NSC that was CD184+/CD271−/CD44−/CD24+ from neural induction cultures of hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Sorted NSC could be propagated for many passages and could differentiate to mixed cultures of neurons and glia in vitro and in vivo. A population of neurons that was CD184−/CD44−/CD15LOW/CD24+ and a population of glia that was CD184+/CD44+ were subsequently purified from cultures of differentiating NSC. Purified neurons were viable, expressed mature and subtype-specific neuronal markers, and could fire action potentials. Purified glia were mitotic and could mature to GFAP-expressing astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the utility of immunophenotyping screens for the identification of cell surface signatures of neural cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. These signatures can be used for isolating highly pure populations of viable NSC, glia and neurons by FACS. The methods described here will enable downstream studies that require consistent and defined neural cell populations. PMID

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-α increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons in an activity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bałkowiec-Iskra, E; Vermehren-Schmaedick, A; Balkowiec, A

    2011-04-28

    Many chronic trigeminal pain conditions, such as migraine or temporo-mandibular disorders, are associated with inflammation within peripheral endings of trigeminal ganglion (TG) sensory neurons. A critical role in mechanisms of neuroinflammation is attributed to proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) that also contribute to mechanisms of persistent neuropathic pain resulting from nerve injury. However, the mechanisms of cytokine-mediated synaptic plasticity and nociceptor sensitization are not completely understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of TNFα on neuronal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose role in synaptic plasticity and sensitization of nociceptive pathways is well documented. We show that 4- and 24-h treatment with TNFα increases BDNF mRNA and protein, respectively, in neuron-enriched dissociated cultures of rat TG. TNFα increases the phosphorylated form of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor involved in regulation of BDNF expression in neurons, and activates transcription of BDNF exon IV (former exon III) and, to a lesser extent, exon VI (former exon IV), but not exon I. TNFα-mediated increase in BDNF expression is accompanied by increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is consistent with previously published studies, and indicates that both peptides are similarly regulated in TG neurons by inflammatory mediators. The effect of TNFα on BDNF expression is dependent on sodium influx through TTX-sensitive channels and on p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, electrical stimulation and forskolin, known to increase intracellular cAMP, potentiate the TNFα-mediated upregulation of BDNF expression. This study provides new evidence for a direct action of proinflammatory cytokines on TG primary sensory neurons, and reveals a mechanism through which TNFα stimulates de novo synthesis of BDNF in

  10. Development of a pluripotent stem cell derived neuronal model to identify chemically induced pathway perturbations in relation to neurotoxicity: Effects of CREB pathway inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Pistollato, Francesca; Louisse, Jochem; Scelfo, Bibiana; Mennecozzi, Milena; Accordi, Benedetta; Basso, Giuseppe; Gaspar, John Antonydas; Zagoura, Dimitra; Barilari, Manuela; Palosaari, Taina; Sachinidis, Agapios; Bremer-Hoffmann, Susanne

    2014-10-15

    According to the advocated paradigm shift in toxicology, acquisition of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of chemicals, such as perturbations of biological pathways, is of primary interest. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), offer a unique opportunity to derive physiologically relevant human cell types to measure molecular and cellular effects of such pathway modulations. Here we compared the neuronal differentiation propensity of hESCs and hiPSCs with the aim to develop novel hiPSC-based tools for measuring pathway perturbation in relation to molecular and cellular effects in vitro. Among other fundamental pathways, also, the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) pathway was activated in our neuronal models and gave us the opportunity to study time-dependent effects elicited by chemical perturbations of the CREB pathway in relation to cellular effects. We show that the inhibition of the CREB pathway, using 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), induced an inhibition of neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, as well as a decrease of MAP2{sup +} neuronal cells. These data indicate that a CREB pathway inhibition can be related to molecular and cellular effects that may be relevant for neurotoxicity testing, and, thus, qualify the use of our hiPSC-derived neuronal model for studying chemical-induced neurotoxicity resulting from pathway perturbations. - Highlights: • HESCs derived neuronal cells serve as benchmark for iPSC based neuronal toxicity test development. • Comparisons between hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated variability of the epigenetic state • CREB pathway modulation have been explored in relation to the neurotoxicant exposure KG-501 • hiPSC might be promising tools to translate theoretical AoPs into toxicological in vitro tests.

  11. Investigating the utility of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons to model ageing and neurodegenerative disease using whole-genome gene expression and splicing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patani, Rickie; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah; Puddifoot, Clare A; Wyllie, David J A; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Hardingham, Giles E; Weale, Michael; Hardy, John; Chandran, Siddharthan; Ryten, Mina

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in regenerative medicine is the predictable manipulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to defined cell fates that faithfully represent their somatic counterparts. Directed differentiation of hESCs into neuronal populations has galvanized much interest into their potential application in modelling neurodegenerative disease. However, neurodegenerative diseases are age-related, and therefore establishing the maturational comparability of hESC-derived neural derivatives is critical to generating accurate in vitro model systems. We address this issue by comparing genome-wide, exon-specific expression analyses of pluripotent hESCs, multipotent neural precursor cells and a terminally differentiated enriched neuronal population to expression data from post-mortem foetal and adult human brain samples. We show that hESC-derived neuronal cultures (using a midbrain differentiation protocol as a prototypic example of lineage restriction), while successful in generating physiologically functional neurons, are closer to foetal than adult human brain in terms of molecular maturation. These findings suggest that developmental stage has a more dominant influence on the cellular transcriptome than regional identity. In addition, we demonstrate that developmentally regulated gene splicing is common, and potentially a more sensitive measure of maturational state than gene expression profiling alone. In summary, this study highlights the value of genomic indices in refining and validating optimal cell populations appropriate for modelling ageing and neurodegeneration. PMID:22681703

  12. Elevated α-synuclein caused by SNCA gene triplication impairs neuronal differentiation and maturation in Parkinson's patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, L M A; Falomir-Lockhart, L J; Botelho, M G; Lin, K-H; Wales, P; Koch, J C; Gerhardt, E; Taschenberger, H; Outeiro, T F; Lingor, P; Schüle, B; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the impact of α-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived from healthy individuals and lines generated from the patient iPS-derived neuroprogenitor lines infected with a lentivirus incorporating a small hairpin RNA to knock down the SNCA mRNA. The SNCA triplication lines exhibited a reduced capacity to differentiate into dopaminergic or GABAergic neurons and decreased neurite outgrowth and lower neuronal activity compared with control cultures. This delayed maturation phenotype was confirmed by gene expression profiling, which revealed a significant reduction in mRNA for genes implicated in neuronal differentiation such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 (GABABR2), nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK-2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The differentiated patient cells also demonstrated increased autophagic flux when stressed with chloroquine. We conclude that a two-fold overexpression of α-synuclein caused by a triplication of the SNCA gene is sufficient to impair the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells, a finding with implications for adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease progression, particularly in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction. PMID:26610207

  13. Isolation of Multipotent Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells Derived from the Epidermis of Elderly Humans and TAT-VHL Peptide-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of These Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Kubo, Atsuhiko; Yoshizumi, Tetsuya; Mikami, Taro; Maegawa, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A specialized population of cells residing in the hair follicle is quiescent but shows pluripotency for differentiating into epithelial-mesenchymal lineage cells. Therefore, such cells are hoped to be useful as implantable donor cells for regenerative therapy. Recently, it was reported that intracellular delivery of TAT-VHL peptide induces neuronal differentiation of skin-derived precursors. In the present study, we successfully isolated multipotent stem cells derived from the epidermis of elderly humans, characterized these cells as being capable of sphere formation and strong expression of nestin, fibronectin, and CD34 but not of keratin 15, and identified the niche of these cells as being the outer root sheath of the hair follicles. In addition, we showed that TAT-VHL peptide induced their neuronal differentiation in vitro, and confirmed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry the neuronal differentiation of such peptide-treated cells implanted into rodent brains. These multipotent nestin-expressing stem cells derived from human epidermis are easily accessible and should be useful as donor cells for neuronal regenerative cell therapy. PMID:23644888

  14. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27547033

  15. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27547033

  16. Quantitative high-throughput gene expression profiling of human striatal development to screen stem cell–derived medium spiny neurons

    PubMed Central

    Straccia, Marco; Garcia-Diaz Barriga, Gerardo; Sanders, Phil; Bombau, Georgina; Carrere, Jordi; Mairal, Pedro Belio; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Yung, Sun; Kelly, Claire M; Svendsen, Clive N; Kemp, Paul J; Arjomand, Jamshid; Schoenfeld, Ryan C; Alberch, Jordi; Allen, Nicholas D; Rosser, Anne E; Canals, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal gene expression during human neurodevelopment is essential to understand brain function in both physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided an in vitro tool to recapitulate human development, permitting also the generation of human models for many diseases. The correct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) into specific cell types should be evaluated by comparison with specific cells/tissue profiles from the equivalent adult in vivo organ. Here, we define by a quantitative high-throughput gene expression analysis the subset of specific genes of the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and adult human striatum. Our results demonstrate that not only the number of specific genes is crucial but also their relative expression levels between brain areas. We next used these gene profiles to characterize the differentiation of hPSCs. Our findings demonstrate a temporal progression of gene expression during striatal differentiation of hPSCs from a WGE toward an adult striatum identity. Present results establish a gene expression profile to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the telencephalic hPSC-derived progenitors eventually used for transplantation and mature striatal neurons for disease modeling and drug-screening. PMID:26417608

  17. Quantitative high-throughput gene expression profiling of human striatal development to screen stem cell-derived medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Marco; Garcia-Diaz Barriga, Gerardo; Sanders, Phil; Bombau, Georgina; Carrere, Jordi; Mairal, Pedro Belio; Vinh, Ngoc-Nga; Yung, Sun; Kelly, Claire M; Svendsen, Clive N; Kemp, Paul J; Arjomand, Jamshid; Schoenfeld, Ryan C; Alberch, Jordi; Allen, Nicholas D; Rosser, Anne E; Canals, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal gene expression during human neurodevelopment is essential to understand brain function in both physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided an in vitro tool to recapitulate human development, permitting also the generation of human models for many diseases. The correct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) into specific cell types should be evaluated by comparison with specific cells/tissue profiles from the equivalent adult in vivo organ. Here, we define by a quantitative high-throughput gene expression analysis the subset of specific genes of the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and adult human striatum. Our results demonstrate that not only the number of specific genes is crucial but also their relative expression levels between brain areas. We next used these gene profiles to characterize the differentiation of hPSCs. Our findings demonstrate a temporal progression of gene expression during striatal differentiation of hPSCs from a WGE toward an adult striatum identity. Present results establish a gene expression profile to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the telencephalic hPSC-derived progenitors eventually used for transplantation and mature striatal neurons for disease modeling and drug-screening. PMID:26417608

  18. Exploration of the Active Site of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase by the Design and Synthesis of Pyrrolidinomethyl 2-Aminopyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haitao; Delker, Silvia L.; Li, Huiying; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) represents an important therapeutic target for the prevention of brain injury and the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. A series of trans substituted amino pyrrolidinomethyl 2-aminopyridine derivatives (8–34) was designed and synthesized. A structure-activity relationship analysis led to the discovery of low nanomolar nNOS inhibitors [(±)-32 and (±)-34] with more than 1000-fold selectivity for nNOS over eNOS. Four enantiomerically pure isomers of 3′-[2″-(3‴-fluorophenethylamino)ethoxy]pyrrolidin-4′-yl}methyl}-4-methylpyridin-2-amine (4) also were synthesized. It was found that (3′R, 4′R)-4 can induce enzyme elasticity to generate a new “hot spot” for ligand binding. The inhibitor adopts a unique binding mode, the same as that observed for (3′R, 4′R)-3′-[2″-(3‴-fluorophenethylamino)ethylamino]pyrrolidin-4′-yl}methyl}-4-methylpyridin-2-amine ((3′R, 4′R)-3) (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132(15), 5437–5442). On the basis of structure-activity relationships of 8–34 and different binding conformations of the cis and trans isomers of 3 and 4, critical structural requirements of the NOS active site for ligand binding are revealed. PMID:20958055

  19. Microglial Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Drives Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Neuronal Cell Cycle Events

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Kiran; Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Weick, Jason P.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Herrup, Karl; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2013-01-01

    Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide (ApO)-mediated microglial activation induced neuronal CCEs via the tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and the c-Jun Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Second, adoptive transfer of CD11b+ microglia from AD transgenic mice (R1.40) induced neuronal cyclin D1 expression via TNFα signaling pathway. Third, genetic deficiency of TNFα in R1.40 mice (R1 .40-Tnfα−/−) iled to induce neuronal CCEs. Finally, the mitotically active neurons spatially co-exist with F4/80+ activated microglia in the human AD brain and that a portion of these neurons are apoptotic. Together our data suggest a cell-autonomous role of microglia, and identify TNFα as the responsible cytokine, in promoting neuronal CCEs in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24141019

  20. Fully-coupled analysis of jet mixing problems. Three-dimensional PNS model, SCIP3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. E.; Sinha, N.; Dash, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical procedures formulated for the analysis of 3D jet mixing problems, as incorporated in the computer model, SCIP3D, are described. The overall methodology closely parallels that developed in the earlier 2D axisymmetric jet mixing model, SCIPVIS. SCIP3D integrates the 3D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) jet mixing equations, cast in mapped cartesian or cylindrical coordinates, employing the explicit MacCormack Algorithm. A pressure split variant of this algorithm is employed in subsonic regions with a sublayer approximation utilized for treating the streamwise pressure component. SCIP3D contains both the ks and kW turbulence models, and employs a two component mixture approach to treat jet exhausts of arbitrary composition. Specialized grid procedures are used to adjust the grid growth in accordance with the growth of the jet, including a hybrid cartesian/cylindrical grid procedure for rectangular jets which moves the hybrid coordinate origin towards the flow origin as the jet transitions from a rectangular to circular shape. Numerous calculations are presented for rectangular mixing problems, as well as for a variety of basic unit problems exhibiting overall capabilities of SCIP3D.

  1. ER Stress and Autophagic Perturbations Lead to Elevated Extracellular α-Synuclein in GBA-N370S Parkinson's iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hugo J R; Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Christian, Helen C; Emmanoulidou, Evangelia; Zheng, Ying; Booth, Heather; Bogetofte, Helle; Lang, Charmaine; Ryan, Brent J; Sardi, S Pablo; Badger, Jennifer; Vowles, Jane; Evetts, Samuel; Tofaris, George K; Vekrellis, Kostas; Talbot, Kevin; Hu, Michele T; James, William; Cowley, Sally A; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent the strongest common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed ten independent induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from three controls and three unrelated PD patients heterozygous for the GBA-N370S mutation, and identified relevant disease mechanisms. After differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, we observed misprocessing of mutant glucocerebrosidase protein in the ER, associated with activation of ER stress and abnormal cellular lipid profiles. Furthermore, we observed autophagic perturbations and an enlargement of the lysosomal compartment specifically in dopamine neurons. Finally, we found increased extracellular α-synuclein in patient-derived neuronal culture medium, which was not associated with exosomes. Overall, ER stress, autophagic/lysosomal perturbations, and elevated extracellular α-synuclein likely represent critical early cellular phenotypes of PD, which might offer multiple therapeutic targets. PMID:26905200

  2. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP

  3. Scorpion Venom Heat-Resistant Peptide (SVHRP) Enhances Neurogenesis and Neurite Outgrowth of Immature Neurons in Adult Mice by Up-Regulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2’-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU- positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of

  4. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S; Morris, Huw R; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T; Bushell, Trevor J; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J; Fox, Nick C; Rossor, Martin N; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-09-15

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC-neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  5. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J.; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S.; Morris, Huw R.; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J.; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T.; Bushell, Trevor J.; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J.; Fox, Nick C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC–neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  6. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Shirou; Hikiji, Hisako; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2016-07-01

    Glycerophospholipids, which are components of biomembranes, are formed de novo by the Kennedy pathway and subsequently mature through the Lands cycle. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) are key enzymes in both pathways and influence the fatty acid composition of biomembranes. Neuronal differentiation is characterized by neurite outgrowth, which requires biomembrane biosynthesis. However, the role of LPLATs in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether LPLATs are involved in neuronal differentiation using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated P19C6 cells. In these cells, mRNA levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT)-1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT)-1 were higher than those in undifferentiated cells. LPEAT enzymatic activity increased with 16:0- and 18:1-CoA as acyl donors. When LPEAT1/MBOAT1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), outgrowth of neurites and expression of neuronal markers decreased in ATRA-treated P19C6 cells. Voltage-dependent calcium channel activity was also suppressed in these cells transfected with LPEAT1/MBOAT1 siRNA. These results suggest that LPEAT1/MBOAT1 plays an important role in neurite outgrowth and function.-Tabe, S., Hikiji, H., Ariyoshi, W., Hashidate-Yoshida, T., Shindou, H., Okinaga, T., Shimizu, T., Tominaga, K., Nishihara, T. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons. PMID:27048541

  7. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3/-9 activation.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed at understanding the effect of the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) on oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1 mM) reduced viability of cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons to 50% of basal levels, but DCP-LA significantly prevented the SNP effect in a concentration (1-100 nM)-dependent manner. In addition, DCP-LA (100 nM) rescued neurons from SNP-induced degradation. SNP (1 mM) activated caspase-3 and -9 in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, but DCP-LA (100 nM) abolished the caspase activation. For a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, oral administration with DCP-LA (1 mg/kg) significantly diminished degraded area due to cerebral infarction. The results of the present study, thus, demonstrate that DCP-LA protects neurons at least in part from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of caspase-3/-9. PMID:20099079

  8. Mfn2 is Required for Mitochondrial Development and Synapse Formation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/hiPSC Derived Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fang, Du; Yan, Shijun; Yu, Qing; Chen, Doris; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential dynamic organelles for energy production. Mitochondria dynamically change their shapes tightly coupled to fission and fusion. Imbalance of fission and fusion can cause deficits in mitochondrial respiration, morphology and motility. Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), a mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells, contributes to the maintenance and operation of the mitochondrial network. Due to lack of applicable model systems, the mechanisms and involvement of mitochondria in neurogenesis in human brain cells have not been well explored. Here, by employing the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiation system, we fully characterized mitochondrial development, neurogenesis and synapse formation in hiPSCs-derived cortical neurons. Differentiation of hiPSCs to cortical neurons with extended period demonstrates mature neurophysiology characterization and functional synaptic network formation. Mitochondrial respiration, morphology and motility in the differentiated neurons also exhibit pronounced development during differentiation. Mfn2 knock-down results in deficits in mitochondrial metabolism and network, neurogenesis and synapse formation, while Mfn2 overexpression enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and functions, and promotes the differentiation and maturation of neurons. Together, our data indicate that Mfn2 is essential for human mitochondrial development in neuronal maturation and differentiation, which will enhance our understanding of the role of Mfn2 in neurogenesis. PMID:27535796

  9. Mfn2 is Required for Mitochondrial Development and Synapse Formation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/hiPSC Derived Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Du; Yan, Shijun; Yu, Qing; Chen, Doris; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential dynamic organelles for energy production. Mitochondria dynamically change their shapes tightly coupled to fission and fusion. Imbalance of fission and fusion can cause deficits in mitochondrial respiration, morphology and motility. Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), a mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells, contributes to the maintenance and operation of the mitochondrial network. Due to lack of applicable model systems, the mechanisms and involvement of mitochondria in neurogenesis in human brain cells have not been well explored. Here, by employing the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiation system, we fully characterized mitochondrial development, neurogenesis and synapse formation in hiPSCs-derived cortical neurons. Differentiation of hiPSCs to cortical neurons with extended period demonstrates mature neurophysiology characterization and functional synaptic network formation. Mitochondrial respiration, morphology and motility in the differentiated neurons also exhibit pronounced development during differentiation. Mfn2 knock-down results in deficits in mitochondrial metabolism and network, neurogenesis and synapse formation, while Mfn2 overexpression enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics and functions, and promotes the differentiation and maturation of neurons. Together, our data indicate that Mfn2 is essential for human mitochondrial development in neuronal maturation and differentiation, which will enhance our understanding of the role of Mfn2 in neurogenesis. PMID:27535796

  10. Anti-Aβ Drug Screening Platform Using Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Naoki; Asai, Masashi; Kitaoka, Shiho; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Asaka, Isao; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Takeshi; Maruyama, Kei; Saido, Takaomi C.; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Asada, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive memory and cognitive decline during middle to late adult life. The AD brain is characterized by deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which is produced from amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase (presenilin complex)-mediated sequential cleavage. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells potentially provide an opportunity to generate a human cell-based model of AD that would be crucial for drug discovery as well as for investigating mechanisms of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We differentiated human iPS (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells expressing the forebrain marker, Foxg1, and the neocortical markers, Cux1, Satb2, Ctip2, and Tbr1. The iPS cell-derived neuronal cells also expressed amyloid precursor protein, β-secretase, and γ-secretase components, and were capable of secreting Aβ into the conditioned media. Aβ production was inhibited by β-secretase inhibitor, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), and an NSAID; however, there were different susceptibilities to all three drugs between early and late differentiation stages. At the early differentiation stage, GSI treatment caused a fast increase at lower dose (Aβ surge) and drastic decline of Aβ production. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells express functional β- and γ-secretases involved in Aβ production; however, anti-Aβ drug screening using these hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells requires sufficient neuronal differentiation. PMID:21984949

  11. The neuronal extracellular matrix restricts distribution and internalization of aggregated Tau-protein.

    PubMed

    Suttkus, A; Holzer, M; Morawski, M; Arendt, T

    2016-01-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by fibrillary aggregates of Aß and Tau-protein. Formation and progression of these pathological hallmarks throughout the brain follow a specific spatio-temporal pattern which provides the basis for neuropathological staging. Previously, we could demonstrate that cortical and subcortical neurons are less frequently affected by neurofibrillary degeneration if they are enwrapped by a specialized form of the hyaluronan-based extracellular matrix (ECM), the so called 'perineuronal net' (PN). PNs are composed of large aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans connected to a hyaluronan backbone, stabilized by link proteins and cross-linked via tenascin-R. Recently, PN-associated neurons were shown to be better protected against iron-induced neurodegeneration compared to neurons without PN, indicating a neuroprotective function. Here, we investigated the role of PNs in distribution and internalization of exogenous Tau-protein by using organotypic slice cultures of wildtype mice as well as mice lacking the ECM-components aggrecan, HAPLN1 or tenascin-R. We could demonstrate that PNs restrict both distribution and internalization of Tau. Accordingly, PN-ensheathed neurons were less frequently affected by Tau-internalization, than neurons without PN. Finally, the PNs as well as their three investigated components were shown to modulate the processes of distribution as well as internalization of Tau. PMID:26621125

  12. Alterations of Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons: Turning Points in the Genesis of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Alberto; De Giorgio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons (PNs) represent the majority of neocortical cells and their involvement in cognitive functions is decisive. Therefore, they are the most obvious target of developmental disorders characterized by mental retardation. Genetic and non-genetic forms of intellectual disability share a few basic pathogenetic signatures that result in the anomalous function of PNs. Here, we review the key mechanisms impairing these neurons and their participation in the cortical network, with special focus on experimental models of fetal exposure to alcohol. Due to the heterogeneity of PNs, some alterations affect selectively a given cell population, which may also differ depending on the considered pathology. These specific features open new possibilities for the interpretation of cognitive defects observed in mental retardation syndromes, as well as for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:25157343

  13. PNS and statistical experiments simulation in subcritical systems using Monte-Carlo method on example of Yalina-Thermal assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovich, Sergey; Talamo, A.; Burnos, V.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Fokov, Yu.

