Science.gov

Sample records for poblacion del delta

  1. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  2. DELTAE

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.C.; Swift, G.W. )

    1993-11-01

    In thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, and in many simple acoustic systems, a one dimensional wave equation determines the spatial dependence of the acoustic pressure and velocity. DELTAE numerically integrates such wave equations in the acoustic approximation, in gases or liquids, in user-defined geometries. Boundary conditions can include conventional acoustic boundary conditions of geometry and impedance, as well as temperature and thermal power in thermoacoustic systems. DELTAE can be used easily for apparatus ranging from simple duct networks and resonators to thermoacoustic engines refrigerators and combinations thereof. It can predict how a given apparatus will perform, or can allow the user to design an apparatus to achieve desired performance. DELTAE views systems as a series of segments; twenty segment types are supported. The purely acoustic segments include ducts and cones, and lumped impedances including compliances, series impedances, and endcaps. Electroacoustics tranducer segments can be defined using either frequency-independent coefficients or the conventional parameters of loudspeaker-style drivers: mass, spring constant, magnetic field strength, etc. Tranducers can be current driven, voltage driven, or connected to an electrical load impedance. Thermoacoustic segment geometries include parallel plates, circular and rectangular pores, and pin arrays. Side branches can be defined with fixed impedances, frequency-dependent radiation impedances, or as an auxiliary series of segments of any types. The user can select working fluids from among air, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium-argon mixtures, helium-xenon mixtures, liquid sodium, and eutectic sodium-potassium. Additional fluids and solids can be defined by the user.

  3. Are pesticide residues associated to rice production affecting oyster production in Delta del Ebro, NE Spain?

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Victoria; Riva, Carmen; Faria, Melissa; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez Tejedor, Margarita; Roque, Ana; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barata, Carlos

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide usage in Delta del Ebro (NE Spain) during the rice growing season has been associated with oyster episodes of mortality that occur early in summer. However, there are no studies that have directly evaluated pesticide levels and effects in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) cultured in Ebro's Bays. In this study pesticide levels in water, metal body burdens and up to 12 different biochemical markers were monitored in gills and digestive glands of oysters transplanted from May to June in 2008 and 2009. Biochemical responses evidenced clear differences in oysters from 2008 and 2009. Oysters transplanted in 2009 showed their antioxidant defenses unaffected from May to June and consequently increased levels of tissue damage measured as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and of mortality rates. Conversely oysters transplanted in 2008 increase their antioxidant defenses from May to June, had low levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and low mortality rates. Some pesticides in water such as bentazone and propanil together with high temperatures and salinity levels were related with tissue damage in oyster transplanted in 2008 but the observed large differences between years indicate that abiotic factors alone could not explain the high mortalities observed in 2009. An analysis of recent reported studies pointed out in the direction that in addition to abiotic factors the use of oysters sensitive to diseases may explain the observed responses. PMID:22940045

  4. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  5. Nile Delta

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  The Nile River Delta     View Larger Image ... of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids ...

  6. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and CREBBP c.201 202delTA mutation: a case presenting with varicella meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Çaksen, H; Bartsch, O; Okur, M; Temel, H; Açikgoz, M; Yilmaz, C

    2009-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare syndrome with a frequency of approximately 1 in 125,000 affected newborns, which is characterized by mental retardation, growth retardation, a particular dysmorphology and, in a subset of cases, immunodeficiency. RTS is typically caused by CREBBP deficiency, and heterozygous mutation or deletion of the CREBBP gene has been identified in 60-70% of patients. The inheritance is autosomal dominant but reports of vertical transmission are exceedingly rare; near-all cases are caused by de novo mutations. Here we present an 8-month-old boy with varicella meningoencephalitis, RTS, and a de novo deletion of the CREBBP gene of two base pairs at position 201-202 in exon 2, c. 201 202delT. The mutation has not been described previously but it predicts a protein truncation, and truncating CREBBP mutations are typical causes of RTS. PMID:19852432

  7. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  8. Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The streamers of clouds draped over the Gulf of Mexico in this true-color MODIS image from February 27, 2002, suggest that a cold, dry wind was blowing southward over the United States and began to pick up moisture over the Gulf, causing these strips of clouds. That the clouds didn't pick up until some distance from the coastline allowed MODIS to get a perfect view of the dynamic Gulf Coast environment spanning (left to right) Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida's Western Panhandle. The Mississippi River runs roughly down the center of the image, and is joined in Louisiana by the Red River coming in from the northwest. Over the past 7000 years, the actual delta, where the main river channel empties into the Gulf, has wandered around what we now think of as the Louisiana coast. Considering all the sediment visible in this image, it's not hard to imagine that the river carries about 2.4 billion kilograms of sediment into the Gulf each year. Deposition of some of this sediment has been building up the current delta, called the Birdfoot Delta, for obvious reasons, for about 700 years. The coastal waters are alive with microscopic organisms called phytoplankton, which contain colorful pigments, including chlorophyll, for harvesting sunlight. Beyond the sediment plume off Louisiana, the waters are very dark, which could indicate that a large amount of chlorophyll is present, absorbing lots of sunlight and causing the water to appear dark. Farther south, the waters appear bright blue, which could be a signature of coccolithophores, which use highly reflective calcium carbonate to build scaly coverings for themselves. The brighter offshore waters could also be caused by a blue-green algae called Trichodesmium, an organism that can not only harness carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, but can also take nitrogen from the air and turn it into a form that can be used by living organisms. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi River delta teems with sediment deposited by the river as it flows into the Gulf of Mexico in this true-color image captured by MODIS on October 15, 2001. The sediment, which is marked by brown swirls in the Gulf, provides nutrients for the bloom of phytoplankton visible as blue-green swirls off the coastline. In the high-resolution image the city of Memphis can be seen in the southwest corner of Tennessee, which is just to left of center at the top of the image. The brown coloration that encompasses Memphis and either side of the river, as flows north to south along the left side of the image, is the river's flood plain. Also visible, in the upper-right hand corner of the image is the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains.

  10. Delta III—an evolutionary delta growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesen, R. J.; Simpson, J. S.

    1996-03-01

    In order to remain competitive in the future and expand the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace market share, MDA has developed an expendable launch system strategy that devices cost-effective launch systems from the Delta II with a growth vehicle configuration called Delta III. The Delta III evolves from the Delta II launch system through development of a larger payload fairing (4-meter diameter), new cryogenically propelled upper stage, new first stage fuel tank, and larger strap-on solid rocket motors. We are developing the Delta III using Integrated Product Development Teams that capitalize on the experience base that has led us to a world record breaking mission success of 49 consecutive Delta II missions. The Delta III first-launch capability is currently planned for the spring of 1998 in support of our first spacecraft customer, Hughes Space and Communications International.

  11. delta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (delta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    delta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( delta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 86 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  12. Role of Genetic Recombination in DNA Replication of Bacteriophage Lambda I. Genetic Characterization of the Delta Gene

    PubMed Central

    Barta, K.; Tavernier, P.; Zissler, J.

    1974-01-01

    We describe the isolation and genetic characterization of point mutations in gene delta, including a temperature-sensitive mutation (del206). Genetic methods enable the extraction of a delta mutation from the triple mutant (del,red,gam) and the construction of new genotypes, including del,red and del,gam double mutants. Tests of plating efficiency indicate gene delta is essential for normal phase growth on the polA host. The possible association of delta in a system involving alpha, beta, and gamma is considered. PMID:4610187

  13. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  14. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  15. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Urbana (Reading and Writing Instruction: Urban Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults in Mexico who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at urban inhabitants of Mexico.…

  16. Delta hepatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, M; Dimitrakakis, M; Tan, D S

    1986-06-01

    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B. PMID:3787309

  17. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one`s understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying {delta} Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for {delta} Scuti stars, using FG Vir, {delta} Scuti, and CD-24{degree} 7599 as examples.

  18. The Delta Clipper dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, Tim

    1992-04-01

    A conceptual development status evaluation is presented for the SDIO's projected VTOL SSTOV, dubbed the 'Delta Clipper', which is envisioned as an alternative to the slowly developing NASP and the next-generation National Launch System. Delta Clipper program managers believe that the lightweight materials and structures entailed by the requisite empty/gross-weight ratio for an SSTOV are now available, precluding the airbreathing propulsion of such alternatives as HOTOL. The Delta Clipper could operate with a crew of two, or entirely unmanned. The 8-12 LH2/LOX engines employed are derived from the RL-10 engines of the Centaur launcher.

  19. Modeling river delta formation.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2007-10-23

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

  20. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  1. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  2. Modeling river delta formation

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, Hansjörg; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2007-01-01

    A model to simulate the time evolution of river delta formation process is presented. It is based on the continuity equation for water and sediment flow and a phenomenological sedimentation/erosion law. Different delta types are reproduced by using different parameters and erosion rules. The structures of the calculated patterns are analyzed in space and time and compared with real data patterns. Furthermore, our model is capable of simulating the rich dynamics related to the switching of the mouth of the river delta. The simulation results are then compared with geological records for the Mississippi River. PMID:17940031

  3. Man made deltas

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  4. Man made deltas.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  5. Federal Funding in the Delta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Richard J.; Calhoun, Samuel D.

    2002-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi Delta region, especially the rural Delta, faces many economic challenges. The rural Delta has received much federal aid in basic income support and funding for human resource development, but less for community resource programs, which are important for economic development. Federal aid to the Delta is analyzed in terms of…

  6. Man made deltas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.

    2014-12-01

    During the last few millennia, southern European fluvio-deltaic systems have evolved in response to changes in the hydrological cycle, mostly driven by high-frequency climate oscillations and increasing anthropic pressure on natural landscapes. The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the bulk of the four largest northern Mediterranean and Black Sea deltas (Ebro, Rhone, Po and Danube) formed during two short and synchronous intervals during which anthropogenic land cover change was the main driver for enhanced sediment production. These two major growth phases occurred under contrasting climatic regimes and were both followed by generalized delta retreat, supporting the hypothesis of human-driven delta progradation. Delta retreat, in particular, was the consequence of reduced soil erosion for renewed afforestation after the fall of the Roman Empire, and of river dams construction that overkilled the still increasing sediment production in catchment basins since the Industrial Era. In this second case, in particular, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding.

  7. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  8. Lessons from KIPP Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert; Shuls, James V.

    2011-01-01

    KIPP Delta succeeds at its stated mission, probably because of its careful attention to culture building. What distinguishes this KIPP school is thoughtful work linking the daily processes of schooling to the goals of schooling, in this case success in college. Day to day tactics reflect broader themes: having a clear mission and hiring staff who…

  9. Delta Airlines LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1981-01-01

    A LOFT program was developed as part of the DC-9 training program which serves as a prototype for much of Delta's other aircraft training programs. The LOFT used differs little from the ideology presented in the Advisory Circular. Difficulty and experienced concerns regarding the effectiveness of LOFT as a complete training vehicle are explored.

  10. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  11. Using delta-front bathymetry to understand river delta progradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. B.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the delta-front bathymetry of the Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana, USA; a sand rich river delta prograding quickly (~100 m/yr) into a shallow (~2.5 m) basin. The delta-front is the zone separating the bottomset from the topset of the delta. Bottomset sedimentation covers the bed evenly whereas topset sediment transport is focused by flow through distributary channels. The delta front connects these two disparate transport regimes and has a profound effect on channel-network evolution and sedimentary structure of river deltas. Predictions of delta-front topography made by models of delta progradation have rarely been compared to the bathymetry of field-scale deltas. We have mapped 60 km2 of delta front bathymetry immediately seaward of two sub-aerial distributary channels. Subaqueous channels extend up to 2 km seaward of their subaerial portions. These channels lose definition at their distal ends through a combination of channel-bed shoaling and loss of bank relief. Little bathymetric relief is observed at the fronts of the subaqueous channels, calling into question the role of channel-mouth bars in generating the bifurcations observed in this delta-channel network. Near the subaerial to subaqueous transition, steep and eroding sidewalls transition to constructional banks with gentle grades. Grab samples of bed material have been collected throughout the study area in order to detect proximal to distal fining and to constrain the shear stresses connected with delta-front sedimentation. A better understanding of sediment transport in the delta front and its affiliated patterns of erosion and deposition is essential for progress in understanding how river deltas prograde and fill their basins.

  12. The Devil's in the Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Students frequently confuse and incorrectly apply the several "deltas" that are used in chemical engineering. The deltas come in three different flavors: "out minus in", "big minus little" and "now versus then." The first applies to a change in a stream property as the stream flows through a process. For example, the "[delta]H" in an energy…

  13. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  14. Martian deltas: Morphology and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent detailed mapping has revealed numerous examples of Martian deltas. The location and morphology of these deltas are described. Factors that contribute to delta morphology are river regime, coastal processes, structural stability, and climate. The largest delta systems on Mars are located near the mouths of Maja, Maumee, Vedra, Ma'adim, Kasei, and Brazos Valles. There are also several smaller-scale deltas emplaced near channel mouths situated in Ismenius Lacus, Memnonia, and Arabia. Delta morphology was used to reconstruct type, quantity, and sediment load size transported by the debouching channel systems. Methods initially developed for terrestrial systems were used to gain information on the relationships between Martian delta morphology, river regime, and coastal processes.

  15. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  16. Mississippi River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    As the Mississippi River enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad stripe running northwest to southeast.

    This image was acquired on May 24, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping

  17. Télédétection par satellite et SIG pour l'analyse des déplacements des chenaux dans le delta actif de la Rivière Jaune en ChineTeledetección satelitária y SIG para analizar cambios en el desplazamiento de causes en el delta activo del Río Amarillo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Damen, Michiel C. J.; van Zuidam, Robert A.

    Channel migration in deltaic lowlands tends to be complicated by marine processes and intensified cultural practices. Understanding the ways in which river channels have migrated through time is critical to tackling many geomorphologic and river management problems. Because of large magnitude and rapid rates of change, special surveillance systems are needed to efficiently measure and monitor channel migration. This study presents an application of geographic information technologies for the study of channel migration in the active Yellow River Delta, China. The main source of data was a series of time-sequential Landsat images spanning a period of approximately 19 years. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to support modernized channel position mapping and measurement. The spatio-temporal changes of river banks and channel centerlines were systematically examined, and an attempt was made to relate these computational results with appropriate natural and human processes affecting the delta. This study demonstrates the utility of satellite remote sensing integrated with a GIS in investigating channel migration.

  18. Natural processes in delta restoration: application to the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Paola, Chris; Twilley, Robert R; Edmonds, Douglas A; Kim, Wonsuck; Mohrig, David; Parker, Gary; Viparelli, Enrica; Voller, Vaughan R

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of river deltas involves diverting sediment and water from major channels into adjoining drowned areas, where the sediment can build new land and provide a platform for regenerating wetland ecosystems. Except for local engineered structures at the points of diversion, restoration mainly relies on natural delta-building processes. Present understanding of such processes is sufficient to provide a basis for determining the feasibility of restoration projects through quantitative estimates of land-building rates and sustainable wetland area under different scenarios of sediment supply, subsidence, and sea-level rise. We are not yet to the point of being able to predict the evolution of a restored delta in detail. Predictions of delta evolution are based on field studies of active deltas, deltas in mine-tailings ponds, experimental deltas, and countless natural experiments contained in the stratigraphic record. These studies provide input for a variety of mechanistic delta models, ranging from radially averaged formulations to more detailed models that can resolve channels, topography, and ecosystem processes. Especially exciting areas for future research include understanding the mechanisms by which deltaic channel networks self-organize, grow, and distribute sediment and nutrients over the delta surface and coupling these to ecosystem processes, especially the interplay of topography, network geometry, and ecosystem dynamics. PMID:21329199

  19. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  20. Delta in Eberswalde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This HiRISE image covers a portion of a delta that partially fills Eberswalde crater in Margaritifer Sinus. The delta was first recognized and mapped using MOC images that revealed various features whose presence required sustained flow and deposition into a lake that once occupied the crater. The HiRISE image resolves meter-scale features that record the migration of channels and delta distributaries as the delta grew over time. Differences in grain-size of sediments within the environments on the delta enable differential erosion of the deposits. As a result, coarser channel deposits are slightly more resistant and stand in relief relative to finer-grained over-bank and more easily eroded distal delta deposits. Close examination of the relict channel deposits confirms the presence of some meter-size blocks that were likely too coarse to have been transported by water flowing within the channels. These blocks may be formed of the sand and gravel that more likely moved along the channels that was lithified and eroded. Numerous meter-scale polygonal structures are common on many surfaces, but mostly those associated with more quiescent depositional environments removed from the channels. The polygons could be the result of deposition of fine-grained sediments that were either exposed and desiccated (dried out), rich in clays that shrunk when the water was removed, turned into rock and then fractured and eroded, or some combination of these processes.

    Image PSP_001336_1560 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 8, 2006. The complete image is centered at -23.8 degrees latitude, 326.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 256.3 km (160.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.6 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 77 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was

  1. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  2. Holden Crater Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03694 Holden Crater Delta

    This fan-shaped delta deposit is located in Holden Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.3N, Longitude 324.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Shanghai Delta Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.E.; Hoffman, P.F.; Parker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Eocene Yegua Formation expands dramatically across a regional system of growth faults into an area generally 12-15 km wide, extending at least from the western edge of the Houston sale dome basin to the San Marcos arch. Within this area, the expanded Yegua trend has yielded, since 1982, at least seven noteworthy discoveries: Toro Grande and Lost Bridge fields in Jackson County, and Black Owl, Shanghai, Shanghai East, El Campo, and Phase Four fields in Wharton County. During each of several postulated Yegua sea level drops, this flexure became a focal point for deltaic deposition of excellent reservoir-quality sands. Shanghai, Shanghai East, and El Campo fields are located within what the writers have labeled the ''Shanghai delta complex.'' Integration of seismic and well data in this vicinity shows a marked increase in the expansion indices of growth faults, and moderately thick progradational sand sequences have accumulated immediately downthrow. This structural-stratigraphic pattern, as well as internal bedding characteristics and other lithologic data observed, is believed typical of deltas deposited along the Yegua shelf margin.

  4. Thermostatted delta f

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-18

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given.

  5. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    SciTech Connect

    Steven McLauchlan

    2003-01-31

    The Delta-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the delta mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the delta. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the delta resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4(pie) acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the delta mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the delta-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the delta.

  6. Colorado River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado River ends its 2330 km journey in the Gulf of Mexico in Baja California. The heavy use of the river as an irrigation source for the Imperial Valley has dessicated the lower course of the river in Mexico such that it no longer consistently reaches the sea. Prior to the mid 20th century, the Colorado River Delta provided a rich estuarine marshland that is now essentially desiccated, but nonetheless is an important ecological resource.

    The image was acquired May 29, 2006, covers an area of 44.3 x 57.5 km, and is located at 32.1 degrees north latitude, 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Artificial delta growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    A deltaic sedimentary system has a point source; sediment is carried over the delta plain by distributary channels away from the point source and deposited at the delta front by distributary mouth bars. The established methods to describe such a sedimentary system are "bedding analysis", "facies analysis", and "basin analysis". We shall call the ambient conditions "input" and the rock record "output". There exist a number of methods to deduce input from output, e.g. "Sequence stratigraphy" (a.o. Vail et al. 1977, Catuneanu et al. 2009), "Shoreline trajectory" (a.o. Helland-Hansen & Martinsen 1996, Helland-Hansen & Hampson 2009) on the one hand and the complex use of established techniques on the other (a.o. Miall & Miall 2001, Miall & Miall 2002). None of these deductive methods seems to be sufficient. I claim that the common errors in all these attempts are the following: (1) a sedimentary system is four-dimensional (3+1) and a lesser dimensional analysis is insufficient; (2) a sedimentary system is complex and any empirical/deductive analysis is non-unique. The proper approach to the problem is therefore the theoretical/inductive analysis. To that end we performed six scenarios of a scaled version of a passive margin delta in a flume tank. The scenarios have identical stepwise tectonic subsidence and semi-cyclic sealevel, but different supply curves, i.e. supply is: constant, highly-frequent, proportional to sealevel, inversely proportional to sealevel, lagging to sealevel, ahead of sealevel. The preliminary results are indicative. Lobe-switching occurs frequently and hence locally sedimentation occurs shortly and hiatuses are substantial; therefore events in 2D (+1) cross-sections don't correlate temporally. The number of sedimentary cycles disequals the number of sealevel cycles. Lobe-switching and stepwise tectonic subsidence cause onlap/transgression. Erosional unconformities are local diachronous events, whereas maximum flooding surfaces are regional

  9. Delta spots and great flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Liggett, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of delta spots and the great flares they produce are reviewed based on 18 years of observations. Delta groups are found to develop in three ways: (1) by the eruption of a single complex active region formed below the surface; (2) by the eruption of large satellite spots near a large older spot; and (3) by the collision of spots of opposite polarity from different dipoles. It is shown that the present sample of 21 delta spots never separate once they lock together, and that the driving force for the shear is spot motion. Indicators for the prediction of the occurrence of great flares are identified.

  10. Delta-9 desaturase from sharpshooters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic analyses of several leafhoppers identified the first leafhopper delta-9 desaturase. Identification of important gene transcripts within insect pests permits them to be targeted with RNA interference, RNAi, strategies. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae; Homalodis...

  11. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  12. The DELTA Synchrotron Light Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.

    2004-05-12

    Synchrotron radiation sources like DELTA, the Dortmund Electron Accelerator, a third generation synchrotron light source, need an optical monitoring system to measure the beam size at different points of the ring with high resolution and accuracy. These measurements also allow an investigation of the emittance of the storage ring, an important working parameter for the efficiency of working beamlines with experiments using the synchrotron radiation. The resolution limits of the different types of optical synchrotron light monitors at DELTA are investigated. The minimum measurable beamsize with the normal synchrotron light monitor using visible light at DELTA is about 80 {mu}m. Due to this a synchrotron light interferometer was built up and tested at DELTA. The interferometer uses the same beamline in the visible range. The minimum measurable beamsize is with about 8 {mu}m one order of magnitude smaller. This resolution is sufficient for the expected small vertical beamsizes at DELTA. The electron beamsize and emittance were measured with both systems at different electron beam energies of the storage ring. The theoretical values of the present optics are smaller than the measured emittance. So possible reasons for beam movements are investigated.

  13. The Integration of Delta Prime (f)in a Multidimensional Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.

    1999-01-01

    Consideration is given to the thickness noise term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation when the time derivative is taken explicitly. An interpretation is presented of the integral I = function phi(x)delta-prime(f) dx, where it is initially assumed that the absolute value of Del-f is not equal to 1 on the surface f = 0.

  14. THE DELTA SMART HOUSE: CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PROJECTS WITHIN THE DESIGN FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Duke Engineering Living Technology Advancement (DELTA) Project began as a multidisciplinary endeavor to engage engineering students by having them design aspects/attributes of a new learning and living space. In the next few years, the vision will be realized when the DEL...

  15. Cystic Fibrosis in Ukraine: age, origin and tracing of the delta F508 mutation.

    PubMed

    Livshits, L A; Kravchenko, S A

    1996-12-01

    Seven already known CF mutations were searched in 170 unrelated cystic fibrosis patients from different regions of Ukraine. Their frequencies in this sample were: delta F508-50%, 1677delTA-0.3% (10th exon), R553X-0.6%, G551D-0.3% (11th exon), R334W-0.6% (7th exon). 1154insTC (7th exon) and S549I (11th exon) were not found. Heterozygotes for delta F508 were searched in 865 healthy volunteers from different Ukranian regions. Their frequencies ranged from 1:28 to 1:70. We report here unpublished population data from Ukraine in order to discuss the origin, evolution and dispersion of chromosomes bearing the delta F508 mutation. Selection in terms of heterozygote advantage is also discussed. PMID:9263776

  16. Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; California Bay Delta Authority

    2003-01-01

    'Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem' shows scientists from many disciplines working together to guide the unprecendented restoration of the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta east of San Francisco Bay.

  17. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  18. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  19. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  20. Phytoplankton fuels Delta food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jassby, Alan D.; Cloern, James E.; Muller-Solger, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of certain fishes and invertebrates in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have declined in abundance in recent decades and there is evidence that food supply is partly responsible. While many sources of organic matter in the Delta could be supporting fish populations indirectly through the food web (including aquatic vegetation and decaying organic matter from agricultural drainage), a careful accounting shows that phytoplankton is the dominant food source. Phytoplankton, communities of microscopic free-floating algae, are the most important food source on a Delta-wide scale when both food quantity and quality are taken into account. These microscopic algae have declined since the late 1960s. Fertilizer and pesticide runoff do not appear to be playing a direct role in long-term phytoplankton changes; rather, species invasions, increasing water transparency and fluctuations in water transport are responsible. Although the potential toxicity of herbicides and pesticides to plank- ton in the Delta is well documented, the ecological significance remains speculative. Nutrient inputs from agricultural runoff at current levels, in combination with increasing transparency, could result in harmful al- gal blooms. 

  1. Spongeplant Spreading in the Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive, exotic aquatic plants impact a range of important economic and ecological functions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, and the state now spends over $5 million to control water hyacinth and Brazilian waterweed. In 2007, a new exotic floating plant South American Spongeplan...

  2. Delta-ALA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased level of urinary delta-ALA may indicate: Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) A decreased level may occur ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Lead Poisoning Porphyria Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  3. Revisiting double Dirac delta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Mayank; Sharma, Vibhu

    2016-07-01

    We study a general double Dirac delta potential to show that this is the simplest yet still versatile solvable potential to introduce double wells, avoided crossings, resonances and perfect transmission (T = 1). Perfect transmission energies turn out to be the critical property of symmetric and anti-symmetric cases wherein these discrete energies are found to correspond to the eigenvalues of a Dirac delta potential placed symmetrically between two rigid walls. For well(s) or barrier(s), perfect transmission (or zero reflectivity, R(E)) at energy E=0 is non-intuitive. However, this has been found earlier and called the ‘threshold anomaly’. Here we show that it is a critical phenomenon and we can have 0≤slant R(0)\\lt 1 when the parameters of the double delta potential satisfy an interesting condition. We also invoke a zero-energy and zero curvature eigenstate (\\psi (x)={Ax}+B) of the delta well between two symmetric rigid walls for R(0)=0. We resolve that the resonant energies and the perfect transmission energies are different and they arise differently.

  4. Maintenance of large deltas through channelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, L.; Constatinescu, S.; Filip, F.

    2013-12-01

    A new paradigm for delta restoration is currently taking shape using primarily Mississippi delta examples. Here we propose an alternative for delta maintenance primarily envisioned for wave-influenced deltas based on Danube delta experiences. Over the last half century, while the total sediment load of the Danube dramatically decreased due to dam construction on tributaries and its mainstem, a grand experiment was inadvertently run in the Danube delta: the construction of a dense network of canals, which almost tripled the water discharge toward the interior of the delta plain. We use core-based and chart-based sedimentation rates and patterns to explore the delta transition from the natural to an anthropogenic regime, to understand the effects of far-field damming and near-field channelization, and to construct a conceptual model for delta development as a function sediment partition between the delta plain and the delta coastal fringe. We show that sediment fluxes increased to the delta plain due to channelization, counteracting sea level rise. In turn, the delta coastal fringe was most impacted by the Danube's sediment load collapse. Furthermore, we show that morphodynamic feedbacks at the river mouth are crucial in trapping sediment near the coast and constructing wave-dominated deltas or lobes or delaying their destruction. As a general conclusion, we suggest that increased channelization that mimics and enhances natural processes may provide a simple solution for keeping delta plains above sea level and that abandonment of wave-dominated lobes may be the most long term efficient solution for protecting the internal fluvial regions of deltas and provide new coastal growth downcoast.

  5. Assessment of Delta Nitrogen Losses (Delta NL) at the Field Level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We defined a new concept of field-level delta nitrogen (N) losses (Delta NL) as a comparison between management scenarios. We defined delta nitrogen losses (Delta NL) as a function of improved N use efficiencies of field management scenarios that reduce the average N inputs and/or modify other manag...

  6. Poblaciones de los niveles atómicos en condiciones de no equilibrio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es encontrar la distribución de los átomos en los diferentes niveles de energía. Con el propósito de encontrar resultados generales y de amplia aplicación, hemos planteado las ecuaciones de equilibrio estadístico como función del número atómico del elemento a considerar y de las condiciones físicas del medio (temperatura y densidad). Así también se ha intentado tener en cuenta todos los niveles atómicos considerando explícitamente aquellos con un número cuántico principal menor que un cierto valor n y calculando una expresión aproximada para estimar la influencia de los demás.

  7. The calculation of T{sub {delta}} and V{sub {delta}} in austenitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Qixun; Yang Ruzeng

    1997-03-01

    The relation between the {gamma}/{gamma} + {delta} boundary temperature, T{sub {delta}}, of austenitic steels and the equivalent weights, [Cr] and [Ni], has been studied, as has the law of variation of the {delta} phase volume, V{sub {delta}}, with temperature. With the aid of a computer, the following regression expressions have been derived from the experimental results: T{sub {delta}} ({degree}C) =- T{sub 4} {minus} 21.2[Cr] + 15.8[Ni] {minus} 223; V{sub {delta}} (%) = 0.715 exp [0.015(T {minus} T{sub {delta}})]. Satisfactory results have been obtained by using these regression expressions.

  8. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, S.H.; Cheng, M.; Li, Z.X.

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  9. The delta (delta) gap: an approach to mixed acid-base disorders.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, K

    1990-11-01

    The anion gap (AG) is a helpful, yet underused, clinical tool. Not only does the presence of a high AG suggest a certain differential, but knowledge of the relationship between the rise in AG (delta AG) and the fall in bicarbonate (delta HCO3) is important in understanding mixed acid-based disorders. Simple arithmetic converts this relationship into a numerical value, the delta gap (delta gap). The delta gap = delta AG - delta HCO3. If the delta gap is significantly positive (greater than +6), a metabolic alkalosis is usually present because the rise in AG is more than the fall in HCO3. Conversely, if the delta gap is significantly negative (less than -6), then a hyperchloremic acidosis is usually present because the rise in AG is less than the fall in HCO3. Familarity with the relationship between the changes in AG and HCO3 can be useful in unmasking occult metabolic disorders. PMID:2240729

  10. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  11. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin; McDonald, Fiona J.

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  12. Navigational Use of Cassini Delta V Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Duane C.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Goodson, Troy; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Pelletier, Frederic J.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    Telemetry data are used to improve navigation of the Saturn orbiting Cassini spacecraft. Thrust induced delta V's are computed on-board the spacecraft, recorded in telemetry, and downlinked to Earth. This paper discusses how and why the Cassini Navigation team utilizes spacecraft delta V telemetry. Operational changes making this information attractive to the Navigation Team will be briefly discussed, as will spacecraft hardware and software algorithms responsible for the on-board computation. An analysis of past delta V telemetry, providing calibrations and accuracies that can be applied to the estimation of future delta V activity, is described.

  13. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  14. Comments on the slip factor and the relation Delta phi = -h Delta theta

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    The definition of the slip factor can be obtained from the phase equation. However, a derivation using the relation {Delta}{phi} = -h{Delta}{theta} leads to a different slip-factor definition. This apparent paradox is examined in detail and resolved. Here {Delta}{phi} is the rf phase difference and {Delta}{theta} is the azimuthal phase difference around the accelerator ring between an off-momentum particle and the synchronous particle, while h is the rf harmonic.

  15. Alopecia in a Viable Phospholipase C Delta 1 and Phospholipase C Delta 3 Double Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Runkel, Fabian; Hintze, Maik; Griesing, Sebastian; Michels, Marion; Blanck, Birgit; Fukami, Kiyoko; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Franz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Inositol 1,4,5trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are important intracellular signalling molecules in various tissues. They are generated by the phospholipase C family of enzymes, of which phospholipase C delta (PLCD) forms one class. Studies with functional inactivation of Plcd isozyme encoding genes in mice have revealed that loss of both Plcd1 and Plcd3 causes early embryonic death. Inactivation of Plcd1 alone causes loss of hair (alopecia), whereas inactivation of Plcd3 alone has no apparent phenotypic effect. To investigate a possible synergy of Plcd1 and Plcd3 in postnatal mice, novel mutations of these genes compatible with life after birth need to be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterise a novel mouse mutant with a spontaneously arisen mutation in Plcd3 (Plcd3mNab) that resulted from the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) into intron 2 of the Plcd3 gene. This mutation leads to the predominant expression of a truncated PLCD3 protein lacking the N-terminal PH domain. C3H mice that carry one or two mutant Plcd3mNab alleles are phenotypically normal. However, the presence of one Plcd3mNab allele exacerbates the alopecia caused by the loss of functional Plcd1 in Del(9)olt1Pas mutant mice with respect to the number of hair follicles affected and the body region involved. Mice double homozygous for both the Del(9)olt1Pas and the Plcd3mNab mutations survive for several weeks and exhibit total alopecia associated with fragile hair shafts showing altered expression of some structural genes and shortened phases of proliferation in hair follicle matrix cells. Conclusions/Significance The Plcd3mNab mutation is a novel hypomorphic mutation of Plcd3. Our investigations suggest that Plcd1 and Plcd3 have synergistic effects on the murine hair follicle in specific regions of the body surface. PMID:22723964

  16. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues performances…

  17. The hepatitis delta virus and its infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzeto, M.; Gerin, J.L.; Purcell, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 50 papers. Some of the titles are: Structure and Replication of the Genome of Hepatitis Delta Virus; Clinical Significance of HDV RNA in HDV Disease; HBV DNA in Delta Chronic Carriers; Prevalance of HBV-DNA Among Anti-Hd Positive Patients; and Characterization of LKM/sub 1/ and LKM/sub 2/ Antigens.

  18. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    SciTech Connect

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  19. BAY DELTA CROSS CHANNEL OPERATIONAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Delta Cross Channel was constructed in 1953 to deliver low-salinity water from the Sacramento River in Northern California to the South Delta where it is pumped to the San Francisco Bay Area and other parts of the State for public consumption and to the San Joaquin Valley for...

  20. Delta hepatitis: another concern for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Cottone, J A

    1986-01-01

    Delta hepatitis is a defective virus dependent on hepatitis B virus for replication and transmission. Delta hepatitis infection is becoming more prevalent in the United States, especially in parenteral drug abusers; several outbreaks have occurred. Infection control procedures and the hepatitis B vaccine can protect the dental staff from infection and transmission. PMID:3455994

  1. 27 CFR 9.96 - Mississippi Delta.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mississippi Delta. 9.96 Section 9.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.96 Mississippi Delta. (a) Name. The name of...