    2014-06-01

    In subcritical systems driven by an external neutron source, the experimental methods based on pulsed neutron source and statistical techniques play an important role for reactivity measurement. Simulation of these methods is very time-consumed procedure. For simulations in Monte-Carlo programs several improvements for neutronic calculations have been made. This paper introduces a new method for simulation PNS and statistical measurements. In this method all events occurred in the detector during simulation are stored in a file using PTRAC feature in the MCNP. After that with a special code (or post-processing) PNS and statistical methods can be simulated. Additionally different shapes of neutron pulses and its lengths as well as dead time of detectors can be included into simulation. The methods described above were tested on subcritical assembly Yalina-Thermal, located in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research SOSNY, Minsk, Belarus. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results was shown.

  14. ZNF804A Transcriptional Networks in Differentiating Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Human Origin

    PubMed Central

    Hrabovsky, Anastasia; Pedrosa, Erika; Dean, Jason; Jain, Swati; Zheng, Deyou; Lachman, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    ZNF804A (Zinc Finger Protein 804A) has been identified as a candidate gene for schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and bipolar disorder (BD) in replicated genome wide association studies (GWAS) and by copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Although its function has not been well-characterized, ZNF804A contains a C2H2-type zinc-finger domain, suggesting that it has DNA binding properties, and consequently, a role in regulating gene expression. To further explore the role of ZNF804A on gene expression and its downstream targets, we used a gene knockdown (KD) approach to reduce its expression in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). KD was accomplished by RNA interference (RNAi) using lentiviral particles containing shRNAs that target ZNF804A mRNA. Stable transduced NPC lines were generated after puromycin selection. A control cell line expressing a random (scrambled) shRNA was also generated. Neuronal differentiation was induced, RNA was harvested after 14 days and transcriptome analysis was carried out using RNA-seq. 1815 genes were found to be differentially expressed at a nominally significant level (p<0.05); 809 decreased in expression in the KD samples, while 1106 increased. Of these, 370 achieved genome wide significance (FDR<0.05); 125 were lower in the KD samples, 245 were higher. Pathway analysis showed that genes involved in interferon-signaling were enriched among those that were down-regulated in the KD samples. Correspondingly, ZNF804A KD was found to affect interferon-alpha 2 (IFNA2)-mediated gene expression. The findings suggest that ZNF804A may affect a differentiating neuron’s response to inflammatory cytokines, which is consistent with models of SZ and ASD that support a role for infectious disease, and/or autoimmunity in a subgroup of patients. PMID:25905630

  15. Retina-derived POU domain factor 1 coordinates expression of genes relevant to renal and neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Antonio; Manenti, Giacomo; Gamba, Beatrice; Bucci, Gabriele; De Cecco, Loris; Sardella, Michele; Buscemi, Giacomo; Ciceri, Sara; Radice, Maria T; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Retina-derived POU domain Factor 1 (RPF-1), a member of POU transcription factor family, is encoded by POU6F2 gene, addressed by interstitial deletions at chromosome 7p14 in Wilms tumor (WT). Its expression has been detected in developing kidney and nervous system, suggesting an early role for this gene in regulating development of these organs. To investigate into its functions and determine its role in transcriptional regulation, we generated an inducible stable transfectant from HEK293 cells. RPF-1 showed nuclear localization, elevated stability, and transactivation of promoters featuring POU consensus sites, and led to reduced cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. By addressing the whole transcriptome regulated by its induction, we could detect a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with promoter occupancy predicted by genome-wide Chip-chip analysis. Comparison of bound regulatory regions with differentially expressed genes allowed identification of 217 candidate targets. Enrichment of divergent octamers in predicted regulatory regions revealed promiscuous binding to bipartite POUS and POUH consensus half-sites with intervening spacers. Gel-shift competition assay confirmed the specificity of RPF-1 binding to consensus motifs, and demonstrated that the Ser-rich region upstream of the POU domain is indispensable to achieve DNA-binding. Promoter-reporter activity addressing a few target genes indicated a dependence by RPF-1 on transcriptional response. In agreement with its expression in developing kidney and nervous system, the induced transcriptome appears to indicate a function for this protein in early renal differentiation and neuronal cell fate, providing a resource for understanding its role in the processes thereby regulated. PMID:27425396

  16. Endothelial dysfunction in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-derived hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Silva, Grazielle C; Silva, Josiane F; Diniz, Thiago F; Lemos, Virginia S; Cortes, Steyner F

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common problem associated with hypertension and is considered a precursor to the development of micro- and macro-vascular complications. The present study investigated the involvement of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) in the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the mesenteric arteries of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt-hypertensive mice. Myograph studies were used to investigate the endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of ACh (acetylcholine). The expression and phosphorylation of nNOS and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) were studied by Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the localization of nNOS and eNOS in the endothelial layer of the mesenteric artery. The vasodilator effect of ACh is strongly impaired in mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Non-selective inhibition of NOS sharply reduced the effect of ACh in both DOCA-salt-hypertensive and sham mice. Selective inhibition of nNOS and catalase led to a higher reduction in the effect of ACh in sham than in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Production of H2O2 induced by ACh was significantly reduced in vessels from DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, and it was blunted after nNOS inhibition. The expression of both eNOS and nNOS was considerably lower in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, whereas phosphorylation of their inhibitory sites was increased. The presence of nNOS was confirmed in the endothelial layer of mesenteric arteries from both sham and DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. These results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice is associated with reduced expression and functioning of nNOS and impaired production of nNOS-derived H2O2 Such findings offer a new perspective for the understanding of endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. PMID:26976926

  17. Functional and phenotypic differences of pure populations of stem cell-derived astrocytes and neuronal precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kleiderman, Susanne; Sá, João V; Teixeira, Ana P; Brito, Catarina; Gutbier, Simon; Evje, Lars G; Hadera, Mussie G; Glaab, Enrico; Henry, Margit; Sachinidis, Agapios; Alves, Paula M; Sonnewald, Ursula; Leist, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Availability of homogeneous astrocyte populations would facilitate research concerning cell plasticity (metabolic and transcriptional adaptations; innate immune responses) and cell cycle reactivation. Current protocols to prepare astrocyte cultures differ in their final content of immature precursor cells, preactivated cells or entirely different cell types. A new method taking care of all these issues would improve research on astrocyte functions. We found here that the exposure of a defined population of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (NSC) to BMP4 results in pure, nonproliferating astrocyte cultures within 24-48 h. These murine astrocytes generated from embryonic stem cells (mAGES) expressed the positive markers GFAP, aquaporin 4 and GLT-1, supported neuronal function, and acquired innate immune functions such as the response to tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1. The protocol was applicable to several normal or disease-prone pluripotent cell lines, and the corresponding mAGES all exited the cell cycle and lost most of their nestin expression, in contrast to astrocytes generated by serum-addition or obtained as primary cultures. Comparative gene expression analysis of mAGES and NSC allowed quantification of differences between the two cell types and a definition of an improved marker set to define astrocytes. Inclusion of several published data sets in this transcriptome comparison revealed the similarity of mAGES with cortical astrocytes in vivo. Metabolic analysis of homogeneous NSC and astrocyte populations revealed distinct neurochemical features: both cell types synthesized glutamine and citrate, but only mature astrocytes released these metabolites. Thus, the homogeneous cultures allowed an improved definition of NSC and astrocyte features. PMID:26689134

  18. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in three-dimensional culture promote neuronal regeneration by neurotrophic protection and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Li, Xing; Xiao, Zhifeng; Han, Jin; Zhao, Yannan; Fang, Yongxiang; Yin, Yanyun; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed three-dimensional (3D) culture could better mimic the stem cell niche in vivo in comparison with conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In this study, we found that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in 3D collagen scaffold (3D BMSCs) exhibited distinctive features including significantly enhancing neurotrophic factor secretions and reducing macrophage activations challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. To further evaluate 3D BMSCs' potential benefits to the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI), the 3D and 2D BMSCs were respectively implanted in rat hemisected SCI. Compared with 2D cohort, 3D BMSCs transplantation significantly reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at 5 days after transplantation, markedly enhanced axonal regeneration, and promoted motor functional recovery during 8 weeks of observation. When Nocodazole was used to depolymerize the cytoskeleton of 3D BMSCs, the changed expressions of neurotrophic factors and inflammatory cytokines were blunted, at least partially. Thus synergistic effects of neuronal protection and immunomodulation of 3D BMSCs may lead to a better functional recovery of SCI and the underlying mechanism may involve the alteration of their cellular morphology because of 3D culture. This study contributes to a better understanding of the cellular characteristics of 3D BMSCs and provides a novel strategy to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1759-1769, 2016. PMID:26990583

  19. The GUINEVERE experiment: First PNS measurements in a lead moderated sub-critical fast core

    SciTech Connect

    Thyebault, H. E.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecouey, J. L.; Lehaut, G.; Marie, N.; Ban, G.

    2012-07-01

    The GUINEVERE (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) experimental program is dedicated to the study of Accelerator Driven System reactivity monitoring. It was partly carried out within the EUROTRANS integrated project (EURATOM FP6). GUINEVERE consists in coupling the fast core of the VENUS-F reactor (SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)), composed of enriched uranium and solid lead, with a T(d,n) neutron source provided by the GENEPI-3C deuteron accelerator. This neutron source can be operated in several modes: pulsed mode, continuous mode and also continuous mode with short beam interruptions (the so called 'beam trips'). In the past, the key questions of the reactivity control and monitoring in a subcritical system were studied in the MUSE experiments (1998-2004). These experiments highlighted the difficulty to determine precisely the reactivity with a single technique. This led to investigate a new strategy which is based on the combination of the relative reactivity monitoring via the core power to beam current relationship with absolute reactivity cross-checks during programmed beam interruptions. Consequently, to determine the reactivity, several dynamical techniques of reactivity determination have to be compared. In addition, their accuracy for absolute reactivity determination must be evaluated using a reference reactivity determination technique (from a critical state: rod drop and MSM measurements). The first sub-critical configuration which was studied was around k{sub eff} = 0.96 (SCI). Pulsed Neutron Source experiments (PNS) were carried out. The neutron population decrease was measured using fission chambers in different locations inside the core and the reflector. Neutron population time decrease was analyzed using fitting techniques and the Area Method Results obtained for the SCI reactivity will be shown, discussed and compared to the reference value given by the MSM method. (authors)

  20. Effect of Potent γ-Secretase Modulator in Human Neurons Derived From Multiple Presenilin 1–Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Mutant Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Waltz, Shannon; Woodruff, Grace; Ouyang, Joe; Israel, Mason A.; Herrera, Cheryl; Sarsoza, Floyd; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Koo, Edward H.; Ringman, John M.; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Wagner, Steven L.; Yuan, Shauna H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Although considerable effort has been expended developing drug candidates for Alzheimer disease, none have yet succeeded owing to the lack of efficacy or to safety concerns. One potential shortcoming of current approaches to Alzheimer disease drug discovery and development is that they rely primarily on transformed cell lines and animal models that substantially overexpress wild-type or mutant proteins. It is possible that drug development failures thus far are caused in part by the limits of these approaches, which do not accurately reveal how drug candidates will behave in naive human neuronal cells. Objective To analyze purified neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells from patients carrying 3 different presenilin 1 (PS1) mutations and nondemented control individuals in the absence of any overexpression. We tested the efficacy of γ-secretase inhibitor and γ-secretase modulator (GSM) in neurons derived from both normal control and 3 PS1 mutations (A246E, H163R, and M146L). Design, Setting, and Participants Adult human skin biopsies were obtained from volunteers at the Alzheimer Disease Research Center, University of California, San Diego. Cell cultures were treated with γ-secretase inhibitor or GSM. Comparisons of total β-amyloid (Aβ) and Aβ peptides 38, 40, and 42 in the media were made between vehicle- vs drug-treated cultures. Main Outcomes and Measures Soluble Aβ levels in the media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results As predicted, mutant PS1 neurons exhibited an elevated Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio (P <.05) at the basal state as compared with the nondemented control neurons. Treatment with a potent non–nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory druglike GSM revealed a new biomarker signature that differs from all previous cell types and animals tested. This new signature was the same in both the mutant and control neurons and consisted of a reduction in Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38 and in the Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio, with no

  1. Imbalance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic protein expression in iPSC-derived neurons from FOXG1(+/-) patients and in foxg1(+/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Patriarchi, Tommaso; Amabile, Sonia; Frullanti, Elisa; Landucci, Elisa; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Ariani, Francesca; Costa, Mario; Olimpico, Francesco; W Hell, Johannes; M Vaccarino, Flora; Renieri, Alessandra; Meloni, Ilaria

    2016-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in either MECP2, CDKL5 or FOXG1. The precise molecular mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of RTT have yet to be elucidated. We recently reported that expression of GluD1 (orphan glutamate receptor δ-1 subunit) is increased in iPSC-derived neurons obtained from patients with mutations in either MECP2 or CDKL5. GluD1 controls synaptic differentiation and shifts the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses toward the latter. Thus, an increase in GluD1 might be a critical factor in the etiology of RTT by affecting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the developing brain. To test this hypothesis, we generated iPSC-derived neurons from FOXG1(+/-) patients. We analyzed mRNA and protein levels of GluD1 together with key markers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in these iPSC-derived neurons and in Foxg1(+/-) mouse fetal (E11.5) and adult (P70) brains. We found strong correlation between iPSC-derived neurons and fetal mouse brains, where GluD1 and inhibitory synaptic markers (GAD67 and GABA AR-α1) were increased, whereas the levels of a number of excitatory synaptic markers (VGLUT1, GluA1, GluN1 and PSD-95) were decreased. In adult mice, GluD1 was decreased along with all GABAergic and glutamatergic markers. Our findings further the understanding of the etiology of RTT by introducing a new pathological event occurring in the brain of FOXG1(+/-) patients during embryonic development and its time-dependent shift toward a general decrease in brain synapses. PMID:26443267

  2. P-Element Insertion Alleles of Essential Genes on the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster: Mutations Affecting Embryonic Pns Development

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, A.; Prokopenko, S. N.; He, Y.; Tsai, P.; Pal, M.; Maroy, P.; Glover, D. M.; Deak, P.; Bellen, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    To identify novel genes and to isolate tagged mutations in known genes that are required for the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), we have screened a novel collection of 2460 strains carrying lethal or semilethal P-element insertions on the third chromosome. Monoclonal antibody 22C10 was used as a marker to visualize the embryonic PNS. We identified 109 mutant strains that exhibited reproducible phenotypes in the PNS. Cytological and genetic analyses of these strains indicated that 87 mutations affect previously identified genes: tramtrack (n = 18 alleles), string (n = 15), cyclin A (n = 13), single-minded (n = 13), Delta (n = 9), neuralized (n = 4), pointed (n = 4), extra macrochaetae (n = 4), prospero (n = 3), tartan (n = 2), and pebble (n = 2). In addition, 13 mutations affect genes that we identified recently in a chemical mutagenesis screen designed to isolate similar mutants: hearty (n = 3), dorsotonals (n = 2), pavarotti (n = 2), sanpodo (n = 2), dalmatian (n = 1), missensed (n = 1), senseless (n = 1), and sticky ch1 (n = 1). The remaining nine mutations define seven novel complementation groups. The data presented here demonstrate that this collection of P elements will be useful for the identification and cloning of novel genes on the third chromosome, since >70% of mutations identified in the screen are caused by the insertion of a P element. A comparison between this screen and a chemical mutagenesis screen undertaken earlier highlights the complementarity of the two types of genetic screens. PMID:9409832

  3. Pro-inflammatory cytokines derived from West Nile virus (WNV)-infected SK-N-SH cells mediate neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE) is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive and destructive whereas infection of non-neuronal brain cells is limited. However, the role of neurons and pathological consequences of pro-inflammatory cytokines released as a result of WNV infection is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of key cytokines secreted by WNV-infected neurons in mediating neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death. Methods A transformed human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was infected with WNV at multiplicity of infection (MOI)-1 and -5, and WNV replication kinetics and expression profile of key pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and ELISA. Cell death was measured in SK-N-SH cell line in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against key pro-inflammatory cytokines using cell viability assay, TUNEL and flow cytometry. Further, naïve primary astrocytes were treated with UV-inactivated supernatant from mock- and WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line and the activation of astrocytes was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells induced the expression of IL-1β, -6, -8, and TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which coincided with increase in virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with anti-IL-1β or -TNF-α resulted in significant reduction of the neurotoxic effects of WNV. Furthermore treatment of naïve astrocytes with UV-inactivated supernatant from WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and key inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggest that neurons are one of the potential sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WNV-infected brain and these neuron-derived cytokines contribute to WNV-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover

  4. Rescuing neuronal cell death by RAIDD- and PIDD- derived peptides and its implications for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae-Ho; Lim, In-Hye; Kim, Chang Min; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-Ae; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-2 is known to be involved in oxidative-stress mediated neuronal cell death. In this study, we demonstrated that rotenone-induced neuronal cell death is mediated by caspase-2 activation via PIDDosome formation. Our newly designed TAT-fused peptides, which contains wild-type helix number3 (H3) from RAIDD and PIDD, blocked the PIDDosome formation in vitro. Furthermore, peptides inhibited rotenone-induced caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in neuronal cells. These results suggest that PIDD- or RAIDD-targeted peptides might be effective at protecting against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Our peptides are novel neuronal cell apoptosis inhibitors that might serve as a prototype for development of drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27502430

  5. Quantitative assessment of neurite outgrowth in human embryonic stem-cell derived neurons using automated high-content image analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    During development neurons undergo a number of morphological changes including neurite outgrowth from the cell body. Exposure to neurotoxicants that interfere with this process may cause in permanent deficits in nervous system function. While many studies have used rodent primary...

  6. Rescuing neuronal cell death by RAIDD- and PIDD- derived peptides and its implications for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Ho; Lim, In-Hye; Kim, Chang Min; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-Ae; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-2 is known to be involved in oxidative-stress mediated neuronal cell death. In this study, we demonstrated that rotenone-induced neuronal cell death is mediated by caspase-2 activation via PIDDosome formation. Our newly designed TAT-fused peptides, which contains wild-type helix number3 (H3) from RAIDD and PIDD, blocked the PIDDosome formation in vitro. Furthermore, peptides inhibited rotenone-induced caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in neuronal cells. These results suggest that PIDD- or RAIDD-targeted peptides might be effective at protecting against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Our peptides are novel neuronal cell apoptosis inhibitors that might serve as a prototype for development of drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27502430

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve diabetes-induced cognitive impairment by exosome transfer into damaged neurons and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Masako; Nagaishi, Kanna; Konari, Naoto; Saito, Yuki; Chikenji, Takako; Mizue, Yuka; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of dementia is higher in diabetic patients, but no effective treatment has been developed. This study showed that rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can improve the cognitive impairments of STZ-diabetic mice by repairing damaged neurons and astrocytes. The Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive impairments induced by diabetes were significantly improved by intravenous injection of BM-MSCs. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, degeneration of neurons and astrocytes, as well as synaptic loss, were prominent in diabetes, and BM-MSC treatment successfully normalized them. Since a limited number of donor BM-MSCs was observed in the brain parenchyma, we hypothesized that humoral factors, especially exosomes released from BM-MSCs, act on damaged neurons and astrocytes. To investigate the effectiveness of exosomes for treatment of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment, exosomes were purified from the culture media and injected intracerebroventricularly into diabetic mice. Recovery of cognitive impairment and histological abnormalities similar to that seen with BM-MSC injection was found following exosome treatment. Use of fluorescence-labeled exosomes demonstrated that injected exosomes were internalized into astrocytes and neurons; these subsequently reversed the dysfunction. The present results indicate that exosomes derived from BM-MSCs might be a promising therapeutic tool for diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:27102354

  8. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve diabetes-induced cognitive impairment by exosome transfer into damaged neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masako; Nagaishi, Kanna; Konari, Naoto; Saito, Yuki; Chikenji, Takako; Mizue, Yuka; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of dementia is higher in diabetic patients, but no effective treatment has been developed. This study showed that rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can improve the cognitive impairments of STZ-diabetic mice by repairing damaged neurons and astrocytes. The Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive impairments induced by diabetes were significantly improved by intravenous injection of BM-MSCs. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, degeneration of neurons and astrocytes, as well as synaptic loss, were prominent in diabetes, and BM-MSC treatment successfully normalized them. Since a limited number of donor BM-MSCs was observed in the brain parenchyma, we hypothesized that humoral factors, especially exosomes released from BM-MSCs, act on damaged neurons and astrocytes. To investigate the effectiveness of exosomes for treatment of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment, exosomes were purified from the culture media and injected intracerebroventricularly into diabetic mice. Recovery of cognitive impairment and histological abnormalities similar to that seen with BM-MSC injection was found following exosome treatment. Use of fluorescence-labeled exosomes demonstrated that injected exosomes were internalized into astrocytes and neurons; these subsequently reversed the dysfunction. The present results indicate that exosomes derived from BM-MSCs might be a promising therapeutic tool for diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:27102354

  9. Beyond the Hypothesis of Serum Anticholinergic Activity in Alzheimer's Disease: Acetylcholine Neuronal Activity Modulates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Production and Inflammation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Hachisu, Mitsugu; Konishi, Kimiko; Hosoi, Misa; Tani, Masayuki; Tomioka, Hiroi; Inamoto, Atsuko; Minami, Sousuke; Izuno, Takuji; Umezawa, Kaori; Horiuchi, Kentaro; Hori, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by neurodegeneration, especially an acetylcholine (ACh) neuronal deficit with accumulation of β-amyloid protein, which leads to oxygen stress and inflammation. The active oxygen directly damages the neuron by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). The inflammation is due to activation of the microglia, thereby producing cytokines which inhibit the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). As the BDNF acts by neuronal protection, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis, the reduction of BDNF in the brain of AD patients worsens the symptoms of AD. On the other hand, treatment of AD patients with a cholinesterase inhibitor enhances ACh activity and inhibits inflammation. Then the expression of BDNF is restored and neuroprotection reestablished. However, there are several reports which showed controversial results concerning the relationship between BDNF and AD. We speculate that BDNF is related to some neurocognitive process and reflects neuronal activity in other neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders and that in the mild cognitive impairment stage, BDNF and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities are hyperactivated because of a compensatory mechanism of AD pathology. In contrast, in the mild stage of AD, BDNF and ChAT activity are downregulated. PMID:26138497

  10. Susceptibility of neuron-like cells derived from bovine Wharton’s jelly to bovine herpesvirus type 5 infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), frequently lethal in cattle, is associated with significant agricultural economic losses due to neurological disease. Cattle and rabbits are frequently used as models to study the biology and pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection. In particular, neural invasion and proliferation are two of the factors important in BoHV-5 infection. The present study investigated the potential of bovine Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (bWJ-MSCs) to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype and support robust BoHV-5 replication. Results Upon inducing differentiation within a defined neuronal specific medium, most bWJ-MSCs acquired the distinctive neuronal morphological features and stained positively for the neuronal/glial markers MAP2 (neuronal microtubule associated protein 2), N200 (neurofilament 200), NT3 (neutrophin 3), tau and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Expression of nestin, N200, β-tubulin III (TuJI) and GFAP was further demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Following BoHV-5 inoculation, there were low rates of cell detachment, good cell viability at 96 h post-infection (p.i.), and small vesicles developed along neuronal branches. Levels of BoHV-5 antigens and DNA were associated with the peak in viral titres at 72 h p.i. BoHV-5 glycoprotein C mRNA expression was significantly correlated with production of progeny virus at 72 h p.i. (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrated the ability of bWJ-MSCs to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype in vitro and support productive BoHV-5 replication. These findings constitute a remarkable contribution to the in vitro study of neurotropic viruses. This work may pave the way for bWJ-MSCs to be used as an alternative to animal models in the study of BoHV-5 biology. PMID:23227933

  11. Irregular spiking of pyramidal neurons organizes as scale-invariant neuronal avalanches in the awake state.

    PubMed

    Bellay, Timothy; Klaus, Andreas; Seshadri, Saurav; Plenz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in neuronal activity emerge at many spatial and temporal scales in cortex. Population measures found these fluctuations to organize as scale-invariant neuronal avalanches, suggesting cortical dynamics to be critical. Macroscopic dynamics, though, depend on physiological states and are ambiguous as to their cellular composition, spatiotemporal origin, and contributions from synaptic input or action potential (AP) output. Here, we study spontaneous firing in pyramidal neurons (PNs) from rat superficial cortical layers in vivo and in vitro using 2-photon imaging. As the animal transitions from the anesthetized to awake state, spontaneous single neuron firing increases in irregularity and assembles into scale-invariant avalanches at the group level. In vitro spike avalanches emerged naturally yet required balanced excitation and inhibition. This demonstrates that neuronal avalanches are linked to the global physiological state of wakefulness and that cortical resting activity organizes as avalanches from firing of local PN groups to global population activity. PMID:26151674

  12. iPSC-derived neurons from GBA1-associated Parkinson's disease patients show autophagic defects and impaired calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schöndorf, David C; Aureli, Massimo; McAllister, Fiona E; Hindley, Christopher J; Mayer, Florian; Schmid, Benjamin; Sardi, S Pablo; Valsecchi, Manuela; Hoffmann, Susanna; Schwarz, Lukas Kristoffer; Hedrich, Ulrike; Berg, Daniela; Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Hu, Jing; Pruszak, Jan; Gygi, Steven P; Sonnino, Sandro; Gasser, Thomas; Deleidi, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, responsible for the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD), are the strongest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known to date. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from subjects with GD and PD harbouring GBA1 mutations, and differentiate them into midbrain dopaminergic neurons followed by enrichment using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Neurons show a reduction in glucocerebrosidase activity and protein levels, increase in glucosylceramide and α-synuclein levels as well as autophagic and lysosomal defects. Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals an increase of the neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) in diseased neurons. Mutant neurons show a dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and increased vulnerability to stress responses involving elevation of cytosolic calcium. Importantly, correction of the mutations rescues such pathological phenotypes. These findings provide evidence for a link between GBA1 mutations and complex changes in the autophagic/lysosomal system and intracellular calcium homeostasis, which underlie vulnerability to neurodegeneration. PMID:24905578

  13. Physiological maturation and drug responses of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neuronal networks in long-term culture

    PubMed Central

    Odawara, A.; Katoh, H.; Matsuda, N.; Suzuki, I.