  2. Contribuciones tecnicas para la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica de microondas. Estudio en diversas poblaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura Garcia, Jaume

    La contaminacion ambiental por campos electromagneticos ha resultado ser en estos ultimos anos uno de los problemas mas acuciantes del panorama tecnologico y de salud publica. En el primero de los casos porque las inversiones realizadas son enormes y en el segundo porque cada vez es mayor el numero de articulos, "technical reports" e informes medicos que afirman la existencia de una cierta causalidad, aunque sea debil, entre los campos electromagneticos y ciertos cuadros sintomatologicos. En nuestro caso, hemos dedicado bastantes esfuerzos a investigar el llamado "sindrome de radiofrecuencia / microondas", denominado asi en la literatura cientifica por presentarse en operarios de estaciones de radar y en trabajadores de potentes emisoras de radio y television. En esta memoria presentamos un resumen del trabajo realizado durante los ultimos anos en la medida de la contaminacion electromagnetica ambiental asociado a las comunicaciones inalambricas. En ella se recogen los fundamentos fisicos y propiedades de las ondas electromagneticas, la tecnologia empleada en los sistemas de telefonia celular y los antecedentes relativos a la investigacion de la interaccion de las ondas electromagneticas con organismos vivos. Se desarrolla un procedimiento de medida que ha conducido a la elaboracion de los primeros "mapas de radiofrecuencia" similares, en el aspecto descriptivo, a los mapas de ruido desarrollados en el area de la contaminacion acustica. Por ultimo, se analiza la respuesta subjetiva de los residentes, personas que viven en el entorno de cobertura de las estaciones base de telefonia movil y que se ven sometidos a determinados niveles de radiacion electromagnetica, con el fin de situar este fenomeno al nivel que le corresponde en el ambito de la respuesta subjetiva ciudadana.

  3. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  4. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  5. 78 FR 53127 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Date change. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory...

  6. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit. PMID:20184327

  7. Online high-precision delta(2)H and delta(18)O analysis in water by pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng H

    2009-10-01

    A method for online simultaneous delta(2)H and delta(18)O analysis in water by high-temperature conversion is presented. Water is injected by using a syringe into a high-temperature carbon reactor and converted into H(2) and CO, which are separated by gas chromatography (GC) and carried by helium to the isotope ratio mass spectrometer for hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate several issues such as sample size, temperature and memory effects. The delta(2)H and delta(18)O values in multiple water standards changed consistently as the reactor temperature increased from 1150 to 1480 degrees C. The delta(18)O in water can be measured at a lower temperature (e.g. 1150 degrees C) although the precision was relatively poor at temperatures <1300 degrees C. Memory effects exist for delta(2)H and delta(18)O between two waters, and can be reduced (to <1%) with proper measures. The injection of different amounts of water may affect the isotope ratio results. For example, in contrast to small injections (100 nL or less) from small syringes (e.g. 1.2 microL), large injections (1 microL or more) from larger syringes (e.g. 10 microL) with dilution produced asymmetric peaks and shifts of isotope ratios, e.g. 4 per thousand for delta(2)H and 0.4 per thousand for delta(18)O, probably resulting from isotope fractionation during dilution via the ConFlo interface. This method can be used to analyze nanoliter samples of water (e.g. 30 nL) with good precision of 0.5 per thousand for delta(2)H and 0.1 per thousand for delta(18)O. This is important for geosciences; for instance, fluid inclusions in ancient minerals may be analyzed for delta(2)H and delta(18)O to help understand the formation environments. PMID:19714707

  8. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-12-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae `Apuki lava delta at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, during 2005-2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava-ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava-ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  9. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae ‘Apuki lava delta at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, during 2005–2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava–ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava–ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  10. N and. delta. resonances: an experimental review

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    Experimental progress in N and ..delta.. resonances since the Oxford baryon conference is reviewed. The review concentrates on hadronic channels, and on developments of the last one or two years. The topics reviewed include the antiproton lifetime; the ..delta../sup + +/ magnetic moment; measurements of ..pi..N elastic and charge-exchange scattering in the ..delta.. region, the eta n threshold region, and the high-mass region; partial wave analyses of ..pi..N ..-->.. ..pi..N; measurements of two-body inelastic ..pi..N scattering; and isobar analyses of ..pi..N ..-->.. ..pi pi..N. 75 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  12. Upper Wilcox Rosita delta system of south Texas: growth-faulted shelf-edge deltas

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Rosita delta system, a heretofore unrecognized, major depositional system preserved in the deep upper Wilcox of south Texas, was delineated by detailed correlation of approximately 500 well logs. The Rosita delta system comprises at least three delta complexes, each of which can be traced up to tens of miles along strike and up to approximately 15 mi (24 km) downdip. Basinward, across the growth-fault zone, each delta complex thickens from about 600 ft (180 m) to more than 3000 ft (900 m). The growth faults were activated by progradation of deltas over unstable prodelta-slope muds at the contemporary shelf margin. The three upper Wilcox delta complexes studied in detail are, from oldest to youngest, the Duval, Zapata, and Live Oak deltas, named for the counties in which they are centered. Each complex consists of several lobes, some of which can be traced across the deep zones where the thickness increases by as much as tenfold owing to progradation over active growth faults. Characteristic coarsening-upward progradational units are interpreted from electric log patterns to include prodelta shales, delta-front sandstones, distributary channel and channel-mouth bar sandstones, and interdistributary shales and sandstones. Appreciable variability in sandstone distribution in the deltas may reflect changing importance of fluvial versus marine currents in distributing sediment along the delta front. However, all of the deltas prograded abruptly toward the shelf margin. The gulfward extent of these delta complexes is unknown, and it is concluded that appreciable quantities of sandstone remain to be explored in the deep subsurface of the trend.

  13. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  14. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  15. [The return of the hepatitis delta virus].

    PubMed

    Zoutendijk, R; de Jonge, P J F; de Man, R A

    2016-01-01

    - There are several regions worldwide with a high prevalence of infection with the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers.- Chronic HDV infection is occurring with increasing frequency due to increased immigration.- HDV transmission can take place through the same routes as HBV by simultaneous infection with both viruses (co-infection) or infection of an HBV carrier with HDV (superinfection).- Delta hepatitis is considered as the most severe form of viral hepatitis with a high risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.- Chronic delta hepatitis is exclusively observed in patients who are HBV carriers.- Pegylated interferon is currently the only registered therapy for patients with delta hepatitis, but leads to a persistent virological response in only a minority of them, and rarely leads to a complete cure.- New antivirals, such as viral entry blockers, prenylation inhibitors and anti-sense oligonucleotides are promising and currently being investigated in phase 2 trials. PMID:27405575

  16. Delta XTE Launch Activities (Scrub #2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video presents Delta XTE (X-Ray Timing Explorer) launch activities on 12/11/95. The launch was rescheduled for next weekend due to out of limit upper level wind conditions.

  17. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  18. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  19. Preparing Nimbus E on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Nimbus E, the sixth spacecraft in the Nimbus series, is shown preparing for launch on December 12, 1972 from the Western Test Range (WTR), Space Launch Complex SLC-2, West, by the Thrust- Augmented Delta vehicle. The satellite was placed in an 1100-kilometer run-synchronous nearly circular polar orbit. The spacecraft was designated Nimbus 5 upon confirmation that it had achieved successful orbit. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta is composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  20. Lena River delta formation during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshiyanov, D.; Makarov, A.; Savelieva, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Lena River delta, the largest delta of the Arctic Ocean, differs from other deltas because it consists mainly of organomineral sediments, commonly called peat, that contain a huge organic carbon reservoir. The analysis of delta sediment radiocarbon ages showed that they could not have formed as peat during floodplain bogging; rather, they accumulated when Laptev Sea water level was high and green mosses and sedges grew and were deposited on the surface of flooded marshes. The Lena River delta formed as organomineral masses and layered sediments accumulated during transgressive phases when sea level rose. In regressive phases, the islands composed of these sediments and other, more ancient islands were eroded. Each new sea transgression led to further accumulation of layered sediments. As a result of alternating transgressive and regressive phases, the first alluvial-marine terrace formed, consisting of geological bodies of different ages. Determining the formation age of different areas of the first terrace and other marine terraces on the coast allowed the periods of increasing (8000-6000 BP (years before present), 4500-4000, 2500-1500, and 400-200 BP) and decreasing (5000, 3000, and 500 BP) Laptev Sea levels to be distinguished in the Lena Delta area.

  1. Lena River Delta formation during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshiyanov, D.; Makarov, A.; Savelieva, L.

    2014-03-01

    The Lena River Delta, the largest delta of the Arctic Ocean, differs from other deltas because it consists mainly of organomineral sediments, commonly called peat, that contain a huge organic carbon reservoir. The analysis of Delta sediment radiocarbon ages showed that they could not have formed as peat during floodplain bogging, but accumulated when Laptev Sea water level was high and green mosses and sedges grew and were deposited on the surface of flooded marshes. The Lena River Delta formed as organomineral masses and layered sediments accumulated during transgressive phases when sea level rose. In regressive phases, the islands composed of these sediments and other, more ancient islands were eroded. Each new sea transgression led to further accumulation of layered sediments. As a result of alternating transgressive and regressive phases the first alluvial-marine terrace formed, consisting of geological bodies of different ages. Determining the formation age of different areas of the first terrace and other marine terraces on the coast allowed the periods of increasing (8-6 Ka, 4.5-4 Ka, 2.5-1.5 Ka, 0.4-0.2 Ka) and decreasing (5 Ka, 3 Ka, 0.5 Ka) Laptev Sea levels to be distinguished in the Lena Delta area.

  2. River deltas: channelizing sandpiles with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, Douglas; Reitz, Meredith

    2013-03-01

    River deltas are wedges of sediment that are built via the lateral migration of self-channelizing rivers, but the timescale of this process is prohibitively long to observe in nature. Here we present laboratory results that allow us to examine how channels form and fill space to create a delta. Flow collapses into a single channel whose dimensions adjust to threshold transport conditions for the imposed sediment load. This channelization causes localized shoreline growth until the slope drops below a threshold value for sediment transport. This leads to deposition within the channel, with an upstream-migrating step akin to a stopping front in granular flows, which causes widespread flooding and the selection of a new (steeper) channel path. This cycle is remarkably periodic; delta slope oscillates between two thresholds - entrainment and distrainment - analogous to static and dynamic angles of repose. Selection of a new flow path is inherently stochastic, but previously abandoned channels act as significant attractors for the flow. Once a critical density of flow paths has been established, the flow oscillates among the same 3-5 channels indefinitely. These dynamics result in self-similar (quasi-)radial growth of delta lobes, which can be described using a simple geometric model. Despite its simplicity, the experimental system agrees well with what can be measured from natural deltas Thus, temporal and spatial patterns of deltas appear to be a robust result of mass conservation and transport thresholds.

  3. Delta's role in reaching the fourth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, D. W.; Ganoung, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The Delta launch vehicle has played a significant role in spaceand airborne studies since its first launch in 1960, and a high volume period of service is planned for the 1980s. The historical role played by Delta in launching satellites from 1960 to the present is discussed, and vehicle modifications made during this period are summarized. It is shown that out of 154 launches, 143 proved successful for an overall reliability of 93%. The forecasted launch schedule through 1985 is also presented. Various modifications are now under way to provide spacecraft interchangeability with the Shuttle: a Payload Assist Module (PAM) is proposed to provide an orderly transition from the Delta expendable vehicle to the Shuttle reusable vehicle; the new Delta 3920 Improved Second Stage is the result of a need for improved Delta performance to meet 3910 payload capabilities; the firing sequence of the solid rocket motors was altered from five at liftoff and four during ascent to a sequence of six and three, thereby increasing spacecraft weight in geosynchronous transfer orbit. Potential future improvements discussed include the Delta 4920, 9-ft-diam fairing, booster engine performance, PAM solid motor performance, a universal second stage, a hydrogen-oxygen second stage, and large strap-on solids.

  4. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  5. The Okavango: Whose Delta is it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magole, Lapologang; Magole, Lefatshe Innocent

    The Okavango Delta is amongst the largest Ramsar sites ( http://www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf) in the world and an important wetland for community livelihoods, conservation and tourism in Botswana. Over the years, the utilization of the delta has shifted from communal use to state control, with an increased use for conservation and tourism. This increased use for conservation and tourism has manifested in the physical expansion of the conservation area - Moremi Game Reserve and the formation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) around the reserve, whose primary land use is wildlife utilization. The expansion of the conservation area has translated into several practical matters, including expansion of the area for non-hunting activities or photographic areas. The livelihoods of local communities of the Okavango delta who depended on fishing, hunter-gathering, livestock rearing, rain-fed agriculture and flood recession farming have been negatively affected by the expansion of conservation and tourism in the delta. The livelihoods alternatives in the form of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) and tourism have not provided substitutes for the people as the communities are still reliant on the same old livelihood sources as in the past, albeit within smaller and restricted areas. This paper explores the ownership of the natural resources within the Okavango Delta. It asks and attempts to answer the following questions: Who owns and controls the use of the land? Who has access to other resources there in? Who makes the decisions on how the delta resources should be managed and used? Who benefits from the delta resources? We argue firstly that ownership of the delta as defined by legal parameters and demonstrated in natural resource management practice is vested on government. Secondly, government, after assuming ownership of the delta continues to sell its stake to the international community, at the expense of local ownership and access to resources. We

  6. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  7. Model for the {Delta}(1600) resonance and {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalho, G.; Tsushima, K.

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the {Delta}(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming {Delta}(1600) as the first radial excitation of {Delta}(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, {pi}N, {pi}{Delta}, {pi}N(1440) and {pi}{Delta}(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, G{sub M}*(Q{sup 2}), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A{sub 1/2}(Q{sup 2}) and A{sub 3/2}(Q{sup 2}). The results at Q{sup 2}=0 are compared with the existing data.

  8. The DELTA MONSTER: An RPV designed to investigate the aerodynamics of a delta wing platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Kristen; Flynn, Mike; Gallagher, Randy; Greek, Chris; Kozlowski, Marc; Mcdonald, Brian; Mckenna, Matt; Sellar, Rich; Shearon, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The mission requirements for the performance of aerodynamic tests on a delta wind planform posed some problems, these include aerodynamic interference; structural support; data acquisition and transmission instrumentation; aircraft stability and control; and propulsion implementation. To eliminate the problems of wall interference, free stream turbulence, and the difficulty of achieving dynamic similarity between the test and actual flight aircraft that are associated with aerodynamic testing in wind tunnels, the concept of the remotely piloted vehicle which can perform a basic aerodynamic study on a delta wing was the main objective for the Green Mission - the Delta Monster. The basic aerodynamic studies were performed on a delta wing with a sweep angle greater than 45 degrees. These tests were performed at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. The delta wing was instrumented to determine the primary leading edge vortex formation and location, using pressure measurements and/or flow visualization. A data acquisition system was provided to collect all necessary data.

  9. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  10. {delta}-mediated pion production in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Praet, C.; Lalakulich, O.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2009-04-15

    We present a fully relativistic formalism for describing neutrino-induced {delta}-mediated single-pion production in nuclei. We assess the ambiguities stemming from the {delta} interactions and quantify the uncertainties in the axial form-factor parameters by comparing with the available bubble-chamber neutrino-scattering data. To include nuclear effects, we turn to a relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation (RPWIA) using realistic bound-state wave functions derived in the Hartree approximation to the {sigma}-{omega} Walecka model. For neutrino energies larger than 1 GeV, we show that a relativistic Fermi-gas model with appropriate binding-energy correction produces results that are comparable to the RPWIA that naturally includes Fermi motion, nuclear-binding effects, and the Pauli exclusion principle. Including {delta} medium modifications roughly halves the RPWIA cross section. Calculations for primary (prior to undergoing final-state interactions) pion production are presented for both electron- and neutrino-induced processes, and a comparison with electron-scattering data and other theoretical approaches is included. We infer that the total {delta}-production strength is underestimated by about 20 to 25%, a fraction that is due to the pionless decay modes of the {delta} in a medium. The model presented in this work can be naturally extended to include the effect of final-state interactions in a relativistic and quantum-mechanical way.

  11. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    PubMed

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  12. Delta Coherence Protocols: The Home Update Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Reynolds, P.F.; de Supinoki, B.

    2000-07-21

    We describe a new class of directory coherence protocols called delta coherence protocols that use network guarantees to support a new and highly concurrent approach to maintain a consistent shared memory. Delta coherence protocols are more concurrent than other coherence protocols in that they allow processes to pipeline memory accesses without violating sequential consistency; support multiple concurrent readers and writers to the same cache block; and allow processes to access multiple shared variables atomically without invalidating the copies held by other processes or otherwise obtaining exclusive access to the referenced variables. Delta protocols include both update and invalidate protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest, most basic delta protocol, an update protocol called the home update protocol. Delta protocols are based on isotach network guarantees. An isotach network maintains a logical time system that allows each process to predict and control the logical time at which its messages are received. Processes use isotach guarantees to control the logical time at which their requests on shared memory appear to be executed. We prove the home update protocol is correct using logical time to reason about the order in which requests are executed.

  13. Delta receptors in the rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F; Carter, A

    1986-12-01

    The effects of the delta-selective antagonist ICI 174864 and naltrexone on the dose-response curves to the mu-selective agonist RX 783006 and D-ala-D-leucine enkephalin (DADL) have been investigated in the rat isolated vas deferens preparation (RVD) set up in Krebs solution containing half the normal Ca++ concentration. The results obtained provide very strong evidence for the existence of both mu- and delta-receptors in this preparation. The Ke values of a number of opioid antagonists v. DADL in the RVD have been determined and compared to the Ke values obtained in the mouse vas deferens assay (MVD). The very good correlation (slope = 1.01, r = 0.98) obtained between the Ke values from the 2 preparations confirms the presence of a delta-receptor in the RVD. PMID:3030209

  14. NATO-3C/Delta launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  15. Delta capability for launch of communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, D. W.; Russell, W. A., Jr.; Kraft, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of capabilities and the current performance levels of the Delta launch vehicle are outlined. The first payload was the Echo I passive communications satellite, weighing 179 lb, and placed in GEO in 1960. Emphasis since then has been to use off-the-shelf hardware where feasible. The latest version in the 3924 first stage, 3920 second stage, and Pam D apogee kick motor third stage. The Delta is presently equipped to place 2800 lb in GEO, as was proven with the 2717 lb Anik-D1 satellite. The GEO payload placement performance matches the Shuttle's, and work is therefore under way to enhance the Delta performance to handle more massive payloads. Installation of the Castor-IV solid motor separation system, thereby saving mass by utilizing compressed nitrogen, rather than mechanical thrusters to remove the strap-on boosters, is indicated, together with use of a higher performance propellant and a wider nose fairing.

  16. Mutagenesis of the borage Delta(6) fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Beaudoin, F; Libisch, B; Shewry, P; Napier, J

    2000-12-01

    The consensus sequence of the third histidine box of a range of Delta(5), Delta(6), Delta(8) and sphingolipid desaturases differs from that of the membrane-bound non-fusion Delta(12) and Delta(15) desaturases in the presence of glutamine instead of histidine. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to determine the importance of glutamine and other residues of the third histidine box and created a chimaeric enzyme to determine the ability of the Cyt b(5) fusion domain from the plant sphingolipid desaturase to substitute for the endogenous domain of the Delta(6) desaturase. PMID:11171152

  17. The Delta Launch Vehicle Model 2914 Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The newest Delta launch vehicle configuration, Model 2914 is described for potential users together with recent flight results. A functional description of the vehicle, its performance, flight profile, flight environment, injection accuracy, spacecraft integration requirements, user organizational interfaces, launch operations, costs and reimbursable users payment plan are provided. The versatile, relatively low cost Delta has a flight demonstrated reliability record of 92 percent that has been established in 96 launches over twelve years while concurrently undergoing ten major upratings to keep pace with the ever increasing performance and reliability requirements of its users. At least 40 more launches are scheduled over the next three years from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges.

  18. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  19. How Deltas Die - a Case Study of the End of Sedimentation in Two Giant Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, D.; Robinson, P.; Nicholson, U.

    2013-12-01

    Most well-studied deltas are on passive margins (e.g. Mississippi, Rhone, Ebro), where the main tectonic control on accommodation space is thermal subsidence. As long as the main river in the sediment routing system keeps flowing, there is no particular reason for sedimentation to end, and some deltas have a history extending more than 100 Ma (e.g. Niger at 130 Ma). However, some very large deltas can build out over active margins. For example, the Amur, Orinoco, and Colorado (US) deltas all straddle strike-slip plate boundaries and are much less long-lived than their passive margin counterparts. This paper looks in detail at the end of the deltaic sedimentation in the Pliocene deltas of the Amur River on the island of Sakhalin, and the Colorado River in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin of southern California. In both cases the deltas are sand-rich with distant provenances in East Asia and the Colorado Plateau respectively; also they both coexist with locally derived clastic sedimentation. Despite these similarities, there are significant differences between the two deltas as a direct result of the differences in plate boundary movement rates and tectonic state. On Sakhalin, the plate boundary has moved at about 1.95 mm a-1 during the Pliocene and has been in a transpressional state. Primary deltaic sedimentation ended by a three main mechanisms: uplift of the island along the transpressional plate boundary detached the delta from the trunk stream; growth of anticlines over strands of the plate boundary disrupted the consequent delta-top drainage; and late sedimentation involved reworking of the far-travelled deltaic material. In California, where the plate boundary has moved at about 50 mm a-1 in the Pliocene, deltaic sedimentation ceased by translation of the receiving basin from the river mouth. New field and mineralogical data suggest that Colorado River sedimentation waned over a period of about 1 Ma in the Late Pliocene, and was gradually overwhelmed by locally

  20. Modeling delta growth and channel geometry on Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viparelli, E.; Czapiga, M. J.; Li, C.; Shaw, J. B.; Parker, G.

    2013-12-01

    A numerical model of delta growth, in which the distributary channels are assumed to have self-constructed their cross sections, is validated on Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. As in previous laterally averaged models of delta growth, the delta is divided in a low slope delta top, a steep delta front and a low slope basement. The flow on the delta top is assumed steady, and a backwater formulation is implemented. Since one or more channels can actively transport water and sediment on the delta top during floods, we simplify the problem by assuming that the bed material is transported in one rectangular channel, with width and depth roughly equal to the sum of the active channel widths, and to the average depth of the active channels. The problem is characterized by one equation (i.e. the backwater equation) in two unknowns, the channel width and depth. Another equation is thus needed to close the problem. Under the assumptions that 1) the system is at bankfull flow, and 2) the Shields number in the channels is equal to its channel formative value, our closure relation is a channel-formative criterion. In particular, a recently derived relation to estimate the formative (bankfull) Shields number as a function of the friction slope is implemented. Recent field work on Wax Lake Delta shows that the distributary channels are incising into a relatively stiff basement. In our model we do not attempt to directly model channel incision, but we implicitly account for it with a modified formulation to compute the shoreline migration rate. In this formulation the bed material at the shoreline is trapped in the non-channelized portion of the delta front only. Measured and numerical shoreline migration rates, longitudinal profiles of delta elevation, and channel geometry, i.e. width and depth, are compared. In the relatively near future we plan to 1) use our model to estimate land-building potential of engineered diversions of the Mississippi River, and 2) couple the present model

  1. Susceptibility of Naegleria fowleri to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, H L; Bradley, S G; Harris, L S

    1979-01-01

    Growth of the pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is inhibited by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC). delta 9-THC is amoebostatic at 5 to 50 micrograms/ml. delta 9-THC prevents enflagellation and encystment, but does not impair amoeboid movement. Calf serum at 10 and 20% (vol/vol) reduces the antiamoeba activity of delta 9-THC. Only 1-methoxy delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol, of 17 cannabinoids tested, failed to inhibit growth of N. fowleri. Antinaeglerial activity was not markedly altered by opening the pyran ring, by converting the cyclohexyl ring to an aromatic ring, or by reversing the hydroxyl and pentyl groups on the benzene ring. delta 9-THC prevented the cytopathic effect of N. fowleri on African green monkey (Vero) cells and human epithelioma (HEp-2) cells in culture. delta 9-THC afforded modest protection to mice infected with N. fowleri. Images PMID:526010

  2. Depositional history of the Lagniappe Delta, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf is characterized by superimposing deltas. One such delta, informally named Lagniappe, extends east of the Mississippi Delta from mid-shelf to the continental slope. This late Wisconsinan delta is adjacent to, but not associated with the Mississippi Delta complex: the fluvial source was probably the ancient Pearl and/or Mobile Rivers. The fluvially dominated Lagniappe Delta is characterized by complex sigmoid-oblique seismic-reflection patterns, indicating delta switching of high-energy sand-prone facies to low-energy facies. The areal distribution and sediment thickness of the delta were partially controlled by two diapirs. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Assembly of hepatitis delta virus particles.

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, W S; Bayer, M; Taylor, J

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral satellite of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Since the RNA genome of HDV can replicate in cultured cells in the absence of HBV, it has been suggested that the only helper function of HBV is to supply HBV coat proteins in the assembly process of HDV particles. To examine the factors involved in such virion assembly, we transiently cotransfected cells with various hepadnavirus constructs and cDNAs of HDV and analyzed the particles released into the medium. We report that the HDV genomic RNA and the delta antigen can be packaged by coat proteins of either HBV or the related hepadnavirus woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Among the three co-carboxy-terminal coat proteins of WHV, the smallest form was sufficient to package the HDV genome; even in the absence of HDV RNA, the delta antigen could be packaged by this WHV coat protein. Also, of the two co-amino-terminal forms of the delta antigen, only the larger form was essential for packaging. Images PMID:1548764

  4. Spectroscopic Survey Of Delta Scuti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman Alicavus, Filiz; Niemczura, Ewa; Polinska, Magdalena; Helminiak, Krzysztof G.; Lampens, Patricia; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Ukita, Nobuharu; Kambe, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic study of pulsating stars of Delta Scuti type. The spectral types and luminosity classes, fundamental atmospheric parameters (the effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity), detailed chemical composition and projected rotational velocities of a significant number of Delta Scuti-type stars were derived. The spectral classification was performed by comparing the spectra of our targets with the spectra of standard stars. The atmospheric parameters were determined by using different methods. The initial atmospheric parameters were derived from the analysis of photometric indices, the spectral energy distribution and the hydrogen lines, while the final atmospheric parameters were obtained from the analysis of iron lines. The spectrum synthesis method was used to determine chemical compositions of the investigated stars. As a result, we derived accurate atmospheric parameters, the projected rotational velocities and the abundance patterns of analysed sample. These results allow us to examine the position of Delta Scuti-type stars in the H-R diagram, and to investigate the effect of the rotational velocity on pulsation properties and a chemical difference between the Delta Scuti-type stars and the Gamma Doradus and A-F type hybrid stars.

  5. Backwater controls of avulsion location on deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatanantavet, Phairot; Lamb, Michael P.; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    River delta complexes are built in part through repeated river-channel avulsions, which often occur about a persistent spatial node creating delta lobes that form a fan-like morphology. Predicting the location of avulsions is poorly understood, but it is essential for wetland restoration, hazard mitigation, reservoir characterization, and delta morphodynamics. Following previous work, we show that the upstream distance from the river mouth where avulsions occur is coincident with the backwater length, i.e., the upstream extent of river flow that is affected by hydrodynamic processes in the receiving basin. To explain this observation we formulate a fluvial morphodynamic model that is coupled to an offshore spreading river plume and subject it to a range of river discharges. Results show that avulsion is less likely in the downstream portion of the backwater zone because, during high-flow events, the water surface is drawn down near the river mouth to match that of the offshore plume, resulting in river-bed scour and a reduced likelihood of overbank flow. Furthermore, during low-discharge events, flow deceleration near the upstream extent of backwater causes enhanced deposition locally and a reduced channel-fill timescale there. Both mechanisms favor preferential avulsion in the upstream part of the backwater zone. These dynamics are fundamentally due to variable river discharges and a coupled offshore river plume, with implications for predicting delta response to climate and sea level change, and fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy.

  6. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  7. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  8. Ribonucleoprotein complexes of hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, W S; Netter, H J; Bayer, M; Taylor, J

    1993-01-01

    Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral satellite agent of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The envelope proteins of HDV are provided by the helper virus, HBV, but very little is known about the internal structure of HDV. The particles contain multiple copies of the delta antigen and an unusual RNA genome that is small, about 1,700 nucleotides in length, single stranded, and circular. By using UV cross-linking, equilibrium density centrifugation, and immunoprecipitation, we obtained evidence consistent with the interpretation that delta antigen and genomic RNA form a stable ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex within the virion. Furthermore, electron-microscopic examination of the purified viral RNP revealed a roughly spherical core-like structure with a diameter of 18.7 +/- 2.5 nm. We also isolated HDV-specific RNP structures from the nuclei of cells undergoing HDV genome replication; both the genome and antigenome (a complement of the genome) of HDV were found to be in such complexes. From the equilibrium density analyses of the viral and nuclear RNPs, we were able to deduce the number of molecules of delta antigen per molecule of HDV RNA. For virions, this number was predominantly ca. 70, which was larger than for the nuclear RNPs, which were more heterogeneous, with an average value of ca. 30. Images PMID:8497052

  9. Definition of the {delta} mass and width

    SciTech Connect

    Djukanovic, D.; Scherer, S.; Gegelia, J.

    2007-08-01

    In the framework of effective field theory we show that, at two-loop order, the mass and width of the {delta} resonance defined via the (relativistic) Breit-Wigner parametrization both depend on the choice of field variables. In contrast, the complex-valued position of the pole of the propagator is independent of this choice.

  10. Phi Delta Kappa at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2006-01-01

    Since its fraternal origins a century ago, Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) International has been foremost a society of individuals joined together in professional collegiality and dedicated to tenets of leadership, service, and research in education. As PDK crosses the threshold into its second century, that early spirit of association lit in 1906, like…

  11. Scott on Slope of Hadley Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, mission commander, with tongs and gnomon in hand, studies a boulder on the slope of Hadley Delta during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or Rover is in right foreground. View is looking slightly south of west. 'Bennett Hill' is at extreme right. Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, took this photograph.

  12. Delta Scorpii unusual brightening to first magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    The Be star delta Scorpii with a range of variability between 2.35 and 1.65 in visible light is having an unusual brightening to magnitude mV=0.8, as measured on 31 Jan 2016 at 3:56 UT and 5:36 UT from Lanciano, Italy.

  13. Faculty Salaries at Delta College. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John W.

    In 1989, a study was conducted of faculty salaries at California's San Joaquin Delta Community College (SJDCC). Salary results were compared with community college districts in the State of California, with two specially selected subgroups of colleges comparable to SJDCC, and with all of California's major public and private four-year…

  14. San Joaquin Delta College Student Athlete Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; Marcopulos, Ernest

    In spring 1988, a study was conducted of students who participated in college athletics at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) between 1983-84 and 1987-88. Data collected on each student athlete included ethnicity, sport, place of residence, initial and current reading level, total grade point average (GPA), GPA in athletics and physical education…

  15. Dispersion y dinamica poblacional

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal behavior of fruit flies is appetitive. Measures of dispersion involve two different parameter: the maximum distance and the standard distance. Standard distance is a parameter that describes the probalility of dispersion and is mathematically equivalent to the standard deviation around ...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1318 - Glucono delta-lactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucono delta-lactone. 184.1318 Section 184.1318... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1318 Glucono delta-lactone. (a) Glucono delta-lactone (C6H10O6, CAS Reg. No. 90-80-2), also called D-gluconic acid delta-lactone or...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1318 - Glucono delta-lactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucono delta-lactone. 184.1318 Section 184.1318... GRAS § 184.1318 Glucono delta-lactone. (a) Glucono delta-lactone (C6H10O6, CAS Reg. No. 90-80-2), also called D-gluconic acid delta-lactone or D-glucono-1,5-lactone, is the cyclic 1,5-intramolecular ester...

  18. Hard breakup of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars

    SciTech Connect

    Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2011-05-15

    We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to {Delta}{sup ++}{Delta}{sup -} is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the {Delta}{sup +}{Delta}{sup 0} channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard {Delta} isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting {Delta}{Delta} components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both {Delta}{sup ++}{Delta}{sup -} and {Delta}{sup +}{Delta}{sup 0} channels to be similar.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1318 - Glucono delta-lactone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucono delta-lactone. 184.1318 Section 184.1318... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1318 Glucono delta-lactone. (a) Glucono delta-lactone (C6H10O6, CAS Reg. No. 90-80-2), also called D-gluconic acid delta-lactone or...

  20. {Delta}G and {Delta}q-bar measurements at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kensuke; Collaboration: PHENIX Collaboration

    2011-12-14

    RHIC provides a unique opportunity to address the components of the proton spin. In comparison to deep inelastic scattering experiments, the gluon is the main player in proton-proton collisions. PHENIX has measured double spin asymmetries of various processes. Those contain the information of the gluon spin component ({Delta}G). In addition high energy collisions open the unique channel to access flavor dependent information of quark polarization through the real W boson production. Because of the feature of weak interaction, the parity violating process defines the helicity of quarks in the interaction. The single spin asymmetry is the observable. It is especially interesting to probe anti-quark components ({Delta}q-bar). In this article, we report the recent progress of {Delta}G and {Delta}q-bar measurements at PHENIX.

  1. SDO Delta H Mode Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Starin, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    While on orbit, disturbance torques on a three axis stabilized spacecraft tend to increase the system momentum, which is stored in the reaction wheels. Upon reaching the predefined momentum capacity (or maximum wheel speed) of the reaction wheel, an external torque must be used to unload the momentum. The purpose of the Delta H mode is to manage the system momentum. This is accomplished by driving the reaction wheels to a target momentum state while the attitude thrusters, which provide an external torque, are used to maintain the attitude. The Delta H mode is designed to meet the mission requirements and implement the momentum management plan. Changes in the requirements or the momentum management plan can lead to design changes in the mode. The momentum management plan defines the expected momentum buildup trend, the desired momentum state and how often the system is driven to the desired momentum state (unloaded). The desired momentum state is chosen based on wheel capacity, wheel configuration, thruster layout and thruster sizing. For the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, the predefined wheel momentum capacity is a function of the jitter requirements, power, and maximum momentum capacity. Changes in jitter requirements or power limits can lead to changes in the desired momentum state. These changes propagate into the changes in the momentum management plan and therefore the Delta H mode design. This paper presents the analysis and design performed for the Solar Dynamics Observatory Delta H mode. In particular, the mode logic and processing needed to meet requirements is described along with the momentum distribution formulation. The Delta H mode design is validated using the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Fidelity simulator. Finally, a summary of the design is provided along with concluding remarks.