    2016-01-01

    The functional network of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons is a potentially powerful in vitro model for evaluating disease mechanisms and drug responses. However, the culture time required for the full functional maturation of individual neurons and networks is uncertain. We investigated the development of spontaneous electrophysiological activity and pharmacological responses for over 1 year in culture using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The complete maturation of spontaneous firing, evoked responses, and modulation of activity by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor antagonists/agonists required 20–30 weeks. At this stage, neural networks also demonstrated epileptiform synchronized burst firing (SBF) in response to pro-convulsants and SBF suppression using clinical anti-epilepsy drugs. Our results reveal the feasibility of long-term MEA measurements from hiPSC-derived neuronal networks in vitro for mechanistic analyses and drug screening. However, developmental changes in electrophysiological and pharmacological properties indicate the necessity for the international standardization of culture and evaluation procedures. PMID:27188845

  14. Immunocytochemical detection of newly generated neurons in the perilesional area of cortical infarcts after intraventricular application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Keiner, Silke; Witte, Otto W; Redecker, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The adult brain responds to focal infarction with proliferation of glial subpopulations. In addition, cells that express the immature neuronal marker doublecortin have been found consistently in the perileisonal zone. We investigated whether application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) would influence this perilesional proliferative response. Photothrombotic infarcts were induced in the sensorimotor forelimb and hindlimb cortex of adult rats. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor or vehicle was continuously infused intraventricularly for 2 weeks after the infarct using osmotic minipumps. Proliferating cells were labeled by daily intraperitoneal injections of bromodeoxyuridine during the first 2 weeks and were quantified at days 14 and 42 using semiautomatic stereology. Triple immunofluorescence with antibodies against immature and mature neuronal and glial markers was used to identify the proliferating cell populations. On day 14 after intraventricular BNDF application, the numbers of doublecortin-positive cells were doubled in the perilesional zone. On day 42, BDNF-treated animals had a small number of mature neurons in these areas, whereas vehicle-treated controls did not. Behavioral analysis with a battery of sensorimotor tests revealed, however, that the alterations in the perilesional cellular response were not associated with an improved functional outcome. PMID:19104443

  15. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Neuronal Cells Cultured on Chemically-Defined Hydrogels for Sensitive In Vitro Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Pellett, Sabine; Schwartz, Michael P.; Tepp, William H.; Josephson, Richard; Scherf, Jacob M.; Pier, Christina L.; Thomson, James A.; Murphy, William L.; Johnson, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) detection provides a useful model for validating cell-based neurotoxicity screening approaches, as sensitivity is dependent on functionally competent neurons and clear quantitative endpoints are available for correlating results to approved animal testing protocols. Here, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neuronal cells were cultured on chemically-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels formed by “thiol-ene” photopolymerization and tested as a cell-based neurotoxicity assay by determining sensitivity to active BoNT/A1. BoNT/A1 sensitivity was comparable to the approved in vivo mouse bioassay for human iPSC-derived neurons and neural stem cells (iPSC-NSCs) cultured on PEG hydrogels or treated tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces. However, maximum sensitivity for BoNT detection was achieved two weeks earlier for iPSC-NSCs that were differentiated and matured on PEG hydrogels compared to TCP. Therefore, chemically-defined synthetic hydrogels offer benefits over standard platforms when optimizing culture conditions for cell-based screening and achieve sensitivities comparable to an approved animal testing protocol. PMID:26411797

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Neuronal Cells Cultured on Chemically-Defined Hydrogels for Sensitive In Vitro Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Sabine; Schwartz, Michael P; Tepp, William H; Josephson, Richard; Scherf, Jacob M; Pier, Christina L; Thomson, James A; Murphy, William L; Johnson, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) detection provides a useful model for validating cell-based neurotoxicity screening approaches, as sensitivity is dependent on functionally competent neurons and clear quantitative endpoints are available for correlating results to approved animal testing protocols. Here, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neuronal cells were cultured on chemically-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels formed by "thiol-ene" photopolymerization and tested as a cell-based neurotoxicity assay by determining sensitivity to active BoNT/A1. BoNT/A1 sensitivity was comparable to the approved in vivo mouse bioassay for human iPSC-derived neurons and neural stem cells (iPSC-NSCs) cultured on PEG hydrogels or treated tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces. However, maximum sensitivity for BoNT detection was achieved two weeks earlier for iPSC-NSCs that were differentiated and matured on PEG hydrogels compared to TCP. Therefore, chemically-defined synthetic hydrogels offer benefits over standard platforms when optimizing culture conditions for cell-based screening and achieve sensitivities comparable to an approved animal testing protocol. PMID:26411797

  17. Varicella-Zoster Virus Infects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons and Neurospheres but Not Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells or Early Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Dukhovny, Anna; Sloutskin, Anna; Markus, Amos; Yee, Michael B.; Kinchington, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent human stem cells are a powerful tool for the generation of differentiated cells that can be used for the study of human disease. We recently demonstrated that neurons derived from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be infected by the highly host-restricted human alphaherpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV), permitting the interaction of VZV with neurons to be readily evaluated in culture. In the present study, we examine whether pluripotent hESC and neural progenitors at intermediate stages of differentiation are permissive for VZV infection. We demonstrate here that VZV infection is blocked in naïve hESC. A block to VZV replication is also seen when a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the VZV genome is transfected into hESC. In contrast, related alphaherpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PrV) productively infect naïve hESC in a cell-free manner, and PrV replicates from a BAC transfected into hESC. Neurons differentiate from hESC via neural progenitor intermediates, as is the case in the embryo. The first in vitro stage at which permissiveness of hESC-derived neural precursors to VZV replication is observed is upon formation of “neurospheres,” immediately after detachment from the inductive stromal feeder layer. These findings suggest that hESC may be useful in deciphering the yet enigmatic mechanisms of specificity of VZV infection and replication. PMID:22238301

  18. Cell freezing protocol suitable for ATAC-Seq on motor neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Pamela; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Shelley, Brandon C.; Patel-Murray, Natasha L.; Xin, Xiaofeng; Adam, Miriam; Mandefro, Berhan; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N.; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-Seq) has become a fundamental tool of epigenomic research. However, it is difficult to perform this technique on frozen samples because freezing cells before extracting nuclei can impair nuclear integrity and alter chromatin structure, especially in fragile cells such as neurons. Our aim was to develop a protocol for freezing neuronal cells that is compatible with ATAC-Seq; we focused on a disease-relevant cell type, namely motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iMNs) from a patient affected by spinal muscular atrophy. We found that while flash-frozen iMNs are not suitable for ATAC-Seq, the assay is successful with slow-cooled cryopreserved cells. Using this method, we were able to isolate high quality, intact nuclei, and we verified that epigenetic results from fresh and cryopreserved iMNs quantitatively agree. PMID:27146274

  19. Cell freezing protocol suitable for ATAC-Seq on motor neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Milani, Pamela; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Shelley, Brandon C; Patel-Murray, Natasha L; Xin, Xiaofeng; Adam, Miriam; Mandefro, Berhan; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-Seq) has become a fundamental tool of epigenomic research. However, it is difficult to perform this technique on frozen samples because freezing cells before extracting nuclei can impair nuclear integrity and alter chromatin structure, especially in fragile cells such as neurons. Our aim was to develop a protocol for freezing neuronal cells that is compatible with ATAC-Seq; we focused on a disease-relevant cell type, namely motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iMNs) from a patient affected by spinal muscular atrophy. We found that while flash-frozen iMNs are not suitable for ATAC-Seq, the assay is successful with slow-cooled cryopreserved cells. Using this method, we were able to isolate high quality, intact nuclei, and we verified that epigenetic results from fresh and cryopreserved iMNs quantitatively agree. PMID:27146274

  20. Differentiation of central nervous system neuronal cells by fibroblast-derived growth factor requires at least two signaling pathways: roles for Ras and Src.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, W L; Chung, K C; Rosner, M R

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and other signaling pathways in neuronal cell differentiation by basic fibroblast-derived growth factor (bFGF), we used a conditionally immortalized cell line from rat hippocampal neurons (H19-7). Previous studies have shown that activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) is insufficient to induce neuronal differentiation of H19-7 cells. To test the requirement for MEK and MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2), H19-7 cells were treated with the MEK inhibitor PD098059. Although the MEK inhibitor blocked the induction of differentiation by constitutively activated Raf, the H19-7 cells still underwent differentiation by bFGF. These results suggest that an alternative pathway is utilized by bFGF for differentiation of the hippocampal neuronal cells. Expression in the H19-7 cells of a dominant-negative Ras (N17-Ras) or Raf (C4-Raf) blocked differentiation by bFGF, suggesting that Ras and probably Raf are required. Expression of dominant-negative Src (pcSrc295Arg) or microinjection of an anti-Src antibody blocked differentiation by bFGF in H19-7 cells, indicating that bFGF also signals through a Src kinase-mediated pathway. Although neither constitutively activated MEK (MEK-2E) nor v-Src was sufficient individually to differentiate the H19-7 cells, coexpression of constitutively activated MEK and v-Src induced neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that (i) activation of MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) is neither necessary nor sufficient for differentiation by bFGF; (ii) activation of Src kinases is necessary but not sufficient for differentiation by bFGF; and (iii) differentiation of H19-7 neuronal cells by bFGF requires at least two signaling pathways activated by Ras and Src. PMID:9234720

  1. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  2. Heterogeneous intracellular trafficking dynamics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor complexes in the neuronal soma revealed by single quantum dot tracking.

    PubMed

    Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Krueger, Wesley; Jacob, Thomas; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Balkowiec, Agnieszka; Lidke, Keith A; Vu, Tania Q

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of ligand-receptor dynamics in shaping cellular signaling. In the nervous system, growth factor-activated Trk receptor trafficking serves to convey biochemical signaling that underlies fundamental neural functions. Focus has been placed on axonal trafficking but little is known about growth factor-activated Trk dynamics in the neuronal soma, particularly at the molecular scale, due in large part to technical hurdles in observing individual growth factor-Trk complexes for long periods of time inside live cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are intensely fluorescent nanoparticles that have been used to study the dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes at the plasma membrane but the value of QDs for investigating ligand-receptor intracellular dynamics has not been well exploited. The current study establishes that QD conjugated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (QD-BDNF) binds to TrkB receptors with high specificity, activates TrkB downstream signaling, and allows single QD tracking capability for long recording durations deep within the soma of live neurons. QD-BDNF complexes undergo internalization, recycling, and intracellular trafficking in the neuronal soma. These trafficking events exhibit little time-synchrony and diverse heterogeneity in underlying dynamics that include phases of sustained rapid motor transport without pause as well as immobility of surprisingly long-lasting duration (several minutes). Moreover, the trajectories formed by dynamic individual BDNF complexes show no apparent end destination; BDNF complexes can be found meandering over long distances of several microns throughout the expanse of the neuronal soma in a circuitous fashion. The complex, heterogeneous nature of neuronal soma trafficking dynamics contrasts the reported linear nature of axonal transport data and calls for models that surpass our generally limited notions of nuclear-directed transport in the soma. QD-ligand probes are poised to provide

  3. Heterogeneous Intracellular Trafficking Dynamics of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Complexes in the Neuronal Soma Revealed by Single Quantum Dot Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Krueger, Wesley; Jacob, Thomas; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Balkowiec, Agnieszka; Lidke, Keith A.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the importance of ligand-receptor dynamics in shaping cellular signaling. In the nervous system, growth factor-activated Trk receptor trafficking serves to convey biochemical signaling that underlies fundamental neural functions. Focus has been placed on axonal trafficking but little is known about growth factor-activated Trk dynamics in the neuronal soma, particularly at the molecular scale, due in large part to technical hurdles in observing individual growth factor-Trk complexes for long periods of time inside live cells. Quantum dots (QDs) are intensely fluorescent nanoparticles that have been used to study the dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes at the plasma membrane but the value of QDs for investigating ligand-receptor intracellular dynamics has not been well exploited. The current study establishes that QD conjugated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (QD-BDNF) binds to TrkB receptors with high specificity, activates TrkB downstream signaling, and allows single QD tracking capability for long recording durations deep within the soma of live neurons. QD-BDNF complexes undergo internalization, recycling, and intracellular trafficking in the neuronal soma. These trafficking events exhibit little time-synchrony and diverse heterogeneity in underlying dynamics that include phases of sustained rapid motor transport without pause as well as immobility of surprisingly long-lasting duration (several minutes). Moreover, the trajectories formed by dynamic individual BDNF complexes show no apparent end destination; BDNF complexes can be found meandering over long distances of several microns throughout the expanse of the neuronal soma in a circuitous fashion. The complex, heterogeneous nature of neuronal soma trafficking dynamics contrasts the reported linear nature of axonal transport data and calls for models that surpass our generally limited notions of nuclear-directed transport in the soma. QD-ligand probes are poised to provide

  4. Diminished activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression underlies cortical neuron microcircuit hypoconnectivity resulting from exposure to mutant huntingtin fragments.

    PubMed

    Gambazzi, Luca; Gokce, Ozgun; Seredenina, Tamara; Katsyuba, Elena; Runne, Heike; Markram, Henry; Giugliano, Michele; Luthi-Carter, Ruth

    2010-10-01

    Although previous studies of Huntington's disease (HD) have addressed many potential mechanisms of striatal neuron dysfunction and death, it is also known, based on clinical findings, that cortical function is dramatically disrupted in HD. With respect to disease etiology, however, the specific molecular and neuronal circuit bases for the cortical effects of mutant huntingtin (htt) have remained largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the relationship between the molecular effects of mutant htt fragments in cortical cells and the corresponding behavior of cortical neuron microcircuits by using a novel cellular model of HD. We observed that a transcript-selective diminution in activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression preceded the onset of a synaptic connectivity deficit in ex vivo cortical networks, which manifested as decreased spontaneous collective burst-firing behavior measured by multielectrode array substrates. Decreased BDNF expression was determined to be a significant contributor to network-level dysfunction, as shown by the ability of exogenous BDNF to ameliorate cortical microcircuit burst firing. The molecular determinants of the dysregulation of activity-dependent BDNF expression by mutant htt seem to be distinct from previously elucidated mechanisms, because they do not involve known neuron-restrictive silencer factor/RE1-silencing transcription factor-regulated promoter sequences but instead result from dysregulation of BDNF exon IV and VI transcription. These data elucidate a novel HD-related deficit in BDNF gene regulation as a plausible mechanism of cortical neuron hypoconnectivity and cortical function deficits in HD. Moreover, the novel model paradigm established here is well suited to further mechanistic and drug screening research applications. PMID:20624994

  5. A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Gnrh1) Enhancer-Derived Noncoding RNA Regulates Gnrh1 Gene Expression in GnRH Neuronal Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Polly P.; Brusman, Liza E.; Iyer, Anita K.; Webster, Nicholas J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a neuropeptide released from a small population of neurons in the hypothalamus, is the central mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and is required for normal reproductive development and function. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements in the mouse, rat, and human Gnrh1 gene include three enhancers and the proximal promoter, which confer Gnrh1 gene expression specifically in GnRH neurons. In immortalized mouse hypothalamic GnRH (GT1-7) neurons, which show pulsatile GnRH release in culture, RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR revealed that expression of a novel long noncoding RNA at Gnrh1 enhancer 1 correlates with high levels of GnRH mRNA expression. In GT1-7 neurons, which contain a transgene carrying 3 kb of the rat Gnrh1 regulatory region, both the mouse and rat Gnrh1 enhancer-derived noncoding RNAs (GnRH-E1 RNAs) are expressed. We investigated the characteristics and function of the endogenous mouse GnRH-E1 RNA. Strand-specific RT-PCR analysis of GnRH-E1 RNA in GT1-7 cells revealed GnRH-E1 RNAs that are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions from distinct 5’ start sites, are 3’ polyadenylated, and are over 2 kb in length. These RNAs are localized in the nucleus and have a half-life of over 8 hours. In GT1-7 neurons, siRNA knockdown of mouse GnRH-E1 RNA resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of the Gnrh1 primary transcript and Gnrh1 mRNA. Over-expression of either the sense or antisense mouse GnRH-E1 RNA in immature, migratory GnRH (GN11) neurons, which do not express either GnRH-E1 RNA or GnRH mRNA, induced the transcriptional activity of co-transfected rat Gnrh1 gene regulatory elements, where the induction requires the presence of the rat Gnrh1 promoter. Together, these data indicate that GnRH-E1 RNA is an inducer of Gnrh1 gene expression. GnRH-E1 RNA may play an important role in the development and maturation of GnRH neurons. PMID:27389022

  6. Dynamin-related protein 1 controls the migration and neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Shaker, Mohammed R.; Cho, Bongki; Cho, Hyo Min; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Joo Yeon; Sun, Woong

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are important in many essential cellular functions, including energy production, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. The organelles are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, but their distribution can be altered in response to local energy demands, such as cell division and neuronal maturation. Mitochondrial distribution is closely associated with mitochondrial fission, and blocking the fission-promoting protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activity often results in mitochondrial elongation and clustering. In this study, we observed that mitochondria were preferentially localized at the leading process of migratory adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), whereas neuronal differentiating cells transiently exhibited perinuclear condensation of mitochondria. Inhibiting Drp1 activity altered the typical migratory cell morphology into round shapes while the polarized mitochondrial distribution was maintained. With these changes, aNSCs failed to migrate, and neuronal differentiation was prevented. Because Drp1 blocking also impaired the mitochondrial membrane potential, we tested whether supplementing with L-carnitine, a compound that restores mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis, could revert the defects induced by Drp1 inhibition. Interestingly, L-carnitine fully restored the aNSC defects, including cell shrinkage, migration, and impaired neuronal differentiation. These results suggest that Drp1 is required for functionally active mitochondria, and supplementing with ATP can restore the defects induced by Drp1 suppression. PMID:26514444

  7. Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Hideya; Kadoshima, Taisuke; Soen, Mika; Narii, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihito; Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Jun; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    The developing dorsomedial telencephalon includes the medial pallium, which goes on to form the hippocampus. Generating a reliable source of human hippocampal tissue is an important step for cell-based research into hippocampus-related diseases. Here we show the generation of functional hippocampal granule- and pyramidal-like neurons from self-organizing dorsomedial telencephalic tissue using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). First, we develop a hESC culture method that utilizes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signalling to induce choroid plexus, the most dorsomedial portion of the telencephalon. Then, we find that titrating BMP and Wnt exposure allowed the self-organization of medial pallium tissues. Following long-term dissociation culture, these dorsomedial telencephalic tissues give rise to Zbtb20+/Prox1+ granule neurons and Zbtb20+/KA1+ pyramidal neurons, both of which were electrically functional with network formation. Thus, we have developed an in vitro model that recapitulates human hippocampus development, allowing the generation of functional hippocampal granule- and pyramidal-like neurons. PMID:26573335

  8. Transcriptome profile and cytogenetic analysis of immortalized neuronally restricted progenitor cells derived from the porcine olfactory bulb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we established and phenotypically characterized an immortalized porcine olfactory bulb neuroblast cell line, OBGF400 (Uebing-Czipura et al., 2008). To facilitate the future application of these cells in studies of neurological dysfunction and neuronal replacement therapies, a comprehensive...