  2. Tracking Nile Delta Vulnerability to Holocene Change

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Flaux, Clément; Morhange, Christophe; Stanley, Jean-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the ‘monsoon pacemaker’, attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile’s deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan ‘depeopling’, reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms) and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world’s deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction. PMID:23922692

  3. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  4. De-Mystifying the Dirac [delta]-Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we discuss an alternative method of teaching students about the Dirac [delta]-function. The method provides students with the mechanical tools they need in order to work with the [delta]-function in practice, while also fostering a sense of cohesion in the calculus curriculum by presenting the [delta]-function as an evolution of…

  5. Genetics Home Reference: activated PI3K-delta syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions activated PI3K-delta syndrome activated PI3K-delta syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Activated PI3K-delta syndrome is a disorder that impairs the immune ...

  6. The Niger Delta petroleum system; Niger Delta Province, Nigeria, Cameroon, and equatorial Guinea, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    In the Niger Delta province, we have identified one petroleum system--the Tertiary Niger Delta (Akata-Agbada) petroleum system. The delta formed at the site of a rift triple junction related to the opening of the southern Atlantic starting in the Late Jurassic and continuing into the Cretaceous. The delta proper began developing in the Eocene, accumulating sediments that now are over 10 kilometers thick. The primary source rock is the upper Akata Formation, the marine-shale facies of the delta, with possibly contribution from interbedded marine shale of the lowermost Agbada Formation. Oil is produced from sandstone facies within the Agbada Formation, however, turbidite sand in the upper Akata Formation is a potential target in deep water offshore and possibly beneath currently producing intervals onshore. Known oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta rank the province as the twelfth largest in the world. To date, 34.5 billion barrels of recoverable oil and 93.8 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas have been discovered. In 1997, Nigeria was the fifth largest crude oil supplier to the United States, supplying 689,000 barrels/day of crude.

  7. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  8. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption... that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  9. On the 'delta-equations' for vortex sheet evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottman, James W.; Stansby, Peter K.

    1993-01-01

    We use a set of equations, sometimes referred to as the 'delta-equations', to approximate the two-dimensional inviscid motion of an initially circular vortex sheet released from rest in a cross-flow. We present numerical solutions of these equations for the case with delta-square = 0 (for which the equations are exact) and for delta-square greater than 0. For small values of the smoothing parameter delta, a spectral filter must be used to eliminate spurious instabilities due to round-off error. Two singularities appear simultaneously in the vortex sheet when delta-square = 0 at a critical time t(c). After t(c), the solutions do not converge as the computational mesh is refined. With delta-square greater than 0, converged solutions were found for all values of delta-square when t is less than t(c), and for all but the two smallest values of delta-square used when t is greater than t(c). Our results show that, when delta-square is greater than 0, the vortex sheet deforms into two doubly branched spirals some time after t(c). The limiting solution as delta approaching 0 clearly exists and equals the delta = 0 solution when t is less than t(c).

  10. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  11. Isomerization of delta-9-THC to delta-8-THC when tested as trifluoroacetyl-, pentafluoropropionyl-, or heptafluorobutyryl- derivatives.

    PubMed

    Holler, Justin M; Smith, Michael L; Paul, Shom N; Past, Marilyn R; Paul, Buddha D

    2008-05-01

    For GC-MS analysis of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), perfluoroacid anhydrides in combination with perfluoroalcohols are commonly used for derivatization. This reagent mixture is preferred because it allows simultaneous derivatization of delta-9-THC and its acid metabolite, 11-nor-delta-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid present in biological samples. When delta-9-THC was derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride/hexafluoroisopropanol (TFAA/HFIPOH) and analyzed by GC-MS using full scan mode (50-550 amu), two peaks (P1 and P2) with an identical molecular mass of 410 amu were observed. On the basis of the total ion chromatogram (TIC), P1 with a shorter retention time (RT) was the major peak (TIC 84%). To identify the peaks, delta-8-THC was also tested under the same conditions. The RT and spectra of the major peak (TIC 95%) were identical with that of P1 for delta-9-THC. A minor peak (5%) present also correlated well with the latter peak (P2) for the delta-9-THC derivative. The fragmentation pathway of P1 was primarily demethylation followed by retro Diels-Alder fragmentation (M - 15-68, base peak 100%) indicating P1 as a delta-8-THC-trifluoroacetyl compound. This indicated that delta-9-THC isomerized to delta-8-THC during derivatization with TFAA/HFIPOH. Similar results were also observed when delta-9-THC was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride/pentafluoropropanol or heptafluorobutyric anhydride/heptafluorobutanol. No isomerization was observed when chloroform was used in derivatization with TFAA. In this reaction, the peaks of delta-8-THC-TFA and delta-9-THC-TFA had retention times and mass spectra matching with P1 and P2, respectively. Because of isomerization, perfluoroacid anhydrides/perfluoroalcohols are not suitable derivatizing agents for analysis of delta-9-THC; whereas the TFAA in chloroform is suitable for the analysis. PMID:18205240

  12. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  13. Space Radar Image of Mississippi Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency image demonstrates the capability of the radar to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The image is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the image. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this image is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the image consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the image. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  14. Effect of carbonitride dissolution on T{sub {delta}} and V{sub {delta}} of austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ruzeng; Dai Qixun

    1997-03-01

    The authors deal with the effect of carbide dissolution on the {gamma}/{gamma}+{delta} boundary temperature, T{sub {delta}}, and the {delta} phase volume, V{sub {delta}}, as well as the equilibrium relation between the alloying elements at the {gamma}/{gamma}+{delta} boundary of austenitic steels at high temperature, and study the variation of the ferrite volume with temperature in {alpha}+{gamma} dual phase steel. The relevant expressions are derived from many experimental results, which may provide a basis for quantitative calculation, the design of compositions, the determination of working processes and prediction of the mechanical properties and microstructure of the austenitic steels.

  15. An asteroseismological analysis of Delta Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, M. R.; McNamara, B. J.

    1996-10-01

    One of us (BJM) observed Delta Scuti during the period of June 1983 to September 1988; observations in 1983-85 were conducted at the Tortugas Moutain observatory, New Mexico; in 1987 were conducted in a multisite campaign from New Mexico (by S. Barch), CTIO (by BJM), and SAAO (by K. Sekiguchi); and in 1988 were conducted at CTIO. We have 6515 Stromgren y differential magnitudes spanning a total of 1928.6 days with a sigma per point of approx. 7 mmag.

  16. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  17. Proglumide exhibits delta opioid agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A; Stokes, K B; Rhoads, D L; Way, E L

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that proglumide, a cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist, potentiates the analgetic effects of morphine and endogenous opioid peptides and reverses morphine tolerance by antagonizing the CCK system in the central nervous system of the rat. In order to provide additional insight into the mode of action of this agent, we assessed the effect of proglumide in the isolated guinea pig ileum and the mouse, rat and rabbit vas deferens. Furthermore, we studied the in vitro binding affinity of this substance to mouse brain synaptosomes. Our results show that proglumide inhibits, dose dependently, the electrically stimulated twitches in the mouse vas deferens and guinea pig ileum, but not in the rat or rabbit vas deferens. The inhibitory action of proglumide on the mouse vas deferens, but not on the guinea pig ileum, is antagonized by naloxone and by the selective delta-antagonist, ICI 174,864, in a competitive fashion. Other CCK antagonists were found to be devoid of such activity on the mouse vas deferens. In vitro binding studies showed that proglumide displaces D-ala-D-[leucine]5-enkephalin (DADLE), a delta agonist, but not ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), a preferentially selective kappa agonist. The effect of proglumide appeared to be elicited presynaptically since it did not alter the norepinephrine-induced contractions of the mouse vas deferens. Our results suggest that proglumide might exert its opiate-like effects by activation of delta-opioid receptors. PMID:3030338

  18. Delta: Data Reduction for Integrated Application Workflows.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick; Jean-Baptiste, Gregory; Oldfield, Ron A.

    2015-06-01

    Integrated Application Workflows (IAWs) run multiple simulation workflow components con- currently on an HPC resource connecting these components using compute area resources and compensating for any performance or data processing rate mismatches. These IAWs require high frequency and high volume data transfers between compute nodes and staging area nodes during the lifetime of a large parallel computation. The available network band- width between the two areas may not be enough to efficiently support the data movement. As the processing power available to compute resources increases, the requirements for this data transfer will become more difficult to satisfy and perhaps will not be satisfiable at all since network capabilities are not expanding at a comparable rate. Furthermore, energy consumption in HPC environments is expected to grow by an order of magnitude as exas- cale systems become a reality. The energy cost of moving large amounts of data frequently will contribute to this issue. It is necessary to reduce the volume of data without reducing the quality of data when it is being processed and analyzed. Delta resolves the issue by addressing the lifetime data transfer operations. Delta removes subsequent identical copies of already transmitted data during transfers and restores those copies once the data has reached the destination. Delta is able to identify duplicated information and determine the most space efficient way to represent it. Initial tests show about 50% reduction in data movement while maintaining the same data quality and transmission frequency.

  19. Calibration issues in delta alpha /alpha .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Centurión, Miriam; Levshakov, Sergei

    Laser Comb Wavelength calibration shows that the ThAr one is locally unreliable with possible deviations of up to 100 {m s}-1 within one order range, while delivering an overall 1 {m s}-1 accuracy (Wilken et al 2009). Such deviation corresponds to delta alpha /alpha ≈ 7* 10-6 for a Fe II-Mg II pair. Comparison of line shifts among the 5 Fe II lines, with almost identical sensitivity to fine structure constant changes, offers a clean way to directly test the presence of possible local wavelength calibration errors of whatever origin. We analyzed 5 absorption systems, with zabs ranging from 1.15 to 2.19 towards 3 bright QSOs. The results show that while some lines are aligned within 20 {m s}-1, others reveal large deviations reaching 200 {m s}-1 or higher and corresponding to a delta alpha /alpha > 10-5 level. The origin of these deviations is not clearly identified but could be related to the adaptation of wavelength calibration to CCD manufacturing irregularities. These results suggest that to draw conclusions from delta alpha /alpha analysis based on one or only few lines must be done with extreme care.

  20. WESTAR-V launch on delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The WESTAR-V, the second in a series of second-generation, large, 24-transponder communications satellites developed for the Space Communications Company is discussed. It is scheduled to be launched on a Delta vehicle from the Eastern Space and Missile Center no earlier than June 8, 1982. The launch support for this mission will be provided by NASA, on a reimbursable basis, to the Space Communications Company for a fixed price of $25.OM. The launch vehicle for the WESTAR-V mission will be the Delta 3910 configuration which incorporates an extended long tank Thor booster, nine Castor IV strap-on motors, a TR-201 second stage, and an 8-foot fairing. The Delta launch vehicle will place the spacecraft along a suborbital trajectory. The PAM-D stage will then thrust it to a synchronous transfer orbit. Three days after launch, the spacecraft apogee kick motor will be fired to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 19,300 NM above the equator at approxmately 75 degrees west longitude.

  1. Upper Devonian Catskill delta of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.C.; Lewis, J.S.; Mumcuoglu, C.; Boswell, R.; Peace, K.; Jewell, G.

    1984-12-01

    Oil and gas reservoir rocks of the Upper Devonian of West Virginia were deposited as shoreline sands along a coastal plain characterized by marine-dominant deltas (Catskill delta complex). These sandstones exhibit facies relationships between red beds and interbedded sandstones and shales that shift westward and eastward with offlap and onlap. Outcrop equivalents at Elkins, West Virginia, are correlated with the interval of Balltown to Fourth sands. Subsurface correlation indicates that maximum westward progradation occurred during deposition of the Gordon and Gordon Stray sands, and that transgression mainly characterized the younger Devonian sands of the Thirty-foot, Fifty-foot and Gantz. Regional correlations suggest that the Bradford-Balltown and Speechly (B sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northwestern Pennsylvania, whereas the Bayard through Gantz (D sands of Pennsylvania Geological Survey) sands are better developed in northern and central West Virginia, decreasing also in buildup toward southeastern West Virginia. The oil-bearing sandstones occur in strike trend (north-south) in north-central West Virginia connected by feeder channel sandstones with dip trends (east-west). The interpreted fluvial and tidal channels combine to represent distributary channels that supplied the sands to the barrier islands and delta front. Shoreline shifts, with regression and transgression of the ancient sea, caused corresponding changes in distal-fan accumulations with time.

  2. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) protein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-07-04

    The expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta} have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta}. As compared to commercially available anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPAR{beta}/{delta}. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression was localized in the nucleus and RXR{alpha} can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPAR{beta}/{delta}. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues.

  3. Explanation of the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930) as a {rho}{delta} bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Oset, E.; Vijande, J.

    2009-02-15

    We use the {rho}{delta} interaction in the hidden gauge formalism to dynamically generate N* and {delta}* resonances. We show, through a comparison of the results from this analysis and from a quark model study with data, that the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930), {delta}{sub 3/2{sup -}}(1940), and {delta}{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1900) resonances can be assigned to {rho}{delta} bound states. More precisely the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930) can be interpreted as a {rho}{delta} bound state whereas the {delta}{sub 3/2{sup -}}(1940) and {delta}{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1900) may contain an important {rho}{delta} component. This interpretation allows for a solution of a long-standing puzzle concerning the description of these resonances in constituent quark models. In addition we also obtain degenerate J{sup P}=1/2{sup -},3/2{sup -},5/2{sup -} N* states but their assignment to experimental resonances is more uncertain.

  4. Treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC): no influence on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Prevedel, Heidrun; Theloe, Karen; Kolbe, Hans; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, respectively, are effective in the treatment of tics and behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome (TS). It, therefore, has been speculated that the central cannabinoid receptor system might be involved in TS pathology. However, in healthy marijuana users there is an ongoing debate as to whether the use of cannabis causes acute and/or long-term cognitive deficits. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a treatment with up to 10 mg Delta(9)-THC over a 6-week period on neuropsychological performance in 24 patients suffering from TS. During medication and immediately as well as 5-6 weeks after withdrawal of Delta(9)-THC treatment, no detrimental effect was seen on learning curve, interference, recall and recognition of word lists, immediate visual memory span, and divided attention. Measuring immediate verbal memory span, we even found a trend towards a significant improvement during and after treatment. Results from this study corroborate previous data suggesting that in patients suffering from TS, treatment with Delta(9)-THC causes neither acute nor long-term cognitive deficits. Larger and longer-duration controlled studies are recommended to provide more information on the adverse effect profile of THC in patients suffering from TS. PMID:12589392

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-{delta}}Ga{sub {delta}} ({delta}{<=}2)

    SciTech Connect

    Girt, E.; Guillot, M.; Krishnan, Kannan M.; Altounian, Z.; Thomas, G.

    2000-05-01

    Magnetization measurements of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-{delta}}Ga{sub {delta}} ({delta}=0-2) show that the saturation magnetization, M{sub s}, decreases with an increase in Ga content from 40.4 {mu}{sub B}/f.u. for Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} to 36.1 {mu}{sub B}/f.u. for Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2} at 4.2 K. Neutron diffraction data at 25 K show that the magnetic moment of Fe depends on its crystallographic site and decreases in the order Fe(6c)>Fe(18f){>=}Fe(18h){>=}Fe(9d). The magnetic moments of Fe(9d), Fe(18f), and Fe(18h) are found to be practically independent of the Ga content. However, the magnetic moment of Fe(6c) decreases from 2.81(9) {mu}{sub B} in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} to 2.14(9) {mu}{sub B} in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2}. The decrease of the Fe(6c) moment clearly reduces the exchange interaction between Fe(6c)-Fe(6c) dumbbell pairs which explains the decrease in the anomalous thermal expansion with an increase in Ga concentration. The reduced Fe(6c)-Fe(6c) exchange interaction may also play an important role in increasing the Curie temperature, T{sub C}, with Ga content; T{sub C} increases from 327 K in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} to 535 K in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Ga{sub 2}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Analysis, testing, and evaluation of faulted and unfaulted Wye, Delta, and open Delta connected electromechanical actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehl, T. W.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical models capable of simulating the transient, steady state, and faulted performance characteristics of various brushless dc machine-PSA (power switching assembly) configurations were developed. These systems are intended for possible future use as primemovers in EMAs (electromechanical actuators) for flight control applications. These machine-PSA configurations include wye, delta, and open-delta connected systems. The research performed under this contract was initially broken down into the following six tasks: development of mathematical models for various machine-PSA configurations; experimental validation of the model for failure modes; experimental validation of the mathematical model for shorted turn-failure modes; tradeoff study; and documentation of results and methodology.

  7. Development of rules for single-line fault diagnosis in delta-delta connected distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T.; Laird, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    Single-line fault diagnosis in delta-delta connected distribution systems suffers due to the low fault currents associated with such faults. Simulation tests on this type of system reveals that rule based decision support can be used of such diagnosis. This paper describes the development of rules for single-line fault diagnosis utilizing simulation test results. The key parameters used are the voltage magnitude of each phase at the bus bar and the currents on the feeders including their sequence components.

  8. Soft Phonons in (delta)-Phase Plutonium Near the (delta)-(alpha)' Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, R; Wong, J; Zshack, P; Hong, H; Chiang, T

    2007-09-13

    Plutonium and its alloys exhibit complex phase diagrams that imply anomalous lattice dynamics near phase stability boundaries. Specifically, the TA [111] phonon branch in Ga-stabilized {delta}-Pu at room temperature shows a pronounced soft mode at the zone boundary, which suggests a possible connection to the martensitic transformation from the fcc {delta}-phase to the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-phase at low temperatures. This work is a study of the lattice dynamics of this system by x-ray thermal diffuse scattering. The results reveal little temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies, thus indicating that kinetic phonon softening is not responsible for this phase transition.

  9. Dual regulation of the {delta}Np63 transcriptional activity by {delta}Np63 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.-K.; Lee, K.-C.; Chow, S.-E.; Chen, J.-K. . E-mail: jkc508@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2006-04-21

    p63 splicing variants lacking NH{sub 2}-terminal transactivating domain, known as {delta}Np63, are thought to antagonize p53 and p63 functions and are suggested to play roles in keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we show that {delta}Np63 has a dual-regulatory effect on the activity of its own promoter in NPC-076 cell. Down-regulation of the transcriptional activity is observed when {delta}Np63 is present in low levels. In contrast, up-regulation of {delta}Np63 transcriptional activity is observed when {delta}Np63 is expressed at higher levels. The down-regulation effect is abolished when the p53-binding site of the {delta}Np63 promoter is mutated. In sharp contrast, similar mutation does not affect the up-regulation of the {delta}Np63 transcriptional activity under the same experimental conditions. Further study shows that the up-regulation is correlated with the activation of the STAT3, as the blockade of STAT3 nuclear translocation abolishes the up-regulation by {delta}Np63. Thus, {delta}Np63 exerts a bidirectional regulation of the {delta}Np63 transcriptional activity in NPC-076 cell.

  10. Measuring Delta Progradation Using Delta Front Flow Patterns: A New Method of Remote Imagery Analysis on the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estep, J. D.; Shaw, J.; Edmonds, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the progradation of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a sub-delta of the Mississippi River Delta, can lend valuable insight into coastal land-building patterns. Previous studies of WLD progradation have relied on subaerially-exposed land for indicating delta extent, but an inherent problem with this method lies in the high variability of exposed land due to vegetative, hydrologic, and atmospheric fluctuations. By mapping water surface films observed in remote imagery which form streaklines along flow paths in the delta, we show that the shallow delta front flow patterns are relatively unaffected by short term water level changes and can be used to evaluate WLD progradation over time. Remotely sensed imagery from multiple sources (infrared aerial photography, SPOT, UAVSAR) spanning from 1988 to 2015 was used to map streaklines from which we calculate a flow direction divergence field across the delta. Measuring the translation of this field through time, such as areas containing extreme divergence values along the delta front, quantifies the progradation over the time elapsed. Preliminary measurements of WLD progradation were subdivided into the eastern, southern, and western thirds of the delta. The eastern third prograded at 110 ±20m/yr from 1988 - 1997, 100 ±40m/yr from 1997 - 2002, and then remained relatively constant to 2015. The southern third prograded at 130 ±20m/yr from 1988 - 1997, 200 ±40m/yr from 1997 - 2002, and remained relatively constant to 2015. The western third prograded at 130 ±30m/yr from 1988 - 1997, 220 ±60 m from 1997 - 2002, and then remained relatively constant from 2002 - 2015. Also of note is the retrogradation on the average of 700 ±400m observed from January to August, 1992 which we interpret as being caused by the impact of Hurricane Andrew. The streakline methodology of evaluating WLD progradation could provide new methods for analysis of land change in other deltas around the world.

  11. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE DELTA Q TEST FOR DUCT LEAKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-01

    Using a residential-size duct system in a controlled laboratory setting, the repeatability and accuracy of the Delta Q test for air leakage in residential duct systems have been measured. More than 100 Delta Q tests were performed. These were compared with results using fan pressurization and also with results of a procedure (Delta Q Plus) that uses leakage hole-size information to select the leakage pressures to be used in the Delta Q algorithm. The average error in supply or return leakage for the fan-pressurization test was 6.4% of system fan flow. For the Delta Q test it was 3.4% of fan flow, while for Delta Q Plus it was 1.9% of fan flow.

  12. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  13. On \\delta-derivations of n-ary algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaygorodov, Ivan B.

    2012-12-01

    We give a description of \\delta-derivations of (n+1)-dimensional n-ary Filippov algebras and, as a consequence, of simple finite-dimensional Filippov algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We also give new examples of non-trivial \\delta-derivations of Filippov algebras and show that there are no non-trivial \\delta-derivations of the simple ternary Mal'tsev algebra M_8.

  14. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  15. Identification and characterization of Delta12, Delta6, and Delta5 Desaturases from the green microalga Parietochloris incisa.

    PubMed

    Iskandarov, Umidjon; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Cohen, Zvi

    2010-06-01

    The freshwater microalga Parietochloris incisa accumulates, under nitrogen starvation, large amounts of triacylglycerols containing approximately 60% of the omega6 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA), arachidonic acid. Based on sequence homology, we isolated three cDNA sequences from P. incisa, designated PiDesD12, PiDesD6, PiDesD5. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes contained three conserved histidine motifs; the front-end desaturases, PiDes6 and PiDes5, contained a fused N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. By functional characterization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we confirmed that PiDesD6, PiDesD5 cDNA encode membrane bound desaturases with Delta6, and Delta5 activity, respectively. Both PiDes6 and PiDes5 can indiscriminately desaturate both omega6 and omega3 substrates. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the three genes were homologous to the corresponding desaturases from green microalgae and lower plants that were functionally characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the concerted expression pattern of all three genes in P. incisa cells subjected to nitrogen starvation, featuring maximum expression level on day 3 of starvation, corresponding to the sharpest increase in the share of arachidonic acid. PMID:20467827

  16. International Year of Deltas 2013: A proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Syvitski, James; Paola, Chris; Hoanh, Chu Thai; Tuong, Phuc; Vörösmarty, Charles; Kremer, Hartwig; Brondizio, Eduardo; Saito, Yoshiki; Twilley, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Marine and lacustrine deltas around the world are economic and environmental hot spots. They occupy approximately 1% of the Earth's land area but are home to more than 500 million people—a population density more than 10 times the world average [Ericson et al., 2006]—all within 5 meters of sea level [Overeem and Syvitski, 2009]. This high density is supported by high productivity, rich biodiversity, and transport along a network of waterways. Yet deltaic systems are some of the world's most delicate and vulnerable natural systems, residing at the boundary between land and water, and are subject to upstream human control, local resource exploration, and climatic impacts.

  17. Delta Alerts: Changing Outcomes in Geriatric Trauma.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Lynn L; Day, Mark D; Harris, LeAnna

    2016-01-01

    Geriatric trauma patients (GTPs) suffering minor injuries have suboptimal outcomes compared with younger populations. Patients 65 years or older account for 10% of all traumas but 28% of all trauma deaths. This trauma center established a third tier trauma alert specifically targeting GTPs at risk for poor outcomes. A Delta Alert is activated when GTPs suffer injuries that fall outside traditional trauma alert guidelines. Early identification and treatment of injuries and expedited referral to specialty groups have improved our GTPs' outcomes including decreased mortality and length of stay and increased percentage of GTPs who are discharged home. PMID:27414140

  18. INSAT-1A launch on Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The INSAT-1A, the first in a series of 12 transponder communications satellites developed for India, is described as well as the launch plans. The launch vehicle will be the Delta 3910 configuration which incorporates an extended long tank Thor booster, nine Castor IV strap-on motors, a TR-201 second stage, and an 8 foot fairing. The satellite will be placed in a suborbital trajectory. A DAM-D stage will then thrust it into a synchronous transfer orbit. An apogee kick motor will be fired to circularize its orbit at a geosynchronous altitude of 19,300 nautical miles.

  19. Shoreface morphodynamics along the Danube Delta coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatui, Florin; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The shoreface has an important long-term contribution to the coastal sediment budget as it behaves as either a sink or source of sediment from/to the active zone (Hinton and Nicholls, 2007). Hence, it modulates the long-term shoreline movement. However, the shoreface behaviour remains poorly understood and such studies are scarce especially because of the lack of extensive long-term good-quality data. The objective of this study is to examine and explain the shoreface morphodynamics along the Danube Delta coast. The shoreface morphodynamics has been investigated over the medium- and large-scales (decades to centuries). This is a wave-dominated, low-lying coastline interrupted by river mouths and, sometimes, by engineering structures (jetties). This work uses historical and modern maps (since 1856) and bathymetrical measurements (2008 and 2014) extending along the whole Danube Delta coast (both Romanian and Ukrainian sectors) to water depths of approximately 20 m; sectorial seasonal and annual bathymetries of the upper shoreface (2003 - 2014); LIDAR data (2011), recent high resolution satellite images, ortophotos and GPS surveys for shoreline extraction, which were comparatively analysed (volume changes, profile to profile evolution) by means of GIS techniques in order to explain the morphological and volumetric evolution of the shoreface. The large scale coastal behaviour of Danube Delta coast (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) is linked to climatic forcings (storminess), Danube river sediment supply changes, longshore sediment transport distribution and impact of hard coastal engineering structures. Significant increase of shoreface volume in the last century is related to active deltaic lobes (Chilia) or developing barrier islands (Sacalin), while decreasing shoreface volumes are related to the presence of Sulina jetties which blocked the longshore sediment transport and induced severe erosion downdrift. In

  20. Delta-92 Telesat-A operations summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Telesat-A, which is the first of the Canadian Telesat satellites to be launched for the domestic satellite communications system is described. The launch vehicle, designated Delta-92 consists of a DSV 3p-11 extended long tank first stage with an MB-3 engine, augmented by low-drag Castor 2 solid motors. The spacecraft has a spin-stabilized electronic system powered by 23,000 solar cells, with sufficient on-board battery capability to provide full capacity power during eclipse of the solar cells. A 60-inch wide circular directional antenna which remains constantly aimed at Canada is included.

  1. Elwha River Delta: Geomorphology of a Mixed-Sediment Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Warrick, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Elwha River drains the Olympic Peninsula of Washington and forms a mixed grain-size delta in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The Elwha River has been dammed for almost a century, and a pending dam removal project is expected to reconnect upstream sediment sources to the river mouth. Topographic and grain-size mapping of the delta during 1939-2007 is synthesized and the geomorphology and shoreline changes of this system are described. Data sources include historical aerial photographs, airborne LIDAR, semiannual RTK DGPS topographic surveys and grain-size analyses from digital photographs. The delta is divided into three geomorphic regions: west delta, river mouth and east delta. The river mouth is the most complex region due to the river channel movement, side-channels, and bars immediately offshore of the mouth. The east and west delta differ in beach profile and shoreline change rates. The west delta is steep, cuspate and lacks a low-tide terrace. Further, the west delta has exhibited little semi-annual or inter-annual shoreline change. In contrast, the east delta has a steep foreshore, flat low tide terrace that is dominated by cobble, and a consistent trend of erosion during the surveys. These observations can be used to track coastal changes following dam removal on the Elwha River..

  2. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students' responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  3. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Boeing Delta 7326 rocket with two solid rocket boosters attached sits on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. The Delta 7236, which has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage, will launch Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program. It is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  4. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - A solid rocket booster is maneuvered into place for installation on the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  5. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left) A solid rocket booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  6. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (left) is raised for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  7. The effect of interference on delta modulation encoded video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study on the use of the delta modulator as a digital encoder of television signals are presented. The computer simulation was studied of different delta modulators in order to find a satisfactory delta modulator. After finding a suitable delta modulator algorithm via computer simulation, the results are analyzed and then implemented in hardware to study the ability to encode real time motion pictures from an NTSC format television camera. The effects were investigated of channel errors on the delta modulated video signal and several error correction algorithms were tested via computer simulation. A very high speed delta modulator was built (out of ECL logic), incorporating the most promising of the correction schemes, so that it could be tested on real time motion pictures. The final area of investigation concerned itself with finding delta modulators which could achieve significant bandwidth reduction without regard to complexity or speed. The first such scheme to be investigated was a real time frame to frame encoding scheme which required the assembly of fourteen, 131,000 bit long shift registers as well as a high speed delta modulator. The other schemes involved two dimensional delta modulator algorithms.

  8. Investigation of television transmission using adaptive delta modulation principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study on the use of the delta modulator as a digital encoder of television signals. The computer simulation of different delta modulators was studied in order to find a satisfactory delta modulator. After finding a suitable delta modulator algorithm via computer simulation, the results were analyzed and then implemented in hardware to study its ability to encode real time motion pictures from an NTSC format television camera. The effects of channel errors on the delta modulated video signal were tested along with several error correction algorithms via computer simulation. A very high speed delta modulator was built (out of ECL logic), incorporating the most promising of the correction schemes, so that it could be tested on real time motion pictures. Delta modulators were investigated which could achieve significant bandwidth reduction without regard to complexity or speed. The first scheme investigated was a real time frame to frame encoding scheme which required the assembly of fourteen, 131,000 bit long shift registers as well as a high speed delta modulator. The other schemes involved the computer simulation of two dimensional delta modulator algorithms.

  9. Validating methods for measuring delta18O and delta13C in otoliths from freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Guiguer, K R R A; Drimmie, R; Power, M

    2003-01-01

    The ability of the phosphoric acid digestion technique to extract carbon dioxide from biogenic carbonates and reliably reproduce delta(18)O and delta(13)C signatures from standard reference materials (NBS-18, NBS-19) was tested and shown to produce accurate, unbiased measurements of non-biologic materials. The effects of roasting preparation methods commonly reported when analyzing biogenic carbonates were also tested in a series of experiments using reference standards and otoliths obtained from aquacultured Arctic charr and rainbow trout. Roasting had no effect on the isotope measurement of reference standards. No significant differences between mean oxygen isotope signatures from paired experiments with roasted and non-roasted fish otoliths were found. However, otolith oxygen isotope measurements were significantly enriched in comparison to rearing water-based measurements for both species. Agreement between expected isotopic equilibrium and measured otolith delta(18)O values varied as a function of roasting temperature and between species. Criteria for the selection of appropriate roasting temperatures are suggested and favour 350 degrees C in freshwater fish where unbiased estimates of average rearing water temperatures and known differences in rearing temperatures were obtained. Carbon isotopic disequilibria were observed for both species. A mixing model analysis established differences in the percentage of metabolically derived carbon in studied otoliths, with Arctic charr deriving a greater proportion of otolith delta(13)C from metabolism as a result of higher metabolic rates. PMID:12590395

  10. Inferring heterogeneity in aquitards using high-resolution deltaD and delta18O profiles.

    PubMed

    Hendry, M Jim; Wassenaar, L I

    2009-01-01

    Vertical depth profiles of pore water isotopes (deltaD and delta18O) in clay-rich aquitards have been used to show that solute transport is dominated by molecular diffusion, to define the timing of geologic events, and to estimate vertical hydraulic conductivity. The interpretation of the isotopic profiles in these studies was based on pore water samples collected from piezometers installed in nests (typically 4 to 15 piezometers) over depths of 10 to 80 m. Data from piezometer nests generally have poor vertical resolution (meters), raising questions about their capacity to reveal the impact of finer scale heterogeneities such as permeable sand bodies or fractured till zones on solute transport. Here, we used high-resolution (30-cm) depth profiles of deltaD and delta18O from two continuously cored boreholes in a till aquitard to provide new insights into the effects of sand bodies on solute transport. High-resolution core-derived profiles indicate that such heterogeneities can cause major deviations from one-dimensional diffusion profiles. Further, comparison of piezometer-measured values with best-fit diffusion trends shows subtle deviations, suggesting the presence of heterogeneities that should not be ignored. High-resolution profiles also more clearly defined the contact between the highly fractured oxidized zone and the underlying unoxidized zone than the piezometers. PMID:19735307

  11. Hydraulic Geometry of a tidally influenced delta channel network: the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, M.; Hoitink, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic Geometry (HG) refers to relations between the characteristics of channels in a network, including mean depth, width, and bed slope, and the discharge conveyed by the channel during bank-full conditions. HG relations are of fundamental importance to water management in channel networks, and they bear an interesting relation with geomorphology. River delta channel networks typically scale according to HG relations such as log(A) ~ p*log(Q), where A is channel cross sectional area, Q water discharge, and the exponent p is in between 0.8 and 1.2. In tidal networks, the tidal prism or tidal discharge can be used, instead of a discharge with a constant frequency of occurrence. In the tidal case, the exponent often shows the same range of variation. Tidal rivers are intrinsically complex, as tidal propagation is influenced by river discharge and vice-versa. Consequently, channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas may show a mixed scaling behavior of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharges may both be of river and tidal origin. In tidal regions, the tidal dynamics may lead to a cyclic variation in water discharge distribution at bifurcations, readily affecting HG relations. We present results from the Mahakam delta channel network in Indonesia, a tide-river dominated delta which has been prograding for 60 km over the last 5000 years. Bathymetric surveys were conducted over the distributary network and connected tidal channels. Based on a geomorphic analysis of the present distributary network, we show that channel geometry of the fluvial distributary network scales with bifurcation order. The bifurcation order does not feature a clear relation with bifurcate branch length or bifurcate width ratio, as in the case of river deltas. HG relations of the area of selected cross-sections are well represented by the tidal prism or by the river discharge, when scaled with the bifurcation order. Numerical simulations show that river

  12. Do river deltas in east India retreat? A case of the Krishna Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Nilantha; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    The construction of multiple dams and barrages in many Indian River basins over the last few decades significantly reduced river flow to the sea and affected the sediment regime. More reservoir construction is planned through the proposed National River Linking Project (NRLP), which will transfer massive amounts of water from the North to the South of India. The impacts of these developments on fertile and ecologically sensitive deltaic environments are poorly understood and quantified at present. In this paper an attempt is made to identify, locate and quantify coastal erosion and deposition processes in one of the major river basins in India—the Krishna—using a time series of Landsat images for 1977, 1990 and 2001 with a spatial resolution ranging from 57.0 m to 28.5 m. The dynamics of these processes are analyzed together with the time series of river flow, sediment discharge and sediment storage in the basin. Comparisons are made with similar processes identified and quantified earlier in the delta of a neighboring similarly large river basin—the Godavari. The results suggest that coastal erosion in the Krishna Delta progressed over the last 25 years at the average rate of 77.6 ha yr - 1 , dominating the entire delta coastline and exceeding the deposition rate threefold. The retreat of the Krishna Delta may be explained primarily by the reduced river inflow to the delta (which is three times less at present than 50 years ago) and the associated reduction of sediment load. Both are invariably related to upstream reservoir storage development.