  9. Optimization of cerebellar purkinje neuron cultures and development of a plasmid-based method for purkinje neuron-specific, miRNA-mediated protein knockdown.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C J; Hammer, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient method to knock down proteins specifically in Purkinje neurons (PN) present in mixed mouse primary cerebellar cultures. This method utilizes the introduction via nucleofection of a plasmid encoding a specific miRNA downstream of the L7/Pcp2 promoter, which drives PN-specific expression. As proof-of-principle, we used this plasmid to knock down the motor protein myosin Va, which is required for the targeting of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into PN spines. Consistent with effective knockdown, transfected PNs robustly phenocopied PNs from dilute-lethal (myosin Va-null) mice with regard to the ER targeting defect. Importantly, our plasmid-based approach is less challenging technically and more specific to PNs than several alternative methods (e.g., biolistic- and lentiviral-based introduction of siRNAs). We also present a number of improvements for generating mixed cerebellar cultures that shorten the procedure and improve the total yield of PNs, and of transfected PNs, considerably. Finally, we present a method to rescue cerebellar cultures that develop large cell aggregates, a common problem that otherwise precludes the further use of the culture. PMID:26794514

  10. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of novel derivatives of L-β-threo-benzylaspartate as inhibitors of the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT-3

    PubMed Central

    Mavencamp, Terri L.; Rhoderick, Joseph F.; Bridges, Richard J.; Esslinger, C. Sean

    2008-01-01

    A series of β-benzylaspartate derivatives were prepared from N-trityl-L-aspartate dimethyl ester and evaluated as inhibitors of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3. The result of the structure-activity studies suggest that the position occupied by the aromatic ring of β-benzylaspartate within the binding site of EAAT3 may be different from that occupied by comparable groups in previously identified inhibitors, such as L-threo-benzyloxy aspartate (TBOA). Further, halogen substitutions at the 3-postition of the aromatic ring of β-benzylaspartate can increase the potency with which the analogues inhibit EAAT3. PMID:18650095

  11. ER Stress and Autophagic Perturbations Lead to Elevated Extracellular α-Synuclein in GBA-N370S Parkinson's iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Hugo J.R.; Hartfield, Elizabeth M.; Christian, Helen C.; Emmanoulidou, Evangelia; Zheng, Ying; Booth, Heather; Bogetofte, Helle; Lang, Charmaine; Ryan, Brent J.; Sardi, S. Pablo; Badger, Jennifer; Vowles, Jane; Evetts, Samuel; Tofaris, George K.; Vekrellis, Kostas; Talbot, Kevin; Hu, Michele T.; James, William; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent the strongest common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed ten independent induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from three controls and three unrelated PD patients heterozygous for the GBA-N370S mutation, and identified relevant disease mechanisms. After differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, we observed misprocessing of mutant glucocerebrosidase protein in the ER, associated with activation of ER stress and abnormal cellular lipid profiles. Furthermore, we observed autophagic perturbations and an enlargement of the lysosomal compartment specifically in dopamine neurons. Finally, we found increased extracellular α-synuclein in patient-derived neuronal culture medium, which was not associated with exosomes. Overall, ER stress, autophagic/lysosomal perturbations, and elevated extracellular α-synuclein likely represent critical early cellular phenotypes of PD, which might offer multiple therapeutic targets. PMID:26905200

  12. Protection of dopamine neurons by vibration training and up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; He, L X; Huang, S N; Gong, L J; Li, L; Lv, Y Y; Qian, Z M

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether the longer duration of vibration training (VT) has a beneficial effect on Parkinson's disease (PD). And also, the mechanisms underlying the reported sensorimotor-improvement in PD induced by short-duration of VT has not been determined. Here, we investigated the effects of longer duration (4 weeks) of low amplitude vibration (LAV) training on the numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra by immunostaining and the levels of dopamine (DA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the striatum by HPLC and ELISA in the chronic MPTP lesion mouse. We demonstrated for the first time that the longer duration of VT could significantly increase the numbers of nigrostriatal DA neurons and the contents of striatal DA and BDNF in the MPTP mice. Our findings implied that longer duration of VT could protect dopaminergic neurons from the MPTP-induced damage probably by upregulating BDNF and also provided evidence for the beneficial effect of longer duration of VT on PD at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:24908088

  13. Derivation, Expansion, and Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Non-Integrating Episomal Vectors and a Defined Xenogeneic-free Culture System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wentao; He, Yongpei; Xiong, Yongjie; Lu, Hong; Chen, Hong; Hou, Limin; Qiu, Zhandong; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Suming

    2016-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patient-derived somatic cells provides the opportunity for model development in order to study patient-specific disease states with the potential for drug discovery. However, use of lentivirus and exposure of iPSCs to animal-derived products limit their therapeutic utility and affect lineage differentiation and subsequent downstream functionality of iPSC derivatives. Within the context of this study, we describe a simple and practical protocol enabling the efficient reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult fibroblasts into integration-free human iPSCs (hiPSCs) using a combination of episomal plasmids with small molecules (SMs). Using this approach, there was a 10-fold increase in reprogramming efficiency over single plasmid vector-based methods. We obtained approximately 100 iPSCs colonies from 1 × 10(5) human adult dermal fibroblasts (HADFs) and achieved approximately 0.1% reprogramming efficiencies. Concurrently, we developed a highly conducive culture system using xeno-free media and human vitronectin. The resulting hiPSCs were free of DNA integration and had completely lost episomal vectors, maintained long-term self-renewal, featured a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent stem cell markers, and possessed the capability of differentiating into components of all three germ layers in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the integration-free hiPSCs could be differentiated into motor neurons under xeno-free culture conditions. This induction method will promote the derivation of patient-specific integration-free and xeno-free iPSCs and improve the strategy for motor neuron derivation. Our approach provides a useful tool for human disease models, drug screen, and clinical applications. PMID:25663198

  14. SMN deficiency does not induce oxidative stress in SMA iPSC-derived astrocytes or motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Teresa N; Ebert, Allison D

    2016-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy and death. Although motor neurons (MNs) are the most obviously affected cells in SMA, recent evidence suggest dysfunction in multiple cell types. Astrocytes are a crucial component of the motor circuit and are intimately involved with MN health and maintenance. We have previously shown that SMA astrocytes are altered both morphologically and functionally early in disease progression, though it is unclear what causes astrocytes to become reactive. Oxidative stress is a common feature among neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can both induce apoptosis in neurons and can cause astrocytes to become reactive, which are features observed in the SMA induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) cultures. Therefore, we asked if oxidative stress contributes to SMA astrocyte pathology. We examined mitochondrial bioenergetics, transcript and protein levels of oxidative and anti-oxidant factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and found little evidence of oxidative stress. We did observe a significant increase in endogenous catalase expression in SMA iPSCs. While catalase knockdown in SMA iPSCs increased ROS production above basal levels, levels of ROS remained lower than in controls, further arguing against robust oxidative stress in this system. Viral delivery of survival motor neuron (SMN) reversed astrocyte activation and restored catalase levels to normal, without changing mitochondrial respiration or expression of oxidative stress markers. Taken together, these data indicate that SMN deficiency induces astrocyte reactivity, but does not do so through an oxidative stress-mediated process. PMID:26643950

  15. Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons Uncover the Impact of Increased Ras Signaling in Costello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Gemma E.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Depeille, Philippe; Sharir, Amnon; Schofield, Claude M.; Yeh, Erika; Roose, Jeroen P.; Klein, Ophir D.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates abnormal Ras signaling as a major contributor in neurodevelopmental disorders, yet how such signaling causes cortical pathogenesis is unknown. We examined the consequences of aberrant Ras signaling in the developing mouse brain and uncovered several critical phenotypes, including increased production of cortical neurons and morphological deficits. To determine whether these phenotypes are recapitulated in humans, we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from patients with Costello syndrome (CS), a developmental disorder caused by abnormal Ras signaling and characterized by neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as cognitive impairment and autism. Directed differentiation toward a neuroectodermal fate revealed an extended progenitor phase and subsequent increased production of cortical neurons. Morphological analysis of mature neurons revealed significantly altered neurite length and soma size in CS patients. This study demonstrates the synergy between mouse and human models and validates the use of iPS cells as a platform to study the underlying cellular pathologies resulting from signaling deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasing evidence implicates Ras signaling dysfunction as a major contributor in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as cognitive impairment and autism, but the underlying cortical cellular pathogenesis remains unclear. This study is the first to reveal human neuronal pathogenesis resulting from abnormal Ras signaling and provides insights into how these phenotypic abnormalities likely contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. We also demonstrate the synergy between mouse and human models, thereby validating the use of iPS cells as a platform to study underlying cellular pathologies resulting from signaling deficits. Recapitulating human cellular pathologies in vitro facilitates the future high throughput screening of potential therapeutic agents that may reverse phenotypic and

  16. Projection neurons originating from thermo- and hygrosensory glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Michiko; Yokohari, Fumio; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Most insects are equipped with specialized thermo- and hygroreceptors to locate a permissible range of ambient temperature and distant water sources, respectively. In the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, cold, moist, and dry receptor cells in the antennae send axons to particular sets of two or three glomeruli in the dorsocentral part of the antennal lobe (primary olfactory center), designated DC1-3 glomeruli. However, it is not known how thermo- and hygrosensory signals from these glomeruli are represented in higher-order centers, the protocerebrum, in any insect species. With the use of intracellular recording and staining techniques, we identified a new class of interneurons with dendrites almost exclusively in the DC1, DC2, or DC3 glomeruli and axons projecting to the protocerebrum in the cockroach. Remarkably, terminals of all these projection neurons (PNs) covered almost identical areas in the lateral protocerebrum (LP), although their termination areas outside the LP differed from neuron to neuron. The termination areas within the LP were distinct from, but close to, those of uniglomerular and macroglomerular PNs that transmitted signals concerning general odors and female sex pheromones, respectively. PNs originating from DC1, DC2, and DC3 glomeruli exhibited excitatory responses to cold, moist, and dry stimuli, respectively, probably due to excitatory synaptic input from cold, moist, and dry receptor cells, respectively, whereas their responses were often modulated by olfactory stimuli. These findings suggested that dorsocentral PNs participate in neural pathways that lead to behavioral responses to temperature or humidity changes. PMID:12454995

  17. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Khani, Joshua; Prescod, Lindsay; Enright, Heather; Felix, Sarah; Osburn, Joanne; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Kulp, Kris

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  18. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Preconditioned Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Rescue Ischemic Rat Cortical Neurons by Enhancing Trophic Factor Release.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seo; Noh, Min Young; Cho, Kyung Ah; Kim, Hyemi; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Kyung Suk; Kim, Juhan; Koh, Seong-Ho; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) represent a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. However, the majority of MSCs fail to reach the injury site and have only minimal therapeutic effect. In this study, we assessed whether hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) preconditioning of human BM-MSCs could increase their functional capacity and beneficial effect on ischemic rat cortical neurons. Human BM-MSCs were cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) and with long-term reoxygenation for various times to identify the optimal conditions for increasing their viability and proliferation. The effects of H/R preconditioning on the BM-MSCs were assessed by analyzing the expression of prosurvival genes, trophic factors, and cell migration assays. The functionally improved BM-MSCs were cocultured with ischemic rat cortical neurons to compare with normoxic cultured BM-MSCs. Although the cell viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs were reduced after 1 day of hypoxic culture (1% O2), when this was followed by 5-day reoxygenation, the BM-MSCs recovered and multiplied extensively. The immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation of BM-MSCs were also maintained under this H/R preconditioning. In addition, the preconditioning enhanced the expression of prosurvival genes, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various trophic factors and migration capacity. Finally, coculture with the H/R-preconditioned BM-MSCs promoted the survival of ischemic rat cortical neurons. H/R preconditioning of BM-MSCs increases prosurvival signals, trophic factor release, and cell migration and appears to increase their ability to rescue ischemic cortical neurons. This optimized H/R preconditioning procedure could provide the basis for a new strategy for stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke patients. PMID:25288154

  19. A 24-Residue Peptide (p5), Derived from p35, the Cdk5 Neuronal Activator, Specifically Inhibits Cdk5-p25 Hyperactivity and Tau Hyperphosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Amin, Niranjana D.; Hu, Ya-Fang; Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Shukla, Varsha; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Kesavapany, Sashi; Grant, Philip; Albers, Wayne; Pant, Harish C.

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Cdk5-p35 is tightly regulated in the developing and mature nervous system. Stress-induced cleavage of the activator p35 to p25 and a p10 N-terminal domain induces deregulated Cdk5 hyperactivity and perikaryal aggregations of hyperphosphorylated Tau and neurofilaments, pathogenic hallmarks in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Previously, we identified a 125-residue truncated fragment of p35 called CIP that effectively and specifically inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity and Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by Aβ peptides in vitro, in HEK293 cells, and in neuronal cells. Although these results offer a possible therapeutic approach to those neurodegenerative diseases assumed to derive from Cdk5-p25 hyperactivity and/or Aβ induced pathology, CIP is too large for successful therapeutic regimens. To identify a smaller, more effective peptide, in this study we prepared a 24-residue peptide, p5, spanning CIP residues Lys245–Ala277. p5 more effectively inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity than did CIP in vitro. In neuron cells, p5 inhibited deregulated Cdk5-p25 activity but had no effect on the activity of endogenous Cdk5-p35 or on any related endogenous cyclin-dependent kinases in HEK293 cells. Specificity of p5 inhibition in cortical neurons may depend on the p10 domain in p35, which is absent in p25. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that p5 reduced Aβ(1–42)-induced Tau hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis in cortical neurons. These results suggest that p5 peptide may be a unique and useful candidate for therapeutic studies of certain neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20720012

  20. Transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons into the striatum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, and behavioral recovery in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Kim, Do-hoon; Qi, Meirigeng; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Tsuchiya, Daiju; Takata, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Kousuke; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Shimohama, Shun; Sumi, Shoichiro; Inoue, Kazutomo

    2005-10-28

    Usefulness of the in vitro and in vivo generation of neural precursors from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been widely discussed, but functional recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a transplantation strategy for PD by assessing whether double-transplants in the striatum (ST) and substantia nigra (SN), or ST and subthalamic nucleus (STN) induce functional recovery in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Methamphetamine-induced rotation was significantly reduced by transplantation of mouse ES cell-derived neurons into the ST, but not the STN or SN alone. Double-transplantation was also effective at recovering rotational behavior. Although immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was almost completely lost in the ipsilateral striatum in hemiparkinsonian rats, TH immunoreactivity was detected in transplanted cells and sprouting fibers in the ST, STN and SN. These results suggest that both the involvement of ST as a place of transplantation and the number of ES cell-derived neurons are essential factors for efficacy on hemiparkinsonian behaviors. PMID:16023291

  1. VCE-003.2, a novel cannabigerol derivative, enhances neuronal progenitor cell survival and alleviates symptomatology in murine models of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Paraíso-Luna, Juan; Navarrete, Carmen; del Río, Carmen; Cantarero, Irene; Palomares, Belén; Aguareles, José; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Bellido, María Luz; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Calzado, Marco A.; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids have shown to exert neuroprotective actions in animal models by acting at different targets including canonical cannabinoid receptors and PPARγ. We previously showed that VCE-003, a cannabigerol (CBG) quinone derivative, is a novel neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cannabinoid acting through PPARγ. We have now generated a non-thiophilic VCE-003 derivative named VCE-003.2 that preserves the ability to activate PPARγ and analyzed its neuroprotective activity. This compound exerted a prosurvival action in progenitor cells during neuronal differentiation, which was prevented by a PPARγ antagonist, without affecting neural progenitor cell proliferation. In addition, VCE-003.2 attenuated quinolinic acid (QA)-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation and also reduced mutant huntingtin aggregates in striatal cells. The neuroprotective profile of VCE-003.2 was analyzed using in vivo models of striatal neurodegeneration induced by QA and 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) administration. VCE-003.2 prevented medium spiny DARPP32+ neuronal loss in these Huntington’s-like disease mice models improving motor deficits, reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation. In the 3NP model VCE-003.2 inhibited the upregulation of proinflammatory markers and improved antioxidant defenses in the brain. These data lead us to consider VCE-003.2 to have high potential for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (HD) and other neurodegenerative diseases with neuroinflammatory traits. PMID:27430371

  2. Ca(2+) handling in isolated brain mitochondria and cultured neurons derived from the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Jessica J; Hamilton, James; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2015-08-01

    We investigated Ca(2+) handling in isolated brain synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria and in cultured striatal neurons from the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease. Both synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria from 2- and 12-month-old YAC128 mice had larger Ca(2+) uptake capacity than mitochondria from YAC18 and wild-type FVB/NJ mice. Synaptic mitochondria from 12-month-old YAC128 mice had further augmented Ca(2+) capacity compared with mitochondria from 2-month-old YAC128 mice and age-matched YAC18 and FVB/NJ mice. This increase in Ca(2+) uptake capacity correlated with an increase in the amount of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) associated with mitochondria from 12-month-old YAC128 mice. We speculate that this may happen because of mHtt-mediated sequestration of free fatty acids thereby increasing resistance of mitochondria to Ca(2+)-induced damage. In experiments with striatal neurons from YAC128 and FVB/NJ mice, brief exposure to 25 or 100 μM glutamate produced transient elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+) followed by recovery to near resting levels. Following recovery of cytosolic Ca(2+), mitochondrial depolarization with FCCP produced comparable elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+), suggesting similar Ca(2+) release and, consequently, Ca(2+) loads in neuronal mitochondria from YAC128 and FVB/NJ mice. Together, our data argue against a detrimental effect of mHtt on Ca(2+) handling in brain mitochondria of YAC128 mice. We demonstrate that mutant huntingtin (mHtt) binds to brain synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria and the amount of mitochondria-bound mHtt correlates with increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity. We propose that this may happen due to mHtt-mediated sequestration of free fatty acids thereby increasing resistance of mitochondria to Ca(2+)-induced damage. PMID:25963273

  3. α-Synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid is principally derived from neurons of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mollenhauer, Brit; Trautmann, Ellen; Otte, Birgit; Ng, Juliana; Spreer, Annette; Lange, Peter; Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Hakimi, Mansoureh; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Nussbaum, Robert; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Schlossmacher, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    The source of Parkinson disease-linked α-synuclein (aSyn) in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains unknown. We decided to measure the concentration of aSyn and its gradient in human CSF specimens and compared it with serum to explore its origin. We correlated aSyn concentrations in CSF versus serum (Q(aSyn)) to the albumin quotient (Q(albumin)) to evaluate its relation to blood-CSF barrier function. We also compared aSyn with several other CSF constituents of either central or peripheral sources (or both) including albumin, neuron-specific enolase, β-trace protein and total protein content. Finally, we examined whether aSyn is present within the structures of the choroid plexus (CP). We observed that Q(aSyn) did not rise or fall with Q(albumin) values, a relative measure of blood-CSF barrier integrity. In our CSF gradient analyses, aSyn levels decreased slightly from rostral to caudal fractions, in parallel to the recorded changes for neuron-specific enolase; the opposite trend was recorded for total protein, albumin and β-trace protein. The latter showed higher concentrations in caudal CSF fractions due to the diffusion-mediated transfer of proteins from blood and leptomeninges into CSF in the lower regions of the spine. In postmortem sections of human brain, we detected highly variable aSyn reactivity within the epithelial cell layer of CP in patients diagnosed with a range of neurological diseases; however, in sections of mice that express only human SNCA alleles (and in those without any Snca gene expression), we detected no aSyn signal in the epithelial cells of the CP. We conclude from these complementary results that despite its higher levels in peripheral blood products, neurons of the brain and spinal cord represent the principal source of aSyn in human CSF. PMID:22426833

  4. The effect of fluorescent nanodiamonds on neuronal survival and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-An; Kao, Chun-Wei; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Huang, Hou-Syun; Chiang, Ming-Han; Soo, Ching-Ren; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Chao, Jui-I.; Hwang, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) has emerged as a promising carbon nanomaterial for therapeutic applications. In previous studies, ND has been reported to have outstanding biocompatibility and high uptake rate in various cell types. ND containing nitrogen-vacancy centers exhibit fluorescence property is called fluorescent nanodiamond (FND), and has been applied for bio-labeling agent. However, the influence and application of FND on the nervous system remain elusive. In order to study the compatibility of FND on the nervous system, neurons treated with FNDs in vitro and in vivo were examined. FND did not induce cytotoxicity in primary neurons from either central (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS); neither did intracranial injection of FND affect animal behavior. The neuronal uptake of FNDs was confirmed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. However, FND caused a concentration-dependent decrease in neurite length in both CNS and PNS neurons. Time-lapse live cell imaging showed that the reduction of neurite length was due to the spatial hindrance of FND on advancing axonal growth cone. These findings demonstrate that FNDs exhibit low neuronal toxicity but interfere with neuronal morphogenesis, and should be taken into consideration when applications involve actively growing neurites (e.g. nerve regeneration).

  5. Neuron-derived semaphorin 3A is an early inducer of vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy via neuropilin-1.

    PubMed

    Cerani, Agustin; Tetreault, Nicolas; Menard, Catherine; Lapalme, Eric; Patel, Chintan; Sitaras, Nicholas; Beaudoin, Felix; Leboeuf, Dominique; De Guire, Vincent; Binet, François; Dejda, Agnieszka; Rezende, Flavio A; Miloudi, Khalil; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2013-10-01

    The deterioration of the inner blood-retinal barrier and consequent macular edema is a cardinal manifestation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the clinical feature most closely associated with loss of sight. We provide evidence from both human and animal studies for the critical role of the classical neuronal guidance cue, semaphorin 3A, in instigating pathological vascular permeability in diabetic retinas via its cognate receptor neuropilin-1. We reveal that semaphorin 3A is induced in early hyperglycemic phases of diabetes within the neuronal retina and precipitates initial breakdown of endothelial barrier function. We demonstrate, by a series of orthogonal approaches, that neutralization of semaphorin 3A efficiently prevents diabetes-induced retinal vascular leakage in a stage of the disease when vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization is inefficient. These observations were corroborated in Tg(Cre-Esr1)/Nrp1(flox/flox) conditional knockout mice. Our findings identify a therapeutic target for macular edema and provide further evidence for neurovascular crosstalk in the pathogenesis of DR. PMID:24093675

  6. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Niemann–Pick Type C Mouse Neural Stem Cells by Upregulation and Secretion of CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Kang, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Jae-sung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Niemann–Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized neuropathologically by ballooned neurons distended with lipid storage and widespread neuronal loss. Neural stem cells (NSC) derived from NP-C disease models have decreased ability for self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. Investigation of neurogenesis in the adult brain has suggested that NP-C disease can be overcome, or at least ameliorated, by the generation of new neurons. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are regarded as potential candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders because of their ability to promote neurogenesis. The underlying mechanisms of BM-MSC-induced promotion of neurogenesis, however, have not been resolved. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism of neurogenesis by BM-MSCs in NP-C disease. Coculture of embryonic NSCs from NP-C mice that exhibit impaired ability for self-renewal and decreased rates of neuronal differentiation with BM-MSCs resulted in an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and an increased ability for differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes. In addition, results of in vivo studies have demonstrated that transplantation of intracerebral BM-MSCs resulted in stimulated proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs within the subventricular zone. Of particular interest, enhanced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of endogenous NP-C mouse NSCs showed an association with elevated release of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) from BM-MSCs. These effects suggest that soluble CCL2 derived from BM-MSCs can modulate endogenous NP-C NSCs, resulting in their improved proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mice. PMID:23659480

  7. RBFOX1 and RBFOX2 are dispensable in iPSCs and iPSC-derived neurons and do not contribute to neural-specific paternal UBE3A silencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Fang; Hsiao, Jack S.; Sirois, Carissa L.; Chamberlain, Stormy J.

    2016-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of function of the maternally inherited copy of UBE3A, an imprinted gene expressed biallelically in most tissues, but expressed exclusively from the maternal allele in neurons. Active transcription of the neuron-specific long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), UBE3A-ATS, has been shown to silence paternal UBE3A. We hypothesized that alternative splicing factors RBFOX2 and RBFOX1 might mediate splicing changes and result in the transcription of UBE3A-ATS in neurons. We found that RBFOX2 and RBFOX1 both bind to UBE3A-ATS transcript in neurons, but are not required for gene expression and/or neuron-specific processing in the SNURF/SNRPN-UBE3A region. However, we found that depletion of RBFOX2 causes a proliferation phenotype in immature neural cultures, suggesting that RBFOX2 is involved in division versus differentiation decisions in iPSC-derived neural progenitors. Absence of RBFOX2 also altered the expression of some genes that are important for glutamatergic neocortical development and Wnt-Frizzled signalling in mature neuronal cultures. Our data show that while RBFOX1 and RBFOX2 do not mediate neuron-specific processing of UBE3A-ATS, these proteins play important roles in developing neurons and are not completely functionally redundant. PMID:27146458

  8. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Umang G; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC) and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM). Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study. PMID:25116721

  9. Inclusion complexation of pinostrobin with various cyclodextrin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kicuntod, Jintawee; Khuntawee, Wasinee; Wolschann, Peter; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Kungwan, Nawee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada

    2016-01-01

    Pinostrobin (PNS) is one of the important flavonoids and can be abundantly found in the rhizomes of fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotrunda) and galangal (Alpinia galangal and Alpinia officinarum), the herbal basis of Southeast Asian cooking. Similar to other flavonoids, PNS exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, this compound has an extremely low water solubility that limits its use in pharmaceutical applications. Beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) and its derivatives, 2,6-dimethyl-βCD (2,6-DMβCD) and the three hydroxypropyl-βCDs (2-HPβCD, 6-HPβCD and 2,6-DHPβCD), have unique properties that enhance the stability and solubility of such low-soluble guest molecules. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to investigate the dynamics and stability of PNS inclusion complexes with βCD and its derivatives (2,6-DMβCD, 2,6-DHPβCD, 2-HPβCD and 6-HPβCD). PNS was able to form complexes with βCD and all four of its derivatives by either the chromone (C-PNS) or phenyl (P-PNS) ring dipping toward the cavity. According to the molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area binding free energy values, the stability of the different PNS/βCD complexes was ranked as 2,6-DHPβCD>2,6-DMβCD>2-HPβCD>6-HPβCD>βCD. These theoretical results were in good agreement with the stability constants that had been determined by the solubility method. PMID:26709752

  10. MicroRNA Profiling of Neurons Generated Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder, and 22q11.2 Del

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dejian; Lin, Mingyan; Chen, Jian; Pedrosa, Erika; Hrabovsky, Anastasia; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Zheng, Deyou; Lachman, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    We are using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to study neuropsychiatric disorders associated with 22q11.2 microdeletions (del), the most common known schizophrenia (SZ)-associated genetic factor. Several genes in the region have been implicated; a promising candidate is DGCR8, which codes for a protein involved in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. We carried out miRNA expression profiling (miRNA-seq) on neurons generated from iPSCs derived from controls and SZ patients with 22q11.2 del. Using thresholds of p<0.01 for nominal significance and 1.5-fold differences in expression, 45 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected (13 lower in SZ and 32 higher). Of these, 6 were significantly down-regulated in patients after correcting for genome wide significance (FDR<0.05), including 4 miRNAs that map to the 22q11.2 del region. In addition, a nominally significant increase in the expression of several miRNAs was found in the 22q11.2 neurons that were previously found to be differentially expressed in autopsy samples and peripheral blood in SZ and autism spectrum disorders (e.g., miR-34, miR-4449, miR-146b-3p, and miR-23a-5p). Pathway and function analysis of predicted mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed enrichment for genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders for both up and down regulated miRNAs. Our findings suggest that: i. neurons with 22q11.2 del recapitulate the miRNA expression patterns expected of 22q11.2 haploinsufficiency, ii. differentially expressed miRNAs previously identified using autopsy samples and peripheral cells, both of which have significant methodological problems, are indeed disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders and likely have an underlying genetic basis. PMID:26173148

  11. DNA methyltransferase 3, a target of microRNA-29c, contributes to neuronal proliferation by regulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guoshuai; Song, Yanmin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yidong; Liu, Tao; Weng, Guohu; Yu, Dan; Pan, Suyue

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in the aged population, presents an increasing clinical challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Neurodegeneration is one of the hallmarks of AD, which consequently induces cognitive impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neuroprotective factor, has been implicated in neuronal survival and proliferation. The epigenetic mechanism of BDNF methylation may be responsible for the reduced expression of BDNF in patients with AD. DNA methyltransferase may contribute to the methylation of BDNF, which is involved in neuroprotection in AD. In addition, epigenetic modifications, including a combination of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and DNA methylation, have been suggested as regulatory mechanisms in the control of neuronal survival. In the present study, the expression of miR-29c was determined in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and of healthy control individuals. A marked decrease in the expression of miR-29c was observed in the AD group compared with the normal control group, accompanied by a decreased in the expression of BDNF. Additionally, a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3 (DNMT3) was observed in the CSF from the patients with AD. Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of miR-29c was positively correlated with BDNF and negatively correlated with DNMT3 protein in the CSF of patients with AD. In addition, the regulatory association between miR-29c, DNMT3 and BDNF were also examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that miR-29c directly targeted DNMT3 and contributed to neuronal proliferation by regulating the expression of BDNF, at least partially, through enhancing the activity of the tyrosine receptor kinase B/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study suggested that miR-29c may be a promising potential therapeutic target in the treatment of AD. PMID:25815896

  12. Phosphatase Inhibitors Function as Novel, Broad Spectrum Botulinum Neurotoxin Antagonists in Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neuron-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Nuss, Jonathan E; Stanford, Stephanie M; Wanner, Laura M; Cazares, Lisa; Maestre, Michael F; Du, Hao T; Gomba, Glenn Y; Burnett, James C; Gussio, Rick; Bottini, Nunzio; Panchal, Rekha G; Kane, Christopher D; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop novel treatments to counter Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) poisoning. Currently, the majority of BoNT drug development efforts focus on directly inhibiting the proteolytic components of BoNT, i.e. light chains (LC). Although this is a rational approach, previous research has shown that LCs are extremely difficult drug targets and that inhibiting multi-serotype BoNTs with a single LC inhibitor may not be feasible. An alternative approach would target neuronal pathways involved in intoxication/recovery, rather than the LC itself. Phosphorylation-related mechanisms have been implicated in the intoxication pathway(s) of BoNTs. However, the effects of phosphatase inhibitors upon BoNT activity in the physiological target of BoNTs, i.e. motor neurons, have not been investigated. In this study, a small library of phosphatase inhibitors was screened for BoNT antagonism in the context of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ES-MNs). Four inhibitors were found to function as BoNT/A antagonists. Subsequently, we confirmed that these inhibitors protect against BoNT/A in a dose-dependent manner in human ES-MNs. Additionally, these compounds provide protection when administered in post-intoxication scenario. Importantly, the inhibitors were also effective against BoNT serotypes B and E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing phosphatase inhibitors as broad-spectrum BoNT antagonists. PMID:26061731

  13. Distinct effects of pramipexole on the proliferation of adult mouse sub-ventricular zone-derived cells and the appearance of a neuronal phenotype.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sara; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2011-05-01

    Pramipexole (PPX) is a dopamine agonist with an 8-fold higher affinity for D3 than D2 receptor, whose efficacy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is based on dopamine agonistic activity. PPX has also been recently shown to be endowed with neuroprotective activity and neurogenic potential. The aim of this study was a more detailed characterization of PPX-induced neurogenesis. Both D2 and D3 receptors are expressed in floating and differentiated neurospheres obtained from the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mice. Treatment of secondary neurospheres with 10 μM PPX causes a marked induction of cell proliferation, assessed by enhanced cell number and S phase population at cell cycle analysis. Stimulation of proliferation by PPX is still detectable in plated neurospheres before the onset of migration and differentiation, as by enhanced BrdU incorporation. This effect is sensitive to the selective D3 dopamine receptor antagonist U99194A, as well as to sulpiride. A 24 h treatment with PPX does not modify the morphology of neurosphere-derived cells, but causes an increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, an effect sensitive to both D2 and D3 antagonism. Differentiation toward the neuronal lineage is increased by PPX as shown by enhancement of the cell population positive to the early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) at 24 h and the mature neuronal marker microtubule associated protein (MAP2) at 72 h. This effect is not modified by treatment with U99194A and is mimicked by BDNF. Accordingly, PPX increases BDNF release with a mechanism involving D2 but not D3 receptors. PMID:21272591

  14. Strategic expression of ion transport peptide gene products in central and peripheral neurons of insects.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Zitnan, Dusan; Adams, Michael E

    2007-01-10

    Structurally related ion transport peptides (ITP) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHH) are increasingly implicated in diverse metabolic and developmental functions in arthropods. We identified a conserved ITP gene encoding two peptides by alternative splicing in Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti: A C-terminally amidated ITP and a C-terminally unblocked ITP-like peptide (ITPL), which share common N-terminal sequences but have divergent C-termini. In the moth M. sexta, these peptides are expressed in two, regionally distinct neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS, PNS). MasITP expression is confined to the brain in five pairs of lateral neurosecretory cells (type Ia(2)) projecting ipsilateral axons into the retrocerebral complex and three to five pairs of adjacent small neurons that arborize extensively within the brain. Expression of MasITPL is comparatively weak in the brain but strong in the ventral ganglia and the PNS, where MasITP is absent. MasITPL occurs in bilaterally paired neurons of all thoracic and abdominal ganglia. In the PNS, MasITPL is coexpressed with crustacean cardioactive peptide in type II link nerve neurons (L1) of abdominal segments 2-7, which project axons into neurohemal transverse nerves. During metamorphosis, additional expression of MasITPL is observed in two pairs of small lateral neurons in the brain and one pair of ventromedial neurons in each of AG2-6. A similar pattern of differential ITP and ITPL expression was observed in the CNS and PNS of B. mori and Schistocerca americana. These distinctive cellular expression patterns suggest that ITP and ITPL have evolved specialized physiological functions in arthropods. PMID:17111378

  15. Changes of statistical structural fluctuations unveils an early compacted degraded stage of PNS myelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poccia, Nicola; Campi, Gaetano; Ricci, Alessandro; Caporale, Alessandra S.; di Cola, Emanuela; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Bianconi, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of the myelin sheath is a common pathology underlying demyelinating neurological diseases from Multiple Sclerosis to Leukodistrophies. Although large malformations of myelin ultrastructure in the advanced stages of Wallerian degradation is known, its subtle structural variations at early stages of demyelination remains poorly characterized. This is partly due to the lack of suitable and non-invasive experimental probes possessing sufficient resolution to detect the degradation. Here we report the feasibility of the application of an innovative non-invasive local structure experimental approach for imaging the changes of statistical structural fluctuations in the first stage of myelin degeneration. Scanning micro X-ray diffraction, using advances in synchrotron x-ray beam focusing, fast data collection, paired with spatial statistical analysis, has been used to unveil temporal changes in the myelin structure of dissected nerves following extraction of the Xenopus laevis sciatic nerve. The early myelin degeneration is a specific ordered compacted phase preceding the swollen myelin phase of Wallerian degradation. Our demonstration of the feasibility of the statistical analysis of SµXRD measurements using biological tissue paves the way for further structural investigations of degradation and death of neurons and other cells and tissues in diverse pathological states where nanoscale structural changes may be uncovered.

  16. Heterogeneity and Convergence of Olfactory First-Order Neurons Account for the High Speed and Sensitivity of Second-Order Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Grémiaux, Alexandre; Jarriault, David; Chaffiol, Antoine; Monsempes, Christelle; Deisig, Nina; Anton, Sylvia; Lucas, Philippe; Martinez, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In the olfactory system of male moths, a specialized subset of neurons detects and processes the main component of the sex pheromone emitted by females. It is composed of several thousand first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), all expressing the same pheromone receptor, that contact synaptically a few tens of second-order projection neurons (PNs) within a single restricted brain area. The functional simplicity of this system makes it a favorable model for studying the factors that contribute to its exquisite sensitivity and speed. Sensory information—primarily the identity and intensity of the stimulus—is encoded as the firing rate of the action potentials, and possibly as the latency of the neuron response. We found that over all their dynamic range, PNs respond with a shorter latency and a higher firing rate than most ORNs. Modelling showed that the increased sensitivity of PNs can be explained by the ORN-to-PN convergent architecture alone, whereas their faster response also requires cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the ORN population. So, far from being detrimental to signal detection, the ORN heterogeneity is exploited by PNs, and results in two different schemes of population coding based either on the response of a few extreme neurons (latency) or on the average response of many (firing rate). Moreover, ORN-to-PN transformations are linear for latency and nonlinear for firing rate, suggesting that latency could be involved in concentration-invariant coding of the pheromone blend and that sensitivity at low concentrations is achieved at the expense of precise encoding at high concentrations. PMID:25474026

  17. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; Paterson, David; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Bush, Ashley I.; Cappai, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP familymore » of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.« less

  18. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; Paterson, David; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Bush, Ashley I.; Cappai, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP family of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.

  19. Vestibular Neuronitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Additional Content Medical News Vestibular Neuronitis By Lawrence R. Lustig, MD NOTE: This ... Drugs Herpes Zoster Oticus Meniere Disease Purulent Labyrinthitis Vestibular Neuronitis Vestibular neuronitis is a disorder characterized by ...

  20. Evaluation of the synuclein-y (SNCG) gene as a PPARy target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synuclein-gamma is highly expressed in both adipocytes and peripheral nervous system (PNS) somatosensory neurons. Its mRNA is induced during adipogenesis, increased in obese human white adipose tissue (WAT), may be coordinately regulated with leptin, and is decreased following treatment of murine 3T...

  1. Bone Marrow-Derived, Neural-Like Cells Have the Characteristics of Neurons to Protect the Peripheral Nerve in Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shi-lei; Zhang, Zhi-ying; Zhi, Yun-xia; Han, Chang-jie; Zhou, Yu-hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-yan; Zhang, Chuan-sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that “neural-like cells” may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  2. Bone marrow-derived, neural-like cells have the characteristics of neurons to protect the peripheral nerve in microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Lei; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Xu, Yan; Zhi, Yun-Xia; Han, Chang-Jie; Zhou, Yu-Hao; Liu, Fang; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that "neural-like cells" may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG), immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve. PMID:25861281

  3. Myelin and macrophages in the PNS: An intimate relationship in trauma and disease.

    PubMed

    Klein, Dennis; Martini, Rudolf

    2016-06-15

    Macrophages of the peripheral nervous system belong to the so-called tissue macrophages, with multiple functions during injury and disease. Their origin during ontogeny has not yet been completely resolved, but it is clear that upon injury and disease conditions, they are supplemented by hematopoietic derivatives. In the peripheral nervous system, the most abundantly investigated scenario in which resident and infiltrating macrophages are involved is the so-called "Wallerian degeneration", a complex degenerative process where macrophages exhibit mostly beneficial functions by phagocytosing myelin and axonal remnants. Of special interest is the implication of macrophages in inflammatory nerve diseases, like acute Guillain-Barré syndromes and its permanent variant, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, where macrophages are supposed to be substantial (co-)mediators of the diseases. In inherited peripheral neuropathies nerve macrophages possess a clear disease-amplifying function. In the corresponding animal models, a coordinated interplay between mutant Schwann cells, macrophages, endoneurial fibroblasts and the target structure, myelin, emerged. Along this process, a newly discovered disease mechanism mediated by macrophages is the dedifferentiation of myelinating Schwann cells. As macrophages are amplifiers of the genetically-mediated, non-curable diseases, targeting the mechanisms of their activation might be a promising strategy to treat these disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26631844

  4. The basal level of intracellular calcium gates the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase - Akt signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Soellner, Deborah; Nunez, Joseph; Wang, Hongbing

    2008-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates survival and neuroplasticity through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. Although previous studies suggested the roles of MAPK, PLC-γ-mediated intra-cellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) increase, and extra-cellular calcium influx in regulating Akt activation, the cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. We demonstrated that sub-nanomolar BDNF significantly induced Akt activation in developing cortical neurons. The TrkB-dependent Akt phosphorylation at S473 and T308 required only PI3K, but not PLC and MAPK activity. Blocking NMDA receptors, L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and chelating extra-cellular calcium by EGTA failed to block BDNF-induced Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, chelating [Ca2+]i by BAPTA-AM abolished Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, sub-nanomolar BDNF did not stimulate [Ca2+]i increase under our culture conditions. Together with that NMDA- and membrane depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i increase did not activate Akt, we conclude that the basal level of [Ca2+]i gates BDNF function. Furthermore, inhibiting calmodulin by W13 suppressed Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by okadaic acid and tautomycin rescued Akt phosphorylation in BAPTA- and W13-treated neurons. We further demonstrated that the phosphorylation of PDK1 did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation at T308. Our results suggested novel roles of basal [Ca2+]i, rather than activity-induced calcium elevation, in BDNF-Akt signaling. PMID:18485103

  5. MeCP2 Regulates the Synaptic Expression of a Dysbindin-BLOC-1 Network Component in Mouse Brain and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Larimore, Jennifer; Ryder, Pearl V.; Kim, Kun-Yong; Ambrose, L. Alex; Chapleau, Christopher; Calfa, Gaston; Gross, Christina; Bassell, Gary J.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Smith, Yoland; Talbot, Konrad; Park, In-Hyun; Faundez, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and genetic evidence suggest overlapping pathogenic mechanisms between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis by asking if mutations in the ASD gene MECP2 which cause Rett syndrome affect the expression of genes encoding the schizophrenia risk factor dysbindin, a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), and associated interacting proteins. We measured mRNA and protein levels of key components of a dysbindin interaction network by, quantitative real time PCR and quantitative immunohistochemistry in hippocampal samples of wild-type and Mecp2 mutant mice. In addition, we confirmed results by performing immunohistochemistry of normal human hippocampus and quantitative qRT-PCR of human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived human neurons from Rett syndrome patients. We defined the distribution of the BLOC-1 subunit pallidin in human and mouse hippocampus and contrasted this distribution with that of symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice. Neurons from mutant mice and Rett syndrome patients displayed selectively reduced levels of pallidin transcript. Pallidin immunoreactivity decreased in the hippocampus of symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice, a feature most prominent at asymmetric synapses as determined by immunoelectron microcopy. Pallidin immunoreactivity decreased concomitantly with reduced BDNF content in the hippocampus of Mecp2 mice. Similarly, BDNF content was reduced in the hippocampus of BLOC-1 deficient mice suggesting that genetic defects in BLOC-1 are upstream of the BDNF phenotype in Mecp2 deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that the ASD-related gene Mecp2 regulates the expression of components belonging to the dysbindin interactome and these molecular differences may contribute to synaptic phenotypes that characterize Mecp2 deficiencies and ASD. PMID:23750231

  6. Amphibian larvae and zinc sulphate: a suitable model to study the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuronal turnover of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yovanovich, Carola A M; Jungblut, Lucas D; Heer, Tamara; Pozzi, Andrea G; Paz, Dante A

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate olfactory system has fascinated neurobiologists over the last six decades because of its ability to replace its neurons and synaptic connections continuously throughout adult life, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Among the factors that are proposed to be involved in this regenerative potential, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate for having an important role in the neuronal turnover in the olfactory epithelium (OE) because of its well-documented neurogenic and trophic effects throughout the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to generate a suitable model to study the participation of BDNF in the recovery of the OE after injury in vivo. We developed an experimental design in which the OE of Rhinella arenarum tadpoles could be easily and selectively damaged by immersing the animals in ZnSO(4) solutions of various concentrations for differing time periods. Image analysis of histological sections showed that different combinations of each of these conditions produced statistically different degrees of injury to the olfactory tissue. We also observed that the morphology of the OE was restored within a few days of recovery after ZnSO(4) treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of BDNF was performed with an antiserum whose specificity was confirmed by Western blotting, and which showed drastic changes in the abundance and distribution pattern of this neurotrophin in the damaged olfactory system. Our results thus suggest that BDNF is involved in the regeneration of the OE of amphibian larvae, and that our approach is suitable for further investigations of this topic. PMID:19221803

  7. Analysis of mutant platelet-derived growth factor receptors expressed in PC12 cells identifies signals governing sodium channel induction during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, G R; Vaillancourt, R R; Heasley, L E; Montmayeur, J P; Johnson, G L; Maue, R A

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation, including the signals underlying the induction of voltage-dependent sodium (Na+) channel expression by neurotrophic factors, which occurs independent of Ras activity, are not well understood. Therefore, Na+ channel induction was analyzed in sublines of PC12 cells stably expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptors with mutations that eliminate activation of specific signalling molecules. Mutations eliminating activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma), the GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and Syp phosphatase failed to diminish the induction of type II Na+ channel alpha-subunit mRNA and functional Na+ channel expression by PDGF, as determined by RNase protection assays and whole-cell patch clamp recording. However, mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines that bind members of the Src family of kinases upon receptor activation inhibited the induction of functional Na+ channels while leaving the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA intact. Mutation of juxtamembrane tyrosines in combination with mutations eliminating activation of PI3K, PLC gamma, GAP, and Syp abolished the induction of type II alpha-subunit mRNA, suggesting that at least partially redundant signaling mechanisms mediate this induction. The differential effects of the receptor mutations on Na+ channel expression did not reflect global changes in receptor signaling capabilities, as in all of the mutant receptors analyzed, the induction of c-fos and transin mRNAs still occurred. The results reveal an important role for the Src family in the induction of Na+ channel expression and highlight the multiplicity and combinatorial nature of the signaling mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation. PMID:8972189

  8. Characterization of Disopyramide derivative ADD424042 as a non-cardiotoxic neuronal sodium channel blocker with broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in rodent seizure models.

    PubMed

    Król, Marek; Ufnal, Marcin; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Podsadni, Piotr; Drapała, Adrian; Turło, Jadwiga; Dawidowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be useful in controlling refractory seizures in humans or in enhancing the action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models. Disopyramide phosphate (DISO) is an AAD that blocks sodium channels in cardiac myocytes. We evaluated a DISO derivative, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (ADD424042) for its anticonvulsant activity in a battery of rodent models of epileptic seizures. The compound displayed a broad spectrum of activity in the 'classical' models as well as in the models of pharmacoresistant seizures. Furthermore, ADD424042 showed good therapeutic indices between the anticonvulsant activity and the motor impairment. On the contrary, no anticonvulsant effects but severe lethality were observed in the primary anticonvulsant testing of the parent DISO. By performing the whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments in dispersed cortical neurons we demonstrated that ADD424042 decreased the maximal amplitude of voltage-gated sodium channels with an IC50 value in nM range. Moreover, the compound enhanced use-dependent block and decreased excitability in pyramidal neurons in the current-clamp experiments in cortical slices. Importantly, we found that ADD424042 possessed either no, or very small cardiotoxic effect. In contrast to DISO, ADD424042 did not produce any apparent changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure recordings. ADD424042 had no effect on QT and corrected QT intervals, at a dose which was 15 times higher than ED50 for the anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. Taken together, these data suggest that ADD424042 has the potential to become a lead structure for novel broadly acting AEDs with wide margin of cardiac safety. PMID:26441377

  9. C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Are Associated with Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis and Stress Granule Formation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Dafinca, Ruxandra; Scaber, Jakub; Ababneh, Nida'a; Lalic, Tatjana; Weir, Gregory; Christian, Helen; Vowles, Jane; Douglas, Andrew G L; Fletcher-Jones, Alexandra; Browne, Cathy; Nakanishi, Mahito; Turner, Martin R; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cowley, Sally A; Talbot, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in a noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene is a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accounting for up to 40% of familial cases and 7% of sporadic ALS in European populations. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of patients carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, differentiated these to functional motor and cortical neurons, and performed an extensive phenotypic characterization. In C9orf72 iPSC-derived motor neurons, decreased cell survival is correlated with dysfunction in Ca(2+) homeostasis, reduced levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, C9orf72 motor neurons, and also cortical neurons, show evidence of abnormal protein aggregation and stress granule formation. This study is an extensive characterization of iPSC-derived motor neurons as cellular models of ALS carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats, which describes a novel pathogenic link between C9orf72 mutations, dysregulation of calcium signaling, and altered proteostasis and provides a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of ALS and the related neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementia. Stem Cells 2016;34:2063-2078. PMID:27097283

  10. C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Are Associated with Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis and Stress Granule Formation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell‐Derived Neurons from Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Dafinca, Ruxandra; Scaber, Jakub; Ababneh, Nida'a; Lalic, Tatjana; Weir, Gregory; Christian, Helen; Vowles, Jane; Douglas, Andrew G.L.; Fletcher‐Jones, Alexandra; Browne, Cathy; Nakanishi, Mahito; Turner, Martin R.; Wade‐Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in a noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene is a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accounting for up to 40% of familial cases and 7% of sporadic ALS in European populations. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of patients carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, differentiated these to functional motor and cortical neurons, and performed an extensive phenotypic characterization. In C9orf72 iPSC‐derived motor neurons, decreased cell survival is correlated with dysfunction in Ca2+ homeostasis, reduced levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl‐2, increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, C9orf72 motor neurons, and also cortical neurons, show evidence of abnormal protein aggregation and stress granule formation. This study is an extensive characterization of iPSC‐derived motor neurons as cellular models of ALS carrying C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats, which describes a novel pathogenic link between C9orf72 mutations, dysregulation of calcium signaling, and altered proteostasis and provides a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of ALS and the related neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementia. Stem Cells 2016;34:2063–2078 PMID:27097283

  11. Rapid and slow chemical synaptic interactions of cholinergic projection neurons and GABAergic local interneurons in the insect antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2014-09-24