  13. Squeaking and microcracks in a delta-delta ceramic coupling: pin-on-disc study.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Tadami; Shintani, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    There is a rising concern about squeaking in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA). In pin-on-disc testing of a delta-delta coupling, we reproduced squeaking and observed microcracks on worn surfaces. We used a pin-on-disc machine and made discs and pins by cutting delta ceramic to a diameter of 40 mm (D-D). Cross-linked polyethylene was used for a comparison disc (D-P). We performed the same test using another D-D coupling specimen to confirm reproducibility. Squeaking in the D-D specimen was reproduced in wet conditions, though it was not found in the D-P specimen. Fast Fourier transform analysis showed a peak frequency for squeaking of 2794 Hz. The noise occurred at about 6.6 km of sliding distance. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the worn surface of the pin in D-D at 10.8 km of sliding distance had some microcracks. However, there was no obvious damage to the worn surface of the pin in D-P at the same sliding distance. We confirmed the reproducibility of these findings, obtaining similar results, including squeaking, from another D-D coupling specimen. Our findings show that squeaking may occur in THA using delta ceramic bearings even if implants are placed to avoid extra-articular impingement of the femoral neck. Although the clinical relevance of microcracks is unknown, they may affect long-term outcomes in THA using delta ceramic bearings. PMID:26971327

  14. Niger delta deepwater region petroleum potential assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-12-18

    On behalf of the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources some 23,000 km of high quality 192 channel, 96 fold seismic, and associated gravity and magnetic data were acquired by TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. and made available to the industry in 1991. These data were collected over all deepwater blocks in conjunction with the planned 1993 license round. Later, during 1993 and 1994 TGSI with Mabon Ltd. and Stratum Petroleum Services extended the program onto the shelf (7,000 km) and into the ultra deepwater areas (6,400 km), making possible modern studies of the entire offshore delta complex. In assessing the petroleum potential of an undrilled region, it is useful to refer to analogous basins or provinces already with histories of hydrocarbon exploration and discovery. With this in mind, and using limited data from the already drilled areas of Nigeria offshore, the adjacent West Africa salt basin and Brazil in particular, an attempt is made to discuss the hydrocarbon habitat of the undrilled Niger delta deepwater offshore sedimentary sequences.

  15. Status Of The Synchrotron Light Source DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.; Friedl, J.; Hartmann, P.; Schirmer, D.; Schmidt, G.; Sternemann, C.; Tolan, M.; Weis, T.; Westphal, C.; Wille, K.

    2004-05-12

    The Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA, located at the University of Dortmund, changed its scope during the last years into a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source. DELTA is now operated for 3000 h per year including 2000 h dedicated beam time for synchrotron radiation use and 1000 h for machine physics, optimization and maintenance. The status of the accelerator complex is presented together with the beam operation, the installation and commissioning of beamlines and insertion devices. To serve user demands of photon energies up to more than 10 keV a 5.3 T superconducting asymmetric multipole wiggler (SAW) with a critical energy of 7.9 keV has been installed serving three beamlines in the hard X-ray regime with also circular polarization. Two undulator beamlines for photon energies between 5 and 400 eV (U250) and between 55 and 1500 eV (U55) and several dipole beamlines up to 200 eV are under operation. The construction and operation of the different beamlines is done by various universities and laboratories in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  16. Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas under Environmental Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Frances; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sediment delivery is vital to sustain delta environments on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Due to factors such as subsidence and sea level rise, deltas sink relative to sea level if sediment is not delivered to and retained on their surfaces. Deltas which sink relative to sea level experience flooding, land degradation and loss, which endangers anthropogenic activities and populations. The future of fluvial sediment fluxes, a key mechanism for sediment delivery to deltas, is uncertain due to complex environmental changes which are predicted to occur over the coming decades. This research investigates fluvial sediment fluxes under environmental changes in order to assess the sustainability of delta environments under potential future scenarios up to 2100. Global datasets of climate change, reservoir construction, and population and GDP as proxies for anthropogenic influence through land use changes are used to drive the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being used to investigate the effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery. This process produces fluvial sediment fluxes under multiple future scenarios which will be used to assess the future sustainability of a selection of 8 vulnerable deltas, although the approach can be applied to deltas worldwide. By modelling potential future scenarios of fluvial sediment flux, this research contributes to the prognosis for delta environments. The future scenarios will inform management at multiple temporal scales, and indicate the potential consequences for deltas of various anthropogenic activities. This research will both forewarn managers of potentially unsustainable deltas and indicate those anthropogenic activities which encourage or hinder the creation of sustainable delta environments.

  17. A new evidence for the maintenance of the sarcoglycan complex in muscle sarcolemma in spite of the primary absence of delta-SG protein.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Telma L F; Kossugue, Patrícia M; Paim, Julia F; Zatz, Mayana; Anderson, Louise V B; Nigro, Vincenzo; Vainzof, Mariz

    2007-04-01

    delta-Sarcoglycan (delta-SG) is one of the first proteins of the sarcoglycan complex (SGC) to be expressed during muscle development, and it has been considered fundamental for the assembling and insertion of the SGC in the sarcolemma. Studies using heterologous cell systems and co-precipitation have demonstrated that SGC assembly was dependent on the simultaneous synthesis of all four sarcoglycan proteins. Mutations in any one of sarcoglycan genes, including the common disease causing mutation c.656delC in the delta-SG gene, block complex formation and its insertion in the plasma membrane. Failure in complex assembly in patients with this mutation would be therefore expected. In this study, we provide evidence for the possibility of preservation of part of the SG complex in the sarcolemma, even in the absence of delta-SG. This is based on the study of one mildly affected patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F (LGMD2F) due to the homozygous c.656delC mutation in the delta-SG gene. Protein analysis in his muscle biopsy presented a significant deficiency of only delta-SG with retention of the other three SG proteins in the sarcolemma. RNA expression analysis showed that zeta-SG, a functionally homologous to delta-SG, is not atypically upregulated in his muscle and would not replace the absent delta-SG, retaining the complex alpha-beta-gamma-zeta. The patient started clinical manifestation at age 25, with frequent falls, but he is currently able to walk unassisted at age 42. His clinical course is significantly milder when compared to several other affected patients carrying the same mutation associated with a total deficiency of the four SG proteins in the muscle studied by our group and confirmed in other patients. Therefore, our results add a new in vivo evidence that alpha-, beta-, and gamma-SG proteins can be maintained in the sarcolemma without delta-SG. Additionally, LGMD2F, with retention of the part of the SGC, might be associated to a milder

  18. Poblacion estelar joven embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Ricardo Retes

    2008-06-01

    En esta tesis presento una metodología de seleccion y estudio de la población estelar embebida en la nube molecular galactica asociada a la fuente IRAS 18236-1205. La fuente IRAS posee colores de region Ultra Compacta HII (UCHII) y tiene deteccióon en monosulfuro de carbono (CS), trazador molecular de alta densidad, lo cual da la posibilidad de definir la nube molecular asociada hacia esta region. Lo anterior muestra que esta es buena candidata a región de formación estelar masiva. La metodología de seleccion de la población embebida, est à basada por una parte, en la distribución del gas molecular monoxido de carbono (13CO) asociado a la fuente IRAS, nube molecular seleccionada del mapeo Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) realizado en 13CO. Otros pasos de la seleccion, se basan en los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud con datos del cercano infrarrrojo de 2MASS. Para el estudio de la componente estelar se usaron los catalogos de fuentes puntuales en el cercano, medio y lejano infrarrojo de 2MASS, SPITZER e IRAS, respectivamente. De los diagramas color-color y color-magnitud, usando datos de 2MASS, se construyo un criterio fotométrico para identificar los objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos en la region molecular. Aplicando modelos a la distribución espectral de energía (SED) de algunos ellos, se encontraron parametros estelares de objetos estelares j ovenes embebidos de masa intermedia y alta. Adicionalmente, se encontro un objeto de masa ´ intermedia no identifiado por el catalogo de 2MASS y su efecto sobre el medio interestelar, emision en la banda de [4.5] μm de IRAC-Spitzer asociado a un outflow. Dos de los objetos seleccionados por el criterio fotometrico resultaron ser objetos estelares jovenes de alta e intermedia masa (B1V/B2V y B8V/A0V respectivamente), los cuales deben estar asociados a la emision radiativa responsable de los colores de región UC HII. Otro objeto estelar joven de baja masa (F0V/F5V) fue encontrado en la region de estudio

  19. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  20. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  1. California's BAY-DELTA: USGS Science Supports Decision Making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James; Taylor, Kimberly; Fujii, Roger

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are in the forefront of the effort to understand what causes changes in the hydrology, the ecology and the water quality of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and the San Francisco Bay estuary. Their scientific findings play a crucial role in how agencies manage the Bay-Delta on a daily basis.

  2. Delta-Isobar magnetic form factor in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Vladimir

    1993-01-01

    We consider the QCD sum rules approach for Delta-isobar magnetic form factor in the infra-red region $0Delta-isobar magnetic moment.

  3. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-10-30

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

  4. Emerging leadership from communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Delta NIRI (Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) team has conducted several research studies in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region employing the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Our collaborative work in the LMD focuses on interventions conducted in each of our c...

  5. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  6. Delta: the First Pion Nucleon Resonance - Its Discovery and Applications

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nagle, D. E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described.

  7. 1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole marking the hardened intersite cable system in right center, commercial power pole outside fence in left center, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. The [delta]f algorithm for beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    1993-05-01

    An algorithm is developed to study particle dynamics of beams including collective interaction with high accuracy and low noise. Particle dynamics with collective interactions is treated through particle simulation, where the main or average distribution f[sub 0] and the deviation away from it [delta]f are separately followed. The main distribution f[sub 0] is handled by an analytic equilibrium solution and the perturbation away from it [delta]f is followed by the method of characteristics. We call this the [delta]f algorithm. We specifically model a synchrotron collider which includes the collision section where collective effects of collisions are simulated by this [delta]f algorithm and the rest of the collider where single particle dynamics are treated by simple harmonic transport. The most important target of this simulation is to understand and predict the long-time behavior of the beam luminosity and lifetime. The [delta]f method allows the study the effect of small perturbations over long timescales on beam lifetime by eliminating the numerical noise problem inherent in Particle-in-Cell techniques. In the [delta]f code using the reference parameters of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), beam blow-up near resonances and oscillations in the tune shift, [Delta][nu], far from resonances are observed. In studying long timescale particle diffusion in the phase space of the beams away from resonances, the [delta]f code performance is compared with a tracking code which does not incorporate collective interaction.

  9. The {delta}f algorithm for beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    1993-05-01

    An algorithm is developed to study particle dynamics of beams including collective interaction with high accuracy and low noise. Particle dynamics with collective interactions is treated through particle simulation, where the main or average distribution f{sub 0} and the deviation away from it {delta}f are separately followed. The main distribution f{sub 0} is handled by an analytic equilibrium solution and the perturbation away from it {delta}f is followed by the method of characteristics. We call this the {delta}f algorithm. We specifically model a synchrotron collider which includes the collision section where collective effects of collisions are simulated by this {delta}f algorithm and the rest of the collider where single particle dynamics are treated by simple harmonic transport. The most important target of this simulation is to understand and predict the long-time behavior of the beam luminosity and lifetime. The {delta}f method allows the study the effect of small perturbations over long timescales on beam lifetime by eliminating the numerical noise problem inherent in Particle-in-Cell techniques. In the {delta}f code using the reference parameters of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), beam blow-up near resonances and oscillations in the tune shift, {Delta}{nu}, far from resonances are observed. In studying long timescale particle diffusion in the phase space of the beams away from resonances, the {delta}f code performance is compared with a tracking code which does not incorporate collective interaction.

  10. Gene sharing by delta-crystallin and argininosuccinate lyase.

    PubMed Central

    Piatigorsky, J; O'Brien, W E; Norman, B L; Kalumuck, K; Wistow, G J; Borras, T; Nickerson, J M; Wawrousek, E F

    1988-01-01

    The lens structural protein delta-crystallin and the metabolic enzyme argininosuccinate lyase (ASL; L-argininosuccinate arginine-lyase, EC 4.3.2.1) have striking sequence similarity. We have demonstrated that duck delta-crystallin has enormously high ASL activity, while chicken delta-crystallin has lower but significant activity. The lenses of these birds had much greater ASL activity than other tissues, suggesting that ASL is being expressed at unusually high levels as a structural component. In Southern blots of human genomic DNA, chicken delta 1-crystallin cDNA hybridized only to the human ASL gene; moreover, the two chicken delta-crystallin genes accounted for all the sequences in the chicken genome able to cross-hybridize with a human ASL cDNA, with preferential hybridization to the delta 2 gene. Correlations of enzymatic activity and recent data on mRNA levels in the chicken lens suggest that ASL activity depends on expression of the delta 2-crystallin gene. The data indicate that the same gene, at least in ducks, encodes two different functions, an enzyme (ASL) and a structural protein (delta-crystallin), although in chickens specialization and separation of functions may have occurred. Images PMID:3368457

  11. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. PMID:20399844

  12. 76 FR 28211 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  13. 76 FR 17105 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  14. 76 FR 12017 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  15. 75 FR 67079 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  16. 78 FR 48647 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  17. 76 FR 23970 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  18. 77 FR 53841 - Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delta-Bienville Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Forest,...

  19. Apple delta 13 discrimination is related to shoot ash content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant ash content has been highly correlated with plant water use efficiency (WUE), and delta 13 in field crops and grassland species, and proposed as selection criteria for WUE. Delta 18 has also been correlated with transpiration in herbaceous plants. The objectives of the study were to 1) evalu...

  20. Assessments of Water Quality in Mississippi Delta Lake Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes watershed scale research by USDA-ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory scientists on the effects of conservation management on water quality and ecology in oxbow lakes of the Mississippi Delta Region, USA. The Mississippi Delta Region is located in the central portion of the U...

  1. Deborah Partridge Wolfe: Biography of a Kappa Delta Pi Laureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hover, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    In 1988, Kappa Delta Pi selected Dr. Deborah Partridge Wolfe for membership in its Laureate Chapter. Wolfe, a prominent African-American social educator, dedicated her career in education to living and promoting the key ideals of Kappa Delta Pi's mission: scholarship, excellence, diversity, inquiry, reflection, and fellowship. This biography of…

  2. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described.

  3. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  4. Hydrologic Modeling of a Tropical River Delta by Applying Remote Sensing Data: the Niger Delta and its Distributaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, M. T.; Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Delta regions offer rich resources to coastal human populations with their large upstream freshwater sources. Tropical deltas such as the Niger, Nigeria, whose drainage basin incorporates arid regions, receive a significant portion of their runoff from precipitation falling directly on the delta. Between 1970 and 2006, the Niger discharged (Lokoja station) 5000 ± 890 m3/s into upper delta. Here we apply Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) based precipitation estimates (SB42), with a 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution (~100 grid points across the Niger Delta at 3 hourly intervals 1998-2008), and MODIS evapotranspiration (ET) estimates (MOD16), to determine the impact of massive local precipitation events on the routing of water and sediment flux through the Niger Delta's distributaries. The Niger delta receives 2275 mm/y ± 264 mm/y of rainfall with the SE area exceeding 3500 mm/y. The delta's ET varies seasonally between 45 and 65 mm/mo. The in situ generated hydrological runoff is 1675 mm/y, or an equivalent of a discharge 73% the size of the river flux entering the delta. With maximum annual daily discharge from the Niger often exceeding 15,000 m3/s, in combination with the significant in situ runoff, much of the delta's surface is seasonally under floodwaters. LandSat7 imagery indicates delta distributaries that are disconnected from the Niger River, and only drain local precipitation events. This disconnection plays into the discharge and sediment fluxes of these distributaries.

  5. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  6. The RCA-F/Delta launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Delta 3924 launch vehicle configuration which incorporates the extended long tank Thor booster, nine Castor 4 strap-on motors, the AJ-118 second stage and the TE 364-4 third stage is to place into a synchronous transfer orbit, the second in a series of high-traffic capacity, 24 transponder communications satellites. Three days after launch, the satellite's apogee kick motor circularizes the orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 19,300 NM above the equator at approximately 128 degrees W longitude. The satellite can service commercial and government voice, digital and video communications requirements between Alaska and CONUS. The communications payload, mission requirements and spacecraft systems and subsystems are described.