    The antennal lobe (AL) of insects constitutes the first synaptic relay and processing center of olfactory information, received from olfactory sensory neurons located on the antennae. Complex synaptic connectivity between olfactory neurons of the AL ultimately determines the spatial and temporal tuning profile of (output) projection neurons to odors. Here we used paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the cockroach Periplaneta americana to characterize synaptic interactions between cholinergic uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) and GABAergic local interneurons (LNs), both of which are key components of the insect olfactory system. We found rapid, strong excitatory synaptic connections between uPNs and LNs. This rapid excitatory transmission was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker mecamylamine. IPSPs, elicited by synaptic input from a presynaptic LN, were recorded in both uPNs and LNs. IPSPs were composed of both slow, sustained components and fast, transient components which were coincident with presynaptic action potentials. The fast IPSPs were blocked by the GABAA receptor chloride channel blocker picrotoxin, whereas the slow sustained IPSPs were blocked by the GABAB receptor blocker CGP-54626. This is the first study to directly show the predicted dual fast- and slow-inhibitory action of LNs, which was predicted to be key in shaping complex odor responses in the AL of insects. We also provide the first direct characterization of rapid postsynaptic potentials coincident with presynaptic spikes between olfactory processing neurons in the AL. PMID:25253851

  12. Activated microglia in ischemic stroke penumbra upregulate MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in response to lysophosphatidylcholine derived from adjacent neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Inose, Yuri; Kato, Yoichiro; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    In acute stage of ischemic stroke, the surrounding zone of fresh infarcts is termed penumbra, where microglia are activated in response to damaged cell-derived proinflammatory mediators. Rescuing penumbra by regulating inflammatory activity would minimize infarct volume, which positively correlates with functional outcome. To elucidate mechanisms by which inflammation occurs in penumbra, we performed immunohistochemical investigations using autopsied human brains affected by acute, subacute and chronic stages of cerebral infarction as well as cell culture experiments using a murine microglia-derived cell line (BV-2). In penumbra of fresh infarcts, immunoreactivity for secretory phospholipase A2 group X (sPLA2 -X), which is responsible for the production and release of the proinflammatory mediator lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), was intensely detected in neurons and astrocytes. Furthermore, immunoreactivities for the LPC receptors G protein-coupled receptor 132 (G2A) and P2X purinoreceptor 7 (P2X7R), as well as the CC chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR2, were detectable in activated microglia. Prior to cell culture experiments, it was confirmed that BV-2 cells were immunoreactive for ionized Ca(2+) -binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), G2A, P2X7R, MCP-1 and CCR2. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 mRNA expression levels were significantly increased by LPC stimulation. The LPC-driven increase in MCP-1 transcripts was lowered by blockade of G2A or P2X7R or by inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) or inhibitor of κBα kinase. The LPC-driven increase in CCR2 transcripts was lowered by blockade of G2A or P2X7R or by inhibition of ROCK, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinanse, extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The present results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that in acute stage of ischemic stroke, the sPLA2

  13. Drug Discovery Models and Toxicity Testing Using Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiac and Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Rahul S.; Kovács, Krisztián A; Dinnyés, András

    2012-01-01

    Development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using forced expression of specific sets of transcription factors has changed the field of stem cell research extensively. Two important limitations for research application of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), namely, ethical and immunological issues, can be circumvented using iPSCs. Since the development of first iPSCs, tremendous effort has been directed to the development of methods to increase the efficiency of the process and to reduce the extent of genomic modifications associated with the reprogramming procedure. The established lineage-specific differentiation protocols developed for ESCs are being applied to iPSCs, as they have great potential in regenerative medicine for cell therapy, disease modeling either for drug development or for fundamental science, and, last but not least, toxicity testing. This paper reviews efforts aimed at practical development of iPSC differentiation to neural/cardiac lineages and further the use of these iPSCs-derived cells for drug development and toxicity testing. PMID:22654918

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances the excitability of small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons projecting to the trigeminal nucleus interpolaris/caudalis transition zone following masseter muscle inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The trigeminal subnuclei interpolaris/caudalis transition zones (Vi/Vc) play an important role in orofacial deep pain, however, the role of primary afferent projections to the Vi/Vc remains to be determined. This study investigated the functional significance of hyperalgesia to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (trkB) signaling system in trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons projecting to the Vi/Vc transition zone following masseter muscle (MM) inflammation. Results The escape threshold from mechanical stimulation applied to skin above the inflamed MM was significantly lower than in naïve rats. Fluorogold (FG) labeling was used to identify the TRG neurons innervating the MM, while microbeads (MB) were used to label neurons projecting to the Vi/Vc region. FG/MB-labeled TRG neurons were immunoreactive (IR) for BDNF and trkB. The mean number of BDNF/trkB-IR small/medium-diameter TRG neurons was significantly higher in inflamed rats than in naïve rats. In whole-cell current-clamp experiments, the majority of dissociated small-diameter TRG neurons showed a depolarization response to BDNF that was associated with spike discharge, and the concentration of BDNF that evoked a depolarizing response was significantly lower in the inflamed rats. In addition, the relative number of BDNF-induced spikes during current injection was significantly higher in inflamed rats. The BDNF-induced changes in TRG neuron excitability was abolished by tyrosine kinase inhibitor, K252a. Conclusion The present study provided evidence that BDNF enhances the excitability of the small-diameter TRG neurons projecting onto the Vi/Vc following MM inflammation. These findings suggest that ganglionic BDNF-trkB signaling is a therapeutic target for the treatment of trigeminal inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:24073832

  15. Control of Energy Balance by Hypothalamic Gene Circuitry Involving Two Nuclear Receptors, Neuron-Derived Orphan Receptor 1 and Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance. PMID:23897430

  16. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance. PMID:23897430

  17. Neuron-Inspired Interpenetrative Network Composed of Cobalt-Phosphorus-Derived Nanoparticles Embedded within Porous Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juanxia; Yang, Zhi; Ge, Mengzhan; Li, Ping; Nie, Huagui; Cai, Qiran; Gu, Cancan; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-07-13

    The ongoing search for cheap and efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to replace currently used catalysts based on Pt or its alloys has been considered as an prevalent strategy to produce renewable and clean hydrogen energy. Herein, inspired by the neuron structure in biological systems, we demonstrate a novel fabrication strategy via a simple two-step method for the synthesis of a neuronlike interpenetrative nanocomposite network of Co-P embedded in porous carbon nanotubes (NIN-Co-P/PCNTs). It is found that the interpenetrative network provides a natural transport path to accelerate the hydrogen production process. The embedded-type structure improves the utilization ratio of Co-P and the hollow, tubelike, and porous structure of PCNTs further promote charge and reactant transport. These factors allow the as-prepared NIN-Co-P/PCNTs to achieve a onset potential low to 43 mV, a Tafel slope as small as 40 mV/decade, an excellent stability, and a high turnover frequency value of 3.2 s(-1) at η = 0.2 V in acidic conditions. These encouraging properties derived from the neuronlike interpenetrative network structure might offer new inspiration for the preparation of more nanocomposites for applications in other catalytic and optoelectronic field. PMID:27315228

  18. High-Throughput Screening Using iPSC-Derived Neuronal Progenitors to Identify Compounds Counteracting Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Markus; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Fruh, Isabelle; Klein, Jessica; Thiemeyer, Anke; Rigo, Pierre; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Heidinger-Millot, Valerie; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Schopfer, Ulrich; Mueller, Matthias; Fodor, Barna D; Cobos-Correa, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, and it is caused in most of cases by epigenetic silencing of the Fmr1 gene. Today, no specific therapy exists for FXS, and current treatments are only directed to improve behavioral symptoms. Neuronal progenitors derived from FXS patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a unique model to study the disease and develop assays for large-scale drug discovery screens since they conserve the Fmr1 gene silenced within the disease context. We have established a high-content imaging assay to run a large-scale phenotypic screen aimed to identify compounds that reactivate the silenced Fmr1 gene. A set of 50,000 compounds was tested, including modulators of several epigenetic targets. We describe an integrated drug discovery model comprising iPSC generation, culture scale-up, and quality control and screening with a very sensitive high-content imaging assay assisted by single-cell image analysis and multiparametric data analysis based on machine learning algorithms. The screening identified several compounds that induced a weak expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and thus sets the basis for further large-scale screens to find candidate drugs or targets tackling the underlying mechanism of FXS with potential for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26024946

  19. Local interneurons and projection neurons in the antennal lobe from a spiking point of view.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anneke; Galizia, C Giovanni; Nawrot, Martin Paul

    2013-11-01

    Local computation in microcircuits is an essential feature of distributed information processing in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. The insect antennal lobe represents a spatially confined local network that processes high-dimensional and redundant peripheral input to compute an efficient odor code. Social insects can rely on a particularly rich olfactory receptor repertoire, and they exhibit complex odor-guided behaviors. This corresponds with a high anatomical complexity of their antennal lobe network. In the honeybee, a large number of glomeruli that receive sensory input are interconnected by a dense network of local interneurons (LNs). Uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) integrate sensory and recurrent local network input into an efficient spatio-temporal odor code. To investigate the specific computational roles of LNs and PNs, we measured several features of sub- and suprathreshold single-cell responses to in vivo odor stimulation. Using a semisupervised cluster analysis, we identified a combination of five characteristic features as sufficient to separate LNs and PNs from each other, independent of the applied odor-stimuli. The two clusters differed significantly in all these five features. PNs showed a higher spontaneous subthreshold activation, assumed higher peak response rates and a more regular spiking pattern. LNs reacted considerably faster to the onset of a stimulus, and their responses were more reliable across stimulus repetitions. We discuss possible mechanisms that can explain our results, and we interpret cell-type-specific characteristics with respect to their functional relevance. PMID:24004530

  20. Early phosphorylation of MARCKS at Ser25 in migrating precursor cells and differentiating peripheral neurons.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Perera, Lucía M; Arruti, Cristina; Zolessi, Flavio R

    2013-06-01

    MARCKS is a ubiquitous actin-binding protein, with special functions in the development of the central nervous system. We have previously described a neuronal-specific isoform, phosphorylated at serine 25 (S25p-MARCKS), which is present very early during neuronal differentiation in the chick retina. However, very little is known about MARCKS expression or functions in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the present work, we analyzed migrating PNS precursor cells in the chick embryo, particularly those originating from the neural crest, and found that they all express a high amount of MARCKS and that a subpopulation of them also contained S25p-MARCKS from early developmental stages. MARCKS protein was also found in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia during embryo development. Not only is the protein present in these structures but it is also phosphorylated in differentiating neurons with a maximal signal on the ganglion periphery, where neurogenesis is occurring. In conclusion, MARCKS is present and phosphorylated at early stages during the differentiation of PNS cells and precursors, indicating that it might also be important for the differentiation of these tissues. PMID:23470634

  1. Neuron-Specific Deletion of the Nf2 Tumor Suppressor Impairs Functional Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Toledo, Andrea; Baader, Stephan L; von Maltzahn, Julia; Irintchev, Andrey; Bauer, Reinhard; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to axons of the central nervous system (CNS), axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) show better, but still incomplete and often slow regeneration following injury. The tumor suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumor syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), has recently been shown to have RhoA regulatory functions in PNS neurons-in addition to its well-characterized, growth-inhibitory activity in Schwann cells. Here we report that the conditional knockout of merlin in PNS neurons leads to impaired functional recovery of mice following sciatic nerve crush injury, in a gene-dosage dependent manner. Gross anatomical or electrophysiological alterations of sciatic nerves could not be detected. However, correlating with attenuated RhoA activation due to merlin deletion, ultrastructural analysis of nerve samples indicated enhanced sprouting of axons with reduced caliber size and increased myelination compared to wildtype animals. We conclude that deletion of the tumor suppressor merlin in the neuronal compartment of peripheral nerves results in compromised functional regeneration after injury. This mechanism could explain the clinical observation that NF2 patients suffer from higher incidences of slowly recovering facial nerve paralysis after vestibular schwannoma surgery. PMID:27467574

  2. Lola regulates Drosophila olfactory projection neuron identity and targeting specificity

    PubMed Central

    Spletter, Maria Lynn; Liu, Jian; Liu, Justin; Su, Helen; Giniger, Edward; Komiyama, Takaki; Quake, Stephen; Luo, Liqun

    2007-01-01

    Background Precise connections of neural circuits can be specified by genetic programming. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs) send dendrites to single glomeruli in the antenna lobe (AL) based upon lineage and birth order and send axons with stereotyped terminations to higher olfactory centers. These decisions are likely specified by a PN-intrinsic transcriptional code that regulates the expression of cell-surface molecules to instruct wiring specificity. Results We find that the loss of longitudinals lacking (lola), which encodes a BTB-Zn-finger transcription factor with 20 predicted splice isoforms, results in wiring defects in both axons and dendrites of all lineages of PNs. RNA in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR suggest that most if not all lola isoforms are expressed in all PNs, but different isoforms are expressed at widely varying levels. Overexpression of individual lola isoforms fails to rescue the lola null phenotypes and causes additional phenotypes. Loss of lola also results in ectopic expression of Gal4 drivers in multiple cell types and in the loss of transcription factor gene lim1 expression in ventral PNs. Conclusion Our results indicate that lola is required for wiring of axons and dendrites of most PN classes, and suggest a need for its molecular diversity. Expression pattern changes of Gal4 drivers in lola-/- clones imply that lola normally represses the expression of these regulatory elements in a subset of the cells surrounding the AL. We propose that Lola functions as a general transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes ultimately controlling PN identity and wiring specificity. PMID:17634136

  3. Long-term survival and differentiation of retinal neurons derived from human embryonic stem cell lines in un-immunosuppressed mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Hambright, Dustin; Park, Kye-Yoon; Brooks, Matthew; McKay, Ron; Swaroop, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential of NIH-maintained human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines TE03 and UC06 to differentiate into retinal progenitor cells (hESC-RPCs) using the noggin/Dkk-1/IGF-1/FGF9 protocol. An additional goal is to examine the in vivo dynamics of maturation and retinal integration of subretinal and epiretinal (vitreous space) hESC-RPC grafts without immunosuppression. Methods hESCs were neuralized in vitro with noggin for 2 weeks and expanded to derive neuroepithelial cells (hESC-neural precursors, NPs). Wnt (Integration 1 and wingless) blocking morphogens Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were used to direct NPs to a rostral neural fate, and fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9)/fibroblast growth factor-basic (bFGF) were added to bias the differentiation of developing anterior neuroectoderm cells to neural retina (NR) rather than retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cells were dissociated and grafted into the subretinal and epiretinal space of young adult (4–6-week-old) mice (C57BL/6J x129/Sv mixed background). Remaining cells were replated for (i) immunocytochemical analysis and (ii) used for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) analysis. Mice were sacrificed 3 weeks or 3 months after grafting, and the grafts were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry for survival of hESC-RPCs, presence of mature neuronal and retinal markers, and the dynamics of in vivo maturation and integration into the host retina. Results At the time of grafting, hESC-RPCs exhibited immature neural/neuronal immunophenotypes represented by nestin and neuronal class III β-tubulin, with about half of the cells positive for cell proliferation marker Kiel University -raised antibody number 67 (Ki67), and no recoverin-positive (recoverin [+]) cells. The grafted cells expressed eye field markers paired box 6 (PAX6), retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (RAX), sine oculis homeobox homolog 6 (SIX6), LIM homeobox 2

  4. The number of Purkinje neurons and their topology in the cerebellar vermis of normal and reln haplodeficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Chiara; Cocito, Carolina; Bagatella, Stefano; Merighi, Adalberto; Ahluwalia, Arti; Lossi, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The Reeler heterozygous mice (reln(+/-)) are haplodeficient in the gene (reln) encoding for the reelin glycoprotein (RELN) and display reductions in brain/peripheral RELN similar to autistic or schizophrenic patients. Cytoarchitectonic alterations of the reln(+/-) brain may be subtle, and are difficult to demonstrate by current histological approaches. We analyzed the number and topological organization of the Purkinje neurons (PNs) in five vermal lobules - central (II-III), culmen (IV-V), tuber (VIIb), uvula (IX), and nodulus (X) - that process different types of afferent functional inputs in reln(+/+) and reln(+/-) adult mice (P60) of both sexes (n=24). Animals were crossed with L7GFP mice so that the GFP-tagged PNs could be directly identified in cryosections. Digital images from these sections were processed with different open source software for quantitative topological and statistical analyses. Diversity indices calculated were: maximum caliper, density, area of soma, dispersion along the XZ axis, and dispersion along the YZ axis. We demonstrate: i. reduction in density of PNs in reln(+/-) males (14.37%) and reln(+/-) females (17.73%) compared to reln(+/+) males; ii. that reln(+/-) males have larger PNs than other genotypes, and females (irrespective of the reln genetic background) have smaller PNs than reln(+/+) males; iii. PNs are more chaotically arranged along the YZ axis in reln(+/-) males than in reln(+/+) males and, except in central lobulus, reln(+/-) females. Therefore, image processing and statistics reveal previously unforeseen gender and genotype-related structural differences in cerebellum that may be clues for the definition of novel biomarkers in human psychiatric disorders. PMID:26996540

  5. New Aspects of Progesterone Interactions with the Actin Cytoskeleton and Neurosteroidogenesis in the Cerebellum and the Neuronal Growth Cone

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Lisa; Olbrich, Laura; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The impact of progesterone on neuronal tissues in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system is of significant scientific and therapeutic interest. Glial and neuronal cells of vertebrates express steroidogenic enzymes, and are able to synthesize progesterone de novo from cholesterol. Progesterone is described to have neuroprotective, neuroreparative, anti-degenerative, and anti-apoptotic effects in the CNS and the PNS. Thus, the first clinical studies promise new therapeutic options using progesterone in the treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury. Additionally, experimental data from different animal models suggest further positive effects of progesterone on neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia, peripheral nerve injury and amyothropic lateral sclerosis. In regard to this future clinical use of progesterone, we discuss in this review the underlying physiological principles of progesterone effects in neuronal tissues. Mechanisms leading to morphological reorganizations of neurons in the CNS and PNS affected by progesterone are addressed, with special focus on the actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, new aspects of a progesterone-dependent regulation of neurosteroidogenesis mediated by the recently described progesterone binding protein PGRMC1 in the nervous system are discussed. PMID:25141866

  6. Infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells in post-traumatic paraplegia offers a viable therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Umang G.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L.; Shah, Veena R.; Dave, Shruti D.; Dixit, Satyajit B.; Tiwari, Bharat B.; Shah, Harda H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is not likely to recover by current therapeutic modalities. Stem cell (SC) therapy (SCT) has promising results in regenerative medicine. We present our experience of co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal SC differentiated neuronal cells (N-Ad-MSC) and hematopoietic SCs (HSCs) in a set of patients with posttraumatic paraplegia. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with posttraumatic paraplegia of mean age 3.42 years were volunteered for SCT. Their mean age was 28 years, and they had variable associated complications. They were subjected to adipose tissue resection for in vitro generation of N-Ad-MSC and bone marrow aspiration for generation of HSC. Generated SCs were infused into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below injury site in all patients. Results: Total mean quantum of SC infused was 4.04 ml with a mean nucleated cell count of 4.5 × 104/μL and mean CD34+ of 0.35%, CD45−/90+ and CD45−/73+ of 41.4%, and 10.04%, respectively. All of them expressed transcription factors beta-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein. No untoward effect of SCT was noted. Variable and sustained improvement in Hauser's index and American Spinal Injury Association score was noted in all patients over a mean follow-up of 2.95 years. Mean injury duration was 3.42 years against the period of approximately 1-year required for natural recovery, suggesting a positive role of SCs. Conclusion: Co-infusion of N-Ad-MSC and HSC in CSF is safe and viable therapeutic approach for SCIs. PMID:27110548

  7. Distribution of pluripotent neural crest cells in the embryo and the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the commitment to the primary sensory neuron lineage.

    PubMed

    Sieber-Blum, M; Ito, K; Richardson, M K; Langtimm, C J; Duff, R S

    1993-02-01

    Many early migratory neural crest cells are pluripotent in the sense that their progeny are able to generate more than one differentiated phenotype (Sieber-Blum and Cohen, 1980, Dev. Biol. 80:95-106; Baroffio, Dupin, and Le Douarin, 1988, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:5325-5329; Bronner-Fraser and Fraser, 1988, Nature 335:161-164; Sieber-Blum, 1989a, Science 243:1608-1611; Ito and Sieber-Blum, 1991, Dev. Biol. 148:95-106). At trunk levels, the neural crest contains two classes (Sieber-Blum and Cohen, 1980) and at posterior rhombencephalic levels, three different classes of pluripotent cells (Ito and Sieber-Blum, 1991). We investigated cell differentiation by in vitro clonal analysis to determine when in development the pool of pluripotent neural crest cells becomes exhausted. The data suggest that different classes of pluripotent cells, precursor cells with more restricted developmental potentials, and apparently committed cells, exist at sites of advanced migration (posterior branchial arches) and even at target sites of neural crest cell differentiation [posterior branchial arches, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), sympathetic ganglia (SG), and epidermal ectoderm]. Some putative classes of pluripotent cells persist well into the second half of embryonic development. These observations have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that control neural crest cell migration and differentiation. They support the idea that cues originating from the microenvironment affect differentiation of pluripotent neural crest cells. One such signal appears to be brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In the presence of BDNF, but not nerve growth factor (NGF), there is a significant increase in the number of neural crest cells per colony that express a sensory neuron-specific marker. Because this increase is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the total number of cells per colony, this suggests that BDNF plays a role in cell type specification. PMID:8445386

  8. Organ of Corti explants direct tonotopically graded morphology of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Smith, Felicia L; Davis, Robin L

    2016-08-01

    The spiral ganglion is a compelling model system to examine how morphological form contributes to sensory function. While the ganglion is composed mainly of a single class of type I neurons that make simple one-to-one connections with inner hair cell sensory receptors, it has an elaborate overall morphological design. Specific features, such as soma size and axon outgrowth, are graded along the spiral contour of the cochlea. To begin to understand the interplay between different regulators of neuronal morphology, we cocultured neuron explants with peripheral target tissues removed from distinct cochlear locations. Interestingly, these "hair cell microisolates" were capable of both increasing and decreasing neuronal somata size, without adversely affecting survival. Moreover, axon characteristics elaborated de novo by the primary afferents in culture were systematically regulated by the sensory endorgan. Apparent peripheral nervous system (PNS)-like and central nervous system (CNS)-like axonal profiles were established in our cocultures allowing an analysis of putative PNS/CNS axon length ratios. As predicted from the in vivo organization, PNS-like axon bundles elaborated by apical cocultures were longer than their basal counterparts and this phenotype was methodically altered when neuron explants were cocultured with microisolates from disparate cochlear regions. Thus, location-dependent signals within the organ of Corti may set the "address" of neurons within the spiral ganglion, allowing them to elaborate the appropriate tonotopically associated morphological features in order to carry out their signaling function. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2182-2207, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663318

  9. How microglia kill neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. PMID:26341532

  10. Tetramethylpyrazine induces differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nan, Chengrui; Guo, Li; Zhao, Zongmao; Ma, Shucheng; Liu, Jixiang; Yan, Dongdong; Song, Guoqiang; Liu, Hanjie