  7. Future capabilities of the Delta launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, D. W.; Kraft, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Design features and payload delivery capabilities of the Delta 3920 launch vehicle are presented. The 3920 is the 14th iteration in a series that was first launched in 1960 and has in recent years surpassed a 97 percent success rate. Capacity is 2800 lb to GEO. The second stage has a propellant capacity of 13,244 lb and a specific impulse of 319.2 sec and produces 9443 lb thrust. The first mission is the Landsat-D satellite and 27 more launches are scheduled through 1985, some associated with different upper stage configurations. The 3924 configuration delivers payload to GEO at a cost of $7500/lb. A fairing has been designed to provide back-up for Shuttle payloads, although the larger size reduces the GEO payload to 2715 lb. Performance enhancements may, however, be gained through pneumatic thrusters for the Castor IV engine separation, higher Castor IV thrust levels, increased booster thrust, and a cryogenic second stage.

  8. Delta method, an empirical drag buildup technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, R. C.; Morrison, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical drag correlation technique was developed from analysis of 19 subsonic and supersonic military aircraft and 15 advanced or supercritical airfoil configurations which can be applied in conceptual and advanced aircraft design activities. The Delta Method may be used for estimating the clean wing drag polar for cruise and maneuver conditions up to buffet onset, and to approximately Mach 2.0. This technique incorporates a unique capability of predicting the off-design performance of advanced or supercritical airfoil sections. The buffet onset limit may also be estimated. The method is applicable to wind tunnel models as well as to full scale configurations. This technique has been converted into a computer code for use on the IBM 360 and CDC 7600 computer facilities at NASA AMES. Results obtained using this method to predict known aircraft characteristics are good and agreement can be obtained within a degree of accuracy judged to be sufficient for the initial processes of preliminary design.

  9. Quantitative metrics that describe river deltas and their channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Douglas A.; Paola, Chris; Hoyal, David C. J. D.; Sheets, Ben A.

    2011-12-01

    Densely populated river deltas are losing land at an alarming rate and to successfully restore these environments we must understand the details of their morphology. Toward this end we present a set of five metrics that describe delta morphology: (1) the fractal dimension, (2) the distribution of island sizes, (3) the nearest-edge distance, (4) a synthetic distribution of sediment fluxes at the shoreline, and (5) the nourishment area. The nearest-edge distance is the shortest distance to channelized or unchannelized water from a given location on the delta and is analogous to the inverse of drainage density in tributary networks. The nourishment area is the downstream delta area supplied by the sediment coming through a given channel cross section and is analogous to catchment area in tributary networks. As a first step, we apply these metrics to four relatively simple, fluvially dominated delta networks. For all these deltas, the average nearest-edge distances are remarkably constant moving down delta suggesting that the network organizes itself to maintain a consistent distance to the nearest channel. Nourishment area distributions can be predicted from a river mouth bar model of delta growth, and also scale with the width of the channel and with the length of the longest channel, analogous to Hack's law for drainage basins. The four delta channel networks are fractal, but power laws and scale invariance appear to be less pervasive than in tributary networks. Thus, deltas may occupy an advantageous middle ground between complete similarity and complete dissimilarity, where morphologic differences indicate different behavior.

  10. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Wagner, Bernhard; Schmidt, Gerhard; Faupel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz-0.5.

  11. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  12. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on February 8, 2013 (78 FR 8591). Based on... Employment and Training Administration Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Sioux City,...

  13. Identification and quantitation of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-9-carboxylic acid, a major metabolite of delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, M A; Feng, S; Murphy, T P; Warrington, A W; Ross, S; Nimrod, A; Mehmedic, Z; Fortner, N

    2001-09-01

    After incubation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin with human hepatocytes, a major metabolic product was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that showed identical retention time and mass spectrum to the synthetic 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-9-carboxylic acid (11-nor-delta9-THCV-9-COOH). Analysis of human urine specimens from marijuana users and plasma samples from Marinol users showed that 11-nor-delta9-THCV-9-COOH was only present in urine specimens of marijuana users. These results supported the conclusion that identification of 11-nor-delta9-THCV-9-COOH in a donor's urine specimen indicates the use or ingestion of cannabis-related product(s) and would not explain the sole use of Marinol. PMID:11550824

  14. Potential exposure of larval and juvenile delta smelt to dissolved pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Moon, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The San Francisco Estuary is critical habitat for delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a fish whose abundance has declined greatly since 1983 and is now listed as threatened. In addition, the estuary receives drainage from the Central Valley, an urban and agricultural region with intense and diverse pesticide usage. One possible factor of the delta smelt population decline is pesticide toxicity during vulnerable larval and juvenile stages, but pesticide concentrations are not well characterized in delta smelt spawning and nursery habitat. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential exposure of delta smelt during their early life stages to dissolved pesticides. For 3 years (1998-2000), water samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta were collected during April-June in coordination with the California Department of Fish and Game's delta smelt early life stage monitoring program. Samples were analyzed for pesticides using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Water samples contained multiple pesticides, ranging from 2 to 14 pesticides in each sample. In both 1999 and 2000, elevated concentrations of pesticides overlapped in time and space with peak densities of larval and juvenile delta smelt. In contrast, high spring outflows in 1998 transported delta smelt away from the pesticide sampling sites so that exposure could not be estimated. During 2 years, larval and juvenile delta smelt were potentially exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Although the measured concentrations were well below short-term (96-h) LC50 values for individual pesticides, the combination of multiple pesticides and lengthy exposure duration could potentially have lethal or sublethal effects on delta smelt, especially during early larval development.

  15. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is lifted off a truck for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  16. Flow patterns and morphology of a prograding river delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John B.; Mohrig, David; Wagner, R. Wayne

    2016-02-01

    The transition of flow between laterally confined channels and the unchannelized delta front controls the morphodynamic evolution of river deltas but has rarely been measured at the field scale. We quantify flow patterns and bathymetry that define the evolution of the subaqueous delta front on the Wax Lake Delta, a rapidly prograding delta in coastal Louisiana. A significant portion of flow (˜59%) departs the channel network over lateral channel margins as opposed to the downstream channel tips. Bathymetric surveys and remotely sensed estimates of flow direction allow spatial changes in flow velocity to be quantified and patterns of erosion and deposition to be estimated. Shallowing along channel margins produces spatial acceleration and erosion. Lateral spreading, deceleration, and deposition occur within three to eight channel widths outside of the channel margins. In interdistributary bays, the shape of each flow path is constrained by "nourishment boundaries" that separate the outflows from neighboring channels. Deposit elevation decreases with a basinward slope of 2.4 × 10-4 with distance from a channel margin along any flow path, regardless of the channel or location that flow departed the network. Bathymetric depressions called "interdistributary troughs" form along nourishment boundaries where flow paths are the longest and deposit elevation is correspondingly low. We conclude that the deposit morphology exerts a strong control on bathymetric evolution and that interaction between neighboring channels and even neighboring deltas can influence delta front morphology.

  17. Alkaloid delta agonist BW373U86 increases hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bofetiado, D M; Mayfield, K P; D'Alecy, L G

    1996-06-01

    Activation of delta opioid receptors increases survival time during acute, lethal hypoxia in mice. delta Agonists therefore present a promising avenue for therapeutic application to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with clinical hypoxia in settings such as drowning, head injury apnea, and complicated childbirths. However, most delta agonists now available are peptides, and may have limited clinical utility. In the present study, we evaluate the neuroprotective ability of an alkaloid delta agonist, BW373U86. Alkaloid compounds, due to increased stability and increased systemic distribution, may be more favorable for clinical use. We found that BW373U86, like the peptide delta agonist, DPDPE ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin), increases survival time of mice during lethal hypoxia. The mechanism of neuroprotection induced by delta receptor activation appears to involve decreasing body temperature. Further, using selective opioid receptor antagonists, it appears that BW373U86 exerts these neuroprotective effects by acting at delta-opioid receptors. PMID:8638797

  18. The Mississippi Delta Region: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Michael D.; Roberts, Harry H.

    2012-05-01

    The Mississippi delta region of south Louisiana houses a wealth of resources within a dynamic, subsiding landscape. Foundations for the delta region reflect Neogene evolution of the depocenter, whereas details of the modern landscape reflect late Pleistocene to Holocene evolution of the alluvial-deltaic plain. The Holocene delta plain was constructed by cyclical growth of deltaic headlands, followed by avulsion and relocation of the fluvial sediment source. Abandoned headlands were then submerged and reworked while a new headland was created at the site of active fluvial sediment input. Historic-period levees have decoupled the delta plain from its fluvial sediment source at the same time global sea-level rise was accelerating, which has accelerated delta-plain submergence. Diversions of Mississippi River water and sediment are necessary to achieve delta plain sustainability, but upstream dams trap ˜50% of the total sediment load, and there is not enough supply to keep pace with subsidence and accelerated sea-level rise. The future delta region will not resemble the recent past, and significant drowning is inevitable.

  19. Human gamma delta T-cell recognition of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Young, J L; Goodall, J C; Beacock-Sharp, H; Gaston, J S

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the human gamma delta T-cell response to Yersinia enterocolitica, a facultative intracellular bacterium which causes gastroenteritis and, particularly in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27+ individuals, reactive arthritis (ReA). A marked proliferation of that cytotoxic gamma delta T cells is seen when Yersinia-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines or fixed intact Yersinia are added to cultures of mononuclear cells derived from the synovial fluid of ReA patients or from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. In contrast, heat-inactivated Yersinia fail to stimulate the gamma delta T-cell response. The gamma delta T-cell lines generated killed both autologous and allogeneic infected cell lines. Interestingly, a T-cell line generated from synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) killed infected autologous cell lines and a cell line matched for HLA-B27 less well than infected allogeneic target cells. gamma delta T-cell clones isolated from this line were found to express V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell receptor (TCR) and also killed infected mismatched cells more efficiently than autologous targets. Moreover, from experiments using major histocompatability complex (MHC)-deficient cell lines, it was apparent that target cell recognition was MHC independent. Our results suggest that gamma delta T cells can be involved in immunity to Yersinia enterocolitica and should be taken into account when considering immunopathological mechanisms leading to reactive arthritis. PMID:9378487

  20. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is raised off a truck bed and prepared for lifting to the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  1. Dual antigenic recognition by cloned human gamma delta T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Holoshitz, J; Vila, L M; Keroack, B J; McKinley, D R; Bayne, N K

    1992-01-01

    The function of gamma delta T cells is still elusive. The nature of the antigens that they recognize and the mode of presentation of these antigens are largely unknown. The majority of human peripheral gamma delta T cells bear a V gamma 9/V delta 2 T cell receptor, and display nonclonal reactivity to mycobacteria, without restriction by MHC. It is unknown whether these cells have clonal antigenic specificity as well. Here we describe rheumatoid arthritis-derived V gamma 9/V delta 2 T cell clones, displaying dual antigenic recognition: a nonclonal, MHC-unrestricted recognition of mycobacteria, and a clonal recognition of a short tetanus toxin peptide presented by HLA-DRw53, a nonpolymorphic class II MHC molecule associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. This is the first evidence that V gamma 9/V delta 2 T cells can recognize nominal antigenic peptides presented by class II MHC molecules. These results suggest that much like alpha beta T cells, V gamma 9/V delta 2 cells may contribute to the immune response against foreign antigens in an antigen-specific and MHC-restricted manner. The reactivity of these gamma delta T cells to mycobacteria may represent a superantigen-like phenomenon. PMID:1345917

  2. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  3. Ancient deltas on Mars: outstanding targets for martian habitability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Fawdon, P.; Grindrod, P. M.; Balme, M. R.; Hauber, E.; Warner, N. H.; Muller, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of putative ancient deltaic sedimentary systems on Mars has been both exciting and controversial. Our excitement is elicted by the potential provided by deltas as evidence for standing bodies of water associated with the deltas, and the resulting implications for both the ancient climate of Mars and ancient habitability. The controversy stems from how confident can we be in the identification of ancient deltaic systems from orbital data, and how robust are our assertions about the habitability potential of such settings. Delta systems in particular are key astrobiological targets because at their distal toes fine-grained sediment (ie., clays) settle from suspension in a lower energy setting and they are commonly characterised by high rates of sedimentation. This leads to high preservation potential of biosignatures. Targeting of future Mars rovers to investigate deltaic landing sites requires better understanding of these issues to reduce exploration risk. In this presentation, we describe the key criteria that enable us to make robust interpretations of deltaic stratigraphy and constrain delta evolution for martian systems. In particular, the past 10 years has seen in a revolution in our process understanding of terrestrial delta systems through a combination of field, experimental and numerical modelling studies. Analysis of martian deltas has much to gain from these results. We go on to consider why deltaic systems offer potential as astrobiological target paleoenvironments. We use the exhumed delta system (Hypanis delta system) at the termination of Hypanis Vallis, 11.8°N, 314.96°E as a case example. This system, situated in Xanthe Terra, comprises layered sedimentary rocks with an overall multi-lobate geometry and associated inverted channel networks. The Hypanis 'delta' is a proposed landing site for the ExoMars rover and also for the NASA 2020 mission.

  4. Delta to alpha prime transformation of plutonium during microhardness testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pereyra, Ramiro A.

    2008-11-15

    Metallic plutonium is a complex material that can exist in six allotropic phases at ambient pressures; and under stress, it can transform martensitically from the ductile face centered cubic delta phase to the brittle monoclinic alpha prime phase. This investigation found that the pressures generated during microhardness indentation are sufficient for the transformation to occur. Micrographs showing the transformation as well as pressure calculations are presented in support for this finding. Also, based upon the amount of material displaced by the indenter, it was determined that there is at least a 16% error in published hardness values of the delta phase that can be attributed to the delta to alpha prime transformation.

  5. Verification of Software Product Lines with Delta-Oriented Slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Daniel; Klebanov, Vladimir; Schaefer, Ina

    Software product line (SPL) engineering is a well-known approach to develop industry-size adaptable software systems. SPL are often used in domains where high-quality software is desirable; the overwhelming product diversity, however, remains a challenge for assuring correctness. In this paper, we present delta-oriented slicing, an approach to reduce the deductive verification effort across an SPL where individual products are Java programs and their relations are described by deltas. On the specification side, we extend the delta language to deal with formal specifications. On the verification side, we combine proof slicing and similarity-guided proof reuse to ease the verification process.

  6. Including the {delta}(1232) resonance in baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, C.; Wies, N.; Scherer, S.; Gegelia, J.

    2005-11-01

    Baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit {delta}(1232) degrees of freedom is considered. The most general interactions of pions, nucleons, and {delta} consistent with all underlying symmetries as well as with the constraint structure of higher-spin fields are constructed. By use of the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme, a manifestly Lorentz-invariant effective-field theory with a systematic power counting is obtained. As applications, we discuss the mass of the nucleon, the pion-nucleon {sigma} term, and the pole of the {delta} propagator.

  7. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  8. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  9. Volga Delta and the Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Volga River is the largest river system in Europe, draining over 1.3 million square kilometers of catchment area into the Caspian Sea. The brackish Caspian is Earth's largest landlocked water body, and its isolation from the world's oceans has enabled the preservation of several unique animal and plant species. The Volga provides most of the Caspian's fresh water and nutrients, and also discharges large amounts of sediment and industrial waste into the relatively shallow northern part of the sea. These images of the region were captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on October 5, 2001, during Terra orbit 9567. Each image represents an area of approximately 275 kilometers x 376 kilometers.

    The left-hand image is from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and shows how light is reflected at red, green, and blue wavelengths. The right-hand image is a false color composite of red-band imagery from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir, and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. Here, color variations indicate how light is reflected at different angles of view. Water appears blue in the right-hand image, for example, because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the forward camera's view angle. The rougher-textured vegetated wetlands near the coast exhibit preferential backscattering, and consequently appear reddish. A small cloud near the center of the delta separates into red, green, and blue components due to geometric parallax associated with its elevation above the surface.

    Other notable features within the images include several linear features located near the Volga Delta shoreline. These long, thin lines are artificially maintained shipping channels, dredged to depths of at least 2 meters. The crescent-shaped Kulaly Island, also known as Seal Island, is visible near the right-hand edge of the images.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  10. Altamaha River Delta, Georgia Sea Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The history of sea islands in the Altamaha River delta on the coast of Georgia is revealed in this image produced from data acquired by the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The outlines of long-lost plantation rice fields, canals, dikes and other inlets are clearly defined. Salt marshes are shown in red, while dense cypress and live oak tree canopies are seen in yellow-greens.

    Agricultural development of the Altamaha delta began soon after the founding of the Georgia Colony in 1733. About 25 plantations were located on the low-lying islands and shores by the 19th century, taking advantage of the rich alluvial flow and annual inundation of water required by some crops. The first major crop was indigo; when demand for that faded, rice and cotton took its place. A major storm in 1824 destroyed much of the town of Darien (upper right) and put many of the islands under 20 feet of water. The Civil War ended the plantation system, and many of the island plantations disappeared under heavy brush and new growth pine forests. Some were used as tree farms for paper and pulp industries, while the Butler Island (center left) plantation became a wildlife conservation site growing wild sea rice for migrating ducks and other waterfowl. Margaret Mitchell is reputed to have used the former owner of the Butler Plantation as a basis for the Rhett Butler character in her novel 'Gone With The Wind,' taking the first name from Rhett's Island (lower right).

    These data were obtained during a 1994-95 campaign along the Georgia coast. AIRSAR's ability to detect vegetation canopy density, hydrological features and other topographic characteristics is a useful tool in landscape archaeology. AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The analysis on the data shown was accomplished by Dr. Gary Mckay, Department of Archaeology and Geography, and Ian