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated the ability and optimal concentration of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) to induce human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) to differentiate into neuron‑like cells in vitro. Human umbilical cords from full-term caesarean section patients were used to obtain hUMSCs by collagenase digestion after removal of the umbilical artery and vein. The surface antigen expression profile of cultured hUMSCs was monitored by flow cytometry. After amplification, cells of the 5th passage were divided into experimental groups A‑C treated with TMP at 4.67, 2.34 and 1.17 mg/ml, respectively, in low glucose‑Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (L‑DMEM) (induction medium), while group D (control) was exposed to L‑DMEM culture medium only. Differentiation of hUMSCs into neuron‑like cells and morphological changes were observed every 0.5 h with an inverted phase contrast microscope for 6 h. After the 6‑h induction period, proportions of cells expressing neuronal markers neuron‑specific enolase (NSE), neurofilament protein (NF‑H) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The optimal concentration of TMP was selected on the basis of neuron‑like cell positive rate. Western blotting and RT‑polymerase chain reaction were applied to detect the expression of NSE, NF‑H, and GFAP of the group of optimal concentration in each point‑in‑time. Results showed that most primary cells were adherent 12 h after seeding and first appeared as diamond or polygon shapes. Thereafter, they gradually grew into long spindle‑shaped cells and finally in a radiating or swirling pattern. The cells maintained a strong proliferative capacity after continuous passage. Flow cytometry analysis of cultured hUMSCs at the 3rd, 5th and 10th passages expressed CD73, CD90 and CD105, but not CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45 or human leukocyte antigen‑DR. After 6 h of TMP treatment, typical neuron‑like cells with

  11. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions. PMID:27260986

  12. Neuron-Specific Deletion of the Nf2 Tumor Suppressor Impairs Functional Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Alexander; Büttner, Robert; Toledo, Andrea; Baader, Stephan L.; von Maltzahn, Julia; Irintchev, Andrey; Bauer, Reinhard; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to axons of the central nervous system (CNS), axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) show better, but still incomplete and often slow regeneration following injury. The tumor suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumor syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), has recently been shown to have RhoA regulatory functions in PNS neurons—in addition to its well-characterized, growth-inhibitory activity in Schwann cells. Here we report that the conditional knockout of merlin in PNS neurons leads to impaired functional recovery of mice following sciatic nerve crush injury, in a gene-dosage dependent manner. Gross anatomical or electrophysiological alterations of sciatic nerves could not be detected. However, correlating with attenuated RhoA activation due to merlin deletion, ultrastructural analysis of nerve samples indicated enhanced sprouting of axons with reduced caliber size and increased myelination compared to wildtype animals. We conclude that deletion of the tumor suppressor merlin in the neuronal compartment of peripheral nerves results in compromised functional regeneration after injury. This mechanism could explain the clinical observation that NF2 patients suffer from higher incidences of slowly recovering facial nerve paralysis after vestibular schwannoma surgery. PMID:27467574

  13. Neuron-derived FGF10 ameliorates cerebral ischemia injury via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent neuroinflammation and activating PI3K/Akt survival signaling pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Hua; Fu, Hai-Long; Tian, Mou-Li; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Cai, Lin-Lin; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    FGF10 is a member of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). We previously showed that FGF10 protects neuron against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury in vitro; however, the effect of FGF10 in ischemic stroke in vivo is unknown. In the present study, we showed that FGF10 was mainly expressed in neurons but not astrocytes, and detected FGF10 in mouse cerebrospinal fluid. The FGF10 levels in neurons culture medium and cell lysate were much higher than those in astrocytes. FGF10 expression in brain tissue and FGF10 level in CSF were increased in mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Administration of FGF10 into lateral cerebroventricle not only decreased MCAO-induced brain infarct volume and neurological deficit, but also reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and activities of Caspases. Moreover, FGF10 treatment depressed the triggered inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) and NF-κB signaling pathway, and increased phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Blockade of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by wortmannin and Akt1/2-kinase inhibitor, partly compromised the neuroprotection of FGF10. However, blockade of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway did not impair the anti-inflammation action of FGF10. Collectively, our results demonstrate that neuron-derived FGF10 ameliorates cerebral ischemia injury via inhibiting NF-κB-dependent neuroinflammation and activating PI3K/Akt survival signaling pathway in mice. PMID:26813160

  14. Differentiation of Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Motor Neuron-Like Cells on Three-Dimensional Collagen-Grafted Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Zohreh; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Solouk, Atefeh; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Ai, Jafar; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-05-01

    Cell transplantation strategies have provided potential therapeutic approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly (WJMSCs) are abundant and available adult stem cells with low immunological incompatibility, which could be considered for cell replacement therapy in the future. However, MSC transplantation without any induction or support material causes poor control of cell viability and differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of the nanoscaffolds on WJMSCs differentiation into motor neuronal lineages in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (Shh). Surface properties of scaffolds have been shown to significantly influence cell behaviors such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were constructed via electrospinning, surface modified by plasma treatment, and grafted by collagen. Characterization of the scaffolds by means of ATR-FTIR, contact angel, and Bradford proved grafting of the collagen on the surface of the scaffolds. WJMSCs were seeded on nanofibrous and tissue culture plate (TCP) and viability of WJMSCs were measured by MTT assay and then induced to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells for 15 days. Differentiated cells were evaluated morphologically, and real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry methods were done to evaluate expression of motor neuron-like cell markers in mRNA and protein levels. Our results showed that obtained cells could express motor neuron biomarkers at both RNA and protein levels, but the survival and differentiation of WJMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on the PCL/collagen scaffold were higher than cultured cells in the TCP and PCL groups. Taken together, WJMSCs are an attractive stem cell source for inducing into motor neurons in vitro especially when grown on nanostructural scaffolds and PCL/collagen scaffolds can provide a suitable, three-dimensional situation for neuronal survival and

  15. A Mammalian Conserved Element Derived from SINE Displays Enhancer Properties Recapitulating Satb2 Expression in Early-Born Callosal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yan, Kuo; Tarabykin, Victor; Vigier, Lisa; Sumiyama, Kenta; Hirakawa, Mika; Nishihara, Hidenori; Pierani, Alessandra; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered “junk DNA”. However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1−/NPY+) portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, a eutherian

  16. Inorganic polyphosphate regulates neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a highly charged polyanion capable of interacting with a number of molecular targets. This signaling molecule is released into the extracellular matrix by central astrocytes and by peripheral platelets during inflammation. While the release of polyP is associated with both induction of blood coagulation and astrocyte extracellular signaling, the role of secreted polyP in regulation of neuronal activity remains undefined. Here we test the hypothesis that polyP is an important participant in neuronal signaling. Specifically, we investigate the ability of neurons to release polyP and to induce neuronal firing, and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process by studying the action of polyP on voltage gated channels. Results Using patch clamp techniques, and primary hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion cell cultures, we demonstrate that polyP directly influences neuronal activity, inducing action potential generation in both PNS and CNS neurons. Mechanistically, this is accomplished by shifting the voltage sensitivity of NaV channel activation toward the neuronal resting membrane potential, the block KV channels, and the activation of CaV channels. Next, using calcium imaging we found that polyP stimulates an increase in neuronal network activity and induces calcium influx in glial cells. Using in situ DAPI localization and live imaging, we demonstrate that polyP is naturally present in synaptic regions and is released from the neurons upon depolarization. Finally, using a biochemical assay we demonstrate that polyP is present in synaptosomes and can be released upon their membrane depolarization by the addition of potassium chloride. Conclusions We conclude that polyP release leads to increased excitability of the neuronal membrane through the modulation of voltage gated ion channels. Together, our data establishes that polyP could function as excitatory neuromodulator in both the PNS and CNS. PMID:24886461

  17. SMA Human iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Show Perturbed Differentiation and Reduced miR-335-5p Expression.

    PubMed

    Murdocca, Michela; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa Valentina; Sanchez, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene, resulting in very low levels of functional Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. SMA human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) represent a useful and valid model for the study of the disorder, as they provide in vitro the target cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are often reported as playing a key role in regulating neuronal differentiation and fate specification. In this study SMA hiPSCs have been differentiated towards early motor neurons and their molecular and immunocytochemical profile were compared to those of wild type cells. Cell cycle proliferation was also evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). SMA hiPSCs showed an increased proliferation rate and also higher levels of stem cell markers. Moreover; when differentiated towards early motor neurons they expressed lower levels of NCAM and MN specific markers. The expression of miR-335-5p; already identified to control self-renewal or differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs); resulted to be reduced during the early steps of differentiation of SMA hiPSCs compared to wild type cells. These results suggest that we should speculate a role of this miRNA both in stemness characteristic and in differentiation efficiency of these cells. PMID:27483257

  18. SMA Human iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Show Perturbed Differentiation and Reduced miR-335-5p Expression

    PubMed Central

    Murdocca, Michela; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa Valentina; Sanchez, Massimo; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene, resulting in very low levels of functional Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. SMA human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) represent a useful and valid model for the study of the disorder, as they provide in vitro the target cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are often reported as playing a key role in regulating neuronal differentiation and fate specification. In this study SMA hiPSCs have been differentiated towards early motor neurons and their molecular and immunocytochemical profile were compared to those of wild type cells. Cell cycle proliferation was also evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). SMA hiPSCs showed an increased proliferation rate and also higher levels of stem cell markers. Moreover; when differentiated towards early motor neurons they expressed lower levels of NCAM and MN specific markers. The expression of miR-335-5p; already identified to control self-renewal or differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs); resulted to be reduced during the early steps of differentiation of SMA hiPSCs compared to wild type cells. These results suggest that we should speculate a role of this miRNA both in stemness characteristic and in differentiation efficiency of these cells. PMID:27483257

  19. The Number of Alphaherpesvirus Particles Infecting Axons and the Axonal Protein Repertoire Determines the Outcome of Neuronal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Song, Ren; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by alphaherpesviruses invariably results in invasion of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and establishment of either a latent or productive infection. Infection begins with long-distance retrograde transport of viral capsids and tegument proteins in axons toward the neuronal nuclei. Initial steps of axonal entry, retrograde transport, and replication in neuronal nuclei are poorly understood. To better understand how the mode of infection in the PNS is determined, we utilized a compartmented neuron culturing system where distal axons of PNS neurons are physically separated from cell bodies. We infected isolated axons with fluorescent-protein-tagged pseudorabies virus (PRV) particles and monitored viral entry and transport in axons and replication in cell bodies during low and high multiplicities of infection (MOIs of 0.01 to 100). We found a threshold for efficient retrograde transport in axons between MOIs of 1 and 10 and a threshold for productive infection in the neuronal cell bodies between MOIs of 1 and 0.1. Below an MOI of 0.1, the viral genomes that moved to neuronal nuclei were silenced. These genomes can be reactivated after superinfection by a nonreplicating virus, but not by a replicating virus. We further showed that viral particles at high-MOI infections compete for axonal proteins and that this competition determines the number of viral particles reaching the nuclei. Using mass spectrometry, we identified axonal proteins that are differentially regulated by PRV infection. Our results demonstrate the impact of the multiplicity of infection and the axonal milieu on the establishment of neuronal infection initiated from axons. PMID:25805728

  20. Neuronal polarization.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tetsuya; Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-06-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with structurally and functionally distinct processes called axons and dendrites. This polarization underlies the directional flow of information in the central nervous system, so the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarization is crucial for correct development and function. Great progress in our understanding of how neurons establish their polarity has been made through the use of cultured hippocampal neurons, while recent technological advances have enabled in vivo analysis of axon specification and elongation. This short review and accompanying poster highlight recent advances in this fascinating field, with an emphasis on the signaling mechanisms underlying axon and dendrite specification in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26081570

  1. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 mediates the electrophysiological and toxic actions of the cycad derivative beta-N-Methylamino-L-alanine on substantia nigra pars compacta DAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cucchiaroni, Maria Letizia; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Bernardi, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Guatteo, Ezia; Mercuri, Nicola B

    2010-04-14

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Parkinson dementia complex (ALS-PDC) is a neurodegenerative disease with ALS, parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's symptoms that is prevalent in the Guam population. beta-N-Methylamino alanine (BMAA) has been proposed as the toxic agent damaging several neuronal types in ALS-PDC, including substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic (SNpc DAergic) neurons. BMAA is a mixed glutamate receptor agonist, but the specific pathways activated in DAergic neurons are not yet known. We combined electrophysiology, microfluorometry, and confocal microscopy analysis to monitor membrane potential/current, cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) changes, cytochrome-c (cyt-c) immunoreactivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by BMAA. Rapid toxin applications caused reversible membrane depolarization/inward current and increase of firing rate and [Ca(2+)](i) in DAergic neurons. The inward current (I(BMAA)) was mainly mediated by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), coupled to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and to a lesser extent, AMPA receptors. Indeed, mGluR1 (CPCCOEt) and TRP channels (SKF 96365; Ruthenium Red) antagonists reduced I(BMAA), and a small component of I(BMAA) was reduced by the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX. Calcium accumulation was mediated by mGluR1 but not by AMPA receptors. Application of a low concentration of NMDA potentiated the BMAA-mediated calcium increase. Prolonged exposure to BMAA caused significant modifications of membrane properties, calcium overload, cell shrinkage, massive cyt-c release into the cytosol and ROS production. In SNpc GABAergic neurons, BMAA activated only AMPA receptors. Our study identifies the mGluR1-activated mechanism induced by BMAA that may cause the neuronal degeneration and parkinsonian symptoms seen in ALS-PDC. Moreover, environmental exposure to BMAA might possibly also contribute to idiopathic PD. PMID:20392940

  2. Effects of icariin combined with Panax notoginseng saponins on ischemia reperfusion-induced cognitive impairments related with oxidative stress and CA1 of hippocampal neurons in rat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Qu, Linhai; Lou, Yijia

    2008-05-01

    pyramidal neurons. Either ICA or PNS treatment alone did not obviously improve cognitive impairment (except that lipid peroxidation was reduced by PNS-treatment). The results indicated that ICA + PNS may ameliorate learning and memory deficit and blood viscosity by protecting neurons from oxidative stress in ischemic brain. PMID:18398927

  3. Improvement of Neurological Dysfunctions in Aphakia Mice, a Model of Parkinson’s Disease, after Transplantation of ES Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuronal Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sangmi; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by selective death of the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, and previously we have shown that aphakia mice, which harbor spontaneous Pitx3 gene mutation, show specific degeneration of the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons accompanied by behavioral deficits that is reversed by L-DOPA treatment or transplantation of dopaminergic neural precursors. Here, we describe transplantation of dopaminergic neural precursors to a mouse model of PD, an aphakia mouse, followed by behavioral analyses of transplanted mice. PMID:25173391

  4. The protective effect of astrocyte-derived 14,15-EET on H2O2-induced cell injury in Astrocyte-dopaminergic neuronal cell line co-culture

    PubMed Central

    Terashvili, Maia; Sarkar, Pallabi; Van Nostrand, Meg; Falck, John R.; Harder, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes perform several functions that are essential for normal neuronal activity. They play a critical role in neuronal survival during ischemia and other degenerative injuries and also modulate neuronal recovery by influencing neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of astrocyte-derived 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), metabolite of arachidonic acid by Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (CYP), against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cell line) stimulated with two different doses of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mM) for 1h showed decreased cell viability compared to the control group, while astrocytes co-cultured with dopaminergic neuronal cell lines prevented cell during after stimulation with the same doses of H2O2 for 1h. Dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cell line) pretreated with different doses of 14, 15-EET (0.1–30 μM, 30 min) before H2O2 stimulation also showed increased cell viability. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the co-cultured cells with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of the EET metabolizing enzyme, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), before H2O2 stimulation (1 mM, for 1h) increased cell viability. It also increased the endogenous level of 14,15-EET in the media compared to control group. However, pretreatment with the CYP epoxygenase inhibitor miconazole (1–20 μM, 1h) before H2O2 (1 mM, 1h) stimulation showed decreased cell viability. Our data suggest that 14,15-EET which is released from astrocytes, enhances cell viability against oxidant induced injury. Further understanding of the mechanism of 14,15-EET-mediated protection in dopaminergic neurons is imperative, as it could lead to novel therapeutic approaches for treating CNS neuropathologies, such as Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22863680

  5. Neurons in the lateral part of the lumbar spinal cord show distinct novel axon trajectories and are excited by short propriospinal ascending inputs.

    PubMed

    Antal, Zs; Luz, L L; Safronov, B V; Antal, M; Szücs, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The role of spinal dorsal horn propriospinal connections in nociceptive processing is not yet established. Recently described, rostrocaudally oriented axon collaterals of lamina I projection and local-circuit neurons (PNs and LCNs) running in the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) may serve as the anatomical substrate for intersegmental processing. Putative targets of these axons include lateral dendrites of superficial dorsal horn neurons, including PNs, and also neurons in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN) that are thought to be important integrator units receiving, among others, visceral sensory information. Here we used an intact spinal cord preparation to study intersegmental connections within the lateral part of the superficial dorsal horn. We detected brief monosynaptic and prolonged polysynaptic excitation of lamina I and LSN neurons when stimulating individual dorsal horn neurons located caudally, even in neighboring spinal cord segments. These connections, however, were infrequent. We also revealed that some projection neurons outside the dorsal grey matter and in the LSN have distinct, previously undescribed course of their projection axon. Our findings indicate that axon collaterals of lamina I PNs and LCNs in the DLF rarely form functional connections with other lamina I and LSN neurons and that the majority of their targets are on other elements of the dorsal horn. The unique axon trajectories of neurons in the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord, including the LSN do not fit our present understanding of midline axon guidance and suggest that their function and development differ from the neurons inside lamina I. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding the connectivity matrix of the superficial dorsal horn in order to decipher spinal sensory information processing. PMID:25912439

  6. Multidrug resistance protein 1 reduces the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in neuronal cells derived from the Huntington's disease R6/2 model.

    PubMed

    Im, Wooseok; Ban, Jae-Jun; Chung, Jin-Young; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2015-01-01

    Mutant huntingtin (mHtt) aggregation in the nucleus is the most readily apparent phenotype and cause of neuronal death in Huntington's disease (HD). Inhibiting mHtt aggregation reduces cell death in the brain and is thus a promising therapeutic approach. The results of the present study demonstrated that mHtt aggregation in the nucleus was altered by the activity of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), which was experimentally modulated by verapamil, siRNA and an expression vector. MDR1 detoxifies drugs and metabolites through its excretory functions in the membrane compartment, thereby protecting cells against death or senescence. When they were treated with verapamil, R6/2 mice showed a progressive decline in rotarod performance and increased mHtt aggregation in the brain. Using neuronal stem cells from R6/2 mice, we developed an in vitro HD model to test mHtt accumulation in the nuclei of neurons. When MDR1 activity in cells was decreased by verapamil or siRNA, mHtt aggregation in the nuclei increased, whereas the induction of MDR1 resulted in a decrease in mHtt aggregation. Thus, our data provide evidence that MDR1 plays an important role in the clearance of mHtt aggregation and may thus be a potential target for improving the survival of neurons in Huntington's disease. PMID:26586297

  7. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  8. Dopaminergic-Like Neurons Derived from Oral Mucosa Stem Cells by Developmental Cues Improve Symptoms in the Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Buch, Sigal; Zur, Tali Ben; Barhum, Yael; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Pitaru, Sandu; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC) was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD. PMID:24945922

  9. Rescue of an In Vitro Neuron Phenotype Identified in Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C1 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons by Modulating the WNT Pathway and Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Anastasia G.; Steiner, Joe; Pavan, William J.; Wincovitch, Stephen; Larson, Denise M.; Porter, Forbes D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a familial disorder that has devastating consequences on postnatal development with multisystem effects, including neurodegeneration. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment option for NPC1; however, several potentially therapeutic compounds have been identified in assays using yeast, rodent models, and NPC1 human fibroblasts. Although these discoveries were made in fibroblasts from NPC1 subjects and were in some instances validated in animal models of the disease, testing these drugs on a cell type more relevant for NPC1 neurological disease would greatly facilitate both study of the disease and identification of more relevant therapeutic compounds. Toward this goal, we have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a subject homozygous for the most frequent NPC1 mutation (p.I1061T) and subsequently created a stable line of neural stem cells (NSCs). These NSCs were then used to create neurons as an appropriate disease model. NPC1 neurons display a premature cell death phenotype, and gene expression analysis of these cells suggests dysfunction of important signaling pathways, including calcium and WNT. The clear readout from these cells makes them ideal candidates for high-throughput screening and will be a valuable tool to better understand the development of NPC1 in neural cells, as well as to develop better therapeutic options for NPC1. PMID:25637190

  10. Rescue of an in vitro neuron phenotype identified in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons by modulating the WNT pathway and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Anastasia G; Steiner, Joe; Pavan, William J; Wincovitch, Stephen; Larson, Denise M; Porter, Forbes D; Rao, Mahendra S; Malik, Nasir

    2015-03-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a familial disorder that has devastating consequences on postnatal development with multisystem effects, including neurodegeneration. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment option for NPC1; however, several potentially therapeutic compounds have been identified in assays using yeast, rodent models, and NPC1 human fibroblasts. Although these discoveries were made in fibroblasts from NPC1 subjects and were in some instances validated in animal models of the disease, testing these drugs on a cell type more relevant for NPC1 neurological disease would greatly facilitate both study of the disease and identification of more relevant therapeutic compounds. Toward this goal, we have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a subject homozygous for the most frequent NPC1 mutation (p.I1061T) and subsequently created a stable line of neural stem cells (NSCs). These NSCs were then used to create neurons as an appropriate disease model. NPC1 neurons display a premature cell death phenotype, and gene expression analysis of these cells suggests dysfunction of important signaling pathways, including calcium and WNT. The clear readout from these cells makes them ideal candidates for high-throughput screening and will be a valuable tool to better understand the development of NPC1 in neural cells, as well as to develop better therapeutic options for NPC1. PMID:25637190

  11. The SUMO Protease Verloren Regulates Dendrite and Axon Targeting in Olfactory Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Berdnik, Daniela; Favaloro, Vincenzo; Luo, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Sumoylation is a post-translational modification regulating numerous biological processes. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases are required for the maturation and de-conjugation of SUMO proteins, thereby either promoting or reverting sumoylation to modify protein function. Here, we show a novel role for a predicted SUMO protease, Verloren (Velo), during projection neuron (PN) target selection in the Drosophila olfactory system. PNs target their dendrites to specific glomeruli within the antennal lobe (AL) and their axons stereotypically into higher brain centers. We uncovered mutations in velo that disrupt PN targeting specificity. PN dendrites that normally target to a particular dorsolateral glomerulus instead mistarget to incorrect glomeruli within the AL or to brain regions outside the AL. velo mutant axons also display defects in arborization. These phenotypes are rescued by postmitotic expression of Velo in PNs but not by a catalytic domain mutant of Velo. Two other SUMO proteases, DmUlp1 and CG12717, can partially compensate for the function of Velo in PN dendrite targeting. Additionally, mutations in SUMO and lesswright (which encodes a SUMO conjugating enzyme) similarly disrupt PN targeting, confirming that sumoylation is required for neuronal target selection. Finally, genetic interaction studies suggest that Velo acts in SUMO de-conjugation rather than in maturation. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence for a specific role of a SUMO protease during neuronal target selection that can be dissociated from its functions in neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:22699913

  12. The SUMO protease Verloren regulates dendrite and axon targeting in olfactory projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Berdnik, Daniela; Favaloro, Vincenzo; Luo, Liqun

    2012-06-13

    Sumoylation is a post-translational modification regulating numerous biological processes. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases are required for the maturation and deconjugation of SUMO proteins, thereby either promoting or reverting sumoylation to modify protein function. Here, we show a novel role for a predicted SUMO protease, Verloren (Velo), during projection neuron (PN) target selection in the Drosophila olfactory system. PNs target their dendrites to specific glomeruli within the antennal lobe (AL) and their axons stereotypically into higher brain centers. We uncovered mutations in velo that disrupt PN targeting specificity. PN dendrites that normally target to a particular dorsolateral glomerulus instead mistarget to incorrect glomeruli within the AL or to brain regions outside the AL. velo mutant axons also display defects in arborization. These phenotypes are rescued by postmitotic expression of Velo in PNs but not by a catalytic domain mutant of Velo. Two other SUMO proteases, DmUlp1 and CG12717, can partially compensate for the function of Velo in PN dendrite targeting. Additionally, mutations in SUMO and lesswright (which encodes a SUMO conjugating enzyme) similarly disrupt PN targeting, confirming that sumoylation is required for neuronal target selection. Finally, genetic interaction studies suggest that Velo acts in SUMO deconjugation rather than in maturation. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence for a specific role of a SUMO protease during neuronal target selection that can be dissociated from its functions in neuronal proliferation and survival. PMID:22699913

  13. Neuronal arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    Silver, R. Angus

    2016-01-01

    The vast computational power of the brain has traditionally been viewed as arising from the complex connectivity of neural networks, in which an individual neuron acts as a simple linear summation and thresholding device. However, recent studies show that individual neurons utilize a wealth of nonlinear mechanisms to transform synaptic input into output firing. These mechanisms can arise from synaptic plasticity, synaptic noise, and somatic and dendritic conductances. This tool kit of nonlinear mechanisms confers considerable computational power on both morphologically simple and more complex neurons, enabling them to perform a range of arithmetic operations on signals encoded in a variety of different ways. PMID:20531421

  14. Neuronal cell lines as model dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590

  15. Voltage-gated potassium channels involved in regulation of physiological function in MrgprA3-specific itch neurons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Wu, Guanyi; Wang, Zhongli; Yang, Niuniu; Shi, Hao; He, Qian; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yu, Guang; Wang, Changming; Yuan, Xiaolin; Liu, Qin; Guan, Yun; Dong, Xinzhong; Tang, Zongxiang

    2016-04-01

    Itch is described as an unpleasant or irritating skin sensation that elicits the desire or reflex to scratch. MrgprA3, one of members of the Mrgprs family, is specifically expressed in a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). These MrgprA3-expressing DRG neurons have been identified as itch-specific neurons. They can be activated by the compound, chloroquine, which is used as a drug to treat malaria. In the present study, we labeled these itch-specific neurons using the method of molecular genetic markers, and then studied their electrophysiological properties. We also recorded the cutaneous MrgprA3(-) neurons retrogradely labeled by Dil dye (MrgprA3(-)-Dil). We first found that MrgprA3(+) neurons have a lower excitability than MrgprA3(-) neurons (MrgprA3(-)-non-Dil and MrgprA3(-)-Dil). The number of action potential (AP) was reduced more obviously in MrgprA3(+) neurons than that of in MrgprA3(-) neurons. In most cases, MrgprA3(+) neurons only generated single AP; however, in MrgprA3(-) neurons, the same stimulation could induce multiple AP firing due to the greater voltage-gated potassium (Kv) current existence in MrgprA3(+) than in MrgprA3(-) neurons. Thus, Kv current plays an important role in the regulation of excitability in itch-specific neurons. PMID:26874069

  16. Properties and physiological function of Ca2+-dependent K+ currents in uniglomerular olfactory projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Bradler, Cathleen; Warren, Ben; Bardos, Viktor; Schleicher, Sabine; Klein, Andreas; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+)-activated potassium currents [IK(Ca)] are an important link between the intracellular signaling system and the membrane potential, which shapes intrinsic electrophysiological properties. To better understand the ionic mechanisms that mediate intrinsic firing properties of olfactory uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs), we used whole cell patch-clamp recordings in an intact adult brain preparation of the male cockroach Periplaneta americana to analyze IK(Ca) In the insect brain, uPNs form the principal pathway from the antennal lobe to the protocerebrum, where centers for multimodal sensory processing and learning are located. In uPNs the activation of IK(Ca) was clearly voltage and Ca(2+) dependent. Thus under physiological conditions IK(Ca) is strongly dependent on Ca(2+) influx kinetics and on the membrane potential. The biophysical characterization suggests that IK(Ca) is generated by big-conductance (BK) channels. A small-conductance (SK) channel-generated current could not be detected. IK(Ca) was sensitive to charybdotoxin (CTX) and iberiotoxin (IbTX) but not to apamin. The functional role of IK(Ca) was analyzed in occlusion experiments under current clamp, in which portions of IK(Ca) were blocked by CTX or IbTX. Blockade of IK(Ca) showed that IK(Ca) contributes significantly to intrinsic electrophysiological properties such as the action potential waveform and membrane excitability. PMID:26823514

  17. Modeling the Cellular Mechanisms and Olfactory Input Underlying the Triphasic Response of Moth Pheromone-Sensitive Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuqiao

    2015-01-01

    In the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon, most pheromone-sensitive projection neurons (PNs) exhibit a triphasic firing pattern of excitation (E1)-inhibition (I)-excitation (E2) in response to a pulse of the sex pheromone. To understand the mechanisms underlying this stereotypical discharge, we developed a biophysical model of a PN receiving inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) via nicotinic cholinergic synapses. The ORN is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose firing rate is a function of time and is fitted to extracellular data recorded in response to pheromone stimulations at various concentrations and durations. The PN model is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism with realistic ionic currents whose parameters were derived from previous studies. Simulations revealed that the inhibitory phase I can be produced by a SK current (Ca2+-gated small conductance K+ current) and that the excitatory phase E2 can result from the long-lasting response of the ORNs. Parameter analysis further revealed that the ending time of E1 depends on some parameters of SK, Ca2+, nACh and Na+ currents; I duration mainly depends on the time constant of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, conductance of Ca2+ currents and some parameters of nACh currents; The mean firing frequency of E1 and E2 depends differentially on the interaction of various currents. Thus it is likely that the interplay between PN intrinsic currents and feedforward synaptic currents are sufficient to generate the triphasic firing patterns observed in the noctuid moth A. ipsilon. PMID:25962173

  18. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  19. Path from schizophrenia genomics to biology: gene regulation and perturbation in neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jubao

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating mental disorder afflicting 1% of the population. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of SZ have identified >100 risk loci. However, the causal variants/genes and the causal mechanisms remain largely unknown, which hinders the translation of GWAS findings into disease biology and drug targets. Most risk variants are noncoding, thus likely regulate gene expression. A major mechanism of transcriptional regulation is chromatin remodeling, and open chromatin is a versatile predictor of regulatory sequences. MicroRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role in SZ pathogenesis. Neurons differentiated from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an experimental model to characterize the genetic perturbation of regulatory variants that are often specific to cell type and/or developmental stage. The emerging genome-editing technology enables the creation of isogenic iPSCs and neurons to efficiently characterize the effects of SZ-associated regulatory variants on SZ-relevant molecular and cellular phenotypes involving dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurotransmissions. SZ GWAS findings equipped with the emerging functional genomics approaches provide an unprecedented opportunity for understanding new disease biology and identifying novel drug targets. PMID:25575480

  20. Development of a Scalable, High-Throughput-Compatible Assay to Detect Tau Aggregates Using iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons Maintained in a Three-Dimensional Culture Format.

    PubMed

    Medda, X; Mertens, L; Versweyveld, S; Diels, A; Barnham, L; Bretteville, A; Buist, A; Verheyen, A; Royaux, I; Ebneth, A; Cabrera-Socorro, A

    2016-09-01

    Tau aggregation is the pathological hallmark that best correlates with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed of hyperphosphorylated tau, leads to neuronal dysfunction and loss, and is directly associated with the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. The limited success in targeting β-amyloid pathologies has reinforced the hypothesis of blocking tau phosphorylation, aggregation, and/or spreading as alternative therapeutic entry points to treat AD. Identification of novel therapies requires disease-relevant and scalable assays capable of reproducing key features of the pathology in an in vitro setting. Here we use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a virtually unlimited source of human cortical neurons to develop a robust and scalable tau aggregation model compatible with high-throughput screening (HTS). We downscaled cell culture conditions to 384-well plate format and used Matrigel to introduce an extra physical protection against cell detachment that reduces shearing stress and better recapitulates pathological conditions. We complemented the assay with AlphaLISA technology for the detection of tau aggregates in a high-throughput-compatible format. The assay is reproducible across users and works with different commercially available iPSC lines, representing a highly translational tool for the identification of novel treatments against tauopathies, including AD. PMID:26984927

  1. Turning Heads: Development of Vertebrate Branchiomotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2007-01-01

    The cranial motor neurons innervate muscles that control eye, jaw, and facial movements of the vertebrate head and parasympathetic neurons that innervate certain glands and organs. These efferent neurons develop at characteristic locations in the brainstem, and their axons exit the neural tube in well-defined trajectories to innervate target tissues. This review is focused on a subset of cranial motor neurons called the branchiomotor neurons, which innervate muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal) arches. First, the organization of the branchiomotor pathways in zebrafish, chick, and mouse embryos will be compared, and the underlying axon guidance mechanisms will be addressed. Next, the molecular mechanisms that generate branchiomotor neurons and specify their identities will be discussed. Finally, the caudally directed or tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons will be examined. Given the advances in the characterization and analysis of vertebrate genomes, we can expect rapid progress in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these vital neuronal networks. PMID:14699587

  2. The chromatin remodeling factor Bap55 functions through the TIP60 complex to regulate olfactory projection neuron dendrite targeting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Drosophila olfactory system exhibits very precise and stereotyped wiring that is specified predominantly by genetic programming. Dendrites of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) pattern the developing antennal lobe before olfactory receptor neuron axon arrival, indicating an intrinsic wiring mechanism for PN dendrites. These wiring decisions are likely determined through a transcriptional program. Results We find that loss of Brahma associated protein 55 kD (Bap55) results in a highly specific PN mistargeting phenotype. In Bap55 mutants, PNs that normally target to the DL1 glomerulus mistarget to the DA4l glomerulus with 100% penetrance. Loss of Bap55 also causes derepression of a GAL4 whose expression is normally restricted to a small subset of PNs. Bap55 is a member of both the Brahma (BRM) and the Tat interactive protein 60 kD (TIP60) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. The Bap55 mutant phenotype is partially recapitulated by Domino and Enhancer of Polycomb mutants, members of the TIP60 complex. However, distinct phenotypes are seen in Brahma and Snf5-related 1 mutants, members of the BRM complex. The Bap55 mutant phenotype can be rescued by postmitotic expression of Bap55, or its human homologs BAF53a and BAF53b. Conclusions Our results suggest that Bap55 functions through the TIP60 chromatin remodeling complex to regulate dendrite wiring specificity in PNs. The specificity of the mutant phenotypes suggests a position for the TIP60 complex at the top of a regulatory hierarchy that orchestrates dendrite targeting decisions. PMID:21284845

  3. Direct innervation and modulation of orexin neurons by lateral hypothalamic LepRb neurons

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Gwendolyn W.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Myers, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Leptin, the adipose-derived hormonal signal of body energy stores, acts via the leptin receptor (LepRb) on neurons in multiple brain regions. We previously identified LepRb neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), which are distinct from neighboring leptin-regulated melanin concentrating hormone (MCH)- or orexin (OX)-expressing cells. Neither the direct synaptic targets of LHA LepRb neurons nor their potential role in the regulation of other LHA neurons have been determined, however. We thus generated several adenoviral and transgenic systems in which cre recombinase promotes the expression of the tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and utilized these in combination with LepRbcre mice to determine the neuronal targets of LHA LepRb neurons. This analysis revealed that, while some LHA LepRb neurons project to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), LHA LepRb neurons also densely innervate the LHA where they directly synapse with OX, but not MCH, neurons. Indeed, few other LepRb neurons in the brain project to the OX-containing region of the mouse LHA, and direct leptin action via LHA LepRb neurons regulates gene expression in OX neurons. These findings thus reveal a major role for LHA leptin action in the modulation of OX neurons, suggesting the importance of LHA LepRb neurons in the regulation of OX signaling that is crucial to leptin action and metabolic control. PMID:20739548

  4. Structures of 1,4-benzodioxane derivatives from the seeds of Phytolacca americana and their neuritogenic activity in primary cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Takahasi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Kazue; Ueda, Masumi; Nakade, Kousuke; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of the seeds of Phytolacca americana was reinvestigated to yield three new 1,4-benzodioxane-type compounds, americanoic acid methyl ester (1), isoamericanoic acid A methyl ester (2), and 9'-O-methylamericanol A (3) along with the previously isolated neolignans 6-9. The structures of 1-3 were characterized by 2D NMR and long-range selective proton-decoupling (LSPD) techniques. The neuritogenic effects of compounds 1-3, and dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5, which had been previously synthesized with horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative coupling of caffeic acid, were examined in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Americanoic acid A methyl ester (1) exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity at concentration of 0.01-1.0 microM, whereas dicarboxilic acids 4 and 5 were found to induce neuritogenesis dose dependently at the concentrations from 0.1 microM to 10 microM. PMID:14646313

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic field enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through L-type voltage-gated calcium channel- and Erk-dependent signaling pathways in neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Li, Ling; Hu, Xinghua; Sun, Honghui; Tian, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Although pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure has been reported to promote neuronal differentiation, the mechanism is still unclear. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of PEMF exposure on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression and the correlation between the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and Bdnf mRNA expression in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Exposure to 50Hz and 1mT PEMF for 2h increased the level of [Ca(2+)]i and Bdnf mRNA expression, which was found to be mediated by increased [Ca(2+)]i from Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, calcium mobilization was not involved in the increased [Ca(2+)]i and BDNF expression, indicating that calcium influx was one of the key factors responding to PEMF exposure. Moreover, PD098059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibitor, strongly inhibited PEMF-dependant Erk1/2 activation and BDNF expression, indicating that Erk activation is required for PEMF-induced upregulation of BDNF expression. These findings indicated that PEMF exposure increased BDNF expression in DRGNs by activating Ca(2+)- and Erk-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:24937769

  6. Efficient and versatile catalysis of N-alkylation of heterocyclic amines with alcohols and one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzazoles with newly designed ruthenium(II) complexes of PNS thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rangasamy; Prakash, Govindan; Selvamurugan, Sellappan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Malecki, Jan Grzegorz; Ramkumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-06-01

    Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes with phosphine-functionalized PNS type thiosemicarbazone ligands [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(L)] (1-6) (E = P or As, L = 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene) thiosemicarbazone (PNS-H), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-methylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Me), 2-(2-(diphenylphosphino)benzylidene)-N-phenylthiosemicarbazone (PNS-Ph)) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. The molecular structures of complexes 1, 2 and 6 were identified by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The analysis revealed that all the complexes possess a distorted octahedral geometry with the ligand coordinating in a uni-negative tridentate PNS fashion. All the ruthenium complexes (1-6) were tested as catalyst for N-alkylation of heteroaromatic amines with alcohols. Notably, complex 2 was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards N-alkylation of a wide range of heterocyclic amines with alcohols. Complex 2 can also catalyze the direct amination of 2-nitropyridine with benzyl alcohol to the corresponding secondary amine. Furthermore, a preliminary examination of performance for N,N-dialkylation of diamine showed promising results, giving good conversion and high selectivity. In addition, N-alkylation of ortho-substituted anilines (-NH2, -OH and -SH) led to the one-pot synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles, also revealing the catalytic activity of complex 2. PMID:24705796

  7. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  8. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  9. Increased fiber outgrowth from xeno-transplanted human embryonic dopaminergic neurons with co-implants of polymer-encapsulated genetically modified cells releasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Hwan; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Aebischer, Patrick; Zurn, Anne D; Seiger, Ake; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Wahlberg, Lars; Brundin, Patrik; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S

    2005-07-30

    We investigated whether a continuous supply of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) via encapsulated genetically modified cells can promote survival and fiber outgrowth from xenotransplanted human dopaminergic neurons. Cells genetically engineered to continuously secrete GDNF were confined in hollow fiber-based macrocapsules. Each hemiparkinsonian rat received either a single C2C12-hGDNF capsule (n=8) or a C2C12-control capsule (n=8) concomitantly with human embryonic ventral mesencephalic cell suspension transplants. Our results show that fiber outgrowth in the area between the capsule and the graft is more extensive in rats with GDNF-releasing capsules than in rats with control capsules. We suggest that continuous and safe delivery of GDNF to the brain could be a potential way to optimize neural transplantation as a therapy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:15982530

  10. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Cora; Bosch, Daniel; Gall, Andrea; Lüthi, Andreas; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA), the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs) and local BA interneurons (INs) receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level. PMID:24634648

  11. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  12. The Differentiation of Human Endometrial Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells on Electrospun PAN-Derived Carbon Nanofibers with Random and Aligned Topographies.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Ai, Jafar; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Verdi, Javad; Ghanbari, Hossein; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have great potential for applications in neural tissue regeneration due to their electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and morphological similarity to natural extracellular matrix. In this study, we cultured human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) on electrospun CNFs with random and aligned topographies and demonstrated that hEnSCs could attach, proliferate, and differentiate into neural cells on both random and aligned CNFs. However, the proliferation, differentiation, and morphology of cells were affected by CNF morphology. Under the proliferative condition, hEnSCs showed lower proliferation on aligned CNFs than on random CNFs and on tissue culture plate (TCP) control. When cultured on aligned CNFs in neural induction media, hEnSCs showed significant upregulation of neuronal markers, NF-H and Tuj-1, and downregulation of neural progenitor marker (nestin) compared to that on random CNFs and on TCP. In contrast, hEnSCs showed higher expression of nestin and slight upregulation of oligodendrocyte marker (OLIG-2) on random CNFs compared to that on aligned CNFs and on TCP. SEM imaging revealed that differentiated cells extended along the CNF main axis on aligned CNFs but stretched multidirectionally on random CNFs. These findings suggest electrospun CNFs as proper substrate for stem cell differentiation into specific neural cells. PMID:26334615

  13. Notch Is Required in Adult Drosophila Sensory Neurons for Morphological and Functional Plasticity of the Olfactory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Struhl, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) convey odor information to the central brain, but like other sensory neurons were thought to play a passive role in memory formation and storage. Here we show that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. Specifically, we show that Notch activity in ORNs is necessary for the odor specific increase in the volume of glomeruli that occurs as a consequence of prolonged odor exposure. Calcium imaging experiments indicate that Notch in ORNs is also required for the chronic odor induced changes in the physiology of ORNs and the ensuing changes in the physiological response of their second order projection neurons (PNs). We further show that Notch in ORNs acts by both canonical cleavage-dependent and non-canonical cleavage-independent pathways. The Notch ligand Delta (Dl) in PNs switches the balance between the pathways. These data define a circuit whereby, in conjunction with odor, N activity in the periphery regulates the activity of neurons in the central brain and Dl in the central brain regulates N activity in the periphery. Our work highlights the importance of experience dependent plasticity at the first olfactory synapse. PMID:26011623

  14. Caudalized human iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells produce neurons and glia but fail to restore function in an early chronic spinal cord injury model

    PubMed Central

    Nutt, Samuel E.; Chang, Eun-Ah; Suhr, Steven T.; Schlosser, Laura O.; Mondello, Sarah E.; Moritz, Chet T.; Cibelli, Jose B.; Horner, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have shown modest potential and some side effects (e.g. allodynia) for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In only a few cases, however, have NPCs shown promise at the chronic stage. Given the 1.275 million people living with chronic paralysis, there is a significant need to rigorously evaluate the cell types and methods for safe and efficacious treatment of this devastating condition. For the first time, we examined the pre-clinical potential of NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to repair chronic SCI. hiPSCs were differentiated into region-specific (i.e. caudal) NPCs, then transplanted into a new, clinically relevant model of early chronic cervical SCI. We established the conditions for successful transplantation of caudalized hiPSC-NPCs and demonstrate their remarkable ability to integrate and produce multiple neural lineages in the early chronic injury environment. In contrast to prior reports in acute and sub-acute injury models, survival and integration of hiPSC-derived neural cells in the early chronic cervical model did not lead to significant improvement in forelimb function or induce allodynia. These data indicate that while hiPSCs show promise, future work needs to focus on the specific hiPSC-derivatives or co-therapies that will restore function in the early chronic injury setting. PMID:23891888

  15. Caudalized human iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells produce neurons and glia but fail to restore function in an early chronic spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Samuel E; Chang, Eun-Ah; Suhr, Steven T; Schlosser, Laura O; Mondello, Sarah E; Moritz, Chet T; Cibelli, Jose B; Horner, Philip J

    2013-10-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have shown modest potential and some side effects (e.g. allodynia) for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In only a few cases, however, have NPCs shown promise at the chronic stage. Given the 1.275 million people living with chronic paralysis, there is a significant need to rigorously evaluate the cell types and methods for safe and efficacious treatment of this devastating condition. For the first time, we examined the pre-clinical potential of NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to repair chronic SCI. hiPSCs were differentiated into region-specific (i.e. caudal) NPCs, then transplanted into a new, clinically relevant model of early chronic cervical SCI. We established the conditions for successful transplantation of caudalized hiPSC-NPCs and demonstrate their remarkable ability to integrate and produce multiple neural lineages in the early chronic injury environment. In contrast to prior reports in acute and sub-acute injury models, survival and integration of hiPSC-derived neural cells in the early chronic cervical model did not lead to significant improvement in forelimb function or induce allodynia. These data indicate that while hiPSCs show promise, future work needs to focus on the specific hiPSC-derivatives or co-therapies that will restore function in the early chronic injury setting. PMID:23891888

  16. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Increases Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Currents Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons via Different Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fang; Li, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Fan, Yong-Yan; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Yan-Hong; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/chemokine CXC motif ligand 12 (CXCL12), a chemokine that is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) during chronic pain models, has recently been found to play a central role in pain hypersensitivity. The purpose of present study is to investigate the functional impact of SDF-1 and its receptor, chemokine CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), on two TTXR sodium channels in rat DRG using electrophysiological techniques. Preincubation with SDF-1 caused a concentration-dependent increase of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 currents amplitudes in acutely isolated small diameter DRG neurons in short-term culture. As to Nav1.9, changes in current density and kinetic properties of Nav1.9 current evoked by SDF-1(50 ng/ml) was eliminated by CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The increase in Nav1.9 current was also blocked by pertussis toxin (PTX) but not cholera toxin (CTX), showing involvement of Gi/o but not Gs subunits. As to Nav1.8, inhibitors (AMD3100, PTX, CTX, LY294002) used in present study didn't inhibit the increased amplitude of Nav1.8 current and shifted activation curve of Nav1.8 in a hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of SDF-1 (50 ng/ml). In conclusion, our data demonstrated that SDF-1 may excite primary nociceptive sensory neurons by acting on the biophysical properties of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 currents but via different mechanisms. PMID:27038931

  17. Micropatterning of neural stem cells and Purkinje neurons using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Ho; Lee, Hyun; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-sung; Kim, Gyu Man

    2012-12-01

    A new fabrication method of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencil embedded microwell plate is proposed and applied to a localized culture of Purkinje neurons (PNs) and neural stem cells (NSCs). A microwell plate combines a PDMS stencil and well plate. The PDMS stencil was fabricated by spin casting from an SU-8 master mold. Gas blowing using nitrogen was adopted to perforate the stencil membrane. An acrylic well plate compartment mold was fabricated using computer numerical control (CNC) machining. By PDMS casting using a stencil placed on an acrylic mold, microwell plates were fabricated without punching or the use of a plasma bonding process. By using the stencil as a physical mask for the cell culture, PNs and NSCs were successfully cultured into micropatterns. The microwell plate could be applied to the localizing and culturing of a cell. The micropatterned NSCs were differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The results showed that cells could be cultured and differentiated into micropatterns in a precisely controlled manner in any shape and in specific sizes for bioscience study and bioengineering applications. PMID:23042549

  18. Pheromone responsiveness threshold depends on temporal integration by antennal lobe projection neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Masashi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Minegishi, Ryo; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Nakatani, Kei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory system of male moths has an extreme sensitivity with the capability to detect and recognize conspecific pheromones dispersed and greatly diluted in the air. Just 170 molecules of the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) sex pheromone bombykol are sufficient to induce sexual behavior in the male. However, it is still unclear how the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is relayed through the brain to generate high behavioral responsiveness. Here, we show that ORN activity that is subthreshold in terms of behavior can be amplif